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INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY - KATUNAYAKE

AIR STARTING SYSTEM OF A MARINE DIESEL ENGINE – SULZER.

The Air Bo ttle is linke d to the Air start in g manif old th ro ug h the Automatic air starting valve,
which has a non-return valve to prevent the possibility of a blow-back, from a starting air line explosion,
to the Air bottles.
The Automatic air starting valve is operated by means of the pilot valve shown, which in turn is
operated by the starting lever through the starting valve. The turning gear interlock prevents the
engine from being started, with the turning gear engaged. The starting air, from the starting valve,
also acts to engage the Distributor. This is a safety feature, which prevents the engine from
accidentally being started, in the event of air leakage from the Automatic air starting valve. The
cylinder air starting valves are operated by the Distributor, in the correct sequence for starting (the Firing
order).

Reversing : In case of reversal, two things need to be done – firstly the fuel cams need to be re-
positioned correctly for the astern direction, and secondly

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Marine Engineering Department
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY - KATUNAYAKE

the Distributor cam needs to be repositioned, to give the correct sequence for
starting in the astern direction. In the engine shown, the camshaft is repositioned
by a reversing Servo-motor, to do both these things, since the fuel cams are
mounted on the camshaft, and the Distributor also gets its drive from the same
source, i.e. the camshaft.

Running Direction interlock : If the direction of rotation of the engine


is contrary to the command from the Telegraph, we consider it as the
'wrong' direction. In this situation, the fuel cut out servo must operate to
shut-off fuel, in case the engine is already runnin g . In addition, the starting
air is not allowed to be released, thus preventing the re-starting of the
engine in the wrong direction. The Running direction interlock in this en g ine
is connected to the camshaft, and will be operated by the movement of the
camshaft. If the camshaft does not reverse, then oil pressure does not act
on the fuel cut-off servomotor, as can be seen in the sketch below. Thus fuel is
cut-off.

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Marine Engineering Department
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY - KATUNAYAKE

CONTROL

Direct reversing engines

In order to manoeuvre a ship, the propeller thrust must be reversible, by means of


reversing the propeller drive or by altering propellers, or diesel-electric drive, allow
the use of unidirectional (non-reversible) engines. In systems of limited power using
medium or high speed engines through gearboxes, arrangements of clutches and
reverse gears may be used. In many ships, however, it is necessary for the main
engines to be reversible and able to operate efficiently in both ahead or astern.

To run in the astern direction, all the operations in the engine cycle may need
retiming. The starting air must first rotate the engine in the reverse direction and
this will require retiming the distributor to supply compressed air to the appropriate
cylinders in the correct order. The retiming may be carried out by altering the
position of the distributor cam drive with respect to its drive from the main
camshaft.

The number of other readjustments to be made and the methods used depend
upon the engine cycle and type. For –stroke engines will require a change in timing
of the fuel pumps, a different change for the air inlet valves, and yet another for the
exhaust valves. To obtain all these changes on the same camshaft a separate set of
astern cams are fitted. Each one is fitted to the camshaft adjacent to its
corresponding ahead cam. The reversing procedure is then carried out by moving
the whole camshaft axially, which moves the ahead cams clear of their followers
which now engage the astern cams. Ramps (sloping sides) fitted between
corresponding ahead and astern cams cause the follower roller to slide gently from
one to the other. The axial movement is carried out by a hydraulic cylinder fitted to
the camshaft; locking devices and safety cutouts ensure that the camshaft ahs
carried out its full movement and is in the correct position before the engine can be
restarted. To maintain alignment of the camshaft drive, a spline coupling may be
necessary.

Turbochargers are of course unaffected by reversal of the engine, but engine driven
pumps must be reversible.

Large two-stroke engines have scavenge ports to control scavenge timing. This
must therefore be symmetrical and will this be unchanged when reversing. Engines
operating with constant pressure turbocharger systems have almost symmetrical
exhaust valve timing, consequently no change in timing is necessary for exhaust
cams.

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INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY - KATUNAYAKE

Fuel pump timing must be readjusted since it will be the opposite flank of the cam
which will now raise the pump plunger to deliver fuel. There are altermative
methods employed to change the fuel pump timing without altering the main
camshaft and two are illustrated and described. As the camshaft timing has not
been altered, any auxiliary drives taken from it are unaffected. This is particularly
useful if rotating balancing systems are in use.

Sulzer RTA engines have oil pressure operated hydraulic ‘lost motion’ seryomotors
on the camshaft which rotate the fuel pump cams to their astern positions (Fig. 77).
Fuel pumps and their cams are grouped in pairs along the camshaft and a
servomotor is fitted for each pair of adjacent cams. Oil pressure secure each
servomotor in its correct position while the engine is running. ‘Lost motion’ is the
term used to indicate that the timing has been retarded, or moved back, through a
given angle with respect to the ‘new’ direction of rotation.

MAN-B&W MC engines have their fuel pump cams fixed directly to the camshaft but
the follower rollers can be displaced to alter the pump timing as shown in Fig. 78.
The link which displaces each follower is actuated by a pneumatic piston using
compressed air from the starting systems. The link is self-locking in either position
and a sensor to shut off the pump in the event of mal-operation.

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Marine Engineering Department
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY - KATUNAYAKE

Reversing servomotor, Sulzer RTA engines. A similar servomotor is used to


retime the starting air distributor at its drive from the camshaft.

MAN – B & W reversing system. Pnuematic cylinders are fitted to each fuel pump
and will cut off the fuel if the reversing lever is in the incorrect position.
The link is self-locking in either position.

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Marine Engineering Department
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY - KATUNAYAKE

AIR STARTING VALVE OF A SULZER MARINE DIESEL ENGINE

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INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY - KATUNAYAKE

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Marine Engineering Department
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY - KATUNAYAKE

AIR VESSELS

Material used in the construction must be of good quality low carbon steel similar to
that used for boilers, e.g. 0.2% Carbon (Max.) 0.35% silicon (max.), 0.1%
manganese, 0.05% sulphur (max.),0.05% Phosphorus (max.), u.t.s. 460 MN/m2.

Welded construction has superseded the riveted types and welding must be done
to class 1 or class 2 depending upon operating pressure. If above 35 bar
approximately then class 1 welding regulations apply.

Some of the main points relating to class 1 welding are that the welding must be
radiographed, annealing must be carried out at a temperature of about 600 0C and a
test piece must be provided for bend, impact and tensile tests together with
micrographic and examination.

Mountings generally provided are shown in Fig If it is possible for the receiver to be
isolated from the safety valve then it must have a fusible plug fitted, melting point
approximately 1500C, and if carbon dioxide is used for fire fighting it is
recommended that the discharge from the fusible plug be led to the deck. Stop
valves on the receiver generally permit slow opening to avoid rapid pressure
increases in the piping system, and piping for starting air has to be protected
against the possible effects of explosion.

Drains for the removal of accumulated oil and water are fitted to the compressor,
filter, separators, receivers and lower parts of pipe-lines.

Before commencing to fill the air vessel after overhaul or examination, ensure :

1. Nothing has been left inside the air vessel, e.g. cotton waste that could foul
up drains or other outlets.
2. Check pressure gauge against a master gauge.
3. All doors are correctly centred on their joints.

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Marine Engineering Department
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY - KATUNAYAKE

Run the compressor with all drains open to clear the lines of any oil or water, and when filling open
drains at regular intervals, observe pressure.

After filling close the air inlet to the bottle, check for leaks and follow up on the door joints.

When emptying the receiver prior to overhaul, etc., ensure that it is isolated form any other
interconnected receiver which must, of course, be in a fully charged state.

Cleaning the air receiver internally must be done with caution, any cleaner which gives off toxic,
inflammable or noxious fumes should be avoided. A brush down and a coating on the internal surfaces of
some protective, harmless to personnel, such as a graphite suspension in water could be used.

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Marine Engineering Department