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Numismatik und Geldgeschichte

im Zeitalter der Aufklärung


Beiträge zum Symposium
im Residenzschloss Dresden,
4.– 9. Mai 2009

NumismatischE Zeitschrift
120./121. Band

Herausgegeben von
Heinz Winter und Bernhard Woytek

in Zusammenarbeit mit
Michael Alram, Hubert Emmerig, Rainer Grund
und Wilhelm Hollstein

Wien 2015
Selbstverlag der Österreichischen numismatischen gesellschaft
Numismatische Zeitschrift
Herausgegeben von der
Österreichischen Numismatischen Gesellschaft
Redaktion: Heinz Winter
Band 120/121

Wissenschaftlicher Beirat
Suzanne Frey-Kupper
Rika Gyselen
Martin Hirsch
Wilhelm Hollstein
Bernd Kluge
Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis
Wolfgang Steguweit
Benedikt Zäch
Bernward Ziegaus

Umschlagabbildung: Johann Gottfried Richter (1713–1758), Leiter des Dresdener Münzkabinetts.


Vgl. unten S. 15, S. 21, Abb. 8, sowie S. 441, Abb. 14.

Grafik: Caterina Krüger & Ursula Grande


Druck: Druckerei Robitschek, Schlossgasse 10–12, 1050 Wien

© 2015 Österreichische Numismatische Gesellschaft

Alle Rechte vorbehalten


ISSN 0250 - 7838
Inhaltsverzeichnis

Rainer Grund
Zum Geleit....................................................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Vorwort der Herausgeber ............................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Paul Arnold
Das Dresdener Münzkabinett im 18. Jahrhundert: Von der fürstlichen
Repräsentation zur wissenschaftlichen Münzsammlung.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Andrew Burnett
The Development of Numismatics in Britain during the 18th Century.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

François de Callataÿ
Vaillant, Frölich and the Others (Spanheim, Beger, Haym, Liebe, Pellerin, Eckhel,
Duane, etc.): The Remarkable Interest in Seleucid Coinages in the 18th century.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Marco Callegari
Self-Promotion and Erudition – Numismatic Publications in the Serenissima
Repubblica di Venezia during the 18th Century.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Fiorenzo Catalli
L’Académie étrusque de l’Antichissima Città di Cortona:
un centre international d’activité numismatique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Jean-Marie Darnis
L’impact de l’hôtel des monnaies de Paris sur les aspects artistiques dans
la numismatique en France au siÈcle des lumiÈres (1715–1774).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Christian Edmond Dekesel & Yvette Marguerite Mariette Dekesel-De Ruyck


JULIUS CARL SCHLÄGER
Hannover 25. 9. 1706 – Gotha 14. 6. 1786. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
David W. Dykes
The eighteenth-century British trade token:
The contemporary catalogues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Hubert Emmerig
Numismatische Publikationen im Umkreis der Churfürstlich-baierischen
Akademie der Wissenschaften (1759–1806).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

Giovanni Gorini
The Study of Greek Numismatics during the 18th Century in Italy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

Christel Grau
Abraham Gottlob Werners (1749–1817) Münzsammlung und numismatische
Bibliothek an der Technischen Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (Sachsen).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

Rainer Grund
Johann Gottfried Lipsius – der Begründer der modernen
numismatischen Bibliographie.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

Jean Guillemain
Médailliers et enseignement de la numismatique dans les collèges jésuites
en France au XVIIIe siècle. ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

Wilhelm Hollstein
Die numi Samnitici in der Forschung des 18. Jahrhunderts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

Jørgen Steen Jensen


The Development of the Copenhagen Cabinet in the middle of the 18th century –
great acquisitions helped to build a national collection.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343

Janjaap Luijt
NICOLAS CHEVALIER (1661 – 1720): COIN DEALER AND NUMISMATIST.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

Hugh Pagan
The Role of the Society of Antiquaries of London in the ADvancement
of Numismatic Research during the Eighteenth Century.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

Andrea Saccocci
Le ricerche di numismatica medievale in Italia nel corso del XVIII secolo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Thierry Sarmant
De Gaston d’Orléans à l’abbé Barthélemy : essai de ­sociologie des
numismates français des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

Wolfgang Steguweit
Das „Numismatische Porträtarchiv Peter Berghaus“ im Münzkabinett
der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415

Wolfgang Szaivert
Die akademische Lehre der Numismatik in Österreich im 18. Jahrhundert.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

Robert H. Thompson
Thomas Snelling, senior (1712–1773), and other scholarly coin dealers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479

Uta Wallenstein
Das Münzkabinett Gotha im 18. Jahrhundert – eine prachtvolle fürstliche
Sammlung im Spiegel aufklärerischen Denkens.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501

Bernhard Woytek
Sigebert Havercamp (1684–1742) als Numismatiker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 

Personenregister . ............................................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598


9

Zum Geleit

Das Münzkabinett der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen Dresden und die Sächsische Landesbibliothek – Staats- und
Universitätsbibliothek Dresden veranstalteten in Kooperation mit der Technischen Universität Dresden vom 4. bis
9. Mai 2009 in Dresden einen von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft geförderten Internationalen Kongress
zur numismatischen Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts. Die Idee zu diesem Projekt hatte Christian E. Dekesel (Gent),
der in jahrzehntelanger Forschungsarbeit Bibliographien zur numismatischen Literatur seit dem 16. Jahrhundert
verfasst hat und bei der Beschäftigung mit dem 18. Jahrhundert auf Dresden als einen der wichtigsten Orte der
Verwahrung numismatischer Publikationen aus diesem Zeitraum verwies.

Die Bibliotheken des Münzkabinetts, das mit etwa 300.000 Objekten zu den drei größten numismatischen Samm-
lungen Deutschlands zählt, und der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek – Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden,
einer der großen Universalbibliotheken Deutschlands, besitzen zusammengenommen einen großen Schatz an
numismatischer Literatur. Dies resultiert auch aus der Tatsache, dass die Numismatik in der Epoche der Aufklä-
rung eine Blütezeit erlebte und die sächsische Residenzstadt eines ihrer europäischen Zentren war. Das erst Ende
des 17. Jahrhunderts erwachte historische Interesse für die mittelalterlichen und zeitgenössischen Münzen hatte
sich verstärkt, und für die seit der Renaissance im Mittelpunkt stehenden antiken Münzen stellten sich bei weiter
anwachsendem Material neue Fragen, etwa nach der geographisch-historischen Kategorisierung. Verbunden war
die auf der Förderung von Wissenschaft und Bildung basierende Entwicklung mit einer nochmaligen Zunahme
numismatischer Publikationen.

Die Tagung mit dem Titel „Numismatik und Geldgeschichte im Zeitalter der Aufklärung“ schloss konsequenterweise
an ein 2003 in Wolfenbüttel durchgeführtes Symposium zur numismatischen Literatur des 17. Jahrhunderts an.
Der Kongress wurde in mehr als einjähriger Zusammenarbeit zwischen den beteiligten Einrichtungen vorbereitet.
Ein gedrucktes Programmheft informierte über das Vortrags- und das Begleitprogramm. Insgesamt beteiligten sich
in acht Themenkomplexen 27 Referenten aus acht europäischen Ländern an der Veranstaltung. Außer dem um-
fangreichen Rahmenprogramm wurden gleich zwei Ausstellungen geboten, die mit einer Auswahl der Bestände
historischer numismatischer Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts im Buchmuseum der Sächsischen Landesbibliothek –
Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden und von Seiten des Münzkabinetts unter dem Titel „Münzbelustigungen“
im Schloss gezeigt wurden. Am Kongress nahmen mehr als 60 Personen aus Europa und den USA teil. Ziel der
mehrtägigen Veranstaltung war es, die Kooperation zwischen den beteiligten Einrichtungen zu intensivieren und
den Austausch zwischen den Spezialisten über den aktuellen Wissens- und Forschungsstand zu ermöglichen, um
den wissenschaftlichen Fachdiskurs voranzubringen. Allerdings scheiterte das ehrgeizige Vorhaben, so schnell als
möglich den Tagungsband herauszugeben, aufgrund verschiedener Schwierigkeiten. Umso dankbarer haben die
am Projekt beteiligten Partner das Angebot der Österreichischen Numismatischen Gesellschaft aufgegriffen, für
die Veröffentlichung all jener Tagungsbeiträge, die zwischenzeitlich noch nicht anderweitig publiziert wurden,
einen Band in der Reihe „Numismatische Zeitschrift“ zur Verfügung zu stellen. So wird, wenn auch spät, das den
Teilnehmern in bester Erinnerung gebliebene Dresdner Kolloquium in wesentlichen Inhalten dokumentiert.

An anderen Orten bereits erschienen sind die folgenden Kongreßbeiträge:


• Luisa Ciammitti, Reassembling a Dismembered Archive: Tomitano’s Eruditi Italiani Archive at the Getty
­Research Institute, Getty Research Journal 5 (2013), 41–55.
• Christian E. Dekesel, A general survey of 18th century numismatic publications = Introduction, in: C. E. Dekesel –
Y. M. M. Dekesel-De Ruyck, Bibliotheca N ­ ummaria III. Bibliography of 18th Century Numismatic Books.
Illustrated and Annotated Catalogue. Part I: A–B, Indexes A–Z, London 2009, 7–46.
• Helle W. Horsnæs, Johannes Wiedewelt, Designer of Exhibitions, in: Marjatta Nielsen – Annette Rathje (Hg.),
Johannes Wiedewelt. A Danish Artist in Search of the Past, Shaping the Future, Kopenhagen 2010 (Acta
Hyperborea. Danish Studies in Classical Archaeology 11), 259–273.
• Bernhard Overbeck, Johann Alexander Döderlein (1675–1745) und die „vaterländische“ Numismatik,
Jahrbuch 2012 der Braunschweigischen Wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft, 147–165, sowie ders., Johann
­Alexander Döderlein (1675–1745), Universalgelehrter und Pionier der „vaterländischen“ Numismatik, villa
nostra – Weißenburger Blätter 2014, Heft 2, 5–19.

Rainer Grund
79

Marco Callegari Self-Promotion


and Erudition

Self-Promotion and Erudition

Numismatic Publications in the Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia


­during the 18th Century

In the last years of the 18th century, the Most Serene Republic of Venice saw the end of its millenary history.
Venice began as a small village in a lagoon, built on some islands by exiles in search of salvation from the bar-
barian invasions. Over the centuries, the small village became the capital of a powerful state and an important
centre of arts and culture. After the introduction of printing in 1469, Venice became the location of the leading
printers and publishers of the Renaissance. They fully exploited the opportunities offered by the lively cultural
environment of the city, the patronage of the local nobility, the involvement of wealthy merchants who often
provided money for the printing of voluminous books, and the capillary network of Venetian commercial store-
houses in all European cities. It is well known that political and religious events connected with the Catholic
Counter-Reformation and the introduction of the Index librorum prohibitorum in 1559 started the decline of
Venetian printing. The decline reached its climax in the dramatic depopulation of the city caused by the bubonic
plague in 1629–1631. The long wars against the Ottoman Empire – the war of Candia, from 1645 to 1669, and
the subsequent Morean war, 1684–1699 – impoverished the Republic of Venice: vast amounts of public and
private money were used for the navy and the armies and the printers also suffered as a result of the economic
crisis. The recovery was very slow; only in the eighteenth century did it once more become possible to print high
quality editions, and this affected the catalogues of numismatics in particular, because the preparation costs
were very high. To begin with, whoever commissioned the book had to pay the scholar who composed the
text, the artists responsible for the drawings and the engravings, the cost of the paper for the printing and – of
course – the printer. At that time such high production costs could only be borne by the very elite of Venetian
society. Only a few noble families, owners of important collections, published catalogues in order to create a
legacy for themselves, at least in the collective memory of the European Respublica literaria.1

The history of the volume Numismata aerea selectiora maximi moduli e Museo Pisano olim Corrario2 and the
related commentaries written by Alberto Mazzoleni3 can help to explain the production mechanisms for this
kind of self-promotional publication. As the title of the book tells us, the original nucleus of the Pisani collection
came from the Correr collection. In fact, it was created by Girolamo Correr (1645–1694), who had entrusted
the engraving of Roman medallions to Giuseppe Maria Junster in Rome, through the famous scientist and scholar
Francesco Bianchini.4 On his death in 1694, his son Angelo decided to make arrangements for publication
and entrusted the study of the coins to Niccolò Bon.5 In 1696 the engraved title page had already been made

1 For information on the Venetian collections see: Irene Favaretto, Arte antica e cultura antiquaria nelle collezioni venete al tempo
della ­Serenissima, Roma, L‘Erma di Bretschneider, 2002; Giovanni Gorini, Premessa, Storia delle collezioni numismatiche ­veneziane,
Grecia Antica, Le monete venetiche, Monete arabe, Le medaglie veneziane, in: Monete e Medaglie a Venezia: Venezia, Palazzo
Ducale dicembre 1977 – marzo 1978, catalogue edited by Giovanni Gorini, Andrea Saccocci, Paolo Visonà, Venezia, A ­ lfieri, 1977,
pp. 5–16, 21, 49, 54–61; Giovanni Gorini, Lo statuario pubblico: il collezionismo numismatico, in: Lo s­ tatuario ­pubblico della
Serenissima. Due secoli di collezionismo di antichità 1596–1797, edited by Irene Favaretto, Giovanna Luisa R ­ avagnan, Cittadella
(PD), Biblos, 1997, pp. 132–135.
2 Venetiis, apud Io. Baptistam Albritium Hieronymi filium, [1726].
3 Alberto Mazzoleni, In numismata aerea selectiora maximi moduli e Museo Pisano olim Corrario, In Monasterio Benedectino-­
Casinate S. Jacobi Pontidae Agri Bergomatis, apud Joannem Santinum sumptibus societatis, 1740–1744.
4 About Francesco Bianchini: Salvatore Rotta, Bianchini Francesco, in Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 10, Roma, Istituto della
Enciclopedia italiana, 1968, p. 187–194.
5 About Nicolò Bon: Gino Benzoni, Bon Nicolò, in: Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 11, Roma, Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana,
1969, p. 420–421.
80

Marco Callegari
and some test prints had also been carried out. The plates included a framed border incorporating the coat of
arms of the Correr family. Over the following years the preparation of the book continued slowly and in 1703
the sudden death of Angelo Correr interrupted the work while still far from finished. The wedding of the only
daughter, Isabella, with Almorò Pisani, son of the future doge Alvise, was celebrated in 1711 and the bride’s
dowry included the museum and her father’s large library. Fifteen years later, Isabella’s husband’s uncle, the
senator Almorò, decided to print the ninety-two plates by Giovanni Battista Albrizzi. The title page does not
state the year of publication, but from a review in volume 38 of the Giornale de’ letterati d’Italia,6 ­probably
written by Piercaterino Zeno, brother of the famous Apostolo Zeno,7 it is possible to deduce that the date was
1726. The plates are not accompanied by any explanatory text, a decision which was not well received by the
local scholars. In fact, a short time later, Giuseppe Capitani, an otherwise unknown abbot, wrote a laudatory
booklet,8 in which he justified the absence of explanatory text, recalling the example of the book of the collection
of Roman medallions owned by King Louis XIV and printed in 1704.9

Another noble family which published the catalogue of its own numismatic collection was the Tiepolo family.
Towards the end of the 18th century the senator Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo formed what was probably the
most famous numismatic collection in Venice at that time. It also included the collection of Sebastiano Erizzo,
who was – with Enea Vico – the most important collector in the Republic during the 16th century. The Tiepolo
­Collection was published in 1736, the work of Lorenzo, Procuratore of San Marco and one of the most famous
librarians of the Marciana Library, and his brother Federico, grandsons of Giovanni Domenico. Although the
name of the printer is not included, the two volumes were printed in the typefaces used by Giovanni Battista
Pasquali. The catalogue was drawn up by the Venetian Pietro Fondi and also included sixteen sheets with en-
gravings in copper dating from 1712.10

Even the nobles of the Terraferma published their collections. For example, in Verona the count Jacopo Muselli
published his Roman coin collection in three volumes – Numismata antiqua – in 1750–1752.11 It is a very good
and very expensive edition, with a frontispiece and many plates, all engraved. On plate no. 208 there is an
­interesting picture of a hoard being discoverd. It is possible that the person with the large hat could be J­ acopo
­Muselli himself. In fact, the scene may be based on reality, because on his properties near Raldon – today a
­hamlet of San Giovanni Lupatoto a few kilometres from Verona – Muselli found and excavated two Roman
Imperial necropoles which were published in a book printed in 1756, Antiquitatis reliquiae collectae Tabulis
incisae et brevibus explicationibus­illustratae.12 In 1755 he received some coins from Scipione Maffei as a gift
and five years later he wrote A ­ ddenda to the Numismata antiqua, in which he described these and other coins
found in the interim.13

I would also like to remind you of the anomalous case of Numismata virorum illustrium ex Barbadica gente,14
published in Padua by the Tipografia del Seminario in 1732. Giovanni Francesco Barbarigo, bishop of Padua
and cardinal, wanted to celebrate the deeds of his family with a collection of medals, specially made for him by
Giovanni Francesco Neidinger, and a book written by Giovanni Saverio Valcavi with wonderful plates of these

6 Giornale de’ letterati d’Italia, XXXVIII (1726–1727), part I, In Venezia, appresso Gio. Gabriello Hertz, 1727, p. 330–337.
7 Cfr. Apostolo Zeno, Lettere di Apostolo Zeno istorico e Poeta Cesareo ..., IV, Venezia, appresso Francesco Sansoni, 1785, p. 220.
8 Giuseppe Capitani, Prodromus libri Pisanorum numismatum, [Venezia, 1726].
9 Lorenz Beger, Numismata moduli maximi vulgo medaglioni ex cimeliarchio Ludovici XIV, Eleutheropoli [sed Berolini?], 1704.
10 Musei Theupoli antiqua numismata olim collecta a Joanne Dominico Theupolo, aucta & edita a Laurentio equite et D. Marci
­procuratore et Federico senatore fratribus Theupolis,Venetiis, [Pasquali], 1736.
11 Jacopo Muselli, Numismata antiqua a Iacobo Musellio collecta et edita, Veronae, 1750–1751 [etiam 1751–1752] (Veronae, apud
Augustinum Carattonium in via Nova, 1750).
12 Jacopo Muselli, Antiquitatis reliquiae a Marchione Jacobo Musellio collectae Tabulis incisae et brevibus explicationibus illustratae,
Veronae, 1756 (Veronae, apud Augustinum Carattonium Episcopalis Seminarii Typographum, 1756).
13 Jacopo Muselli, Numismata antiqua a Marchione Jacobo Musellio recens adquisita aliis ab eodem iam editis addenda, Veronae,
1760 (Veronae, apud Augustinum Carattonium, 1760).
14 Patavii, ex Typographia Seminarii, apud Ioannem Manfre, 1732.
81

medals, ­engraved by Robert van Auden Aerd from Ghent. These two volumes can be considered the highest ex- Self-Promotion

pression of self-celebration in the Venetian patriciate.15 and Erudition

The century was brought to a close by the Nani family. The first collector from the Nani family was Antonio
Nani. Between 1697 and 1706 he brought some Greek archaeological objects from Morea, now Peloponnesus,
and subsequently bought many other objects from Venetian collections, primarily from Grimani of Santa
Maria Formosa. His sons, Bernardo and Giacomo, continued the collection. Bernardo spent his entire life in
Venice and he took care of the family’s interests. Meanwhile, his own scholarly inclinations led him to expand
the ­archaeological collection and the library, and to publish a numismatic booklet, De duobus imperatorum
­Rassiae nummis,16 later republished under the title De duobus imperatorum Rassiae nummis. Editio altera,
monetis ac documentis adhuc ineditis aucta.17 The younger brother, Giacomo, began a military career in the
Navy and for years he sent ancient statues, coins and manuscripts from the Aegean islands to Venice. After the
death of Bernardo, Giacomo took care of the museum and library and he decided to publish the catalogues
of the ­collections to exalt the cultural glories of the family.18 His main focus was on collections of manuscripts
– ­Italian, Latin, Coptic, Islamic – the catalogues for which were written by important scholars such as Jacopo
Morelli, ­Giovanni Luigi Mingarelli and Simone Assemani.19­Simone Assemani, teacher of Islamic languages in the
­Seminary school of Padua, was also the a­ uthor of the catalogue of the Cufic coin collection.20 The two volumes
of the Museo Cufico Naniano were printed in 1787–1788 and they marked the end of the age of great Vene-
tian collectors.

It is interesting to note that in Venice there was a more generalized interest in ancient coins during the 18th century.
During the period from the end of the thirties to the fifties in particular, numismatics came to be considered
a kind of erudite hobby among intellectuals. The pretext of showing very rare examples was a convenient
passepartout to enable the exhibitor to get in touch with leading scholars, taking advantage of their innate
curiosity. It was possible to meet them in bookstores or walking in the most frequented places in the city. A
vivid testimony of this network of relations is contained in a diary written by Giovanni Bianchi, a physician and
naturalist born in Rimini, during his stay in Venice from the end of June to the beginning of August 1740.21 Also
known under several other pseudonyms – of which the best known is Jano Planco – Bianchi was an eclectic per-
sonality in keeping with the culture of his age. In fact, his studies covered anatomy, botany, the natural sciences
in general, and also Latin philology, archaeology, and, finally, numismatics. Professor of Anatomy at the Univer-
sity of Siena from 1741 to 1744, he reopened the Accademia dei Lincei in Rimini and pope Clement XIV, who
had been his pupil, wanted him as private physician.

15 See Piero Lucchi – Monica Viero, «Parole e figure. Momenti di storia del libro e della stampa dalle raccolte del Museo Correr»:
una visita guidata all’esposizione, in: Bollettino dei Musei Civici Veneziani, 3. s., 2 (2007), p. 129–153: 140–142.
16 [Venezia], 1750.

17 [Venezia], 1752.
18 Cfr. Pietro Del Negro, Giacomo Nani. Appunti biografici, in: Bollettino del Museo Civico di Padova, 40 (1971), n. 2, p. 115–147.

19 Codices manuscripti latini bibliothecae Nanianae a Iacobo Morellio relati. Opuscula inedita accedunt ex iisdem deprompta,
Venetiis, typis Antonii Zattae, 1776; I codici manoscritti volgari della libreria Naniana riferiti da don Iacopo Morelli. S‘aggiungono
alcune operette inedite da essi tratte, In Venezia, nella stamperia d‘Antonio Zatta, 1776; AEgyptiorum codicum reliquiae Venetiis
in bibliotheca Naniana asseruatae, [edited by Giovanni Luigi Mingarelli], Bononiae, typis Laelii a Vulpe, 1785; Catalogo de‘ codici
manoscritti orientali della Biblioteca Naniana compilato dall‘abate Simone Assemani ... Vi s‘aggiunge l‘illustrazione delle monete
cufiche del Museo Naniano, In Padova, nella Stamperia del Seminario, 1787–1792.
20 Museo cufico Naniano illustrato dall‘abate Simone Assemani professore di lingue orientali, In Padova, nella stamperia del
S­ eminario, 1787–1788. About this edition: Marco Callegari, Al crepuscolo della Serenissima: Simone Assemani e Giacomo Nani,
in Simposio Simone Assemani sulla monetazione islamica, Padova II. Congresso internazionale di numismatica e di storia
­monetale, Padova 17 maggio 2003, Musei civici agli Eremitani-Museo Bottacin (Biblioteca), Padova, Esedra, 2005, p. 31–41.
21 Biblioteca Gambalunghiana di Rimini, Fondo Gambetti, Sezione manoscritti, n. 973, now published in digital edition by Centro
interuniversitario internazionale di studi sul viaggio adriatico – C.I.S.V.A. http://www.viaggioadriatico.it/ViaggiADR/biblioteca_­
digitale/titoli/scheda_bibliografica.2008-11-26.1946924872: Giovanni Bianchi, Viaggi (Όδοιπορικòν παλαιòν: 1740), introduction
by Andrea Calavita, edited by Andrea Calavita and Alessandra De Paolis, Edizioni digitali del CISVA, 2007.
82

Marco Callegari
Bianchi went to Venice not only for a pleasure trip, but, at the suggestion of Lodovico Antonio Muratori, in
search of influential backing to win him the principal chair of Practical Medicine at the University of Padua.22
Immediately after his arrival in Venice, Giovanni Bianchi went to visit the bookseller Giovanni Battista Pasquali.
He had known him since at least the previous year, when he had decided, at his own expense, to print De con-
chis minus notis liber with Pasquali’s typefaces.23 Incidentally, this book brought international fame to Giovanni
Bianchi, because it was the first important study about the Foraminifera (Linnaeus only wrote about them nine-
teen years later).

Who was Giovanni Battista Pasquali and why is his name so important? He was undoubtedly “the bookseller most
sensitive to the spirit of the century” and “the most representative and consistent figure among those who wanted
to meet enlightened customers’ needs” and his catalogue included a­ uthors such as Tartarotti, Carli and Algarotti.24

In a letter, Pietro Ercole Gherardi, who took care of Lodovico Antonio Muratori’s relations with the Venetian
booksellers, defined the difference between Giovanni Battista Pasquali and Giambattista Albrizzi, the printer
of Numismata aerea selectiora maximi moduli e Museo Pisano olim Corrario: “Pasquali is the opposite
of ­Albrizzi. Albrizzi is insecure, very scary and without strong economic support; Pasquali is discerning, well
­supported and able to succeed in his affairs”.25 In fact, Pasquali was supported by a very rich foreign m ­ erchant,
the English consul Joseph Smith;26 Albrizzi, on the contrary, had always relied solely on his own strengths. The
c­ompany of the rich merchant and the young printer-bookseller was founded in 1734–1735. The bookshop
was in Santi Apostoli square, on the ground floor of the same mansion where Joseph Smith lived on the Grand
­Canal. His was the responsibility for the editorial line, closely linked to the reformist ideas of the English and
French ­Enlightenment.27 Pasquali’s typographic mark was the picture of the goddess Minerva with an open book
in one hand and the words Felicitas Litterarum, the work of the Venetian painter Antonio Visentini.28

Frequenting bookshops was a common practice in Venice: “In these bookshops, under the pretext of buying
a trifle, it is possible to meet the most important people in the city, who fill a foreigner with a lot of kindness,”­
­Johann Caspar Goethe wrote about the role of bookshops as place for intellectuals to meet and socialize in
1740. In his diary Bianchi wrote that within a few days he met many intellectuals at Pasquali’s bookshop, for
example the hydraulic engineer Bernardino Zendrini, the senator Giovanni Pasqualigo, Antonio Conti, Apostolo
Zeno, Joseph Smith and the architect Tommaso Temanza. In fact, the constant presence of a large number of
local and foreign scholars made this the principal center of book production and selling in Venice.

Very often the favorite subject of conversation was numismatics. In his diary Giovanni Bianchi describes all the
encounters in which he discussed numismatics and the scholars he met. For example, he tried to visit the abbot
Onorio Arrigoni, but he was not at home. Bianchi returned few days later, had dinner with him and then visited
his collections of bronzes, inscriptions, books and especially coins. This collection was very rich, and Arrigoni
published it in Numismata quaedam cujuscumque formae, et metalli Musei Honorii Arigoni Veneti ad usum
iuventutis rei nummariae studiosae.29 The four illustrated volumes in folio were printed sumptibus auctoris not
in Venice, but in Treviso by a little-known printer. In this way Onorio Arrigoni certainly reduced the cost of print-
ing of this voluminous work.

22 Cfr. Angelo Turchini, Il tentativo di Jano Planco di salire sulla cattedra del Cicognini nel 1740, in: Quaderni per la storia
­dell’Università di Padova, V (1972), pp. 91–105.
23 Giovanni Bianchi, De conchis minus notis liber cui accessit Specimen aestus reciproci maris superi ad littus portumque Arimini,
Venetiis, typis Joannis Baptistae Pasquali, aere auctoris, 1739.
24 Mario Infelise, L’editoria veneziana nel ‘700, Milano, Angeli, 1989, p. 278.

25 Edizione nazionale del carteggio di L. A. Muratori, 20: Carteggio con Pietro E. Gherardi, edited by Guido Pugliese, Firenze,
­Olschki, 1982, p. 507.
26 About Joseph Smith: Frances Vivian, Il console Smith mercante e collezionista, Vicenza, Neri Pozza, 1971.

27 Cfr. Infelise (note 24), p. 163–165.

28 Cfr. Vivian (note 26), p. 114.

29 Onorio Arrigoni, Numismata quaedam cujuscumque formae, et metalli Musei Honorii Arigoni Veneti ad usum iuventutis rei
­nummariae studiosae, Tarvisii, sumptibus auctoris, apud Eusebium Bergamum, 1741–1759 .
83

At Joseph Smith’s, Bianchi met the senator Domenico Pasqualigo30 – “a very nice man, amateur of medals Self-Promotion

and other antiquities” – and they spent four hours together examining Bianchi’s coins and tokens. Pasqualigo and Erudition

was an avid collector of Venetian and medieval coins and wrote three booklets about them: Monete singolari­
scoperte e spiegate da D.P.S.V.,31 Spiegazione della moneta del doge Domenico Michiel in Soria,32 and
Spiegazione di tre monete di un re de’ Visigotti e di due re de’ Longobardi.33 In the course of a few days
Bianchi met Pasqualigo repeatedly, and was able to visit Pasqualigo’s mansion in front of the Basilica di Santa
Maria della Salute. Here the senator showed him coins of the kings of the Goths, Lombards and Normans;
every coin was packaged with an enclosed explanatory text. Joseph Smith and Apostolo Zeno also expressed
an interest­in medieval and modern coinage. Smith showed him Islamic coins and the coins of the Carraresi,
the lords of Padua, whereas Zeno showed his “museum” of more than ten thousand coins and medals includ-
ing very rare medieval examples. At Zeno’s, Bianchi also met the bookseller and printer, “all’Insegna dell’Italia”,
Simone Occhi, who sold him three 15th century medals of Novello, Isotta and Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta
of Rimini.34 Simone Occhi was one of the richest booksellers in Venice and his shop was also a meeting place
for intellectuals. In fact, as we saw just now, the senator Domenico Pasqualigo’s booklets were printed by
him, and it is important to point out that he was the printer of the Raccolta d’opuscoli scientifici, e filologici
edited by Angelo Calogerà, as well as of the Lettera del Conte Gianrinaldo Carli Giustinopolitano intorno
ad alcune M ­ onete che nelle provincie del Friuli e dell’Istria correvano nei tempi del dominio de’ P­ atriarchi
aquilejensi in 1741. Ten years later another important work by Carli, Dell’origine e del commercio della
­moneta e Dell’instituzione delle zecche d’Italia dalla decadenza dell’impero sino al secolo decimosettimo,35
was ­published anonymously by Pasquali, falsely stating the place of printing as L’Haja.36 And Pasquali himself
introduced the ­Dominican Bernardo de Rubeis to Giovanni Bianchi.37 He was the author of Monumenta Ecclesiae
Aquilejensis,38 and in subsequent years De nummis patriarcharum Aquilejensium dissertatio39 and De nummis
­patriarcharum Aquilejensium dissertatio altera.40

During this same period Bianchi also met Romualdo Patarol at Pasquali’s bookshop.41 Romualdo was the young-
est son of Lorenzo Patarol, a famous collector who died in 1727. Bianchi asked to visit the mansion, where he
was able to see the library and the numismatic collection, which was described by Emmanuele Antonio Cicogna
as “beautiful and great”.42 Lorenzo Patarol was still very famous, because he was the author of a true bestseller,
Series Augustorum, ­Augustarum, Caesarum, et Tyrannorum omnium, tam in Oriente, quam in Occidente, first

30 About Domenico Pasqualigo: Michele Asolati, La raccolta numismatica di Domenico Pasqualigo (1746) e la nascita degli studi
sulla monetazione longobarda in Italia, in: …ut…rosae…ponerentur. Scritti di archeologia in ricordo di Giovanna Luisa Ravagnan,
edited by Elodia Bianchin Citton, Margherita Tirelli, Venezia, Regione del Veneto; Roma, Quasar-Canova, 2006, in: Quaderni di
Archeologia del Veneto, serie speciale, n. 2, pp. 205–211; Michele Asolati, Spunti sul collezionismo di monete e sugli studi di
numismatica a Venezia nel XVIII secolo dalle carte del nobil homo Domenico di Vincenzo Pasqualigo, Quaderni di Archeologia
del Veneto, XXIV (2008), pp. 211–216; Michele Asolati, Tremissi longobardi della raccolta del N. H. Domenico Pasqualigo nelle
collezioni numismatiche, in: Bollettino dei Musei Civici Veneziani, 3. s., 4 (2009), p. 70–73.
31 In Venezia, per Stefano Monti, 1737. It was also published in 1743 under the title Spiegazione di tre antichissime monete venezia-
ne, “Raccolta d’opuscoli scientifici e filologici”, t. XXVIII, Venezia, Simone Occhi, 1743, pp. 495–513.
32 Venezia, Simone Occhi, 1741.

33 Venezia, Simone Occhi, 1743.

34 Bianchi (note 21), p. 44, 46.

35 All‘Haja [i.e. Venezia, Giovanni Battista Pasquali], 1751.

36 Cfr. False date. Repertorio delle licenze di stampa veneziane con falso luogo di edizione (1740–1797), edited by Patrizia Bravetti
and Orfea Granzotto, introduction of Mario Infelise, Firenze, Firenze University Press, 2008, p. 83, n. 166.
37 Bianchi (note 21), p. 7.

38 Argentinae [sed Venezia], [Giambattista Pasquali], 1740.

39 Venetiis, typis Jo. Baptistae Pasquali, 1747.

40 Venetiis, typis Jo. Baptistae Pasquali, 1749.

41 Bianchi (note 21), p. 52.

42 Emmanuele Antonio Cicogna, Saggio di bibliografia veneziana, Venezia, Merlo, 1847, p. 696, n. 5174.
84

Marco Callegari
­ ublished in 1702,43 and republished in 1708,44 in 1722,45 in 1740,46 and in the Opera omnia quorum pleraque
p
nunc primum in lucem prodeunt, printed by Pasquali in 1743.47

Giovanni Bianchi stayed in Venice only for few days and was not able to meet all the scholars who somehow
­gravitated towards Pasquali’s bookshop. For example he did not meet the abbot Giovanni Brunacci, who wrote
De re nummaria Patavinorum, a book dedicated to the future doge Marco Foscarini, and printed by Pasquali
in 1744,48 or Girolamo Zanetti,49 who worked for Pasquali and some years later, in 1750, published the booklet
De nummis regum Mysiae seu Rasciae ad venetos typos percussis commentariolum,50 followed by other small
works, especially about Venetian and medieval coins.51

The fame of Giambattista Pasquali was great even outside Venice, and in fact Giuseppe Antonio Pinzi,52
­professor of eloquence in the Seminary of Ravenna, decided to print a book with him, De nummis Ravennatibus
dissertatio singularis,53 and Gian Giuseppe Liruti published Della moneta propria, e forastiera ch’ebbe corso
nel ducato di Friuli dalla decadenza dell’imperio romano sino al secolo XV. Dissertazione di Giangiuseppe
Liruti di Villafredda nella quale si da un saggio delle primitive monete veneziane.54

It is evident that there was no specific editorial project for numismatics­in Venice during the 18th century. It is im-
possible to find a publisher or a printer who decided to invest money in a c­ onsiderable number of numismatic
editions. Some noble families decided independently to print very expensive catalogues of their collections to
leave a legacy of themselves, catalogues not only of coins, but also of antiquities. However, a group of scholars –
connected by friendship and shared passion for numismatics – printed their works at the presses of Giambat-
tista Pasquali from 1735 to 1750. All of them were influenced by the ideas of Lodovico Antonio Muratori, who
maintained contact with them by letter and also with Pasquali and Smith via his friend Pietro Ercole Gherardi. So
it was not a definite editorial project, but rather a cultural stream that produced the most i­mportant numismatic
studies in Venice of all the ancien régime typographique.

43 Venetiis, typis Antonii Bortoli, 1702.

44 Venetiis, apud Aloysium Pavinum, 1708.

45 Venetiis, apud Jo. Baptistam Recurti, 1722.

46 Venetiis, apud Io. Baptistam Recurti, 1740.

47 Venetiis, typis Joannis Baptistae Pasquali, 1743.

48 About Giovanni Brunacci: Maria Rita Zorzato, Brunacci Giovanni, in: Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 14, Roma, Istituto della
Enciclopedia italiana, 1972, p. 518–523.
49 About Girolamo Zanetti: Giovanni Battista Baseggio, Zanetti Girolamo, in: Biografia degli italiani illustri nelle scienze, lettere ed arti
del secolo XVIII e de’ contemporanei compilata da letterati italiani di ogni provincia e pubblicata per cura di Emilio De Tipaldo, VI,
Venezia, Tipografia di Alvisopoli, 1838, p. 233–235.
50 Venetiis, ex typographia Albritiana, 1750.

51 Girolamo Zanetti, Dell‘origine e della antichita‘ della moneta viniziana ragionamento, In Venezia, nella stamperia Albrizzi, 1750;
Girolamo Zanetti, Sigillum Aereum Alesinae e marchionibus Montis-Ferrati Hier. Franc. Zanettius nunc primum protulit notisque
inlustravit, Excudebat Venetiis, Antonius De Castro, 1751; Girolamo Zanetti, A S.E. il sig. Marchese Antonio Savorgnan amplissimo
senatore Girolamo Zanetti, [Venezia, ca 1767]; Girolamo Zanetti, Di una Moneta antichissima e ora per la prima volta pubblicata
del doge di Venezia Pietro Polani, Dissertazione di G.F.Z.V., [Venezia], 1769; Girolamo Zanetti, Nummi aliquot ad veterem Galliam
pertinentes ex museo perill. atque excell. viri march. Antonii Savorniani, Venetiis, 1763.
52 About Giuseppe Pinzi: Filippo Mordani, Pinzi Giuseppe Antonio, in: Biografia degli italiani illustri nelle scienze, lettere ed arti del
secolo XVIII e de’ contemporanei compilata da letterati italiani di ogni provincia e pubblicata per cura di Emilio De Tipaldo, II,
Venezia, Tipografia di Alvisopoli, 1835, p. 66–67.
53 Venetiis, typis Io. Baptistae Pasquali, 1750.

54 In Venezia, appresso Giambattista Pasquali, 1749.