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The project of such magnitude cannot be accomplished without the assistance and
co-operation of several people. Exchange of ideas generates a new object to work
in a better way. So, whenever a person is helped and co-operation by others, his
heart is bound to pay gratitude and is not merely formalities but an expression of
deep sense of gratitude and cumulative appreciation.

Now first and foremost, I feel highly obliged to Mr. R. K. Sharma, District
Manager: Apollo Tyres Ltd. Muzaffarpur who got me placed for project training,
which had sent materials, according to my topic for execution in order to perform
the work for preparing this dissertation.

I would like to mention something special about my supervisor Mr. Vipin

Kumar, (Asst. Professor) L.N.Mishra College of Business Management,
Muzaffarpur, and making acknowledgement that without his kind co-operation,
attention, wise guidance and a regular feedback from me, my mission would not
have been fulfilled its milestone. I have not the desired word power to express my
heartiest gratitude regards reverence and indebtness to him.

I also acknowledge with a deep sense of reverence, my gratitude towards of my

parents and member of my family, who has always supported me morally as well
as economically.

[Md. Nishat Alam]


As it is said ............"The theory without practice is lame and practice without

theory is blind." obviously the theory and practice are two facts of same coin, or in
other way theory and practices complementary and supplementary to each other.
And of course these two embody the real knowledge based on the principle of
coming by doing or in pursuit of knowledge these two have become part and
parcel. Here, the practical during summer vacation is of prime to the Faculty of
Management for the purpose of evolution of final (4rth Semester) examination
assist the paper in order to complete in M.B.A. course of the academic curriculum.

This dissertation imparts a deductive and prescriptive discussion on the duly on

Sales Promotion (with reference to Apollo Tyres Ltd. Marketing division,
Muzaffarpur) in comprehensible and concise way............ on the basis of the
training, which was done by me in marketing division of Apollo Tyres Ltd.,
Muzaffarpur. The report has been written for main of marketing as well as the
consumer, Marketing is the lifeblood of any organization to run fast. So marketing
starts right from the time of production. Marketing is nothing but first to assess the
market and then to access the market. The present study is entitled to the study on
Sales Promotion of Apollo Tyres have been determined.

The whole study has been done to a particular area i.e. Muzaffarpur. Simplicity is
the main feature of this report from beginning to end so that even a non-marketing
man can take advantage of it.

My observation in Apollo Tyres Ltd. was to treat main, who are the main Factor of
Production among man, machine, materials, money manufacturing technology
with respect and dignity.

It has been endeavor of Apollo to strive for open channel communication to keep
the bellow member a breast with organization values cultural system, philosophy
and procedures.

Reviews are being done time to time to make the organization good at all fronts
and where building an established carrier is felt with pretty pride.

[Md. Nishat Alam]

Chapter 01. Introduction to the study
a) Objectives of the Study
b) Scope of the Study
c) Methodology of the Study
d) Limitation of the Study

Chapter 02. Introduction to the Organization

a) History of the Organization
b) Financial Status of the Organization
c) Product Profile
e) Competitors of the Organization
Chapter 03. Organizational Structure of Apollo Tyres Ltd. at

Chapter 04. A Theoretical Aspect of Brand Image with respect to


Chapter 05. Conclusions & Suggestions

a) Questionnaire
b) Bibliography


Introduction to the study

a) Objectives of the Study

b) Scope of the Study
c) Methodology of the Study
d) Limitation of the Study

Introduction to the Study
As a part of academic curriculums in partial fulfillment of "Master of Business
Administration" the trainee has done this summer project in the marketing
division of APOLLO TYRES LTD. Muzaffarpur. The introduction as well as
completion of the study is STUDY OF BRAND IMAGE with respect to Price
Leadership for APOLLO L.C.V. & S.C.V Tyres, at Muzaffarpur.

The study centered to take strategic decisions in support of APOLLO TYRES in

the field of marketing. The main scope of this study is to ascertain various
methods to increase the sales volume of the concern. The method includes regular
product information to the buyers, creating a brand position in the market and
taking measures to make the brand remain in its position. One of the important
aspects of this study is also to increase the market segment for the products.

(a) Objective of the Study:-

Such a study is part of my curriculum to complete management Studies, I have to

complete this part also. So while taking part in the practical exposure by joining
Apollo Tyres Limited for six weeks training. I am fulfilling the objectives of my
During this practical exposure of Six Weeks. I have collected some
important information for (about) Apollo Tyers ltd. at Muzaffarpur. This is
important of management. This increase penetrability in the market. In any
marketing job this forms one of the important tools and therefore to know the
utility of such a tool is definitely one of the important aims of this study.
• The main objective of study is to present conclusion and necessary
suggestions regarding consumer awareness relating to Apollo Tyres.
• The purpose of the study is to explore the market of Apollo Tyres Ltd. and
betterment of its Sale.
• The objective of study is to describe the unique characteristics of Apollo
Tyres in Comparison to others.
• To collect the information and their attitude from Tyres customers.
• To know the awareness level of customers of Apollo Tyres specially.
• To collect their ideas about future purchasing of Apollo Tyres.
• The objective of the study is to develop sound inter personal relation to
get maximum output both customer and producer of Apollo Tyres.
• To know the latest grievance of Customers.

b) Scope of the Study

The scope of marketing research can be pointed out by a single word, "Consumer
Preference". It can be termed as the balance wheel as the marketing system which
harmonies the study and demand factors.

• Marketing survey has wide scope and covers all aspects of marketing.
Broadly its scope can be classified in the following categories :-
• It is concerned with product of Apollo Tyres.
• It is concerned with Sales and Distribution of Apollo Tyres.
• Research on Promotional Policies of Apollo Tyres
• Research on pricing of Apollo Tyres.
• Business Economics Research of Apollo Tyres
• It is concerned with Buying behaviour of Apollo Tyres.
• Last but not the least Brand Image of Apollo in market

c) Methodology of the Study

During the entire study, methods were followed which were found to be most
important :-

i) Personal Discussion :-
A lot of information on the subject, which were well known to the different
departments and branches of the company, were prevalent. Academic went
to these depts. And branches together, these information from their
respective heads.

ii) Documentary Observations :-

Secondary sources like books, journals published and unpublished materials
from different departments of the company were consulted.

iii) Field Observation :-

During the training period I visited Muzaffarpur market being sent by
Apollo Tyres Ltd. Muzaffarpur to observe how the marketing operations
were being performed there.

The marketing strategies and operations are closely observed for all these
information I visited retailers dealers and as well as consumers to assess the
present market situation of the product of APOLLO TYRES LTD.


In Summer Project this study has some limitations when I joined the company that
time DM was too much busy with his own assignments as it was the period where
market was witnessing a lot dynamic changes like :-
(i) Unusual price increase like 8-10% in last 3 months.
(ii) All of a sudden underload restriction was imposed by the Govt. of Bihar
e.g. Golden Card (which was a govt. authorised taken for overload) was
withdrawn for transporters.

Under these circumstances or critical situations I face difficulties which may affect
my report directly or indirectly.



a) History of the Organization
b) Financial Status of the Organization
c) Product Profile
d) Competitors of the Organization

a) History of the Organization

Apollo Tyres straddles the Indian tyre industry much like the Greek Sun God
Apollo's four horse-drawn chariot races across the vast expanse of the sky,
symbolising the creation of light, hence knowledge and truth. And like the Greek
charioteer, Apollo Tyres has stood the test of time on the four pillars of vision,
integrity, quality and sheer determination.

The history of Apollo Tyres dates back to 1974 when it was incorporated as a
company in Cochin, Kerala through the purchase of a licence from the Ruby
Rubber Works. Cochin by Mr. Mathew T. Marattukalam, Jacob Thomas and his
associates. In 1976, the company was taken over by Dr. Raunaq Singh. Apollo's
first manufacturing facility (often referred to as the 'mother plant') is in Perambra,
Cochin where production commenced in 1977 with an installed capacity of
420,000 each of tyres and tubes.The first 20 years of the company's existence were
not easy. Those were times when licences and quotas ruled the world of
manufacturing in a market dominated by multinational companies with access to
technology and machinery and deep pockets.Therefore, soon after its inception,
due to the huge investments required, Apollo wiped out its net worth and became a
BIFR company during the Emergency years. However, Apollo Tyres was returned
to its owners during the Janata Government.Apollo then used to make the entire
gamut of tyres required for scooters, bicycles, trucks and cars. However, the then

core team, led by Onkar Singh Kanwar, realized that to make an impact in the
market and become financially viable it had to become a dominant player in the
commercial vehicles segment. At the time, Modi Tyres had an overwhelming
market share and reputation. Extensive on-ground research by the team allowed it
to understand the areas in which Apollo could make an impact.

The philosophy then was 'one product fits all', where regardless of the kind of
usage, the tyres truckers fitted on their vehicles were the same. Team Apollo
decided to known as the 'overload' segment and produce tyres which could
withstand the extra load the vehicles were made to carry, while providing drivers
with the crucial safety net. It was a tyre called the Hercules which was the first of
its kind. Later, products like Amar, Loadstar and XT-7, XT-9 and XT-9 Gold were
introduced, products still enjoy consumer validation. In fact, XT-9 is the only tyre
in India to have sold more than one crore units, providing the superiority of the

In later years, there have been many such first in Apollo's cap. Apart from
enjoying the distinction of being the first tyre company to segment the market on
the basis of load and mileage requirements, it has been the first to introduce
packaging for car tyres and tubes and also the very first Indian company to
introduce farm radial tyres. n other innovative moves, Apollo is the first tyre
company to run customer loyalty and awareness programmes to enable them to
derive optimal benefits from their Apollo farm tyres, and also the first to launch
exclusive rural retail stores 'Apollo Tyre World' for truck tyres. Apollo tyres Ltd.
has another first to its credit being the first Tyre Manufacturing Company
Worldwide to be certified for B7799 given for information security of IT systems.
Another landmark has been the successful implementation of SAP across the
organisation for better results and productivity.

"People deliver innovation

Innovations deliver success
A few of the differences our people made"


First Indian tyre company to launch exclusive branded outlets -- Apollo Tyre
World -- for truck tyres
First Indian tyre company to segment the market on the basis of load and
mileage requirements
First Indian tyre company to introduce packaging for car and two-wheeler tyres
and tubes
First Indian tyre company to run a customer loyalty programme
First Indian tyre company to introduce radial tyres for the farm category
First tyre company in India to obtain ISO Certification for all its operations
First Indian tyre company to produce H, V and W-speed rated tubeless tyres
First Indian tyre company to run HIV-AIDS awareness and prevention clinics for
the trucking community
First Indian tyre company to support the creation of an Emergency Medical
Service in an Indian city
First Indian tyre company to execute an overseas acquisition
First Indian tyre company to reach a revenue of over US$ 1 billion
1975 Inception
1975 Registered as a company

1977 First plant commissioned in Perambra (Cochin, Kerala)
1991 Second plant commissioned in Limda (Baroda, Gujarat )
1995 Acquired Premier Tyres in Kalamassery (Cochin, Kerala)
1996 Exclusive tubes plant commissioned in Ranjangaon (Pune, Maharashtra)
2000 Exclusive radial capacity established in Limda
2000 Established Apollo Tyres Health Care Clinic for HIV-AIDS awareness and
prevention in Sanjay Gandhi Transport Nagar, Delhi
2003 Expansion of passenger car radial capacity to 6,600 tyres/day
2004 Production of India 's first H-speed rated tubeless passenger car radial tyres
2004 Support in setting up India 's first Emergency Medical Service in Baroda ,
2005 Apollo Tyres Health Care Clinics in Udaipur in Rajasthan and Kanpur in
Uttar Pradesh
2006 Expansion of passenger car radial capacity to 10,000 tyres/day
2006 Expansion of passenger car range to include 4x4 and all-terrain tyres
2006 Acquired Dunlop Tyres International in South Africa and Zimbabwe
2006 Opening of Apollo Tyres Health Care Clinic in Ukkadam, Tamil Nadu
2006 Launch of DuraTread, treading material and solutions
2006 Launch of India's first range of ultra-high performance V and W-speed
rated tyres
2007 Launch of Regal truck and bus radial tyres
2007 Launch of DuraTyre, retreaded tyres from Apollo
2007 Launch of the Apollo Tennis Initiative and Mission 2018

The Future
At Apollo Tyres, they believe in being in control of their destiny. They set
ambitious targets and believe in stretching themselves to outperform them.
Therefore, the leadership position in the Indian market notwithstanding, Apollo is

now set to look overseas for new challenges. Nearly all initiatives being taken at
this point in time are geared to fuel this ambition.

At home and abroad, Apollo is looking to not only consolidate its leadership
position in various segments through newer, high technology products but also
through consistent organic and inorganic growth opportunities, in tyres and allied
products. Becoming a leader in the passenger car tyre segment is a priority as is
the export of passenger car radials. If the company continues to grow at the current
pace, Apollo expected to reach the US$1 billion mark in less than five years.
Continuous focus on cost control and operating efficiency remains the hallmark of
the company.

Adding to all this is the fact that radialisation in India is throwing up fresh
opportunities, as is the boom in road infrastructure and the completion of the
Golden Quadrilateral and the North-South-East-West corridor. Therefore the
future is optimistic with promises of a virtuous cycle of growth.

Apollo has three tyre manufacturing facilities and one unit for the production of
tubes and flaps in four locations based in West and South India. Apollo endeavour
has been to have the widest spread of sales and regional offices, along with stock
points at locations which allow for maximum customer reach and efficient supply
chain management. Apollo dealer or business partners are also chosen with great
care. Apollo's products are sold through a combination of outlets ranging from
exclusive dealerships to multi-brand and branded retail outlets.

The continuous upgradation of dealer knowledge is in Apollo's interest and

therefore their training is undertaken by the company. With a dedicated field sales,
technical and commercial force of 600, we feel that we are best positioned to meet
the customer specific needs.

Research and Development for Apollo Tyres
The state-of-the-art Research & Development Centre had its birth at Perambra,
Cochin and later on, it has grown to a substantial height and stature at its present
location at Limda, Baroda. From the hour of inception, its goal has been to foster
development and promote the evolution of new technologies in the field of Tyre
Science & Technology. Recently company has tie ups with IIT's & IIM's for
Rubber Technologies.All the activities of the centre are extensively supported by a
series of highly sophisticated equipment, which help the research scientists
develop products as per customers' specific requirements.We have the facilities
and expertise for:

Development of compounds for improved performance

Raw material development
Analytical research
Reverse engineering
Advanced design using CAD
FEA modeling of tyres
Simulation testing of the designed product
Product validity & reliability studies
The different activities of the centre are being executed by a pool of specialists
from the arena of Polymer Science, Rubber Technology, Inorganic & Organic
Chemistry, Textile Technology, Physics and Mathematics. Through a synergistic
blend of knowledge, experience and hard work, this multidisciplinary team of
scientists are devoted to lead the organisation towards an outstanding level of
success. Currently, the centre is aiming for further growth and is exploring
unchartered areas of research in the field of Tyre Technology that will provide
Apollo Tyres the edge in today's ultra-competitive global market scenario.

(b) Financial Status of the Organization

c) Product Profile

Delivers premium mileage with enhanced comfort

Excellent traction in both wet and dry conditions
Strong steel belts stabilise tread for high mileage

Technical Details

Ideal for moderate load applications

Excellent traction for both on/off-road applications
Strong steel belt with flexible sidewall for longer tyre life

Technical Details

Reinforced radial construction for long life

Light truck construction for moderate loads
Good traction on highway terrain

Technical Details

More tread rubber mass delivers high mileage

Dual-bead construction for heavy load applications
Very strong casing allows higher load-carrying and multiple retreads

Technical Details

special casing design with dual beads for heavy-load applications
Optimised shoulder mass ensures cooler running and improved

Technical Details

Reinforced bead for better load-carrying capacity

Cap and base construction for higher mileage
Cooler-running tyre for improved life and multiple retreads

Technical Details

High mileage in normal load applications

Cooler-running tyre ensures long life and more retreads

Technical Details

Extra deep tread with cooler running for high mileage

Superior cut-resistant tread compound ensures smooth wear
and high casing value

Technical Details

Superior cut-resistant tread compound ensures longer life

and maximum casing value
Stronger casing for high loads and multiple retreads

Technical Details

Designed for highway applications with excellent traction in
wet and dry conditions
Provides good cornering and braking
Design material provides longer life and wear-resistance

Technical Details

Excellent road grip and traction

Designed for strength
Reinforced casing and material ensures longer life and
multiple retreadability

Technical Details

Unique design provides extra power and resistance to cuts and cracks
Reinforced casing for high retredability and high mileage
Provides excellent road grip and traction

Technical Details

Strong casing with stronger beads allows higher load-carrying capacity

Cooler running ensures minimal failures
Strong carcass for multiple retreads

Technical Details

Over Load Technology

Loadstar Super

Key Features :
Load capability
Cut Resistance
Low failures
Casing Value
Cargo :
Sand/Stone chips Marble/Granite
Ores/coal Steel & iron

Loadstar Super Gold

Key Features :
Load capability
Cut Resistance
Low failures
Casing Value
Cargo :
Sand/Stone chips Marble/Granite
Ores/coal Steel & iron

Load & Mileage Technology

Key Features :
Load carrying capacity.
Less down time
Cut resistance
Casing value
Cargo :
Cement Frozen food
Agri products Aluminium/ Copper
Auto spares Potatoes

XT-7 Haulug
Key Features :
Load carrying capacity.
Less down time
Cut resistance
Casing value
Cargo :
Cement Frozen food
Agri products Aluminium/ Copper
Auto spares Potatoes

XT-7 Gold
Key Features :
Load carrying capacity.
Less down time
Cut resistance
Casing value
Cargo :
Cement Frozen food
Agri products Aluminium/ Copper
Auto spares Potatoes

Premium Mileage Technology

Key Features :
High Mileage
Very Low failures
Casing Value
Cargo :
Veg & fruits FMCG Goods
White goods Paper goods
Sundry Cargo Sea Food

XT-9 Gold
Key Features :
High Mileage
Very Low failures
Casing Value
Cargo :
Veg & fruits FMCG Goods
White goods Paper goods
Sundry Cargo Sea Food

Regular Mileage Technology

Key Features :
Optimum Mileage
Cargo :
Vehicle carrier Parcel Services
Petroleum products LPG Cylinders
Live stock

Champion DXL
Key Features :
Optimum Mileage

Economic in Price

Better Casing Value

Cargo :
Bus Passengers

Live & Stocks/Chicken feeds/Chicken

Champion Gold
Key Features :
Optimum Mileage


Cargo :

Vehicle carrier Parcel Services

Petroleum products LPG Cylinders

Live stock

Load & Mileage Technology

 Low failures

 Durable/Mileage
 Cut resistance
 Casing value


Veg & fruits FMCG Goods

White goods Paper goods
Sundry Cargo Sea Food

Amar Deluxe
 Low failures

 Durable/Mileage
 Cut resistance
 Casing value


Veg & fruits FMCG Goods

White goods Paper goods
Sundry Cargo Sea Food

Premium Mileage Technology

Amar Gold
 Low failures

 Durable/Mileage
 Cut resistance
 Casing value


Veg & fruits FMCG Goods

White goods Paper goods
Sundry Cargo Sea Food

Regular Mileage Technology

Amar AT Rib
 Low failures

 Durable/Mileage
 Cut resistance
 Casing value


Veg & fruits FMCG Goods

White goods Paper goods
Sundry Cargo Sea Food


(d) Competitors of the Organization

 List of competitors




Tyres Ltd.


Tyres Ltd.
(Head, Zonal Heads and Divisional Heads)

C h ie f E x e c u tiv e O ffic e r

C h ie f O p e ra tin g O ffic e r

C h ie f In d ia n O p e ra tio n s

C h ie f C h ie f C h ie f C h ie f C h ie f S tra te g y C h ie f C h ie f

F in a n c ia l R esearch & G ro u p A d v is o ry P ro je c ts & M a rk e tin g H R
O ffic e r T e c h n o lo g y S e rv ic e s B u s in e s s O p e r a tio n s

H ead H ead C h ie f H ead IT

In te rn a l P u rch ase U n it H e a d C o rp o ra te
A u d it M anager L im d a P la n t D iv . H e a d A ffa irs
C o rp o ra te Q u a lity
R e la tio n s
U n it H e a d
K e r a la F a c to rie s

U n it H e a d
P u n e P la n t




A brand is a collection of images and ideas representing an economic producer;

more specifically, it refers to the descriptive verbal attributes and concrete
symbols such as a name, logo, slogan, and design scheme that convey the essence
of a company, product or service. Brand recognition and other reactions are
created by the accumulation of experiences with the specific product or service,
both directly relating to its use, and through the influence of advertising, design,
and media commentary. A brand is a symbolic embodiment of all the information
connected to a company, product or service. A brand serves to create associations
and expectations among products made by a producer. A brand often includes an
explicit logo, fonts, color schemes, symbols and sound which may be developed to
represent implicit values, ideas, and even personality. The key objective is to
create a relationship of trust.

The brand, and "branding" and brand equity have become increasingly important
components of culture and the economy, now being described as "cultural
accessories and personal philosophies".

In non-commercial contexts, the marketing of entities which supply ideas or

promises rather than product and services (e.g. political parties or religious
organizations) may also be known as "branding".

Some marketers distinguish the psychological aspect of a brand from the
experiential aspect. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of
contact with the brand and is known as the brand experience. The psychological
aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construct created
within the minds of people and consists of all the information and expectations
associated with a product or service.

Marketers engaged in branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind

the brand experience (see also brand promise), creating the impression that a brand
associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that
make it special or unique. A brand is therefore one of the most valuable elements
in an advertising theme, as it demonstrates what the brand owner is able to offer in
the marketplace. The art of creating and maintaining a brand is called brand
management. This approach works not only for consumer goods B2C (Business-
to-Consumer), but also for B2B (Business-to-Business), see Philip Kotler &
Waldemar Pfoertsch.

A brand which is widely known in the marketplace acquires brand recognition.

When brand recognition builds up to a point where a brand enjoys a critical mass
of positive sentiment in the marketplace, it is said to have achieved brand
franchise. One goal in brand recognition is the identification of a brand without
the name of the company present. For example, Disney has been successful at
branding with their particular script font (originally created for Walt Disney's
"signature" logo), which it used in the logo.

Consumers may look on branding as an important value added aspect of products
or services, as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic
(see also brand promise). From the perspective of brand owners, branded products
or services also command higher prices. Where two products resemble each other,
but one of the products has no associated branding (such as a generic, store-
branded product), people may often select the more expensive branded product on
the basis of the quality of the brand or the reputation of the brand owner.

Brand name
The brand name is often used interchangeably with "brand", although it is more
correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken linguistic elements of a
brand. In this context a "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark, if the brand
name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products
or services. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a
brand name through trademark registration. Advertising spokespersons have also
become part of some brands, for example: Mr. Whipple of Charmin toilet tissue
and Tony the Tiger of Kellogg's.

The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop
culture. Most products have some kind of brand identity, from common table salt
to designer clothes.

Brand identity
How the brand owner wants the consumer to perceive the brand - and by extension
the branded company, organisation, product or service. The brand owner will seek
to bridge the gap between the brand image and the brand identity. [2] Brand identity
is fundamental to consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation
from competitors.

Brand identity may be defined as simply the outward expression of the brand, such
as name and visual appearance.[3] Some practitioners however define brand
identity as not only outward expression (or physical facet), but also in terms of the
values a brand carries in the eye of the consumer. In 1992 Jean-Noel Kapferer
developed the Brand Identity Prism, which charts the brand identity along a
constructed source and constructed receiver axis, with externalization on the one
side and internalization on the other. On the externalization side brand identity
consists of "physical facet", "relationship" and "reflected consumer". On the
internalization side brand identity consists of "personality", "culture (values)" and
"consumer mentalisation". In this respect Kapferer positions brand personality as
one factor within brand identity.

Brand personality
Brand personality is the attribution of human personality traits to a brand as a way
to achieve differentiation. Such brand personality traits may include seriousness,
warmth, or imagination. Brand personality is usually built through long-term
marketing, as well as packaging and graphics.

Brand promise
Brand promise is a statement from the brand owner to customers, which identifies
what consumers should expect from all interactions with the brand. Interactions
may include employees, representatives, actual service or product quality or
performance, communication etc. The brand promise is often strongly associated
with the brand owner's name and/or logo.

Brand value
Brand equity or brand value measures the total value of the brand to the brand
owner, and reflects the extent of brand franchise.

A brand can be an intangible asset, used by analysts to rationalize the difference
between a company's "book value" and market value. For example, the market
value of a company can far exceed its tangible assets (physical assets owned by
the company, such as stock or machinery), and its brand value can account for
some of the difference. Up to 85 percent of a company’s market value might be
intangible (for example know-how, existing client relationships), and Interbrand, a
brand consultancy, states that tangible assets may account for less than five
percent of a company’s market value.

Brand value, especially in the case of consumer product brands, may arise out of
customer loyalty. Brand value may also arise in terms of staff retention benefits
(e.g. the ability of the company to attract and retain skilled and/or talented
employees offering competitive salaries).

Campaigning groups may deliberately target a company’s brand value to force a

company into adopting a certain position or practices. Some campaign groups
have thought to do this by deliberately subverting a brand’s image, logo or
message, creating a negative association among consumers. This attack may be
visual, as pioneered by groups such as Adbusters, or focusing on the message.

Brand monopoly
In economic terms the "brand" is, in effect, a device to create a "monopoly" — or
at least some form of "imperfect competition" — so that the brand owner can
obtain some of the benefits which accrue to a monopoly or unique point of sale,
particularly those related to decreased price competition. In this context, most
"branding" is established by promotional means. However, there is also a legal

dimension, for it is essential that the brand names and trademarks are protected by
all means available.

In all these contexts, retailers' "own label" brands can be just as powerful. The
"brand", whatever its derivation, is a very important investment for any

Branding policies
There are a number of possible policies:

Company name
Often, especially in the industrial sector, it is just the company's name which is
promoted (leading to one of the most powerful statements of "branding"; the
saying, before the company's downgrading,).

In this case a very strong brand name (or company name) is made the vehicle for a
range of products or even a range of subsidiary brands.

Individual branding
Individual branding, also called multibranding, is the marketing strategy of giving
each product in a product portfolio its own unique brand name. This is
contrasted with family branding in which the products in a product line are
given the same brand name. The advantage of individual branding is that
each product has a self image and identity that's unique. This facilitates the
positioning process. That means that there are less Halo-effects and one can
position all products differently without making trade-offs.

Attitude branding
Attitude branding is the choice to represent a larger feeling, which is not
necessarily connected with the product or consumption of the product at all.
Marketing labeled as attitude branding include that of Nike, Starbucks, The Body
Shop, Safeway, and Apple Computer. In the 2000 book, No Logo, attitude
branding is described by Naomi Klein as a "fetish strategy".

"No-brand" branding
Recently a number of companies have successfully pursued "No-Brand" strategies,
examples include the Japanese company Muji, which means "No label, quality
goods" in English. Although there is a distinct Muji brand, Muji products are not
branded. This no-brand strategy means that little is spent on advertisement or
classical marketing and Muji's success is attributed to the word-of-mouth, a simple
shopping experience and the anti-brand movement. Other brands which are
thought to follow a no-brand strategy like Muji, does not brand its products.

Derived brands
In this case the supplier of a key component, used by a number of suppliers of the
end-product, may wish to guarantee its own position by promoting that component
as a brand in its own right.

Brand development
In terms of existing products, brands may be developed in a number of ways:

Brand extension
The existing strong brand name can be used as a vehicle for new or modified
products; for example, many fashion and designer companies extended brands into
fragrances, shoes and accessories, home textile, home decor, luggage, (sun-)
glasses, furniture, hotels, etc.

Alternatively, in a market that is fragmented amongst a number of brands a
supplier can choose deliberately to launch totally new brands in apparent
competition with its own existing strong brand (and often with identical product
characteristics); simply to soak up some of the share of the market which will in
any case go to minor brands. The rationale is that having 3 out of 12 brands in
such a market will give a greater overall share than having 1 out of 10 (even if
much of the share of these new brands is taken from the existing one). In its most
extreme manifestation, a supplier pioneering a new market which it believes will
be particularly attractive may choose immediately to launch a second brand in
competition with its first, in order to pre-empt others entering the market.

Individual brand names naturally allow greater flexibility by permitting a variety
of different products, of differing quality, to be sold without confusing the
consumer's perception of what business the company is in or diluting higher
quality products.

Once again, Procter & Gamble is a leading exponent of this philosophy, running
as many as ten detergent brands in the US market. This also increases the total
number of "facings" it receives on supermarket shelves. Sara Lee, on the other
hand, uses it to keep the very different parts of the business separate — from Sara
Lee cakes through Kiwi polishes to L'Eggs pantyhose.

Small business brands

Branding a small or medium sized business (SME) follows essentially the same
principle a branding larger corporation. The main differences being that small
businesses usually have a smaller market and have less reach than larger brands.
Some people argue that it is not possible to brand a small business, however there
are many examples of small businesses that became very successful due to

Own brands and generics

With the emergence of strong retailers the "own brand", a retailer's own branded
product (or service), also emerged as a major factor in the marketplace. Where the
retailer has a particularly strong this "own brand" may be able to compete against
even the strongest brand leaders, and may outperform those products that are not
otherwise strongly branded.

Concerns were raised that such "own brands" might displace all other brands, but
the evidence is that — at least in supermarkets and department stores —

consumers generally expect to see on display something over 50 per cent (and
preferably over 60 per cent) of brands other than those of the retailer.

The strength of the retailers has, perhaps, been seen more in the pressure they have
been able to exert on the owners of even the strongest brands (and in particular on
the owners of the weaker third and fourth brands). Relationship marketing has
been applied most often to meet the wishes of such large customers (and indeed
has been demanded by them as recognition of their buying power). Some of the
more active marketers have now also switched to 'category marketing' - in which
they take into account all the needs of a retailer in a product category rather than
more narrowly focusing on their own brand.
At the same time, probably as an outgrowth of consumerism, "generic" (that is,
effectively unbranded goods) have also emerged. These made a positive virtue of
saving the cost of almost all marketing activities; emphasizing the lack of
advertising and, especially, the plain packaging (which was, however, often
simply a vehicle for a different kind of image)..




Due to rapid changes in Technology, Competitor and Consumer preferences a

company can not to stick solely with its existing products and services. Customers
want the new and improved product that comes about competitor. A company may
obtain new product development in company's own research and development. To
serve this purpose "Apollo Tyres" has Research and development department
which develops new products as per the demand of the market. To improvise this
products or services they collects information from the research person about their
competitors products.

Apollo Tyres is the largest tyre manufacturing company in India. It provides good
tyres to their customers.

My extensive survey is based on questionnaire having closed ended questions

given by the organization "Apollo Tyres". During conducting survey views of the
customers who have heavy motor vehicle presently. The sample size was 65 from
the Vehicle owner, and large number of fitment survey. Main view was given to
know the satisfaction/dissatisfaction of the customer who are presently using
Tyres from their existing company as well as what is their main expectation from
Apollo Tyres.

Conclusion & Suggestions

Conclusion & Suggestions
After conducting six weeks survey at Muzaffarpur I have reached these
 Apollo tyre is the market leader in the LCV&SCV segment followed by
MRF, J.K., Birls, Ceat.
 Apollo Tyres brand XT-7 and Amar are market leader at Muzaffarpur
Urban and Rural Area.
 XT-7 is Lug tyres and Amar RIB tyres, Most of the customers are satisfied
with the performance of both tyres.
 Appox 70% customers have positive and 30% customers have negative
attitude in support of preference of Apollo tyre at Muzaffarpur.
 Customer's awareness level is better at Muzaffarpur area.
 Apollo tyres is the first tyre company which has launched new scheme to
solve the claim within 2 days.
Most of the customers are unsatisfied with this scheme. Because dealers do not
provide them this type of facility at their disposal

Suggestions :-

The suggestions from the consumers to the tyre company are following.
 Some consumer are unsatisfied with the price because competitors product

price are less than Apollo, So company should pay attention in their mind on


 Company should provide more mileage of tyres because overloading has

been imposed by the government.

 Company should provide credit facility because customer demands this

type of facility.

 The problem of Apollo consumers are lack of adequate promotional

schemes. Dealers don't provide adequate information in the support of the Apollo

brands. They see their margin of profit alone.

 Some schemes should be provided by company. It is good technique for

sales promotions.

 Company should give special attention after sales service of their



Marketing Management - Kotler Philip

Statistical Investigation - Gupta B.N.
Monitoring the competition - Leonard. M. Fuld
Consumer behavior and action - Assel Henry

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