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‘| Decision support sytems


Geographic Information systems(GIS)
Data Mining
Group Support Sytems
‘| ©usiness Intelligence systems
‘| Ànowledge management systems
‘| îrtificial intelligence
‘|  pert systems
‘| 3eural networks
‘| airtual reality

 

Designed to assist decision makers with unstructured problems


Usually interactive
Incorporates data and models
Data often comes from transaction processing systems or data warehouse

3 major components: data mgmt., model mgmt., dialog mgmt(user interface)

       


Supplements the decision maker
îllows improved intelligence, decision, and choice activities
Facilitates problem solving
Provides assistance with non structures decisions
îssists with knowledge management

   

  
î GIS is a computer based info system that provides tools to collect, integrate, manage, analyze, model,
and display data that is referenced to an accurate cartographic representation of objects in space.

    

L©S incorporate info about the user͛s location into the provision of products or services. These include
Locator services(wher is the nearest îTM)
3avigation systems( in the car or on ur pc)
M-commerce applications(pro imity alerts, closes service, mobile advertising)

GIS s ʹ systems based on manipulation of relationships in space that use geographical data

arly GIS users: 3atural resource mgmt., Public admin, 3îSî and the military, Urban planning, Forestry,
Map makers
© : determining site locations, market analysis and planning, logistics and routing,
environmental engineering, geographic pattern analysis

    


  
Raster based ʹ rely on dividing space into small, uniform cells(rasters) in a grid
aector based ʹ associate features in the landscape with a point, line or polygon
Geodatabase model ʹ uses object oriented data concepts

   


Type of DSS to support a group rather than an individual
Specialized type of groupware
îttempt to make group work more effective

Middle managers spend 35%, and top managers spend 50-80% of time in meetings

      
 

include the people, procedures, hardware, software, data and knowledge to develop
computer systems and machines that demonstrate characteristics of intelligence.

Intelligent systems
Turing͛s test for îI
‘| Place a computer and a human in two separate rooms
‘| în interviewer in a third room, who cannot see the human or the computer user, ask
questions that are passed to the computer and to the human
‘| If the interviewer cannot tell the difference between the answers from the computer
and the human, the machine s said to e hibit intelligent behavior

îI as Traditional programs:
‘| îI programs manipulate symbols or rules rather than numbers
‘| îI programs are generally non algorithmic often employing heuristics or rules of thumb
‘| Many îI programs are concerned with pattern recognition

îI ʹ the study of how to make computer do things that are currently done better by people
îreas: 3atural languages, robotics, perceptive systems, genetic programming, e pert systems,
neural networks

 pert systems and neural network are most relevant for managerial support

 pert systems
îttempt to capture the e pertise of humans in a computer program
Ànowledge engineer:
‘| î specially trained system analyst who works closely with one or more e perts in the
area of study
‘| Tries to learn about how e perts make decisions
‘| Loads information (what learned) into module called knowledge base

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îpproaches:
‘| ©uy a fully developed system created for a specific application
‘| Develop using a purchased e pert system shell(basic framework) and user friendly
special language
‘| 0ave knowledge engineers custom build using special purpose language(such as Prolog
or Lisp)
 amples:
‘| îT&t͛s î to locate faults in telephone cables
‘| General electric͛s îTS-1 to diagnose mechanical problems in diesel locomotives
‘| Standford university͛s MYI3 ʹ to diagnose and prescribe treatement for meningitis and
blood diseases
‘| Reliace uses 3MOSYS ʹ energy monitoring system ʹ monitors streetlights(on and off
automatic), any power thefts ʹ provides power consumption at each pole
‘| Market surveillance software ʹ to detect insider trading
‘| FîST software ʹ for credit analysis, used by banking industry
‘| 3estle Food͛s developed system to provide employees information on pension fund
status

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åhat͛s wrong with ur car? www.e pertise2go.com/webesie/car
©uying right pda
hoosing desktop pc

   


îttempt to tease out meaningful patterns from vast amounts of data

Process:
‘| Program given set of data
‘| Program analysed data, works out correlations, selects variables to create patterns
‘| Pattern used to predict outcomes, then results compared to known results
‘| Program changes pattern by adjusting variable weights or variable themselves
‘| Repeats process over and over to adjust pattern
‘| åhen no further adjustment possible, ready to be used to make predictions for future
cases

ategories ʹ prediction/forecasting
redit rating and risk assessment ʹ share price forecast
Insurance risk evaluation ʹ commodity price forecast
Fraud detection ʹ economic indicator predicti