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208 GAS POWER CYCLES [CHAP.

Fig. 8-24

8.45 A diesel engine has a 0:6  1:2 m bore and stroke and operates with 5 percent clearance. For a power output
of 5000 hp calculate the compression ratio and the rate of heat input if the cutoff ratio is 2.5.

8.46 Use the air tables (Appendix E) to solve (a) Prob. 8.41 and (b) Prob. 8.44. Do not assume constant specific heats.

8.47 A dual cycle with r = 18, rc = 2, and rp = 1:2 operates on 0.5 kg/s of air at 100 kPa and 20  C at the
beginning of the compression process. Calculate (a) the thermal efficiency, (b) the energy input, and (c) the
power output.

8.48 A compression-ignition engine operates on a dual cycle by receiving air at the beginning of the compression
process at 80 kPa and 20  C and compressing it to 60 MPa. If 1800 kJ/kg of energy is added during the
combustion process, with one-third of it added at constant volume, determine (a) the thermal efficiency,
(b) the work output, and (c) the MEP.

8.49 An ideal cycle operates on air with a compression ratio of 12. The low pressure is 100 kPa and the low
temperature is 30  C. If the maximum temperature is 1500  C, calculate the work output and the heat input
for (a) a Stirling cycle and (b) an Ericsson cycle.

8.50 An ideal cycle is to produce a power output of 100 hp while operating on 1.2 lbm/sec of air at 14.7 psia and
70  F at the beginning of the compression process. If the compression ratio is 10, what is the maximum
temperature and the energy input for (a) a Stirling cycle and (b) an Ericsson cycle?

8.51 Calculate the work output and thermal efficiency for the cycles shown in Fig. 8-25a and b. Air is the operating fluid.

Fig. 8-25
CHAP. 8] GAS POWER CYCLES 209

8.52 Air enters the compressor of a gas turbine at 85 kPa and 0  C. If the pressure ratio is 6 and the maximum
temperature is 1000  C, find (a) the thermal efficiency and (b) the back work ratio for the associated Brayton
cycle.

8.53 Three kilograms of air enters the compressor of a gas turbine each second at 100 kPa and 10  C. If the
pressure ratio is 5 and the maximum temperature is 800  C, determine (a) the horsepower output, (b) the
back work ratio, and (c) the thermal efficiency for the associated Brayton cycle.

8.54 Determine the compressor outlet pressure that will result in maximum work output for a Brayton cycle in
which the compressor inlet air conditions are 14.7 psia and 65  F and the maximum temperature is 1500  F.

8.55 Air enters the compressor of a Brayton cycle at 80 kPa and 30  C and compresses it to 500 kPa. If 1800 kJ/kg
of energy is added in the combustor, calculate (a) the compressor work requirement, (b) the net turbine
output, and (c) the back work ratio.

8.56 Find the back work ratio and the horsepower output of the cycle shown in Fig. 8-26.

Fig. 8-26

8.57 Calculate the thermal efficiency and the back work ratio of the gas turbine of Prob. 8.52 if the respective
compressor and turbine efficiencies are (a) 80%, 80% and (b) 83%, 86%.

8.58 Determine the efficiency of the compressor and turbine (the efficiencies are equal) that would result in a zero
thermal efficiency for the gas turbine of Prob. 8.52.

8.59 Calculate the thermal efficiency and the back work ratio of the Brayton cycle of Prob. 8.55 if the compressor
and turbine efficiencies are (a) 83%, 83% and (b) 81%, 88%.

8.60 Determine the efficiency of the compressor and turbine (the efficiencies are equal) of the Brayton cycle of
Prob. 8.55 that would result in no net work output.

8.61 The efficiency of the turbine of Prob. 8.56 is 83 percent. What compressor efficiency would reduce the
Brayton cycle thermal efficiency to zero?

8.62 Use the air tables to find the thermal efficiency and the back work ratio for (a) Prob. 8.52, (b) Prob. 8.55, and
(c) Prob. 8.56. Do not assume constant specific heats.

8.63 A regenerator is installed in the gas turbine of Prob. 8.55. Determine the cycle efficiency if its effectiveness is
(a) 100 percent and (b) 80 percent.

8.64 For the ideal-gas turbine with regenerator shown in Fig. 8-27 find W_ out and the back work ratio.

8.65 Assume that the efficiencies of the compressor and turbine of Prob. 8.64 are 83 percent and 86 percent,
respectively, and that the effectiveness of the regenerator is 90 percent. Determine the power output and the
back work ratio.
210 GAS POWER CYCLES [CHAP. 8

Fig. 8-27

8.66 Temperatures for the ideal regenerative gas-turbine cycle of Fig. 8-17 are T1 = 60  F, T2 = 500  F,
T3 = 700  F, and T4 = 1600  F. Calculate the thermal efficiency and the back work ratio if air is the working
fluid.

8.67 Air enters a two-stage compressor of a gas turbine at 100 kPa and 20  C and is compressed to 600 kPa. The
inlet temperature to the two-stage turbine is 1000  C and a regenerator is also used. Calculate (a) the work
output, (b) the thermal efficiency, and (c) the back work ratio assuming an ideal cycle.

8.68 One stage of intercooling, one stage of reheat, and regeneration are added to the gas turbine of Prob. 8.56.
Calculate (a) the power output, (b) the thermal efficiency, and (c) the back work ratio assuming an ideal
cycle.

8.69 (a) For the ideal components shown in Fig. 8-28 calculate the thermal efficiency. (b) For the same compo-
nents, with an air mass flux of 2 kg/s, determine W_ out , Q_ C , Q_ R , and Q_ out .

Fig. 8-28

8.70 A turbojet engine inlets 70 kg/s of air at an altitude of 10 km while traveling at 300 m/s. The compressor
provides a pressure ratio of 9 and the turbine inlet temperature is 1000  C. What is the maximum thrust and
horsepower that can be expected from this engine?

8.71 Rework Prob. 8.70 with realistic efficiencies of 85 percent and 89 percent in the compressor and turbine,
respectively. Assume the nozzle to be 97 percent efficient.

8.72 An aircraft with two turbojet engines requires a thrust of 4300 lbf for cruise conditions of 800 ft/sec. If each
engine has a mass flux of 30 lbm/sec of air, calculate the pressure ratio if the maximum temperature is
2000  F. The aircraft flies at an altitude of 30,000 ft.
CHAP. 8] GAS POWER CYCLES 211

Review Questions for the FE Examination


8.1FE Select the primary reason why an Otto cycle is less efficient than a Carnot cycle.
(A) The temperature after compression is too high.
(B) Heat transfer occurs across a large temperature difference.
(C) Friction exists between the piston and the cylinder.
(D) The sudden expansion process results in very large losses.

8.2FE Which of the following statements is not true of the diesel cycle?
(A) The expansion process is an isentropic process.
(B) The combustion process is a constant-volume process.
(C) The exhaust process is a constant-volume process.
(D) The compression process is an adiabatic process.

8.3FE The engines on a commercial jet aircraft operate on which of the basic cycles?
(A) Otto
(B) Diesel
(C) Carnot
(D) Brayton

8.4FE The exhaust process in the Otto and diesel cycles is replaced with a constant-volume process for what
primary reason?
(A) To simulate zero work of the actual exhaust process.
(B) To simulate zero heat transfer of the actual exhaust process.
(C) To restore the air to its original state.
(D) To ensure that the first law is satisfied.

8.5FE The heat rejected in the Otto cycle shown in Fig. 8-29 is:
(A) Cp ðT4 − T1 Þ
(B) Cp ðT3 − T4 Þ
(C) Cp ðT4 − T1 Þ
(D) Cv ðT3 − T4 Þ

8.6FE The cycle efficiency of Fig. 8-29 is:


(A) 1 − T1 =T3
(B) ðT3 − T2 Þ=ðT4 =T1 Þ
T − T1
(C) 1 − 4
T3 − T2
T3 − T2
(D) −1
T4 − T1
8.7FE If T1 = 27  C in Fig. 8-29, what mass of air would exist in a Fig. 8-29
1000 cm3 cylinder?
(A) 0.00187 kg
(B) 0.00116 kg
(C) 0.00086 kg
(D) 0.00062 kg

8.8FE If T1 = 27  C in Fig. 8-29, Estimate T2 assuming


constant specific heats.
(A) 700  C
(B) 510  C
(C) 480  C
(D) 430  C

8.9FE Determine T2 in the Brayton cycle of Fig. 8-30.


(A) 531  C
(B) 446  C
(C) 327  C Fig. 8-30
(D) 258  C
212 GAS POWER CYCLES [CHAP. 8

8.10FE If Thigh = 1200  C, find wT (not wnet ) of the turbine of Fig. 8-30.
(A) 720 kJ/kg
(B) 660 kJ/kg
(C) 590 kJ/kg
(D) 540 kJ/kg

8.11FE Estimate the back work ratio for the cycle of Fig. 8-30.
(A) 0.40
(B) 0.38
(C) 0.36
(D) 0.34

8.12FE If an ideal regenerator is added to the cycle of Fig. 8-30, the temperature entering the burner is:
(A) T1
(B) T2
(C) T3
(D) T4

8.13FE If m_ = 0:2 kg/s for the cycle of Fig. 8-30, what should be the inlet diameter of the compressor if a maximum
velocity of 80 m/s is allowed?
(A) 5.2 cm
(B) 6.4 cm
(C) 8.6 cm
(D) 12.4 cm

Answers to Supplementary Problems


8.17 2.05 kg/s, 2058 kW
8.18 (a) 835 kW, 582  C (b) 1044 kW, 721  C
8.19 (a) 4895 hp (b) 5970 hp
8.20 (a) 797 kW, 0 (b) 726 kW, 142 kW (c) 653 kW, 274 kW (d) 504 kW, 504 kW
8.21 1.298
8.22 (a) 860  F, 2766 hp (b) 507.8  F, 2322 hp
8.23 (a) 155 hp (b) 115 hp
8.24 (a) 2003 kW, 2.8% (b) 4610 hp, 6.2%
8.25 (a) 330 kPa, 1150 kPa (b) 148  C, 22  C (c) 756 kW (d) 252 kW
8.26 (a) 6.28 liters (b) 20 (c) 245 kPa
8.27 (b) 522 kJ/kg (c) 22.3%
8.28 (b) 118,700 ft-lbf/lbm (c) 47.8%
8.29 (a) 66.4% (b) 1873 (c) 952 kPa
8.30 (a) 207 kW (b) 45.4% (c) 146.6 kPa
8.31 67.4 lbm/sec, 12.5 psia
8.32 (a) 1.23 kg/s (b) 0.328 kg/s (c) 0.0655 kg/s
8.33 (a) 104 kW (b) 51.0 (c) 214 kPa (d) 0.1257 liter
8.34 58.5%, 2.19 kg/s
8.35 281,000 ft-lbf/lbm, 160 psia
8.36 2000 kJ/kg, 1300 kPa
8.37 898 kJ/kg, 539 kPa
8.38 57.5%, 383 kPa