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Aerosp. Sci. Technol.

5 (2001) 273–282
 2001 Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved
S1270-9638(01)01106-3/REV

Cryogenic rocket engine research within the National Technology Program


TEKAN at the German Aerospace Center

Wolfgang O.H. Mayer


German Aerospace Center, DLR, Space Propulsion, Lampoldshausen, 74239 Hardthausen a.K., Germany

Received 11 July 2000; revised and accepted 21 March 2001

Abstract The paper presents the highlights and a summary report of the research activities on cryogenic propulsion
at the German Aerospace Center in Lampoldshausen within the National Technology Program. The
research is conducted in cooperation with European industries and research establishments. The German
National Technology Programme on Cryogenic Rocket Engines TEKAN, which is presented here, is a joint
DLR/Astrium GmbH project with the aim to provide key technologies for future cryogenic rocket engines. The
research work at the German Aerospace Center is focused on the injector, combustor, and nozzle technology
and related topics.  2001 Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS

rocket propulsion / liquid rocket engine / propellant injection / combustor technology / nozzle technology

Zusammenfassung Forschung an kryogenen Raketenantrieben im Rahmen des Nationalen Technologieprogramms im


Deutschen Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt. Die Forschungsaktivitäten im Rahmen des Nationalen
Technologieprogramms kryogene Raketenantriebe im Deutschen Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt in
Lampoldshausen werden zusammengefasst. Die Forschungsarbeiten wurden im Rahmen des ‘Nationalen
Technologieprogramms kryogene Raketenantriebe TEKAN’ durchgeführt. TEKAN ist ein DLR-ASTRIUM
GmbH Gemeinschaftsprojekt mit dem Ziel, Schlüsseltechnologien für Schubkammern zukünftiger kryogener
Raketenantriebe zu liefern. Die Forschungsarbeiten im Deutschen Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt sind
auf die Einspritzkopf-, Brennkammmer- und Düsentechnologie konzentriert.  2001 Éditions scientifiques et
médicales Elsevier SAS

Rakete / Raketenantrieb / Flüssigraketenantrieb / Treibstoffaufbereitung / Brennkammer / Ein-


spritzkopf / Schubdüse / Wärmeübergang / Thermomechanik / Verbrennung

1. Introduction possible Ariane 5 payload mass increase from presently


6 tons up to 11 tons for the geostationary transfer orbit
The new European launcher system Ariane 5 will re- by solely improving the propulsion system. At present a
place the presently used launcher Ariane 4 by 2001 and
secure the leading role for Europe in the expanding and reusable launcher system after Ariane 5 is under discus-
commercially relevant sector of satellite transport. The sion which could be in operation by 2015. For that high
increasing competition necessitates a continuous devel- performance rocket engines are necessary, which are not
opment of the launchers. System studies demonstrate a available at present [14].

E-mail address: wolfgang.mayer@dlr.de (W.O.H. Mayer).


274 W.O.H. Mayer / Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 5 (2001) 273–282

Within the German National Technology Program • ceramic matrix composite materials;
Cryogenic Rocket Engines (TEKAN) DLR and the As- • nozzle technology;
trium GmbH, Space Infrastructure Division conduct basic • test stand P8.
research and develop the key technologies for the future For more detailed information about the presented
chemical high performance rocket engines [10]. The in- topics the reader is referred to the stated literature.
vestigations reach from the analysis of the engine system
down to the basics of combustor technology especially
related to the heat transfer, cooling, propellant injection, 2. Heat transfer and cooling
nozzle design, materials and lifing.
Furthermore the TEKAN project includes the devel- The development of future rocket engines with a gas
opment of quantitative diagnostics of the combustor generator or expander cycle necessitates a reliable analy-
processes. For the development of theoretical models to sis of the thermal boundary conditions inside the combus-
describe the combustor flow and to validate numerical tion chamber. Wall heat fluxes and wall temperatures as
simulations, basic experiments utilizing model combus- characteristic values need to be specified with high accu-
tion chambers are conducted. racy. During operation of a rocket engine, the temperature
Beside this German National Program, research on field of the wall structure is responsible for the thermal
cryogenic rocket propulsion is conducted in cooperation strain. The strains significantly specify the structure load
with European partners. Most intense are the German- and possible crack of structure as a result of the creep and
French activities which led to the realization and common fatigue effects of material.
operation of a high pressure rocket combustor test facility The schematic of a regenerative cooled combustor is
(P8 in Lampoldshausen – see section 10) and a work shown in figure 2. The thickness of the chamber wall has
share of relevant research topics in this field. to be optimized in order to allow optimum cooling (thin
The research work at the German Aerospace Center, walls preferred) at sufficient mechanical strength (thick
Lampoldshausen, which is presented here, is focused walls are better). The design of the cooling channel itself
on the injector, combustor, and nozzle technology and influences the cooling performance considerably. Main
related topics, see figure 1. The Figure depicts the parameters are the cooling channel aspect ratio and the
different topics treated at DLR including their relevance channel inner design (figure 3). It turned out that an inner
to the thrust chamber technology. fin can be disadvantageous due to a locally reduced flow
In this article the topics treated at DLR Lampolds- velocity in the cooling channel; for details see [26].
hausen are briefly described and major results and con- The expander cycle necessitates high temperature heat-
clusions are summarized. Due to their important role in ing of cryogenic hydrogen across the combustion cham-
this program some remarks on the test facilities utilized bers length. High local wall heat fluxes across the cooling
are included. channel circumference are desirable. Another design as-
The topics of the national technology program are: pect is to obtain a small pressure loss across the cooling
• heat transfer and cooling; channels for optimum engine performance.
• thermomechanical analysis and lifing;
• propellant atomization and mixing;
• optical diagostics;
• combustion chamber modeling;

Figure 1. Overview of research activities on cryogenic rocket


engines at DLR Lampoldshausen; center of image: sketch of Figure 2. Schematic of the regenerative cooling principle (top)
VULCAIN (Astrium GmbH) thrust chamber. and the cooling channels (bottom).
W.O.H. Mayer / Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 5 (2001) 273–282 275

Figure 3. Temperature field of the cooling fluid and the


combustor wall in a standard (right) and in a finned (left)
cooling channel (c/c), respectively – top row and hot gas side
wall temperature for standard (bottom line) and finned (top line)
configuration – bottom graph [26].

3. Thermomechanical analysis and lifing

The aim of the heat transfer and lifing investigations is


the analysis of local temperature distributions and the as-
sessment of the thermomechanical load [12]. The investi-
gation of possible structure optimizations shall give infor- Figure 4. Tangential plastic strains in the combustion chamber
wall for pre-cooling (left), hot run (middle), end hot run (right)
mation about optimal design for the creation of the mini- – top row; and postcooling (left) and at rest (right) – bottom row
mum thermomechanical loading. Failure mechanisms are [13].
also in the focus of the lifing analysis investigations.
Model experiments at the test stand P8 (for details see
section 10) serve as a database of local temperature and deformations during start up and shut down transients.
heat flux distributions in the chamber wall. Despite erosion effects (‘blanching’) the steady state
In figure 4 the resulting tangential plastic strains for operation time seems to play a minor role in view of com-
a full engine cycle (start-up to shut-down), obtained by bustor life time compared to the number of cycles.
a 2D nonlinear plane strain FE-analysis are shown. The
rectangle indicates the chamber wall position at rest (see
last image of sequence) i.e. the initial contour before sim- 4. Propellant atomization and mixing
ulation. Due to the imposed thermal straining, plastic de-
formations occur in the inner (copper alloy) layer during The German Aerospace Center DLR Lampoldshausen
the pre-cooling stage already. The chamber shrinks due is intensively concerned with fuel and propellant in-
to the low temperature of the cooling fluid. Even in the jection, atomization and mixing, which is the deci-
case of the hot run the chamber diameter is less then it is sive boundary condition for most of the combustion
at rest [13]. During the hot run, the maximum effective processes. In recent years the work has been focused on
plastic strain increases up to 1.6%. After the full cycle, the combustion processes in rocket combustion cham-
a maximum effective plastic strain of around 0.5% re- bers, especially in modern hydrogen/oxygen engines like
mains in the structure at room temperature. The plastic the Vulcain engine of Ariane 5.
strains increase from cycle to cycle. A proper setting of In the Vulcain engine coaxial injectors are used as in-
the boundary conditions and suitable mechanical models jection elements. Several hundreds of these coaxial injec-
proved to be essential to predict the failure mechanism tors are assembled within the injector head of a rocket
correctly. It could be shown that the main failure mech- engine. In principle each of these injection elements con-
anism (‘dog house’ effect) is mainly due to the plastic sists of an inner and an outer tube. Oxygen is injected
276 W.O.H. Mayer / Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 5 (2001) 273–282

Figure 5. Windowed combustor at test facility P8 [17].

Figure 6. OH radiation superimposed to shadowgraph: Max-


imum intensity (grey line) and reacting shear layer thickness
into the combustion chamber through the inner tube as (black line) (top); OH distribution (bottom); pc = 6.3 MPa [17].
a liquid (LO2 ) with a velocity of 10–20 m/s. The outer
tube forms an annular slit, through which the gaseous hy-
drogen (GH2 ) is injected with an approximately ten times
higher velocity. By interaction of the two fluids the oxy-
gen is atomized and mixes with the surrounding hydro-
gen. The atomization mechanisms strongly depend on the
operation condition as explained later.
With the development and successful operation of the
DLR windowed combustor, a hydrogen/oxygen research
combustor with optical access is available for various di-
agnostics (figure 5). The experimental tests are realized
at the DLR test facility P8 in Lampoldshausen. The aim
of these studies are to investigate the flow and flame phe-
nomenology inside the combustion chamber under repre-
sentative conditions (pressure up to 100 bar and tempera-
tures up to 3500 K). As the flame radiates in a broad range
of wavelengths a band filter has been used to detect the
OH emission. Main findings are the supercritical behavi-
our of the propellants at high pressures (above 5.0 MPa). Figure 7. Comparison between experimental OH-image (bot-
The formerly assumed spray formation could not be ob- tom) with numerical simulation (top); pc = 6.3 MPa [17].
served in cryogenic rocket engines. The mixing process is
similar to the mixing of gaseous jets in gaseous environ- An alternative to hot firing tests are cold flow injec-
ment; see [15,16]. The flame holding mechanism in the tion tests where the original propellants are replaced by
wake of the inner tube could be identified (figure 6). The simulation fluids like water (instead of LO2 ) and air (in-
Figure shows an Abel transformed 2 D cut of the OH with stead of GH2 ). The advantage of cold flow tests is that
a superimposed shadowgraph. The flame’s maximum in- the pure fluid mechanical mixing processes can be iden-
tensity is depicted by the red line. The dark (black) oxy- tified and distinguished from the more complex injec-
gen jet and the hydrogen boundary are visible. Recently tion including chemical reaction. Jet stability, atomiza-
the time and length scales of mixing and combustion have tion, jet break-up and main mixing mechanisms of coax-
been measured quantitatively [11]. This is essential to ial injection could be identified by water/air experiments.
select a proper mixing and combustion model for CFD To investigate mechanisms of mixing at high (supercrit-
simulations (figure 7). It turned out that the typical flame ical) pressures in cold flow tests, LO2 is replaced by li-
structure size is in the same order of magnitude as the in- quid nitrogen (LN2 ) and GH2 by gaseous helium (GHe).
tegral length scale of turbulence. The length scales of the To perform such experiments a LN2 high pressure test
flame in the shear layer between the propellants show the stand (M51) was built at DLR Lampoldshausen (figure 8)
same tendencies as the shear layer itself: the sizes of the where the combustion chamber pressure is simulated by
observed structures are increasing downstream [11]. a controlled back pressure ([18,19]). Figure 9 shows a
W.O.H. Mayer / Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 5 (2001) 273–282 277

5. Optical diagnostics

The understanding of the complex processes in com-


bustion chambers require not only the knowledge of
global parameters like chamber pressure or combustion
efficiency but also the detailed analysis of the conditions
inside the combustion chamber. Optical diagnostic is the
only way to get knowledge about physical and chemical
quantities from inside the combustion chamber with suf-
ficient temporal and spatial resolution. The application
of optical diagnostic at turbulent, reactive 2-phase-flows
particularly at high pressures and temperatures in rocket
combustion chambers (up to 30 MPa and 3400 K) makes
great demands on the method of measuring and the in-
terpretation of the acquired data. Beside the laser doppler
anemometrie (LDA) and the particle-image-velocimetry
(PIV) for velocity measurement, the spectroscopic meth-
ods like coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering (CARS)
and the sponateous Raman scattering for temperature and
density measurement respectively have been developed
and utilized. To investigate the physical fundamentals of
the interaction between light and molecules at high pres-
sure a close co-operation with French partners (ONERA)
has been initiated.
CARS has been successfully used to simultaneously
detect H2 and H2 O in a cryogenic flame ([2,3,25]). At low
chamber pressures, a considerable difference between H2
and H2 O temperatures at the same location could be
detected. The applicability of CARS at higher pressures
(6.5 MPa) has been demonstrated. It turned out that it
Figure 8. High pressure cryogenic injection test facility M51 is possible to correlate the temperature and H2 O mole
[18]. fraction measurements. Future measurements are planned
at the P8 test facility using DLR’s windowed combustor.
Raman scattering has been used successfully to mea-
sure the density profiles of LN2 jets injected into a GN2
environment. The cold flow simulation data are used
for the jet mixing characterisation and the validation of
numerical modelling approaches of supercritical injec-
tion [20].

6. Combustion chamber modelling

The aim of combustion chamber modelling is the reli-


able prediction of critical processes in combustion cham-
Figure 9. Shadowgraph of the atomization of a liquid nitrogen bers of modern high pressure rocket engines under both
jet with coaxial helium; jet diameter is 1.9 mm; pc = 2.0 MPa steady state and transient conditions. For this, numerical
[18]. simulation methods are adapted to the specific boundary
conditions of combustion chamber flows. The character-
istic processes are characterized by multi dimensions, tur-
typical image of the atomization of an LN2 jet with coax- bulence, chemical reactions, multi phase flow and real gas
ial helium. A shadowgraph set-up has been used for the behavior. The overall modelling of combustion chamber
flow visualization. The studies demonstrate the difference behavior is composed of the cryogenic, coaxial injection
between subcritical atomization with droplet formation of hydrogen and oxygen, propellant atomization and mix-
and supercritical mixing with a fluid/fluid like mixing be- ing, combustion and nozzle expansion. Critical pheno-
havior as typically found in rocket engines. Beside the mena like imperfect propellant atomization and mixing,
application of standard diagnostic means, laser optical resulting in streaky flow profiles in the combustion cham-
methods have been evolved during the project. ber and nozzle, as well as the hot gas side wall heat
278 W.O.H. Mayer / Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 5 (2001) 273–282

Figure 10. Comparison between shadowgraph (top) and Figure 11. Computed (CFD) temperature distribution with two
numerical simulation – real gas computation (bottom): li- different combustion models (top and bottom); location close to
quid/gaseous oxygen distribution close to a coaxial injector; the coaxial injector [21].
pc = 6.3 MPa [17].
To simulate atomization phenomena as observed be-
transfer shall be optimized both qualitatively and quan- fore and during ignition of the propellants (at low cham-
titatively. ber pressure) a 3 dimensional front tracking method has
Using CFD models the effect of operational and geo- been developed [4]. The model utilizes the level set
metrical (injector design) parameters on engine perfor- method which was formerly used to track flame fronts.
mance could be demonstrated qualitatively. It turned out The method is expected to help understand atomization
that for supercritical conditions (chamber pressure is processes in more detail.
higher than the critical pressure of the propellants) a real A further topic is the simulation of spray combustion in
gas model for the propellants is necessary (figure 10). a counter flow configuration with the aim of investigating
This shows a flash light shadowgraph (10 nsec) image the structure of laminar LOX/GH2 flames. Once again
together with the result of a steady state numerical sim- the simulation focuses on low pressure combustion as
ulation using a real gas model. The real gas approach encountered during ignition of an engine. It turned out
matches well the experimental data. The formerly (and that the mixture ratio, strain rate, and drop diameter
still) used two phase models including droplet and spray distribution mainly influence the flame structure (see [22,
tracking methods are far away from experimental evi- 23]).
dence. Still not solved, however, is the question about
the best model for the turbulent mixing of the propellant
fluids with large differences in density (e.g. typically 7. Ceramic matrix composite materials
LOX: 1100 kg/m3 ; GH2 : 20 kg/m3 ).
To optimize the modelling approach of combustion For future space transportation systems, advanced
chamber processes different combustion models are un- cryogenic combustion chambers are necessary to meet
der investigation. The comparison between the flamelet- the requirements for higher payload capabilities. The
and a PEuL-Model shows remarkable differences in the major requirements for these high pressure combus-
result close to the injector face plate [21]. A single coax- tion chambers are increased performance, reliability, en-
ial injector test case (gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen) hanced life time and lightweight structure.
has been used for comparison. Conventional regeneratively cooled combustion cham-
The flamelet model predicts a water vapor distribution bers will hardly fulfill these requirements. Effusion cool-
which is independent from the flame straining (flame ing is one of the most promising cooling methods because
sheet solution) whereas the PEul model computes a of its comparatively small amount of coolant necessary
mixing related reduced reaction velocity in the LOX post to keep the structure intact and the resulting rather small
wake (figure 11). By the variation of the grid resolution it coolant pressure loss in comparison with regenerative
turned out that in the close injector area a finer grid leads cooling ([24,8]). The method has been used successfully
to approximately the same as computed with the flamelet on a combustion chamber segment which has been manu-
model. The strong dependency of the PEul model on the factured at DLR Stuttgart. For components with very high
turbulent length scale and the dissipation of the turbulent thermal loads like thermal protecting systems (TPS) for
kinetic energy leads to an increased sensitivity of the grid reusable space systems, fiber reinforced ceramic materi-
resolution and the inflow boundary conditions as a study als are a well known key technology. The most promis-
revealed. ing properties of ceramic materials such as C/C (carbon-
W.O.H. Mayer / Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 5 (2001) 273–282 279

between segment manifold and combustion chamber is


increased depending on the start-up and shut down se-
quence. It turned out that if the wall temperature does
not exceed 2200 K the erosion of the material is negligi-
ble.

8. Nozzle technology

A further potential to improve the performance of


rocket engines is the adaptation of the nozzle exit pres-
sure to the ambient pressure, which continuously de-
creases during ascent. All rocket engines currently in use
Figure 12. Combustion chamber with a transpiration cooled
ceramic matrix composite (CMC) segment [24]. are equipped with conventional nozzles with a fixed area
ratio and hence do not offer any altitude adaptation. These
nozzles only yield an optimum performance at one spe-
cific ambient pressure, which is equal to the exit pres-
sure of the nozzle. The currently used bell nozzles are
designed for an intermediate ambient pressure under the
constraint, that during take-off, the overexpansion does
not lead to a flow separation inside the nozzle.
Whenever the flow separates from the nozzle wall, dan-
gerous side forces can be induced, which may seriously
damage the rocket engine. Therefore, flow separation and
side load prediction are required to ensure a safe en-
gine design. Nevertheless, the currently used methods are
tainted with considerable uncertainties.
Several concepts have been developed for the adapta-
tion of the nozzle exit pressure to the decreasing ambi-
ent pressure, but none of them has been used on a real
launcher up to now. Some of these concepts use the prin-
Figure 13. Transpiration cooled ceramic matrix composite
ciple of controlled flow separation, such as the dual bell
combustion chamber segment [24].
concept, nozzles with active or passive secondary gas in-
jection in the divergent nozzle portion or nozzles with ab-
carbon reinforced ceramic) or C/SiC (carbon/silica car- lative or ejectable inserts.
bide) are comparatively low densities, small heat con- Within the National Technology Program TEKAN, the
ductivity, resistance against thermal shocks, tolerance to knowledge about flow separation and side loads should
high wall temperatures and low thermal expansion. In or- be improved decisively ([5,6]). In order to reach this aim,
der to reduce the mass of rocket engines there is a need numerous numerical and experimental investigations are
for lightweight and extremely heat resistant materials. carried out. The cap shock pattern is typical for thrust
For effusion cooled combustion chambers, C/C struc- optimized nozzles which have an internal shock due to
tures are therefore in favour to overcome typical draw- strong expansion and re-compression close to the nozzle
backs of sintered steel porous media. Figures 12 and 13 throat. Apart from the analysis of full-scale test results,
show the combustion chamber with integrated transpira- the sub-scale nozzle test stand P6.2 using cold nitrogen
tion cooled segment and the test segment itself, respec- gas has been set up (figure 14). This test stand allows
tively. The coolant is fed from a reservoir to the com- close examination of nozzle flows at different chamber
bustor and enters the combustion chamber after passing and ambient pressures.
the porous wall. While passing, the coolant absorbs the The influence of the nozzle contour on the separation
heat which is transported from the hot combustion gases behaviour has been demonstrated ([5,6]). In the case of
to the porous wall by heat convection and radiation. Once a cone or ideal nozzle contour only full flow separation
having reached stationary conditions, the porous segment is taking place. In thrust optimized nozzles the strong
is in thermal equilibrium. Hence, the heat conducted into expansion and re-compression result in an internal shock.
the porous segment is completely absorbed by the coolant The internal shock interacts with the regular or Mach
which mixes with the hot main stream. It turned out that reflection forming the ‘cap shock’ pattern. It was found
only a very small amount of coolant mass flow is es- out that a re-attachment after flow separation is possible
sential during steady state combustion. During the tran- for certain nozzle contours. Thrust optimized nozzles can
sients the coolant mass flow and thereby the pressure drop show restricted flow separation which causes heavy side
280 W.O.H. Mayer / Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 5 (2001) 273–282

Figure 16. A caloric combustion chamber at test facility P8 in


one of two test cells.

lity, located in Lampoldshausen and operated commonly


by German and French research establishments and in-
dustry, supplies the propellants, liquid oxygen (LOX) and
liquid and gaseous hydrogen (LH2 and GH2 ), and cool-
ing water (H2 O). A supply system with liquid nitrogen al-
lows the pre-cooling of the test specimen. The maximum
flow rates are 8 kg/s, 1.5 kg/s, and 3 kg/s for LOX, GH2 ,
and LH2 respectively, at a maximum chamber pressure of
36.0 MPa (360 bar). For the combustor tests two identical
test cells are available (figure 16). This allows an optimal
utilization of the test stand capacity. More details about
the test stand can be found in [1,7,9].
Figure 14. Nozzle test bench P6.2.

10. Conclusions

Main aspects of cryogenic thrust chambers and noz-


zles have been presented. The numerical investigation of
the thermomechanical load of regenerative cooled thrust
chambers lead to the conclusion that the transients dur-
ing start-up and shut-dowm are contributing much more
to the final failure (‘dog house’ effect) then the steady
state operation. The flow and combustion phenomena in
rocket combustors have been examined and identified.
Cold flow and hot fire test data are available for numerical
Figure 15. Numerical simulation of the Vulcain engine nozzle
at chamber/ambient pressure ratio pc /pa = 40; Mach number
code verification. A real gas fluid approach for the super-
distribution for full flow (top) and restricted flow separation critical propellants seems to be a more realistic represen-
(bottom), respectively [6]. tation compared to the typically used two phase models
as droplet or spray trajectory methods. The demostrated
deterministic relation between injector design, injection
loads during transition to full flow separation and vice operation condition and the flow inside the combustor
versa (figure 15) [6]. offers now a more profound approach of injector head
and combustor design. Laser optical diagnostic means
such as CARS have proven to be a qualified method for
9. Test stand P8 temperature measurements in rocket combustors. Raman
scattering has been used successfully to measure density
The test stand P8 plays a central role for the realiza- profiles of injected supercritical jets. Numerical simula-
tion of research experiments and technology development tion (CFD) tools developed in the frame of this project
within the German National Technology Program Cryo- are available now for the simulation of details of rocket
genic Rocket Engines TEKAN. The European test faci- combustor processes. New materials and new concepts
W.O.H. Mayer / Aerosp. Sci. Technol. 5 (2001) 273–282 281

of combustion chamber design have been developed and loquium, Rouen, Research on Liquid Rocket Propulsion,
tested successfully. Using Ceramic Matrix Composites October 26–27, 1999.
(CMC) the concept of transpiration cooling seems to be- [5] Frey M., Hagemann G., Status of flow separation predic-
come competitive to the conventional chamber wall cool- tion in rocket nozzles, 34th AIAA Joint Propulsion Con-
ing methods. The research on nozzle flows revealed a ference, AIAA 98-3619, Cleveland, 1998.
new effect of side-load origin. Due to the strong expan- [6] Frey M., Hagemann G., Flow separation and side loads in
sion and re-compression in thrust optimized nozzles a re- rocket nozzles, 35th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference,
AIAA 99-2815, Los Angeles, 1999.
stricted flow separation can appear. The change between
full flow separation and restricted flow separation con- [7] Froehlke K., Haberzettl A., Haidn O.J., Heinrich S., Sion
M., Vuillermoz P., First hot fire test campaign at the
tributes to heavy side loads. The results of this study may French/German research facility P8, 33rd AIAA Joint
lead to a nozzle extension design with reduced side load Propulsion Conference, AIAA 97-2929, Seattle, USA,
problems. Recently designed and evolved test stands as July 6–9, 1997.
the M3, M51, P6.2 and especially P8 facility in Lam- [8] Froehlke K., Haidn O., Serbest E., New experimental re-
poldshausen proved to be the pivot for the research on sults on transpiration cooling for H2 /O2 rocket com-
cryogenic rocket engines. bustion chambers, AIAA 98-3443, 34th Joint Propulsion
The European launcher evolution needs a continuous Conference, Cleveland, OH, July 13–15, 1998.
development of the propulsion system. Together with the [9] Haberzettl A., Gundel D., Bahlmann K., Thomas J.L.,
European partners the research activities in this area will Kretschmer J., Vuillermoz P., European research and
be continued to provide technologies for further improve- technology test bench P8 for high pressure liquid rocked
ment of rocket engine performance and reliability. propellants, 12th European Aerospace Conference, Paris,
France, November 29–30, 1999.
[10] Immich H., Mayer W., Cryogenic liquid rocket engine
technology developments within the German national
Acknowledgments technology programme, AIAA 97-2822, 33rd AIAA Joint
Propulsion Conference, Seattle, WA, July 6–9, 1997.
This work is supported by the Federal Ministry of [11] Ivancic B., Mayer W., Kruelle G., Brueggemann D., Ex-
Education and Research BMBF under contract number perimental and numerical investigation of time and length
50TT9627 (Project TEKAN). The project is done in col- scales in LOX/GH2-rocket combustors, 35th AIAA Joint
laboration with the ITM (Institut für Techni- Propulsion Conference, AIAA 99-2211, Los Angeles,
sche Mechanik der Rheinisch Westfälischen Technischen CA, June 20–24, 1999.
Hochschule (RWTH) in Aachen), RWTH Aachen, IWR [12] Kuhl D., Woschnak A., Haidn O.J., Coupled heat transfer
(Institut für Wisschenschaftliches Rechnen der Ruprecht- and stress analysis of rocket combustion chambers, AIAA
Karls-Universität in Heidelberg), University Heidelberg 98-3378, 34th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion
and DLR Stuttgart. The author thanks the above men- Conference & Exhibit, Cleveland, OH, July 13–15, 1998.
tioned organisations for good cooperation in this mat- [13] Kuhl D., Riccius J., Woschnak A., Haidn O.J., Applica-
ter. The fruitful cooperation with the Astrium GmbH, tion of thermomechanical tools to cryogenic liquid rocket
engine design, 4th International Symposium on Liquid
Space Infrastructure Division, Ottobrunn in this program Space Propulsion, ISSP Heilbronn, March, 2000.
is highly acknowledged. Additional thanks is addressed
[14] Mayer W., TEKAN – research on cryogenic rocket en-
to H.D. Speckmann and H. Immich for the coordination gines at DLR Lampoldshausen, AIAA 2000-3219, 36th
of this collaboration. AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference &
Exhibit, Huntsville, AL, July 16–19, 2000.
[15] Mayer W., Tamura H., Propellant injection in a liquid oxy-
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