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ÜBERSETZTES VOKABULAR LIES DIE TEXTE MIT EINEM MUTTERSPRACHLER ARBEITSBLÄTTER FÜR LEHRER
ÜBERSETZTES VOKABULAR LIES DIE TEXTE MIT EINEM MUTTERSPRACHLER ARBEITSBLÄTTER FÜR LEHRER ÜBERSETZTES VOKABULAR LIES DIE TEXTE MIT EINEM MUTTERSPRACHLER ARBEITSBLÄTTER FÜR LEHRER

ÜBERSETZTES VOKABULAR LIES DIE TEXTE MIT EINEM MUTTERSPRACHLER ARBEITSBLÄTTER FÜR LEHRER DAS MAGAZIN FÜR ENGLISCH – ANFÄNGER & FORTGESCHRITTENE DAS MAGAZIN FÜR ENGLISCH – ANFÄNGER & FORTGESCHRITTENE
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JOE BIDEN’S
UPS AND DOWNS
This and That

Joe Biden, or to be precise Joseph Robinette Biden Jr., is a former


US vice president who held this prominent position from 2009
to 2017. A democrat who became the sixth-youngest senator in
American history, he has experienced both glorious as well as
horrible moments in his career and personal life. On the one
hand, he is a well-known politician with a thriving political
career. On the other hand, he deserves compassion for losing
his first wife and an infant daughter in a car accident. After this
tragedy, Biden was left with two underage sons, one of whom
died of brain cancer in 2015. In the 1980s, he himself had to
undergo serious brain surgery correcting aneurysms with a
50/50 chance of him surviving.
However, not only Biden’s career, health and personal life made
him famous. The politician is also known for his spectacular
gaffes. In 2008, in Missouri in the heat of the moment, he asked
State Senator Chuck Graham to stand up in front of the audience
with the following words: ‘Stand up, Chuck, let’em see you’. speech on diplomacy in 2012: ‘Now is
Unfortunately, the Senator was a paraplegic in a wheelchair. the time to heed the timeless advice
During his studies at Syracuse University College, as a first- from Teddy Roosevelt: ‘Speak softly
year student, Biden submitted a paper in which he copied five and carry a big stick.’ ‘I promise you,
pages from a review article and added just one footnote to the the president has a big stick.’
whole passage. During his political career, he was accused of As President he would like to con-
plagiarising Robert Kennedy and UK politician Neil Kinnock tinue Obama’s policies, put an empha-
in his speeches. sis on health care and on availability of
While talking to reporters in 2007, he made a comment about free coronavirus tests, and later on vac-
Barack Obama which was offensive both to Obama as well as cines. He would like to focus on carbon
earlier black presidential candidates: ‘I mean you’ve got the free power and clean energy, as well as
first sort of mainstream African American, who is articulate American infrastructure. Furthermore,
and bright, and clean and [a] nice-looking guy. I mean, that’s a he supports increasing taxes for cor-
storybook, man,’. In 2006, he made a peculiar comment about porations and the well-off. If he won
the expanding population of Indian Americans in Delaware: the election, Joe Biden would be the
‘You cannot go to a 7-Eleven or a Dunkin’ Donuts unless you oldest first-term president in American
have a slight Indian accent. I’m not joking.’ Last but not least, history. 
he even praised President Obama on having a big stick, in his ups and downs |Höhen und Tiefen

former |früherer Aneurysma (Arterienerweiterung) expanding |wachsend,


prominent |bedeutend, führend, however |aber, allerdings ausdehnend
prominent to stand up |aufstehen unless |außer, es sei denn
to experience sth |etw. erleben unfortunately |leider slight |leicht
on the one hand |einerseits paraplegic | last but not least |zu guter Letzt
thriving |blühend, erfolgreich Queerschnittsgelähmter to praise sb |jdn. loben
on the other hand |andererseits wheelchair |Rollstuhl to heed sth |etw. beherzigen
compassion |Mitgefühl, Mitleid to submit sth |etw. einreichen, advice |Rat(schlag)
infant |Kleinkind, Säugling abgeben to put emphasis on sth |auf etw.
underage |minderjährig footnote |Fußnote Wert legen
brain cancer |Hirnkrebs to be accused of sth | health care |
to undergo sth |sich etw. etw. beschuldigt werden Gesundheitsfürsorge furthermore |außerdem, ferner
unterziehen offensive |beleidigend, ausfällig availability |Verfügbarkeit to increase sth |etw. erhöhen
surgery ˈsɜːdʒəri / ˈsɜːrdʒəri | articulate |wortgewandt vaccine |Impfstoff tax |Steuer
Operation storybook |Bilderbuch to focus on sth |sich auf etw. the well-off |die Reichen/
aneurysm ˈænjəˌrɪz(ə)m | peculiar |merkwürdig, eigenartig konzentrieren Wohlhabenden

4
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

THE MOST THE WINCHESTER


IMPRESSIVE MYSTERY HOUSE

This and That


CAMPUSES
IN THE US
• Duke University • Lehigh University in
in Durham Bethlehem, Pennsylvania

• The University of the • The University


South at Sewanee of Washington-Seattle

The Winchester Mystery House is located in San Jose, California.


Originally, the mansion was an eight-room farmhouse. It was
• Furman University bought by Sarah Lockwood Pardee Winchester, who began a
life-long renovation of the house which lasted 38 years until
her death. The mansion had at that time 2,000 doors, 160
rooms, 10,000 windows and 47 staircases. Sarah Winchester
was known as an eccentric and independent woman whose
architectural ideas were much ahead of her times. Some
people considered her crazy. Sarah Winchester asked the
builders to build trap doors, secret passages and staircases
BEN AND that led nowhere in the house. The Winchester Mystery House
has already been visited by millions of guests. The mansion is
JERRY’S believed to be haunted. 

FLAVOR originally |ursprünglich, zuerst


to last |dauern
GRAVEYARD staircase |Treppenhaus, Treppe
independent |unabhängig
The ice cream Flavor Graveyard is situated in Waterbury, ahead of one’s times |seiner Zeit voraus sein
Vermont. The bygone flavours include, for instance, Turtle soup, to lead nowhere |nirgendwo hinführen
Fossil Fuel, White Russian and Wavy Gravy. Additionally, there haunted |heimgesucht, Spuk-
is an epitaph as well as the date of birth and death of a given
flavour on each gravestone. The ice cream graveyard is open
to visitors. 

flavor (AmE) /flavour (BrE) |


Geschmack
graveyard |Friedhof
bygone |vergangen
to include sth |etw.
einschließen
fossil fuel ˈfɒsl fjuːəl / ˈfɑːsl
fjuːəl |fossiler Brennstoff
gravestone |Grabstein
And for my /maɪ/ final /ˈfaɪnl/ trick
/trɪk/... I /aɪ/ will /wɪl/ make /meɪk/
this /ðɪs/ rabbit /ˈræbɪt/ disappear
/dɪsəˈpɪə/!

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ship /ʃɪp/
Schiff Bill /bɪl/, I can’t believe
/bɪˈliːv/ you didn’t notice
to grin /grɪn/ /ˈnəʊtɪs/ the big /bɪg/ boat
grinsen passing /pɑːsɪŋ/ the island
/ˈaɪlənd/!
women /ˈwɪmɪn/
Frauen
to sail /tə seɪl/
segeln
building /ˈbɪldɪŋ/
Gebäude
to zip /zɪp/
den Reißverschluss
schließen
dim /dɪm/
dunkel, schummrig
6
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

few exceptions where the /ɪ/ lips out as if you were smil-

/ɪ/
sound is made without i or y. ing, open your mouth just Sound & Speech
Say: pretty /ˈprɪti/, English a little bit and quickly say ih.
/ˈɪŋglɪʃ/, women /ˈwɪmɪn/, Remember! If the sound is
busy /ˈbɪzi/, building /ˈbɪldɪŋ/. too long, it may resemble the
Unstressed /ɪ/ may appear long i - /iː/, which is a common
in many different words and mistake.  In Received Pronunciation, when
may be spelled using nearly the /ɪ/ sound is followed by the letter
all the vowels – a, e, i, u, and pronunciation prəˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃn | r, it’s pronounced as /ɪə/. This way,

T
y. Take a look at the phonetic Aussprache here becomes /hɪə/ and dear is pro-
he correct pronun- transcription of the following vowel |Vokal nounced as /dɪə/. In British English
ciation of the /ɪ/ words: spinach /ˈspɪnɪʤ/, extremely |extrem, äußerst there is a distinction between /ɪər/
vowel is extremely average /ˈævərɪʤ/, emotion to mix sth up |etw. verwechseln and /ɪr/ when they are followed by
important if you /ɪˈməʊʃən/ music /ˈmjuːzɪk/ to tell sth apart |etw. a vowel. For example – clearer and
don’t want to mix up mini- lettuce /ˈlɛtɪs/ synthetic auseinanderhalten nearer would be pronounced as
mal pairs. Learning the sound /sɪnˈθɛtɪk/. Unstressed /ɪ/ can commonly |üblich, häufig /ˈklɪərə/ and /ˈnɪərə/. In American
of the short i is necessary if also be heard in words contain- diphthong |Doppellaut, Diphtong English, however, the same words
you want to tell apart ship ing ia and ui – as in carriage a few |einige, ein paar would be transcribed as: /ˈklɪrər/,
/ʃɪp/ from sheep /ʃiːp/, grin /ˈkærɪʤ/ and biscuit /ˈbɪskɪt/. without sth |ohne etw. /ˈnɪrər/.
/grɪn/ from green /griːn/, and In addition, unstressed /ɪ/ can unstressed |unbetont
sheet /ʃiːt/ from… well, you appear unwritten in some to appear |auftauchen, erscheinen distinction |Unterschied,
get the idea. possessive forms – church’s nearly |fast Unterscheidung
Stressed /ɪ/ is usually /ˈʧɜːʧɪz/. to take a look at sth |sich etw.
spelled with the letter i – big Like every other vowel, ansehen
/bɪg/; sing /sɪŋ/. Less com- the sound is voiced and made heard |gehört aufwärtsbewegen
monly it’s spelled with through the mouth. In other containing |enthaltend tongue tʌŋ |Zunge
y – crystal /ˈkrɪstl/; sym- words, your vocal cords possessive |Possessiv palate |Gaumen
pathy /ˈsɪmpəθi/. The /ɪ/ will vibrate while making voiced |stimmhaft forward |vorwärts
vowel is also a part of the the sound. In order to pro- in other words |in/mit anderen to stretch sth out |etw. strecken
/aɪ/ diphthong, which often nounce /ɪ/ correctly, move Worten to resemble sth |etw. ähneln
is also spelled with an i, or your tongue up, close to your vocal cords |Stimmbänder common |üblich, häufig, verbreitet
y, i.e. final /ˈfaɪnl/; cycle palate, and forward, close to in order to |um ... zu
/ˈsaɪkl/ . There are also a the mouth. Now stretch your to move sth up |etw.

I /aɪ/ was busy /ˈbɪzi/ lighting /ˈlaɪtɪŋ/ a fire /ˈfaɪə/. No use


crying /ˈkraɪɪŋ/ over spilled /spɪld/ milk /mɪlk/. In /ɪn/ other
words – this /ðɪs/ ship /ʃɪp/ has sailed /seɪld/…

7
People and Lifestyle

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French crêpes? Belgian waffles? 0 pancake |Pfannkuchen

crepe |Crêpe
Please! Everyone knows thick, waffle |Waffel
spongy American pancakes are thick |dick
spongy |schwammig, luftig
the best breakfast there is. Fix to fix sth up with sb |etw. mit
some up with English Matters and jdm. zubereiten
to have one’s mind blown |jdn.
prepare to have your mind blown. schwer beeindrucken, umhauen

8
T
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

A Reliable Recipe

People and Lifestyle


o many in the machen
Un ited States, baking powder |Backpulver
pancakes are as If your kitchen is stocked to set sth apart from sth |etw.
American as apple with the right ingredients, von etw. abheben
pie. But you’ve got to be able putting everything together salt sɔːlt / sɒlt |Salz
to make them the right way. to make the perfect batter blueberry |Blaubeere
We’re not talking about the is a breeze. First, sieve 350 chocolate chips |
flatter, thinner pancakes that ml of flour, 17 ml of baking Schokoladenstückchen
much of the world is familiar powder, 5 ml of salt and 15 to toss sth in |etw. zugeben,
with. If you want to create the ml of sugar together into a hineinwerfen
ambrosia that is the American large bowl. Create a well in spices |Gewürze
pancake in your own kitchen, the centre of the bowl, and nutmeg |Muskatnuss
these helpful tips will get you pour in 300 ml of milk, 44 ml likewise |ebenfalls, zugleich
started on the right foot. of melted butter and one egg. the sky’s the limit |es gibt
Mix everything up together keine Grenzen
so it’s nice and smooth. when it comes to sth |wenn es
The Right Stuff Next, you’ll need to heat um etw. geht
up an oiled frying pan over topping |Garnierung
To make a proper batch medium-high heat. Put a gen- maple syrup |Ahornsirup
of pancakes, you first have erous scoop of your batter, fare |Speise
to collect the correct ingre- about 60 ml, onto the fry- to include sth |etw.
dients. The good news is that ing pan. Brown both sides einschließen, enthalten
the list is short, and you likely of each pancake, and serve whipped cream |Schlagsahne
already have everything you them while they’re still hot. nut |Nuss
need in your kitchen. For The trickiest part will be flip- 2 reliable rɪˈlaɪəbl |zuverlässig,
starters, you’ll need the sta- ping the pancakes halfway verlässlich
ples - eggs, milk and flour. through. If you give the pan recipe ˈresəpi |Rezept
The final, essential addition a little shake and the pancake stocked with sth |mit etw.
is something to soften your starts moving a bit, that means eingedeckt
pancakes, like baking pow- it’s ready. Use a spatula and batter |Teig
der. This is what sets thicker flip the pancake over, ever to be a breeze |ein Kinderspiel
American pancakes apart from so gently. There’s no need to sein
flatter, thinner crêpes. Usually, launch the pancake into the to sieve |abseihen,
American pancakes are about air in hopes of impressing absieben
1 cm thick. To get the taste and somebody. Practice makes to pour in sth |etw.
consistency just right, you may perfect, and don’t get dis- hineingießen/dazugießen
need to add a bit of salt and couraged if you make a mess. melted |geschmolzen
butter, too. The entire process should take smooth |glatt, sämig
Just because you’ve got about 20 min. The provided frying pan |Pfanne
the basics doesn’t mean you measurements should yield scoop of sth |Kugel/Portion
have to stop. Things that are eight servings. (von) etw.
frequently thrown into any to flip sth |etw. wenden
pancake mix are sugar, blue- halfway through sth |zur
berries, bananas or chocolate A World of Hälfte fertig
chips. If you think it’ll be tasty, Variety spatula |Pfannenwender
toss it in. All sorts of spices like gently |behutsam, sanft
cinnamon, vanilla and nutmeg If you enter any two to launch sth into the air |etw.
are popular as well. Likewise, American households, you’ll in die Luft werfen
the sky’s the limit when it likely come across two practice makes perfect |Übung
comes to toppings. Butter and entirely different pancake rec- macht den Meister
maple syrup are the standard ipes. That’s part of the magic to get discouraged |den Mut
fare, but delectable alternatives verlieren
include whipped cream, jam, tip |Tipp to yield sth tə jiːld ˈsʌmθɪŋ |
nuts, fruits and honey. ingredient |Zutat etw. ergeben
for starters |erst einmal serving |Portion
1 apple pie |Apfelkuchen staple |Grundnahrungsmittel household |Haushalt
to be familiar with sth |mit flour ˈflaʊə(r) / ˈflaʊər |Mehl to come across sth |auf etw.
etw. vertraut sein to soften sth |etw. weich stoßen

1 2

9
of the American pancake United States, though it rose
People and Lifestyle

Flockigkeit
- no two pancakes are alike. to prominence in the 1800s, to blend sth | Fun Facts
They can range in size from right around the birth of the etw. vermischen,
anywhere between 4 cm country. verbinden Here are some intriguing
and 10 cm. Traditionally, Early pancake recipes in buttermilk | insights into the world of pan-
Americans think of pancakes the United States were made Buttermilch cakes:
as a breakfast dish. That being with buckwheat or cornmeal. tangy |herb, streng • In the United States, a res-
said, it’s not unheard of for Common names for these pumpkin |Kürbis taurant chain called IHOP
pancakes to be consumed older versions of pancakes eggnog |Eierkognak (the International House of
as a snack, dessert or even included Johnnycake and treat |Leckerbissen, Pancakes) dubbed 25 February
a dinner. hoecake, although the origins Vergnügen National Pancake Day.
Different names for “pan- behind these terms remain due to sth |wegen
cakes” abound across the USA disputed. As the names and etw., aufgrund von etw.
as well. Dictionaries say the the ingredients might sug- ancient |antik,
terms “flapjack,” “hotcake” gest, pancakes were hardly altertümlich
and “griddlecake” are inter- considered sophisticated food. 4 though |jedoch

changeable, but Americans Nevertheless, that didn’t stop to rise to prominence


can squabble about minute America’s upper classes from |zu Bekanntheit
distinctions between these delighting in pancakes, too. gelangen
names. They may refer to dif- Thomas Jefferson, America’s 4 buckwheat |
ferent thicknesses or ingredi- third president, was so fond Buchweizen(mehl)
ents, for example. of pancakes that he sent a cornmeal |Maismehl • Pancakes weren’t always as
The number of pancake favourite recipe of his back common |verbreitet, beloved as they are now. A
recipes out there are as home from the White House, geläufig 1935 Vogue article said pan-
diverse as the USA itself. so he could still enjoy the to include sth |etw. cakes were “not worth eating
For instance, a number of morsels when away from einschließen at all unless they are of paper
Americans add yogurt to their Washington, DC. although |obwohl thinness and succulent tender-
batter to moisten up their pan- origins |Ursprünge ness.”
cakes. Those with a little bit of considered | • The record for the world’s
culinary skill will know how Paradise angesehen largest pancake was set in
to fold their egg whites into on a Plate sophisticated | Manchester, England in 1994.
the batter to maximise fluffi- ausgeklügelt The winning delicacy meas-
ness. Some prefer to blend in If you haven’t had a chance nevertheless | ured nearly 15 meters in diam-
some buttermilk to give the to try out true-blue American nichtsdestotrotz eter and weighed 3,000 kg.
pancakes a tangy flavour and pancakes yet, what are you to be fond of sth | • The Radisson Blu Edwardian
a softer texture. To add some waiting for? You might be etw. lieben, mögen Hotel, also in Manchester,
seasonal changes, pumpkin lucky enough to have a res- morsel |Häppchen, added the world’s most expen-
pancakes in the autumn and taurant nearby that has these Bissen sive pancake to their menu
eggnog pancakes in the winter tasty treasures on its menu. true-blue |echt in 2014. It cost £800 and was
are a real treat. The possibili- If not, though, don’t fret. to fret |sich ärgern served with lobster, caviar and
ties are endless. Remember, pancakes are ridiculously champagne.
ridiculously simple to make rɪˈdɪkjələsli | • Southerners are responsible
at home. The recipe is practi- lächerlich for one-third of all pancake
A History cally foolproof. Have a go at foolproof | consumption in the USA.
Lesson them in your own kitchen, narrensicher
and you’ll understand why so to rave about sth | insight into sth |Einblick in etw.
Due to their simplicity, many Americans are raving von etw. schwärmen to dub sth sth |etw. etw. taufen
pancakes may be one of the about their pancakes.  beloved |geliebt
oldest foods out there. Ancient worth |wert
cultures prepared pancakes in 3 to be alike |einander ähneln unless |außer, es sei denn
some shape or form tens of to range in size |in Größe succulent ˈsʌkjələnt |saftig,
thousands of years ago. There variieren wohlschmeckend
are records showing that pan- diverse |vielfältig set |aufgestellt
cakes were eaten in Ancient to moisten up sth |etw. feucht to measure |messen
Greece and Ancient Rome machen/nässen diameter daɪˈæmɪtə(r) |
and during the Renaissance. to fold sth into sth |etw. zu Durchmesser
The name “pancake” dates as etw. dazugeben to weigh |wiegen
far back as the 1500s. In the fluffiness |Flaumigkeit, lobster |Hummer

3 4

10
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

People and Lifestyle


LE R S
N K I L
AI
P erica’s Addiction

Am

Dependency.
Overdoses. Trafficking.
America’s addiction to
painkillers is wreaking
havoc across the USA.
Kick the habit with
English Matters as we
get to the root of the
problem.
DOWNLOAD

0 painkiller |Schmerzmittel
addiction |Sucht,
Abhängigkeit
dependency |Abhängigkeit
DOWNLOAD QR CODE SCANNER:
COLORFULMEDIA.DE/SCANNER

overdoses |Überdosis
trafficking |illegaler Handel
ZUGANGSCODE
to wreak havoc |Unheil
s8z
ODER HÖR ES
anrichten
DIR AN AUF to kick the habit with sb |
english-matters-magazin.de
dank jdm. eine schädliche
Angewohnheit aufgeben

11
W
hat started States recorded just under
People and Lifestyle

as a t rou- 10,000 deaths nationwide


bling trend from drug overdoses involv-
is now a full- ing an opioid. By 2019, that
blown epidemic. Americans figure had ballooned all the
are addicted to painkillers, way up to 50,000. Right now,
and thousands are dying as a it’s estimated that 130 people
result. Why are they hooked? die every day from such over-
The answer may be more doses. To put it into perspec-
sobering than you think. tive, these drugs kill more
people than car crashes or
guns every year.
A Trickle
Becomes a Flood
Three Waves
America’s love affair with
prescription painkillers may Over the past 20 years or
be the greatest tragedy of the so, experts have noticed that
21st century. The problem the opioid epidemic plagu-
didn’t just suddenly pop up, ing America now has struck
though. The epidemic got in three distinct waves. cheaper and more potent alter- 2 to record sth |etw. verzeichnen,
started way back in the late The first one hit in the ‘90s. natives. Heroin became more registrieren
‘90s. More doctors began pre- Prescription opioids gradu- commonplace on America’s involving sth |mit/unter
scribing drugs called “opi- ally became more acceptable streets, and prices plum- Einbeziehung von etw.
oids” for pain management pain relievers in the eyes of meted. Moreover, drug com- to balloon |in die Höhe
following surgery or some medical professionals and panies made medications like schießen, explodieren
kind of physical trauma. pharmaceutical companies. wave |Welle
Opioids are highly effec- Throughout the decade, the 1 full-blown | voll entfaltet, to notice that… |beobachten/
tive at treating acute pain. number of opioid prescrip- ausgewachsen feststellen, dass ...
Theoretically, once a per- tions grew by about 50 mln, addicted to sth |abhängig von to strike |zuschlagen, treffen
son finished the prescribed making opioids the most pre- etw. gradually |allmählich,
course of medication after scribed class of medication hooked |süchtig schrittweise
an operation, let’s say, they in the country. At the same sobering |ernüchternd pain reliever |Schmerzmittel
wouldn’t need the painkill- time, there was an uptick in trickle |Rinnsal pharmaceutical ˌfɑːməˈsuːtɪkl /
ers any longer. The fact that opioid-related deaths and in flood |Flut ˌfɑːməˈsjuːtɪkl |pharmazeutisch
opioids are potent, readily admissions to substance abuse love affair |Liebesbeziehung uptick in sth |Aufwärtstrend
available, and often legal, treatment centres. The most prescription |Rezept in/bei etw.
however, made them a popu- popular opioid prescribed to pop up |(plötzlich) X-related |in Verbindung mit X
lar choice for Americans suf- during this wave was oxyco- auftauchen admission to sth |Aufnahme in
fering from long-term pain as done, often under the brand though |allerdings, aber etw., Zulassung zu etw.
well. And therein lies the rub. name OxyContin. Other pain management | abuse |Missbrauch
Opioids were never meant to trendy choices were Vicodin, Schmerztherapie to appear |scheinen
treat chronic pain. Too many Percocet, and methadone. surgery ˈsɜːdʒəri / ˈsɜːrdʒəri | to level off |sich abschwächen,
Americans chose opioids as Around 2010, the use Operation gleich bleiben
their painkillers of choice, of these prescribed opioids physical |physisch to be replaced with sth |durch
and they became dependent appeared to level off, but they to treat sth |etw. behandeln etw. ersetzt werden
on them. Our best guess is would only be replaced with acute |akut, heftig spike |Steigerung
that just over 168 mln opioid something worse. The sec- available əˈveɪləbl |erhältlich, fatal |tödlich
prescriptions were written in ond wave of the epidemic was verfügbar to rocket |in die Höhe
2018, enough drugs for more characterised by a spike in the long-term |langfristig schnellen/schießen
than half of the US popula- use of heroin. The number Therein lies the rub. |Da(rin) to establish sth |etw. bilden,
tion. of Americans using heroin liegt der Haken. aufbauen
Heightened addiction rates and the number of fatal heroin dependent on sth |abhängig to seek sth |(nach) etw. suchen
are one thing, but the USA is overdoses in the USA around von etw. 3 commonplace | gewöhnlich,
also seeing a mushrooming this time rocketed. Why? So heightened |erhöht, gesteigert weitverbreitet
number of deaths brought on many individuals established rate |Quote, Rate to plummet |abstürzen, fallen
by opioid overdoses. Around a tolerance to their milder pre- mushrooming |wuchernd, moreover |außerdem,
2000, for instance, the United scription opioids, they sought stark wachsend zudem

1 2 3

12
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

People and Lifestyle


OxyContin more difficult to It isn’t just the big names 4 to crush sth |etw. zermalmen,
crush and abuse, turning even who’ve contributed to this zerdrücken Drugs and
more addicts to pernicious plague. Hundreds, if not to abuse sth |etw. missbrauchen Addictions
street drugs. thousands, of small clinics to turn sb to sth |bewirken, dass
The third wave of the opi- have been shut down across sich jd. etw. zuwendet Here are some useful
oid epidemic emerged around the country for being nothing pernicious pəˈnɪʃəs / pərˈnɪʃəs | terms linked to drugs and
2013 and is still ongoing. It is more than “pill mills.” A pill schädlich additions:
marked by a steep rise in the mill is a medical office where street drug |Straßendroge • Go cold turkey: quit
number of overdose deaths doctors examine patients to emerge |auftreten, erscheinen taking a drug quickly
brought on by synthetic opi- quickly and prescribe pain- steep |steil and immediately, often
oids. The number one culprit killers for the sole purpose of rise in sth |Anstieg in/bei etw. with negative physical
that has caused the most over- making a profit. The doctors culprit |Übeltäter or mental consequences
dose deaths during this wave earn money, and drug com- lozenge ˈlɒzɪndʒ / ˈlɑːzɪndʒ | • Drug rehab: the pro-
is fentanyl. It is 50 times more panies earn money, and the Lutschtablette cess of medical treat-
potent than heroin. While it patients get the drugs they skin patch |Hautpflaster ment for addictions
can be safely prescribed were so desperately seeking. illegally |illegal • Habit: a regular
as a lozenge or skin patch, If everyone’s just interested amount |Anzahl, Menge tendency that a person
it is all too easy to illegally in making a quick buck, it’s no to exceed sth |etw. übersteigen has that is difficult to
manufacture and mix with wonder that health and well- to fall victim to sth |etw. zum give up
heroin or cocaine. The ille- being are getting tossed to the Opfer fallen • Withdrawal: the
gally produced variants of wayside. to seem |scheinen unpleasant physical
fentanyl are responsible for Drug cartels from Mexico to point fingers |jdn. response one could
the most deaths. The amount have also exacerbated Ameri- beschuldigen, mit dem Finger (auf experience when they
of overdose deaths brought ca’s drug troubles. Heroin pro- jdn.) zeigen stop taking an addictive
on by synthetic opioids has duction in Mexico has been scapegoat |Sündenbock drug
already far exceeded deaths ramping up since 2005. Much hazardous ˈhæzədəs / ˈhæzərdəs
caused by drugs like heroin of the heroin produced unde- |gefährlich to quit sth |etw.
or OxyContin, suggesting niably winds up in the USA. lion’s share of sth |Löwenanteil aufgeben
that this is the most dangerous The amount of heroin that’s an/von etw. to give up sth |etw.
wave yet. Even celebrities like being seized by US authori- ire ˈaɪə(r) |Zorn, Wut aufgeben
Prince have fallen victim to ties at the Mexican border has entangled in sth |in etw. withdrawal |Entzug
accidental fentanyl overdoses, more than doubled since 2010. verwickelt unpleasant |
so this crisis is hardly over. With fentanyl, the trafficking court case |Gerichtsverhandlung unangenehm, unschön
looks just as bad. Cartels fre- regarding sth |etw. betreffend to experience sth |etw.
quently make illicit fentanyl trial |Prozess, erleben, erfahren
The Blame Game and smuggle it into the United Gerichtsverhandlung addictive |
States. to be ordered to pay X |verurteilt suchterzeugend, süchtig
Since America’s opioid werden zu einer Zahlung von X machend
epidemic doesn’t seem to be fine |Geldstrafe, Bußgeld
getting any better, many are No End in Sight executive |Manager, leitender to wind up in X |in X enden
quick to point fingers and find a Angestellter seized by sb |von jdm.
scapegoat. The companies pro- Governmental action is charged |angeklagt konfisziert
ducing these hazardous drugs being taken to end America’s settlement |Vergleich authorities |Behörden
have received the lion’s share opioid crisis, but meaningful to mislead sb on sth |jdn. bei illicit |illegal
of the public’s ire. Johnson change will likely take years. etw. in die Irre führen to smuggle sth into sth |etw. in
& Johnson for instance, has As long as pharmaceutical 5 to contribute to sth |zu etw. etw. schmuggeln
been entangled in over 500 companies are profit driven, beitragen in sight |in Sicht
court cases regarding their it’ll be hard to stop them sole |einzig, alleinig meaningful |bedeutsam,
role in the epidemic. One trial from peddling other drugs to make a quick buck |die bedeutend
in Oklahoma resulted in the that aren’t effective forms schnelle Mark machen to peddle sth |etw. verbreiten,
company being ordered to pay of treatment. Patients in the no wonder |kein Wunder feilbieten
a $572 mln fine in 2019. At USA must be taught that other to get tossed to the wayside |auf health care system |
Purdue Pharma, the maker of forms of pain relief are out der Strecke bleiben Gesundheitssystem
OxyContin, three executives there. The health care system to exacerbate sth |etw. across the board |
were criminally charged. The must be reformed across the erschweren, verschlimmern flächendeckend, generell
company paid out $600 mln in board as well to ensure safer to ramp up |erhöhen, steigern to cost an arm and a leg |sehr
a settlement for misleading the treatments don’t cost an arm undeniably ˌʌndɪˈnaɪəbli | kostspielig sein, ein Vermögen
public on the risks of the drug. and a leg.  zweifellos kosten

4 5

13
Teenage YouTubers
People and Lifestyle

on the March
Ultimate masters of social
media, teenage YouTubers
strongly appeal to the members
of Generation Z (those born
in the early 2000s), who love
online videos and, on average,
spend about 9 hours a day
looking at various screens.
Over 80 percent of teenagers
report visiting YouTube daily
to binge on the available
video content.  In response,
popular teenage YouTubers are
constantly creating videos and
reaching out to their peers.

0 teenage |jugendlich, im Teenageralter

on the march |auf dem Vormarsch


ultimate ˈʌltɪmət |ultimativer, bester
to appeal to sb |bei jdm. gut ankommen
on average |im Durchschnitt
to binge on sth |sich mit etw. vollstopfen
available |verfügbar, erhältlich
content |Inhalt
constantly |ständig, laufend, fortwährend
to reach out to sb |jdn. zu erreichen
versuchen
peer |Altersgenosse

14
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

Dreaming of Influencer

People and Lifestyle


Fame Watch Out Teenage
YouTubers, Here
According to a few recent surveys, Comes eight-year-
over 50 percent of children and teenagers old Ryan Kaji
declared that they would prefer becom-
ing trend-setting YouTubers to having a
career as an astronaut, a teacher or even
a famous musician. And who can blame
them? As much as some people would
speak about YouTubing as “not being
a real job,” kids still dream of achiev-
ing celebrity success on social media.
Seeing other children, teens and even
toddlers gaining huge followings, fame
and fortune online, they want in.

He is the world’s highest-paid


The Appeal of YouTube’s YouTuber for the second year in
Young Personalities a row. According to Forbes, he
earned $22million in 2018 and
There are many reasons why young another $26 million in 2019. Ryan
YouTubers captivate their audiences. lives with his mother, father and
Advanced technology makes hopping twin sisters in Texas. He usually
on the YouTube bandwagon and releases a new video of unboxing
getting involved more acces- and trying out toys for his 22.7
sible and easier. According million subscribers each day.
to one researcher, “YouTube People like his videos because he
became the new babysitter is entertaining and funny. Ryan’s
and so many kids are missing most popular video, which has had
that parental guidance and 2 billion views, is a two-minute
education, and the American clip of him running around on an
school system is letting kids inflatable in his garden, retrieving
down, as well.” Young people plastic eggs with toys inside. He
see their parents struggling so also has toy and clothing lines, as
they perceive YouTube as a way well as a show on Nickelodeon,
out and an opportunity to become and a deal with streaming service
successful. Hulu.
To their young fans, the teen-
age YouTubers feel more accessible, according to sth |laut etw.
to release sth |etw. veröffentlichen
1 acording to sth |laut etw. to try sth out |etw. ausprobieren
survey ˈsɜːveɪ / ˈsɜːrveɪ |Umfrage, Studie inflatable ɪnˈfleɪtəbl |aufblasbar(es
trend-setting |richtungsweisend Spielzeug)
musician mjuˈzɪʃn |Musiker to retrieve sth |etw. finden,
to blame sb |jdm. etw. verübeln herausholen
to achieve sth |etw. erreichen, gewinnen deal |Vertrag
toddler |Kleinkind
to gain sth |etw. gewinnen, bekommen to miss sth |etw. nicht besitzen,
followings |Fangemeinde etw. vermissen
appeal |Reiz, Attraktivität parental guidance |elterliche Führung/
to captivate sb |jdn. fesseln Fürsorge
advanced ədˈvɑːnst / ədˈvænst | to let sb down |jdn. enttäuschen
fortgeschritten to struggle |sich abrackern, quälen,
to hop on the bandwagon |Trittbrett streiten
fahren to perceive sth as sth |etw. als etw.
to get involved |mitmischen (bei etw.) wahrnehmen
accessible əkˈsesəbl |zugänglich, erreichbar opportunity |Gelegenheit, Chance

15
relatable and authentic than other main- due to her presence on TikTok, the
People and Lifestyle

stream celebrities. Followers often think Identical twins video sharing mobile app on which she
that the young YouTube influencers Brooklyn and Bai- has over 34 million fans. In 2017, Time
understand them better than their own ley McKnight (aged Magazine named her one of the 25 most
friends, as they foster strong ties and 20) from Texas have influential people online worldwide.
become quickly connected. The young the YouTube channel of
YouTubers not only entertain their audi- Brooklyn and Bailey. The two sisters are
ences, but also offer advice on what to budding singers and have already gone Annie LeBlanc
buy, what to wear and how to live. on a US singing tour. They post music (aged 15) is a
videos, vlogs and challenges on a regular member of t he
basis. Since starting on YouTube in 2010, widely popu-
Most Popular Teen they have had more than 1 billion views. lar Bratayley family
YouTubers The twins also run an online shop selling vlog channel along with
their exclusive Lash Next Store mascara her father Billy, her sister Hayley and
Matthew Morris, and hair scrunchies. mother Katie. In 2008, Annie launched
better known as her own YouTube channel and has since
MattyBRaps, is a
17-year-old singer Johnny Orlando
from Georgia with (over 4 million sub- 2 relatable | ansprechbar,
over 13 million sub- scribers) is only 17 nachempfindbar
scribers. He mainly cre- but already a star of to foster sth |etw. fördern,
ates song covers and remixes of popular pop music. Since he unterstützen
pop music, which he uploads every week. published his first cover ties |Bande, Verbundenheit
His most famous video - Stereo Hearts by on YouTube eight years ago, he has to entertain sb |jdn. unterhalten
Gym Class Heroes – has been viewed 320 amassed millions of fans, and is now advice |Rat(schlag)
million times. Morris has also become most famous for his boyish good looks mainly |hauptsächlich
a mainstream celebrity, as his original and original songs that make his listeners to upload sth |etw. hochladen
music is available on Spotify and other (mainly girls) swoon in hysterical rapture to march on |weiter marschieren
streaming services. He marches on and and ecstasy. He is being hailed as the next to maintain sth |etw. wahren, konstant
maintains a cumulative social reach of Justin Bieber, a fellow Canadian who has halten
over 23.4 million. reached the pinnacle of fame. cumulative ˈkjuːmjələtɪv / ˈkjuːmjəleɪtɪv |
gesamt, kumulativ
reach |Reichweite
JoJo Siwa of YouTube Rolf Jacob Sartorius, plastered with sth |mit etw. gepflastert,
fame is a 17-year- better known as beklebt
old singer from Jacob Sartorius, own |eigener
Los Angeles with is an 18-year-old over-the-top |übertrieben
eleven million sub- singer and Internet rainbow sprinkles |Regenbogensprenkel
scribers. She usually personality with an hugely ˈhjuːdʒli |enorm, immens
wears JoJo-branded enormous social reach tutorial |Anleitung
cloth- ing, drives a car plastered of over 30 million. On his YouTube chan- to appear |auftreten, erscheinen
with her face and lives in a house deco- nel, he presents music videos, which to team up with sb |sich mit jdm.
rated in her very own and over-the-top showcase his original tunes. You can zusammentun
rainbow sprinkles style. She has become buy his EP Left Me Hangin on Amazon, to launch sth |etw. starten
hugely successful, and is quite busy Google Play, iTunes and Spotify. 3 twins |Zwillinge
posting music videos, challenge videos, budding |angehend
dance tutorials and collaborations with on a regular basis |regelmäßig
other top YouTubers each week. She Ariel Martin, Baby to run sth |etw. betreiben, führen
has also appeared in two seasons of the Ariel, is a 20-year- scrunchy ˈskrʌntʃi |Haargummi
Lifetime television series Dance Moms old resident of to amass sth |etw. anhäufen, ansammeln
and her original music can be found Florida who is also to swoon in sth |in etw. geraten/verfallen
on Spotify. Moreover, she has teamed an Internet celeb- rapture |Begeisterung, Verzückung
up with the J.C. Penney to launch a rity and singer. She hailed |bejubelt
line of bedroom decor, accessories, and regularly shares chal- pinnacle ˈpɪnəkl |Gipfel, Spitze
a JoJo doll. lenges, vlogs, and other lifestyle vid- to showcase sth |etw. zeigen,
eos with her three million subscribers. präsentieren
Her mainstream popularity is mainly to share sth |etw. teilen
4 due to sth |wegen etw., aufgrund von etw.

2 3 4

16
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

People and Lifestyle


acquired over 3 million subscribers. She
posts gymnastic videos, challenges and
other lifestyle content and is also pursu-
ing a career as a singer.

Jaclyn and Casey,


sisters and best
friends in one, are
the stars of the
JacyandKacy chan-
nel with 3.55 million
subscribers. As trend pioneers, they
experiment with the Internet’s chal-
lenges and recreate the newest products.
The pair have also become teen-lifestyle
gurus, promoting an affordable lifestyle
and showing their enthusiasm about life,
which makes them very relatable and
connected to their audiences.

With their father


Roland, sisters The young YouTubers not only entertain
their audiences, but also offer advice on
B r i t t a n y ( 21), what to buy, what to wear and how to live.
Brianna (18), and
Katelynn (9) make
up the YouTube chan- The top YouTubers can earn quite seri- goods sold at major stores. Fans can also
nel All4tubekids. The family of four ous dosh from different revenue streams, give donations to their favourite YouTube
posts pranks, challenges and vlogs many including adverts embedded on their channels.
times a week. Their videos showing the channels. If YouTubers’ videos feature
sisters performing a prank or being any products, they earn money by sending
pranked are always cheerful and carefree. their viewers to buy them in stores. Big A Flash in the Pan
They have 2.7 million subscribers and corporations are always looking to buy
have been viewed over 174 million times. younger audiences’ attention and often So the teen YouTubers are definitely
pay popular YouTube influencers for the on the march but it will be interesting to
sponsorship of their products. YouTubers see whether these young trendsetters can,
The family-friendly also sell merchandise – t-shirts, gadgets, in the future, maintain and even increase
and fun Kitties- knick-knacks and even gift cards, and their fame and fortune or become just a
Ma ma c ha n nel have their own lines of products such as flash in the pan. 
is run by a family toys, mobile games, clothing, and home
of five, and their
main stars are three 5 to acquire sb |jdn. erreichen, gewinnen 6 to earn |verdienen
spirited and crazy kids, to pursue sth tə pəˈsjuː / pərˈsuː ˈsʌmθɪŋ | dosh |Kohle, Knete
Noah, Jonah and Emma. Their vid- etw. verfolgen revenue ˈrevənjuː / ˈrevənuː |Einkommen,
eos show toy demonstrations, unbox- affordable əˈfɔːdəbl / əˈfɔːrdəbl |bezahlbar, Einnahmen
ings, family vlogs, challenges, tutorials erschwinglich including sth |einschließlich etw.
and more. They want to set an example enthusiasm ɪnˈθjuːziæzəm / ɪnˈθuːziæzəm | advert |Werbung
for other families and their 2.3 million Begeisterung embedded on sth |in etw. eingebettet
of YouTube viewers. to make up sth |etw. ausmachen, to feature sth |etw. darbieten, vorstellen
bilden to be looking to do sth |versuchen, etw. zu
cheerful |fröhlich, tun
Making Money heiter merchandise |Ware
carefree |sorgenfrei knick-knack |Schnickschnack
Probably when asked, many of the viewed |angesehen 7 a flash in the pan |Strohfeuer, Eintagsfliege
teen YouTubers would say that they are spirited |munter, whether |ob
not primarily motivated by money, but lebhaft to increase sth |etw. steigern,
big pay checks are always welcome. unboxing |Auspacken vergrößern

5 6 7

17
GAMING
Consoles
Video gaming has evolved dramatically since its
invention in the 1950s. In keeping, the language used to
describe and play such games has evolved, too. English
Matters talks you through some of the latest lingo. Start.
Conversation Matters

Level One
The first ever video game was invented in 1958 by William
Higinbotham. It was a basic tennis game very similar to the later
(1970s) game called Pong. Since then, an industry of computer gaming
has grown into today’s market of online computer games, hyper-fast
consoles, mobile gaming apps, and handheld gaming devices. There are
even huge exhibitions and global tournaments dedicated just to gaming.
Those who take part in such events have their own inventory of vocabu-
lary to describe what they’re doing. Much of this vocabulary is in the
form of abbreviations, thanks to the need for speed in games, and the
DOWNLOAD

fact that a lot of communication is done in a chat box (it is written).


DOWNLOAD QR CODE SCANNER:
COLORFULMEDIA.DE/SCANNER

ZUGANGSCODE
y8d
ODER HÖR ES
DIR AN AUF
english-matters-magazin.de

to evolve |sich entwickeln


invention |Erfindung
lingo |Jargon
invented |erfunden
industry |Industrie
handheld |Hand-
device |Gerät
exhibition ˌeksɪˈbɪʃn |Messe, Ausstellung
tournament |Turnier
dedicated to sth |etw. gewidmet
to take part in sth |an etw. teilnehmen
inventory |Inventar
abbreviation |Abkürzung

18
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

Gamer Slang: Minecraft Terms:


• Noob – a new and inexperienced • Sandbox – A type of game where the
person or player. user can design elements themselves.
• Buff – beneficial (such as a spell that • Biome – an environment (such as
enhances a player’s abilities). jungle/deserts).
• Camp – to hide in one place, waiting • Mod – a modification which changes
for an enemy to come. the game.
• Aggro – aggravated. When an enemy • Nether – the underworld biome.
or monster focusses all their attacks • Mob – any creature within Minecraft.
on you. • Zombie Pigman – one of the mobs.
• Grind – to do something repeatedly, • Enderman – a specific mob with a cult
such as attack a monster until you following.
defeat them. • Creeper – one of the most common

Conversation Matters
• Lag – a technical issue with your and most disliked mobs.
system which causes the gameplay to • Fire Creepers – A special type of
momentarily freeze, delaying what Creeper.
happens in respect to what you com-
mand. environment ɪnˈvaɪrənmənt |Umgebung,
• Boom – ‘yes.’ A way of celebrating, Umwelt
not necessarily after an explosion. underworld |Unterwasser
• Loot – items (or ‘drops’) found in the common |verbreitet, häufig
game. These are usually things which
benefit the finder.
• Skin – like new clothing for your
character – skins change the appear-
ance, but usually nothing else, of your
character.
• Lolz – to indicate that something
was/is funny or done just for fun.
• Salty ˈsɔːlti / ˈsɒlti – bitter about some- The Entertainment
thing (such as losing). Software Rating Board
• Srsly – seriously (ESRB)
• Sick – good or cool
• Obvs – obviously Games can be extremely violent and
• Tho – though graphic. And the fact that they’re interac-
• XD – a way of typing a laughing tive means they need regulating more than
emoji films. The ESRB is responsible for doing
just that. Their rating is usually found on
spell |Zauber(spruch) the front cover of a game:
to enhance sth |etw. verbessern, erhöhen • EC - Early childhood (made for young
to hide |sich verstecken children)
aggravated |verärgert, erschwert • E – Everyone (for all ages)
to focus sth on sb | sich etw. auf jdn. • E10+ - Everyone 10+ (ages 10 and above)
konzentrieren • T – Teen (ages 13 and above)
to defeat sb |jdn. besiegen • M – Mature (ages 17 and above)
to freeze |erstarren, stoppen • AO - Adults Only
to delay sth |etw. hinauszögern, verspäten • RP - Rating Pending (not yet assigned
in respect to sth |in Bezug auf etw.
to command sth |etw. befehlen violent |brutal, gewalttätig
item |Gegenstand rating |Rating/Einstufung
appearance |Aussehen adult |Erwachsener
to indicate that… |andeuten, dass ... rating pending |Rating/Einstufung noch
bitter about sth |wegen etw. verärgert ausstehend
obviously ˈɒbviəsli / ˈɑːbviəsli |natürlich,
selbstverständlich, offensichtlich
though |jedoch, aber

19
Game Abbreviations:
• BoA – Bind on Account. Something within a • AoE – Area of Effect. The range of a weapon/ bind |Fessel, Bindung
game that can only be used by the user who spell’s effectiveness. within sth |innerhalb von
finds/receives it. • FoV – Field of View. The area that can be seen etw.
• OTW – On The Way (I’m coming to you) on a player’s screen. damage |Schaden
• DPS - Damage per Second. A measure of • FTW – For the Win. An expression of cel- cooldown |Abklingzeit
how much damage someone or something ebration. weapon |Waffe
does, or a category of how much damage • DC – Disconnect. to pass |vergehen
something does. • QQ – These letters look like crying eyes, so annoyed |verärgert
• HP – Health Points. QQ shows someone is sad. range of sth |Reichweite
• CD – Cooldown. After using some items/ • LOL – Laugh out Loud. Used in place of von etw.
weapons in a game, they cannot be used again ‘hahahahaha’ sometimes.
until after a certain time has passed. • WoW – World of Warcraft. An MMO game.
• FFS – For F*ck Sake. This means you’re • Lmao – Laughing my Ass Off. The same
Conversation Matters

annoyed. as LOL.

PLAYING AN
MMO ONLINE
Jordan: Hey Lyle, I’ve not seen you on here for ages. Lyle: FTW
Lyle: Hey J, yeah, I got hooked on Minecraft lately. Jordan: Alright, I got to DC.
Jordan: Creative mode?! Lyle: QQ Minecraft is calling huh?
Lyle: What? I’m no noob. Adventure all the way! Jordan: Lolz. You’re not salty are you?
Jordan: *laughs* Anyway, where are you? I’ve got a buff if
you want it. Later, Jordan and Lyle are back online, they’re watching a
Lyle: Thanks. I’m camping right now. Maybe later. Minecraft Livestream
Jordan: Oh no wait, it’s a BoA anyway.
Lyle: No worries, you’ll probably need it yourself! Jordan: Srsly Lyle?
Jordan: I’m gonna use it now. I’m getting so much aggro… Lyle: You’re not the only Miner here you know!
ahhh, and now adds. Jordan: JK man, I know you love the sandbox.
Lyle: Alright, OTW. What DPS is he? Lyle: Does this biome look weird to you?
Jordan: Not high I guess, my HP is still good. Jordan: I guess it’s a mod.
Lyle: Wait for his CD and then grind him girl. Lyle: Looks cool. Not as good as the nether tho obvs.
Jordan: I’m on it! Jordan: Yeah, with your new skins, the nether is sick.
… Lyle: XD gotta love the mobs down there.
Jordan: Ah, FFS. lag! Jordan: Zombie Pigman FTW. Too many endermen tho.
Lyle: You gotta upgrade your graphics card I’m telling you! Lyle: lmao you love endermen!
Jordan: OK, I’m going to use some AoE. Jordan: yeah right…and you love fire creepers
Lyle: Ok, I got you in my FoV now. Lyle: LOL this stream sucks anyway
Jordan: Boom! He’s gone! Jordan: WoW?
Lyle: What’s that loot I see?! Lyle: kk
Jordan: New skin!

to get hooked on sth |süchtig nach etw. werden to upgrade sth |etw. aufrüsten, upgraden, verbessern
I’m on it |Ich bin dabei/dran. weird wɪəd / wɪrd |sonderbar, bizarr

20
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

Rack Your Brain


1. M
 atch the words with their 3. Circle the words containing
definitions. the /ɪ/ sound.
painkiller, acute, overdose, prescription, pharmaceuti- because, keep, enough, reach, mitt, still, sin, each,
cal, withdrawal, hazardous, pill mill, relief scene, shin, wheat, free

............................ dangerous mitt |Pfote, Pranke, Fausthandschuh


............................ a medical office where doctors examine patients scene |Szene, Bühne
quickly and prescribe painkillers for the sole shin |Schienbein
purpose of making a profit wheat |Weizen
............................ very severe Answer key: because, enough, mitt, still, sin, shin
............................ the unpleasant physical response a person expe-
riences when they stop taking an addictive drug
............................ a piece of paper given by a doctor to a patient
with the name of the medicine to be bought 4. W
 hat are the missing letters?
............................ referring to the use and sale of medicine
............................ taking too much of a drug desp......ir ......acceptable prejudi......ial
............................ the reduction of pain ......icious reinforce......ent su......cide
............................ a medicine used in order to alleviate physical rum......ur p......ychologist
pain suicide, rumour, psychologist
Answer key: despair, unacceptable, prejudicial, vicious, reinforcement,

acute |akut, heftig


pharmaceutical ˌfɑːməˈsuːtɪkl / ˌfɑːməˈsjuːtɪkl |pharmazeutisch
withdrawal wɪðˈdrɔːəl / wɪθˈdrɔːəl |Entzug
relief |Linderung, Erleichterung

scription, pharmaceutical, overdose, relief, painkiller


Answer key: hazardous, pill mill, acute, withdrawal, pre-

2. M
  atch the pictures with the words.

Leisure
flour, whipped cream, bowl, pancakes, blueberries,
frying pan, maple syrup, nutmeg

flour ˈflaʊə(r) / ˈflaʊər |Mehl


5. pancakes, 6. flour, 7. nutmeg, 8. whipped cream
Answer key: 1. blueberries, 2. maple syrup, 3. frying pan, 4. bowl

21
Controversial Debate Topics

What is Bullying?
Name-calling, harsh teasing, pushing, shoving, tripping or maybe
spreading rumours? This time, English Matters is digging for more
information about bullying.

R
esearch into bullying, a form of to the Internet, bullies can reach people to dig for sth |nach etw. suchen
intentional aggressive behav- almost anywhere, and then we call it 1 behaviour bɪˈheɪvjə(r) |Benehmen,
iour towards another person, cyberbullying. Why, though, do young Verhalten
started more than 40 years mistreatment |Misshandlung
ago. Today, more than 70 percent of 0 bullying |Mobbing to include sth |etw. einschließen
students say they’ve seen mistreatment name-calling |Beschimpfen physical |physisch
at school. The most common examples harsh teasing |herbes/harsches Necken/ hitting |Schlagen
of bullying include verbal attacks, such Sticheln kicking |Treten
as name calling, physical actions, for shoving |Drängeln social exclusion |soziale Ausgrenzung
instance hitting or kicking, and social tripping |Beinstellen nowadays |heutzutage
aggression, like social exclusion or to spread sth |etw. verbreiten 2 to reach sb |jdn. erreichen
rumour spreading. Nowadays, thanks rumour ˈruːmə(r) |Gerücht though |jedoch, aber

1 2

22
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

I personally experienced prejudicial


bullying which is a type of harassment
that focuses on what the bully believes
makes the victim different from others.
Those differences are seen as “weak-
nesses”, or reasons to be considered an
outcast. You can’t bully someone just
because of their ethnicity, skin colour
or religion. It’s unacceptable! Although
people should have a right to their own

3 to fail |stehenbleiben, aussetzen

currently |aktuell, gegenwärtig


doxing |Veröffentlichen persönlicher Daten
von jdm. im Internet
fraping |jds. Facebook-Profil
manipulieren
dissing |Dissen
a few |ein paar, einige
cruelty |Grausamkeit
harmful to sb |schädlich für jdn.
grade |Note
score |Ergebnis
to participate in sth |bei etw. mitmachen
to skip |schwänzen
to drop out of sth |etw. abbrechen
4 to face sth |etw. ins Auge sehen

to prevent sth |etw. verhindern


to stand out from the crowd |sich von der
Menge abheben
constantly |beständig, andauernd
Today, more than 70 percent of students say they’ve seen mistreatment at school.
to pull one’s leg |jdn. aufziehen, foppen

Controversial Debate Topics


garbage ˈɡɑːbɪdʒ / ˈɡɑːrbɪdʒ |Abfall, Mist
people treat others this way? Let’s take should face this problem and prevent it fate |Schicksal
a closer look at various opinions about as soon as possible. abuse |Beleidigung, Misshandlung
the issue and think about why bullying Ursula fortunately |glücklicherweise
happens. to graduate from school |den
Kids who learn and think differently Schulabschluss machen
are more likely to be bullied. This is tough tʌf |hart
Those who are dead often because they stand out from the despair dɪˈspeə(r) / dɪˈsper |Verzweiflung
against it… crowd. I had many challenges at school, outcome |Folge, Ergebnis
like trouble reading. As a result, I was including sth |einschließlich von etw.
I work as a biology teacher and an easy target for bullies who were con- impact on sth |Einfluss/Auswirkung auf
observe this aggressive behaviour stantly pulling my leg. I was used to etw.
almost every day. My heart fails at the being treated like a piece of garbage subtance abuse |Missbrauch von
thought of these poor kids who are bul- and accepted that as my fate, hoping the Substanzen (Drogen)
lied. Currently, the situation is getting oppressors would just go away if I didn’t to commit suicide tə kəˈmɪt ˈsuːɪsaɪd |
worse as we have more incidents of fight their abuse anymore. Fortunately, Suizid/Selbstmord begehen
cyberbullying. Doxing, fraping or diss- I graduated from school and now I’m 5 prejudicial ˌpredʒəˈdɪʃl |schädlich,

ing are only a few examples of online trying to forget about all those dread- abträglich
cruelty. I’m convinced, though, that any ful school years. I was tough enough harassment |Belästigen,
kind of bullying is very harmful to kids. to survive, but I know other kids who Schikanieren
Students who are bullied tend to have shut themselves in a world of despair. to focus on sth |sich auf etw. konzentrieren
lower grades and worse test scores than Bullying led them to many negative victim |Opfer
kids who aren’t. They participate less outcomes, including impacts on mental weakness |Schwäche
in and out of class. Moreover, they’re health, substance abuse or even commit- outcast |Ausgestoßener
more likely to miss, skip, or drop out ting suicide. unacceptable ˌʌnəkˈseptəbl |untragbar,
of school. We, as parents and teachers, Paul inakzeptabel

3 4 5

23
opinions, no one has a right to force those
opinions on others. We should respect
ourselves and live in peace.
Melike

As a psychologist, I want to underline


that not everyone is aware that bullying
behaviour is a serious problem among
school-age children and adolescents.
It has short- and long-term effects, not
only on the individual who is bullied
and the individual who bullies, but also
the bystander present during the bullying
event. The physical health consequences
of bullying can be immediate, such as
physical injury, or they can involve long-
term effects, such as headaches or sleep
disturbances. One of my clients suffered
from anxiety and depression, which has
its roots in having witnessed cruel and
humiliating behaviour. I believe that more
bullying prevention programmes should
be developed and implemented in schools
around the world.
Gemma

There are also those


who play devil’s
advocate…
which there is harsh discipline and a lack to witness sth |etw. miterleben, Zeuge von
Kids called me “fat” at school simply of warmth. There is a higher likelihood etw. sein
Controversial Debate Topics

because my body shape was bigger than that bullies come from dysfunctional or humiliating |demütigend, erniedrigend
everyone around me. My school years single mother families and have low self- implemented |eingebaut, implementiert
were really tough, I dreaded going to esteem, which leads to aggression. Kids to dread sth |etw. fürchten
that vicious playground, where bullies bully for lots of reasons. Some want what vicious ˈvɪʃəs |scheußlich, grausam
were everywhere and had the upper hand others have, like lunch money. Maybe playground |Spielplatz
in anything. They were even capable of we should take care of bullies in order to have the upper hand |am längeren Hebel sitzen
making the nice kids not talk to podgy to understand their behaviour and help to be capable of doing sth |imstande sein
ones. However, this unpleasant experi- them, instead of blaming and accusing etw. zu tun
ence really made me discover the actual them of being antisocial and vicious. podgy |pummelig, rundlich
benefits of what these bullies did to me. I believe they are just unhappy kids who to spot sb |jdn. sichten, sehen
Because of them, I am now able to spot need love and support from their families. at first sight |auf den ersten Blick
bullies at first sight and deal with them Simona accordingly |entsprechend
accordingly. I found the motivation to to support sb |jdn. unterstützen
change my eating habits and now I am a to stand up for oneself |für sich selbst eintreten
new person. I have new friends who sup- 6 to force sth on sb |jdm. etw. aufzwingen eradicated |ausgerottet, ausradiert
port me all the time. I’m more assertive psychologist saɪˈkɒlədʒɪst / saɪˈkɑːlədʒɪst | harsh |harsch, herb, rau
now, and know how to stand up for myself Psychologe 7 lack of sth |Mangel an etw.
and everyone around me. What doesn’t to underline that… |betonen, dass ... warmth |Wärme
kill you makes you stronger! aware |bewusst likelihood |Wahrscheinlichkeit
Anna adolescent |Jugendlicher, Heranwachsender self-esteem |Selbstwertgefühl
short-/long-term |kurz-/langfristig to lead to sth |zu etw. führen
We always criticise and stigmatise bystander |Zuschauer, Schaulustiger in order to |um ... zu
bullies. We treat them as a social evil injury |Verletzung instead of sth |anstatt etw.
which should be completely eradicated, to involve sth |etw. einschließen to blame sb |jdn. rügen, beschuldigen
but let’s take a look at the other side of sleep disturbances |Schlafstörungen to accuse sb of sth |jdn. wegen etw.
the coin. Bullies come from homes in anxiety |Angst, Unruhe beschuldigen

6 7

24
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

Kate Winslet

Some celebrities have shared their painful


experiences with bullying, and what they
learned from it. Kate Winslet, with her
icy-blonde coiffeured hair and elegant style,
these days exudes glossy composure. But
was it always like this?
“I was chubby, always had big feet, the
wrong shoes, bad hair,” Kate Winslet told
Bear Grylls on his show, Running Wild.
“When I grew up, I never heard positive
reinforcement about body image from any
female in my life.” Now the actress, as a
mother, is trying to instil confidence and
a strong sense of self-worth to help her
daughter fight back against others’ inevi-
As far as I’m concerned, misbe- To sum up… table scrutiny. “I stand in front of the mirror
haviour is a normal rite of passage and say to Mia, ‘We are so lucky we have

Controversial Debate Topics


in growing up and there will always Bullying is undoubtedly a seri- a shape. We’re so lucky we’re curvy. We’re
be conflicts between kids. Between ous issue for young people in today’s so lucky that we’ve got good bums,” The
the 1950s and 1980s bullying was world, but it’s hardly a new trend. actress encourages her teen daughter to love
known as “kids being kids.” Most of We need to be aware that the conse- every inch of herself.
us probably experienced some nega- quences to the victim can seriously
tive behaviour at school, like hitting affect them for the rest of their lives. coiffeured |frisiert
or name calling. This is just the law Some kids are so tormented that sui- to exude sth |etw. ausstrahlen, verströmen
of the jungle. The strong want to show cide becomes a viable alternative for glossy |Hochglanz-, glänzend
who rules the roost. Of course, I’m them. As a result, parents, school composure |Fassung, Gelassenheit
against the constant aggressive attacks staff, and other caring adults have chubby |mollig, pummelig
and degrading comments which may a massive role to play in preventing reinforcement |Verstärkung, Bestärkung
affect the emotional state of the victim. bullying, for example by showing female |Frau
But a little bit of conflict can be a good how to treat others with kindness and to instil sth |etw. einflößen
thing and teach kids how to stand up respect. Don’t forget that kids learn confidence |Selbstvertrauen
for their rights. We need to remember from adults’ actions.  self-worth |Selbstwertgefühl
that life is not all roses. inevitable |unvermeidlich
Matthew scrutiny |Prüfung, Kontrolle
to have a shape |eine (weibliche) Form/Figur
haben
8 As far as I’m concerned |was mich 9 undoubtedly ʌnˈdaʊtɪdli |zweifellos curvy |kurvig
betrifft to affect sb |jdn. beeinflussen, betreffen bum |Po, Hintern
misbehaviour ˌmɪsbɪˈheɪvjə(r) | tormented |gequält, gepeinigt to encourage sb to do sth |jdn. ermutigen,
Fehlverhalten, Ungezogenheit viable |realistisch, umsetzbar etw. zu tun
to rule the roost |der Herr im Hause adult |Erwachsener inch |Zoll
sein
degrading |erniedrigend, herabsetzen

8 9

25
How to Be
Fashionable
in 2021
Bucket hats, hoop earrings, large chain necklaces or maybe
garments made of leather? English Matters advises you on
how to look absolutely amazing in 2021.

A
lthough the trends may differ Be Colourful and
with every change of season Visible!
and year, fashion is undeni-
ably cyclical, with old trends Don’t be afraid of strong colours!
reappearing constantly in new, innovative Bright green, bright yellow and bright
ways. Experts, for instance, predict that orange – neon colours have been in trend
there will be a boom in eco-conscious for two years and we will remain mesmer-
brands and handmade items, like cro- ised by them in the fashion world in 2021.
chet and woven garments, inspired by Whether in the form of head to toe outfits,
1960s fashion trends. What else is pre- or, for those who want be more cautious –
dicted to be a major trend in the com- in the form of bright accessories or shoes
ing years? Would you like a little shop- – neon colours will be the best choice!
ping spree to freshen up your wardrobe They can be beautifully combined with
with a few new items of clothing? Then, soft, timeless hues such as tan and beige
let’s get going! Let’s take a look at what or with black for a great contrast.
Tips

will be very trendy next year, and stay


in vogue.
Sitting Shoes or Walking
Shoes?
Leather That Will Never
Go Out of Style Of course, we mustn’t forget about the
new footwear trends which are versatile all the rage |schwer in Mode, der letzte Schrei
Jackets, dresses, skirts and even tops and stylish! It is said that the average outfit |Kleidung, Kluft
– garments made of leather have been whether |ob
all the rage for a few years now and have 0 bucket hat ˈbʌkɪt hæt |Bucket-Hut, Eimerhut as far as X is concerned |wenn es um X geht
become an integral part of fashionable hoop earring |Reifohrring included |eingeschlossen
wardrobes. So, if you like leather clothes, leather |Leder 2 to remain |bleiben
we have good news for you. From head to 1 although |obwohl mesmerised |gebannt, fasziniert
toe, leather outfits are at the top of the list undeniably ˌʌndɪˈnaɪəbli |zweifellos cautious |achtsam, vorsichtig
for 2021 fashion trends. Whether for the constantly |ständig, andauernd combined with sth |kombiniert mit etw.
office, for a party night or just for every- to predict that… |vorhersagen, dass ... timeless |zeitlos
day life – this elegant fabric can be worn conscious |bewusst hue |Farbton
by all fashionistas in 2021. As far as the crochet |Häkeln, Häkel- tan |hellbraun, sonnengebräunt
colour is concerned, not only black grape woven |gewebt beige beɪʒ |beige
leather will be fashionable – everything shopping spree |Shoppingtour versatile ˈvɜːsətaɪl / ˈvɜːrsətl |vielfältig,
from dark green to pastel pink may be wardrobe ˈwɔːdrəʊb / ˈwɔːrdrəʊb |Kleiderschrank vielseitig
included! in vogue in vəʊɡ |in Mode average |durchschnittlich

1 2

26
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

woman buys around five pairs of shoes jeans, because next winter denim will be
per year. So, which ones are you going coming out to play with a whole new look. Lady Gaga
to buy in 2021? Gladiator sandals, espa- Options include a baroque pattern, a glitter
drilles or maybe thigh-high boots? These embellished look or an oversized model Who could be described as
kinds of shoes are treated as a must-have. with giant pockets. Undoubtedly, 2021 will the owner of the most divisive
What may, however, make us raise our be daring, with a plethora of all-over looks: wardrobes of a generation?
eyebrows in 2021 is the prediction that all including geometric prints from Prada, or The pop provocateur, actress,
fashionable women will wear their shoes surrealist motifs from Louis Vuitton. Don’t musician that is Lady Gaga, has
over their pants! No matter if you go to the forget though that every heart-throb looks undergone more outfit changes
office or have a chitchat with friends – in great in a sharply cut black suit! than one could ever hope to
summer, you should wrap the straps of achieve in a single lifetime. Her
your strappy sandals around your jeans style, which can be described
or trousers! A sensation guaranteed! Male Final Thought as stunning, outrageous, and
fashionistas, on the other hand, will be iconic, has become embed-
wearing brogues, loafers and white low It is no secret that nowadays fashion ded into her identity as an artist.
top trainers, both for formal occasions is one of the most important industries in Apart from her controversial and
and for casual days. our world. Style has become one of the infamous outfits, like the raw
primary ways in which people express meat dress, her fans have seen her
their personality, and in which they dis- wearing beetle wings, halos, pyro-
tinguish themselves from those around technic bras, or a white bubble
them. Some fashion victims actively seek leotard with spikes reminiscent of
out new styles, colours and silhouettes crystals.
that are outside of their comfort zone, all
for the sake of keeping up with the lat- owner |Besitzer
est fashions. But is it worth it? As Coco divisive |umstritten, kontrovers
Chanel once said, “Fashion is made to to undergo sth |sich etw. unterziehen
become unfashionable”. So, instead of to achieve sth |etw. erzielen,
changing your clothes constantly, try to erreichen
focus on building a wardrobe that will last outrageous |abscheulich, empörend
Embrace Accessories well beyond the current season. That’s our embedded into sth |in etw.
timeless advice!  eingebettet
There is no doubt that an outfit identity |Identität
would not be complete without a stun- apart from sth |außer etw.,
ning piece of jewellery, like a brooch 3 must-have |Muss (muss man haben) abgesehen von etw.
that your grandmother left you, or a pants |Hose raw rɔː |roh
necklace you couldn’t live without. It to have a chitchat with sb |mit jdm. beetle |Käfer

Tips
won’t be any different in 2021, as large plaudern halo |Heiligenschein
chain necklaces will make their way to the to wrap sth |etw. (herum)binden bra |BH
forefront of the season. From oversized and straps |Riemen, Bänder leotard |Gymnastikanzug
chunky designs, to delicate, small chains, on the other hand |andererseits spike |Stachel
these accessories are an easy way to tie an brogues |Herrenhalbschuh reminiscent of sth |an etw. erinnernd
outfit together. You should pair them with loafers |Slipper
a blazer, rollneck, or even a sweater – there low top trainers |Turnschuhe verschönert
are no rules with this timeless bling. If you accessories |Accessoires undoubtedly ʌnˈdaʊtɪdli |zweifellos
choose to wear one alone, or with other jewellery ˈdʒuːəlri |Schmuck plethora of sth |Vielzahl an etw.
similar-coloured treasure, you will have brooch |Brosche including sth |einschließlich etw.
an Instagram-worthy ensemble! to make one’s way to sth |den Weg zu etw. print |Druck, Aufdruck
finden heart-throb |Frauenschwarm
forefront |Spitze nowadays |heutzutage
Men’s Fashion – Motifs, chunky |klobig to distinguish oneself from sb |sich von
Glitter Touch, and rollneck |Rollkragenpullover jdm. unterscheiden
Denim Revisited bling |Klunker to seek out sth |nach etw. suchen
worthy |wert silhouette ˌsɪluˈet |Silhouette
All the men who would like to ensemble ɒnˈsɒmbl / ɑːnˈsɑːmbl |Ensemble, for the sake of sth |etw. zuliebe
remain stylish in 2021 should view Gesamteindruck to keep up with sth |mit etw. Schritt halten
a sweater with figures on it (above 4 look |Aussehen instead of sth |anstatt etw.
all faces) as a must-have. What to include sth |etw. einschließen to focus on sth |sich auf etw. konzentrieren
else? Say goodbye to basic glitter embellished |mit Glitzer/Glitter advice |Rat(schlag)

3 4

27
On the Road
Join English Matters on a journey through all things road
related, full of interesting facts and vocabulary that
could be useful down the road.

R
oads have been instrumental The Need for Speed…
in communication throughout Limits
history – both in terms of trav-
elling, but also in our ability to Every country that has roads has rules
talk to fellow humans. Roads allow us to for anyone who wishes to use them. One
travel far and fast, hopefully in relative of the most common rules is the speed
comfort. This means that we’re able to limit. There is one area of the UK that has
meet more people and explore more of the no speed limit at all though – the Isle of
world. Roads are not a new thing though, Man. There are also parts of the German
the earliest roads that we have found autobahn which have only advisory speed
evidence for date back to 4000 BCE. limits. For all other roads, there are speed
Examples of such early roads include limits which are usually set by the size of
stone-paved streets in Ur (located in the the road, its location relative to built-up
area now known as Iraq) and timber roads areas, and its purpose. Speed limits can
in Glastonbury, England. Roads are now change many times on one single road,
more popular than ever and there are so they are indicated by signs at the side
more in existence than ever before! More of the road. Remember if you’re driving
roads are being built every day and our in the UK or USA, these signs (just a
network to which they are all connected is number in a circle) indicate the speed
Travel

becoming increasingly complicated. The


complicated aspect of road systems is one
thing that makes them a very dangerous
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place to be, for this reason, it’s vitally


important to know the rules of the road
wherever you are, and to follow them like
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you follow the car in front.

0 to join sth |sich etw. anschließen ZUGANGSCODE


9hj
road related |straßenbezogen
ODER HÖR ES
1 in terms of sth |in Bezug auf etw. DIR AN AUF

to allow sb to do sth |jdm. erlauben etw. english-matters-magazin.de

zu tun
evidence |Beweis
to include sth |etw. einschließen
stone-paved |gepflastert
Iraq ɪˈrɑːk / ɪˈræk |Irak
timber |Holz-
network |Netzwerk
increasingly |zunehmend, zusehends
to follow sth |etw. (be)folgen
2 rule |Regel

common |häufig, geläufig, üblich


speed limit |Geschwindigkeitsbegrenzung built-up area |geschlossene Ortschaft
advisory |empfohlen purpose |Zweck, Ziel
set |festgelegt, festgesetzt indicated |angezeigt

1 2

28
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

limit in miles per their development has matched that of


hour. Speaking the road networks and the vehicles which British Roads
of UK speed lim- use them. In the 1960s, the development
its, the first ever fine of motorways in Britain led to a complete
for speeding was given to reconsideration of the use of road signs
Walter Arnold in Kent, England and how they were to be designed. It
in 1896 – he was travelling at 8mph! was decided that the principles of the
The limit was just 2mph! European system would be adopted, and
it is this standard that still forms the basis
of British road signage today. The main
Give Me a Sign features of this system are:
• Circles give orders – blue for giv-
Like speed limits, other rules ing orders such as ‘turn left’ and
and guidance are issued to red for forbidding something, for
drivers through the use of example ‘do not exceed 30mph.’ The
road signs. Since the national speed limit sign in England • There are just under 790,000
Romans first used is a white circle with a black diago- named roads in England,
road signs in nal line. Scotland and Wales.
Britain, • Triangles give warnings – usually • Only about 160,000 of those are
indicating what is coming ahead, for named ‘road’, though - others are
example traffic lights or a chicane. called street, close, lane etc.
• Rectangles give information • The most common name is ‘High
– most commonly, directions Street.’
where blue is for motor- • There is no road in the UK called
ways, green for pri- ‘The Road’ but there are nearly
mary routes, and 600 examples of ‘The Street’ and
white is for a few fewer examples of ‘The
all other Avenue.’
routes.
nearly | fast

Travel
3 fine |Bußgeld

guidance |Orientierungshilfe,
Leitung
issued |ausgegeben
4 vehicleˈviːəkl / ˈviːhɪkl |Fahrzeug

motorway |Autobahn
to lead to sth |zu etw. führen
reconsideration |Überdenken
feature |Eigenschaft
to forbid sth |etw. verbieten
to exceed sth |etw. überschreiten
triangle ˈtraɪæŋɡl |Dreieck
warning |Warnung
chicane ʃɪˈkeɪn |Verschwenkung
There rectangle ˈrektæŋɡl |Viereck
are a few commonly |üblicherweise,
exceptions to allgemein
these shape and a few |ein paar, einige
colour rules, most notably |insbesondere,
notably the red ‘stop’ besonders
sign which is actually an actually |eigentlich,
octagon. wirklich
octagon ˈɒktəɡən / ˈɑːktəɡɑːn |Achteck

3 4

29
A Rocky Road in traffic. But imagine where we’d be if
we didn’t have them. So, the next time
It’s said that all roads lead to Rome, you’re travelling, take a look at the road,
but if that’s true, how can cul-de-sacs or street, or perhaps crescent, and appre-
be explained?! A cul-de-sac is an urban ciate the history behind it and the future
road that does not lead anywhere, but possibilities it enables. If you still think
rather, has houses built all around it. It’s it’s just a middle of the road invention,
just one example of the many names dif- perhaps you should hit the road and find
ferent roads have in English, so learning something else to appreciate. 
them all can be a bit tricky. Technically
there are three types of road: motorways,
primary roads (called A roads and B
roads) and non-primary roads. However, Say Hi to the High
many words are used for the non-primary Street
roads, especially the ones that people
live on. The word you are most likely to A High Street is the main road
hear in English as an alternative to road (well, technically, street) that runs
is street. Although the terms are often through a town. It’s a place where
used interchangeably, there is an actual most of the shops were tradition-
difference: the primary function of a road ally located and is still home to
is the movement of traffic, whereas for most banks, post offices and other
streets, although the movement of traffic such buildings.
is important, it is not as high priority as
the buildings which surround the street. to run through sth |durch etw. gehen/ 5 cul-de-sac ˈkʌl də sæk |
Some of the other common street types laufen/führen Sackgasse
include: urban ˈɜːbən / ˈɜːrbən |städtisch
• Avenue – often a large, grand street, primary road |Hauptstraße
but sometimes just the same as any interchangeably ˌɪntəˈtʃeɪndʒəbli / ˌɪntərˈtʃeɪndʒəbl |
other street. austauschbar, synonym
• Lane – a narrow street, often whereas |wohingegen
without space for two cars to to surround sth |etw. umgeben
pass each other. avenue ˈævənjuː / ˈævənuː |Allee
Travel

• Drive – usually a short pri- without sth |ohne etw.


vate road. to pass each other |aneinander vorbeifahren
• Way – a short road, often loop |Wendehammer, Wendeschleife
not leading anywhere. close kləʊs |Sackgasse
Similar to a cul-de-sac. crescent ˈkresnt / ˈkreznt |sichelförmige Straße
• Court – usually ends in curved |gekurvt, gebogen
a loop. to take sth for granted |etw. für selbstverständlich halten
• Close – the same as a to be stuck in traffic |im Stau stehen
cul-de-sac. [pronounced 6 to appreciate sth |etw. schätzen
like the adjective ‘close’ to enable sth |etw. ermöglichen
meaning ‘not far’ rather middle of sth |Mitte von etw.
than the verb ‘close’ mean- invention |Erfindung
ing ‘to shut’] to hit the road |losfahren, sich auf den
• Terrace – usually a flat area at Weg machen
the top of a hill.
• Crescent – as the name suggests,
a curved road, often starting and
finishing at different points on one,
larger, road.

End of the Road


Roads are something we often take for
granted when travelling. They’re some-
thing we do not like when we’re stuck
5 6 3

30
Prefixes Busted

Read about prefixes and their power to change the Last but not least, there is the ‘overbearing’ prefix with
meaning of words. Latin origin which means everything, everywhere. It is the
prefix ‘OMNI’. Examples of it include the following words,
The most significant group constitute the negative prefixes omnipresent, omnivorous.
which change the meaning of words to the opposite or make

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them negative. Below, you’ll find a list of words belonging Hopefully, English Matters has
to this category which are definitely worth remembering. managed to convince you how
• UN: unattractive, unnatural, unemployed, unconscious unavoidable as well as irresist-
• IN: incorrect, inaccurate, intolerant, indecent ible prefixes can be.

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• IM: immature, immoral, impossible, impractical
• IL: illegal, illiterate, illegitimate, illegible ZUGANGSCODE
• IR: irrelevant, irresponsible, irreplaceable, irresistible 5go
• DIS: dishonest, disloyal, disgraceful, disrespectful ODER HÖR ES

ENGLISH MATTERS Language AUSSCHNEIDEN UND SAMMELN


DIR AN AUF
• NON: nonconformist, non-violence, non-governmental, english-matters-magazin.de
non-smoker
• DE: deforestation, to decontaminate, to dehydrate, to
destabilise
• MIS: to misuse, to misinform, to misunderstand, to
mistreat

Also worth mentioning are the prefixes ‘mal’, ‘a’ and ‘ill’. prefix |Präfix whereas |wohingegen
The prefix ‘ill’ suggests that something has been done ‘badly’ busted |erwischt malpractice |Amtsmissbrauch
and ‘in a wrong way’, for example: meaning |Bedeutung maladjusted |
• ILL: ill-informed, ill-advised, ill-bred, ill-judged to constitute |darstellen, verhaltensgestört,
ausmachen unangepasst
The prefix ‘a’ means ‘without’, whereas the meaning of ‘ma definitely |definitiv enough |genug
’ is ‘bad, badly, wrongly’. worth sth |etw. wert overzealous |übereifrig
• A: apolitical, amoral, asexual, atypical unemployed |arbeitslos overkill |Übermaß
• MAL: malfunction, malpractice, maladjusted, malcontent unconscious ʌnˈkɒnʃəs / understaffed |unterbesetzt
ʌnˈkɑːnʃəs |unbewusst attitude |Einstellung
Another interesting category is the prefixes ‘over’ and indecent ɪnˈdiːsnt | to circumnavigate |
‘under’. The prefix ‘over’ means ‘too much’, whereas ‘under’ unanständig umschiffen, umsteuern
signifies that there is ‘not enough’ of something. Study the immature |unreif, kindisch to circumcise |beschneiden
examples. illiterate ɪˈlɪtərət |ungebildet, to circumvent sth |etw.
• OVER: over-achiever, overzealous, overkill, overjoyed Analphabet umgehen
• UNDER: underachiever, to underestimate, understaffed, illegitimate |unerlaubt, hence |daher, deshalb
underdeveloped unehelich commonly |häufig,
illegible ɪˈledʒəbl |unlesbar allgemein
The list of prefixes is impressively long. There are prefixes irreplaceable |unersetzlich to redo sth |etw. neu machen,
referring to number, such as ‘tri’, to attitude, for instance irresistible |unwiderstehlich wiederherstellen
‘anti’, as well as prefixes of units, such as ‘milli’. Let’s con- disgraceful |erbärmlich, to predate |älter sein als etw.
centrate for a while on the prefix ‘CIRCUM’ which means schändlich preview |Vorschau
‘around’. It appears in the words such as ‘to circumnavigate’, disrespectful |respektlos last but not least |zu guter
‘circumcise’ or ‘circumvent’. Hence, a sailor can circum- non-smoker |Nichtraucher Letzt
navigate the globe, a man’s penis can be circumcised and a deforestation |Abholzung Latin |Latein
law can be circumvented. to decontaminate sth |etw. origin |Herkunft, Ursprung
entgiften to include sth |etw.
Other commonly used prefixes are the affixes ‘RE’ and to misuse sth |etw, einschließen
‘PRE’. ‘Re’ is used when something is done again, whereas missbrauchen omnipresent |omnipräsent,
‘pre’ means ‘before’. Study the sentences below. to mistreat sb/sth |jdn./etw. allgegenwärtig
The soup is probably already cold. You need to reheat it misshandeln omnivorous ɒmˈnɪvərəs /
before serving. ill-bred |unerzogen, schlecht ɑːmˈnɪvərəs |alles fressend,
I can’t go out tonight, I need to redo my history essay. erzogen omnivor
This marvellous village church predates the 17th century. ill-judged |unbedacht to convince sb |jdn. überzeugen
Have you seen the preview of The Kissing Booth 3? without sth |ohne etw. unavoidable |unvermeidbar
Prefixes Busted | EXERCISES

A. What are the opposites of the following words? Add E. Check if you remember the meaning of the following
the prefixes. words. Answer the questions.
…… replaceable …… graceful …… conscious
…… political to …… treat …… legible How does an overzealous person behave?
…… respectful …… practical …… decent ...................................................................................
…… conformist …… correct …… loyal Are you a nonconformist?
Language AUSSCHNEIDEN UND SAMMELN

...................................................................................
B. Fill in the gaps with the opposites of the given words. What is indecent behaviour like?
...................................................................................
a) I’m afraid we’ll have to …………………… (LOOK) Have you ever been dehydrated?
certain shortcomings of her character and behaviour if we ...................................................................................
want her to accept the leading role in our movie. Is your handwriting illegible?
b) I’m not going to pretend not to see anything when such ...................................................................................
…………………… (JUSTICE) happens before my eyes. Are you a non-smoker?
c) His whereabouts are still …………………… (KNOWN). ...................................................................................
d) The prisoner is …………………… (CAPABLE) of feel- Have you ever watched Mission Impossible?
ing empathy and compassion. ...................................................................................
e) The soup is …………………… (EDIBLE). It’s disgusting. Who is the most intolerant person you know?
f) Did you notice anything …………………… (USUAL) ...................................................................................
that day?
g) We don’t sell alcohol to …………………… (AGE) boys F. Use a dictionary. Add one more adjective to each of the
and girls. following groups of words.
h) It’s the first time I’ve been ……………………
(FAITHFUL) to my spouse. UN: unattractive, unnatural, unemployed, unconscious,
……………………….
I’m afraid |Ich fürchte (mich) IN: incorrect, inaccurate, intolerant, indecent,
shortcomings |Mängel, Defizite ……………………….
to pretend |vortäuschen, vorgeben IM: immature, immoral, impossible, impractical,
whereabouts |Aufenthaltsort ……………………….
ENGLISH MATTERS

empathy ˈempəθi |Empathie, Einfühlungsvermögen IR: irrelevant, irresponsible, irreplaceable, irresistible,


compassion |Mitleid, Mitgefühl ……………………….
disgusting dɪsˈɡʌstɪŋ |ekelhaft DIS: dishonest, disloyal, disgraceful, disrespectful,
……………………….

C. Fill in the table with the missing word forms. G. Circle the correct prefix.
ADJECTIVE OPPOSITE NOUN UN/INforgivable, UN/INconsiderate, UN/INscientific,
happy happiness UN/INprofitable, UN/INconvenient, UN/INpredictable,
UN/INdecisive, UN/INkind
believable belief
mortal mortality
safe safety
credible credibility
advantageous advantage able, indecisive, unkind
unforgivable, inconsiderate, unscientific, unprofitable, inconvenient, unpredict-
mortal |tödlich G.

credible |glaubwürdig
possible answer: ungenerous, infallible, impure, irreligious, disobedient
F.
advantageous ˌædvənˈteɪdʒəs |vorteilhaft lantic, bicentennial
postwar, foresee, supernatural, hypersensitive, coworker, semicircle, transat-

D. Add the following prefixes to the given words.


D.
unhappy, unbelievable, immortal, unsafe, incredible, disadvantageous

SEMI-, SUPER-, FORE-, TRANS-,


C.
underage, h) unfaithful
HYPER-, CO-, POST-, BI- a) overlook, b) injustice, c) unknown, d) incapable, e) inedible, f) unusual, g)

............ war, ............ see, ............ natural, ............ sensitive,


B.
spectful, impractical, indecent, nonconformist, incorrect, disloyal
............ worker, ............ circle, ............ atlantic, irreplaceable, disgraceful, unconscious, apolitical, to mistreat, illegible, disre-

............ centennial
A.
Answers:
ENGLISH MATTERS 1|2021

Krav Maga
Self-Defence, Israeli style

Martial arts are most commonly associated with the Far East. For example,
karate comes from Japan, while kung-fu has its roots in China. However,
Israel’s favourite martial art is called Krav Maga. This form of self-defence
is rapidly gaining in popularity both inside and outside the Holy Land.

A Brief Description in Israel by instructing the IDF (Israeli contact combat |Kontaktkampf
Defence Forces) as well as the country’s though |obwohl
The Hebrew term Krav Maga is usu- police force. After he retired from the weapon |Waffe
ally translated into English as ‘contact IDF, he started teaching Israeli civilians. combative system |Kampfsystem
combat’. This martial art is a “hand-to- The subsequent success of Krav Maga origins |Ursprünge
hand” self-defence system, though weap- has given rise to a number of dedicated although |obwohl
ons may be used in combat if necessary. It international training organisations, such to contend that… |behaupten, dass ...
is the official combative system of Israel’s as the IKMF (International Krav Maga to claim that… |behaupten, dass ...
Defence Forces and is practised by mar- Federation), Krav Maga Worldwide, the devised |entwickelt, erfunden
tial arts experts throughout the world. European Federation of Krav Maga, the Jewish ˈdʒuːɪʃ |jüdisch
Krav Maga Alliance and Krav Maga raised |aufgezogen
Global. to put sth into practice |etw. in die Praxis
Origins umsetzen
to defend sth |etw. verteidigen
Although Krav Maga has its power The Concept: quarter |Viertel
base in Israel, most sources contend that Simultaneous Attack to escape |fliehen
its true origin lies in Central Europe. They and Defence to join sth |sich etw. anschließen
claim that it was devised by Hungarian-

Leisure
struggle for sth |Kampf um etw.
Israeli champion boxer, judo special- The initial idea behind Krav Maga to come to fruition |Früchte tragen
ist and jiu-jitsu expert Imi Lichtenfeld, was to teach military conscripts the most military |militärisch
born in 1910 to a Jewish family living fundamental and practical techniques to put sb in charge of sth |jdm. die
in Budapest, but raised in Bratislava. of European-style boxing, wrestling Verantwortung von etw. übertragen
He began training at the age of ten, and and street fighting, plus elements of 2 to retire |in den Ruhestand treten
during the second half of the 1930s he Japanese martial arts like judo and jiu- subsequent |anschließend
put his skills into practice as he helped to jitsu – quickly and effectively. Just like to give rise to sth |etw. verursachen, zu etw.
defend the Jewish quarter of the Slovak most other martial arts, Krav Maga does führen
capital against anti-Semitic aggressors. not encourage users to seek physical con- dedicated |engagiert, gewidmet
In the early 1940s, Lichtenfeld and frontation unless it is impossible to avoid. alliance əˈlaɪəns |Bund, Allianz
his family escaped from Nazi-occupied Nevertheless, it is said that the best form simultaneous ˌsɪmlˈteɪniəs / ˌsaɪmlˈteɪniəs |
Europe to Palestine, where he joined the of defence is attack, and Krav Maga is gleichzeitig
Zionist Movement in its struggle for an based on a combination of simultaneous conscript |Rekrut, Wehrpflichtiger
independent Israeli Jewish State. This offensive and defensive manoeuvres, all to encourage sb to do sth |jdn. ermutigen,
came to fruition in 1948, and the mili- of which are performed in continuous etw. zu tun
tary leaders of Israel were so impressed to seek sth |nach etw. suchen
with Lichtenfeld’s fighting skills and 0 self-defence |Selbstverteidigung unless |es sei denn, außer
knowledge of combat techniques that martial art ˌmɑːʃl ˈɑːt / ˌmɑːrʃl ˈɑːrt | to avoid sth |etw. vermeiden
they put him in charge of training the Kampfkunst nevertheless |nichtsdestotrotz
country’s top military forces. He took commonly |allgemein, häufig manoeuvre məˈnuːvə(r) / məˈnuːvər |Manöver
the title of Grand Master, and for almost favourite |Lieblings- performed |ausgeführt
two decades he popularised Krav Maga 1 Hebrew ˈhiːbruː |hebräisch continuous |kontinuierlich, andauernd

1 2

33
motion. It also distinguishes between Grading System
physical aggression and emotional
aggression (anger), and seeks to develop In Israel, the vast majority of Krav
the former rather than the latter. In simple Maga organisations rank students accord-
terms: if there is no way out of a fight, ing to Lichtenfeld’s coloured belt grading
Krav Maga should finish it with maxi- system, which is similar to the one used in
mum celerity. Judo. Students work their way up from a
white belt through yellow, orange, green,
blue and brown belts to the prestigious
Simple but Effective black belt. Once they have achieved this,
they can progress even further from first
No prior experience of martial arts is dan to ninth dan.
required to start training Krav Maga. In
combat, users of Krav Maga are encour-
aged to use simple and easily repeatable Well Worth Learning
strikes, continue to hit their opponents
until they are totally incapacitated, use In a world which, in places, is becom-
any available objects to strike their oppo- ing increasingly violent, it is always use-
sition and aim for the most vulnerable ful to master some kind of martial art.
parts of the body, including the eyes, With its wide range of simple but effec-
throat, groin, foot, fingers and liver. tive attack and defence manoeuvres, Krav
Maga ranks as one of the best self-defence
systems to learn, especially for people
Training Techniques and new to martial arts. 
Moves
3 to distinguish between sth and sth |

The principles of this martial art also zwischen etw. und etw. unterscheiden
emphasise how important it is for the user anger |Wut, Zorn
to develop an understanding and maintain the former |ersterer
awareness of his or her surroundings. This the latter |letzterer
makes it easier to identify potential threats celerity |Schnelligkeit
prior to an attack, find objects that can prior ˈpraɪə(r) / ˈpraɪər |frühere
be used in combat and discover potential required |erforderlich, notwendig
escape routes. During training sessions, repeatable rɪˈpiːtəbl |wiederholbar throw |Werfen
students are frequently put in controlled strike |Schlag choke hold tʃəʊk həʊld |Würgegriff
scenarios designed to increase their mental to hit sb |jdn. schlagen, treffen to derive from sth |von etw. abstammen
Leisure

toughness. This helps them control their incapacitated |lahmgelegt, unfähig gemacht head butt |Kopfstoß
impulses, so that they only attack as a last available |verfügbar, erhältlich chop |Hieb, Schlag
resort, rather than making rash decisions to strike sb |jdn. treffen head lock |Unterarmwürgegriff des Kopfes
with dire consequences. vulnerable ˈvʌlnərəbl |verletzlich, punch |Schlag
A Krav Maga expert has an arsenal verwundbar kick |Tritt
of simple but effective attack and defence including sth |einschließlich etw. pinning |Festhalten, Fesseln
mechanisms at his or her disposal. These groin |Leiste, Rippe hair/wrist grip |Griff an den Haaren/dem
include ground work, take-downs, throws liver |Leber Handgelenk
and escapes from choke holds, all of which to emphasise sth tu ˈemfəsaɪz ˈsʌmθɪŋ | bear hug |Bärengriff, Bärenumarmung
are derived from wrestling, judo, aikido etw. betonen knife stab |Messerstechen
and are also seen in MMA (Mixed Martial awareness əˈweənəs / əˈwernəs | fall break |Sturzpause, Sturzhilfe
Arts). Additionally, there are empty hand Bewusstsein impact |Auswirkung, Effekt
weapon defence moves borrowed from threat |Gefahr, Bedrohung to be floored |zu Fall gebracht werden
aikido. Offensive moves include elbow and prior to sth |vor etw. 4 grading system |Abstufungssystem
knee strikes, head butts, various chops, head escape route |Fluchtweg majority |Mehrheit
locks, punches and kicks. Defensive moves toughness |Härte, Zähigkeit according to sth |laut etw.
are designed to block all these attacks and as a last resort |als letzte Option prestigious preˈstɪdʒəs / preˈstiːdʒəs |
also to escape from pinning, hair and wrist rash |unüberlegt, voreilig angesehen, prestigeträchtig
grips, bear hugs, as well as knife stabs and dire |fatal, schrecklich to achieve sth |etw. erreichen, erzielen
even gun attacks – coming from all direc- at one’s disposal |zu jds. Verfügung well worth X |sehr X-wert
tions. There are also special fall breaks to ground work |Bodenkampf violent |gewalttätig, brutal
minimise the impact of being floored. take-down |Stürzen to master sth |etw. meistern, beherrschen

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