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EVALUATION OF THRESHOLD STRESS OF SUBGRADES FOR HIGHWAY
FORMATION BASED ON THE UNCONFINED CYCLIC TRIAXIAL TEST

Elsa Eka Putri ( )


PhD Student, School of Engineering and Information Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia 88999
(Lecturer, University of Andalas, Indonesia)
e-mail: elsaeka@ft.unand.ac.id, elsaeka@gmail.com

N.S.V Kameswara Rao


Professor, School of Engineering and Information Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia 88999
e-mail: nsv@ums.edu.my.

M. A. Mannan
Professor Madya, School of Engineering and Information Technology,
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia 88999
e-mail: mannan@ums.edu.my.

ABSTRACT: Subgrade for highway formation is the lowest pavement layer that affords all the stress induced from all
pavement layers above including the traffic loading. The applied stress from the traffic loading, is supposed to be in cyclic
shape, and should be less than the shear strength of the pavement material that it can sustain. Threshold stress is the stress
level above which the stress can lead to excessive permanent deformation due to cyclic loading. Thus to evaluate the
threshold stress soil subgrade is important in order to produce a good design of highway formation. In this investigation,
the threshold stress was studied from the point of view of cyclic deviator stress from unconfined cyclic triaxial test. Cyclic
deviator stress is the stress level during cyclic loading, and the incremental of cyclic deviator stress was chosen from the
small to the highest stress which can lead to permanent deformation or the failure of the sample. The compacted clayey
sand soils are tested using the GDS triaxial testing instrument. The relationship between the incremental values of
permanent strain in the axial direction is developed. It can be concluded that for ratio of threshold stress more than 70%
the permanent axial strain becomes very high leading to failure of the samples.

Keywords: Threshold stress; cyclic stress ratio; unconfined cyclic triaxial test

1. INTRODUCTION behaviour of the soil subgrade that experiences the cyclic


loading due to moving wheel loads of vehicles.
Many structures are subjected to cyclic loading. This
includes railway track as well as the highway and runway Thus evaluation of the threshold stress and using it for
formation (subgrade). With the increasing traffic axle better design for constructing the highway and runway
loads, speeds and traffic density, the conventional design formation is necessary which can be obtained using the
method used for designing the highway and runway unconfined cyclic triaxial test.
pavements need to be improved for better performance and
low maintenance cost of highways. Subgrade as a highway
or runway foundation should be stressed well below the
limits of failure stress induced by the traffic loading and it 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
should not exceed the threshold stress of subgrade soils. Subgrade of the pavement is laid either in cutting or on fill
Threshold stress is the highest level of stress that subgrade area, depending on the topography itself. When the
can still deal with so that subgrade formation will not subgrade is laid in fill, the compaction should be properly
deform excessively due to repeated loading of the moving done to fulfill the requirements of the formation. Hence,
vehicle. This test was developed to investigate the for standardization of testing, tests are done on the
compacted samples
The specimen deformation will be independent of the 3. METHODOLOGY
frequency if the maximum number of cycles is 100,000
and it depends only on total number of cycles (Sangrey For evaluation of the threshold stress, tests are conducted
1968, Shahu 1993). on locally available clayey sands with the Liquid Limit of
53%, Plastic Limit of 23.7% and Specific Gravity of 2.55.
The threshold stress is based on the development of plastic In order to study the threshold stress of the soil the
strain with number of cycles at different cyclic stress unconfined cyclic test (Shahu, 1993). The soil sample is
ratios. Shahu (1999) carried out threshold stress studies tested in unconfined condition. The sample is then
based on the concept of Rubin et. al (1970) that threshold subjected to 100 load cycles at 1 cycle per minute in
stress is defined as a maximum stress that can be applied undrained condition. The soil was then tested to failure in
to the sample that does not cause cumulative strain greater undrained loading.
than 10 percent in 1000 cycles. Threshold stress (critical
level of repeated stress) value is not a basic material In this investigation the formation was assumed to be laid
parameter but is dependent on mean effective stress, on filling embankment. Thus the compacted sample was
loading wave shape, frequency and previous loading prepared to indicate that the formation is on the compacted
history. subgrade. The soil was compacted using modified Proctor
compaction test as per BS 1377-4:1990.
Fall et. al, (1997) carried out monotonic and cyclic triaxial
loading tests on reconstituted samples of western Sample is subjected to cyclic load with defined cyclic
Senegalese laterites. In order to model the response of the stress ratio, Rf., as a percentage defined as
soils under the traffic load the permanent strain results and
variation of the resilient modulus during loading are Rf = (qr / qu ) x 100 (1)
considered. where qr is the cyclic deviator stress and qu is the
unconfined compressive strength.
Shahu (1999) conducted the tests on alluvial silty clay
known as Gangetic silt using unconfined cyclic triaxial Calculating qu from an unconfined compression test on a
test. He has studied the unconfined cyclic triaxial test as a similar sample and also estimate the qr, cyclic stress ratio
proposed test methodology to develop the threshold stress can subsequently be determined. The cyclic deviator stress
for the soil for the design of railway formation and found level has been varied, while the frequency is kept constant
that there is significant change in stiffness of the soil due for all tests. The incremental cyclic deviator stress was
to cyclic loading. chosen from the small to the highest stress which can lead
Shahu et al (2000) had developed a threshold stress to permanent deformation or the failure of the sample.
approach for subgrade soils with the basis of the design
such that it keeps the induced maximum deviator stress on
the subgrade well below its threshold stress. Changes in 4. RESULTS
plastic strain generation on cyclic loading and stiffness of
the soil are relevant to highway and runway pavement 4.1. Soil Classification
formations. He defined the parameter Rf which is called
cyclic stress ratio for purposes of analyzing the results. Soil was collected along the Sulaman road Kota Kinabalu,
Sabah. Within the scope of the laboratory studies, index
Rf (cyclic stress ratio) is defined as the ratio at which a properties, compaction characteristics, classification tests,
sudden increase in incremental plastic strain occurs (Shahu and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests of the subgrade
et. al 1999). Thus, based on studies related to development soil were performed to determine the geotechnical
of plastic strain the relationship between cumulative properties of the material. The results were shown in
plastic strain and cyclic stress ratio has been evaluated. Table 1. The particle size distribution analysis of the soil
involves determining the percentage by weight of particles
The cyclic stress ratio was also studied by Attya et. al within the different size ranges.
(2007) who used the definition of cyclic stress ratio
developed by Brown et. al (1975) and Zhou and Gong Table 1. Index Properties, Compaction Characteristics,
(2001). They define the cyclic stress ratio as the ratio Classification, and CBR of Soil.
between cyclic deviator stress qcyclic to the static deviator
Soil Properties
stress at failure qfailure.
Liquid Limit 56 %

Plasticity Index 33.8 %


Specific Gravity 2.56 the higher of the deformation as indicated by the higher of
the axial strain.
USCS SC/SP
Classification
AASHTO A-2-7

Optimum Moisture
Standard Content 18%
Proctor
Max. Dry Density 1647 kg/m3

Optimum Moisture
Modified Content 13%
Proctor
Max. Dry Density 1918 kg/m3

CBR value 6.5%

4.2. Unconfined Compressive Triaxial Test


Fig. 2. Maximum of deviator stress occur after 100 cycles
From the modified Proctor compaction test result, the
sample was prepared to be tested for the unconfined In Figure 3 present the data of the moisture content, bulk
compressive strength. In this test, the sample was mounted density and maximum dry density of the entire sample
on the triaxial apparatus. The conventional monotonic tested in laboratory.
unconfined compression tests were carried out following
the procedure given by Bishop & Henkel (1962). The
results are shown in Figure 1.

   
Fig.3. Moisture content, bulk density and dry density for all
Fig.1. Deviator stress of the soil from the static monotonic shear. samples
As shown in Figure 1, the average unconfined It can be seen from Figure 3 and related to Figure 2 that
compressive strength of the clayey sand from monotonic there is no relationship apparent between the moisture
unconfined triaxial compression test is 967.475 kPa. content changes and the deviator stress result.

4.3. Maximum Deviator Stress with varying cyclic stress 4.4. The deformation due to cyclic loading
ratio
The cyclic loading leads to an accumulation of
The result of unconfined cyclic triaxial test after 100 deformation that can cause the permanent deformation.
cycles of loading is presented in Figure 2. The deformation of the sample after 100 cycles of loading
is presented in Figure 4.
Figure 2 shows data of the cyclic stress ratio imposed to
the sample. It can be seen that the higher the cyclic stress
ratio, Rf, will be resulted in maximum deviator stress and
is still below 5% and the soil sample can still sustain the
cyclic loading utilization up to 100 cycles. Moreover, as
the cyclic stress ratio is increased above 50% the
deformations of the sample are increased sharply. It leads
to the failure of the sample. In this study for the cyclic
stress ratio above 70%, the clayey sand soils will fail
before 100 cycles of loading.

4.5. Determination of threshold stress

Figure 5 has been drawn based on the results of


unconfined cyclic triaxial test. There are three parameters
Figure 4; Deformation of the sample due to cyclic shear that have been studied. Firstly, permanent strain at failure,
loading based on the monotonic loading result after application of
As seen on Figure 4, the deformation of the sample will the cyclic loading to the sample is determined. Secondly,
develop quickly, as the cyclic stress ratio increased. It can permanent strain after 100 cycles, axial strain is
be noted from Figure 4, at low cyclic stress ratios which determined. Thirdly, permanent strain before cyclic
are below 50% the deformation of the sample, axial strain loading, the axial strain result is recorded.

Figure 5; Plastic Strain vs. Rf for unconfined cyclic tests

For all the clayey sand soils samples, the permanent strain failure of the sample. The corresponding value of plastic
at failures is above 7.5% in average. As the ratio of cyclic strain, εp after 100 cycles, for the case of unconfined tests
stress, Rf, is increased, consequently the permanent strain on soil samples compacted at optimum moisture content is
increases sharply. Moreover, the permanent strain before of the order of 7.5%.
cyclic loading was high for the Rf above 70%.

For higher Rf, the samples will have a high deformation.


As can be seen in Figure 5 (indicated with arrows, for Rf 5. CONCLUSIONS
more than 70%), the sample is failing with excessive
strains in less number of cycles and the permanent axial As the soil samples deform quickly when the cyclic stress
strain at 100 load cycles becomes very high, leading to ratio is 70% or above, it means that the threshold stress
ratio of this soil is 70%. This value is more suitable to be transportation routes. Geotechnique 49, No. 5, pp 639-
used as a parameter of highway and runway formation 649
design because it gives a much better insight into the soil
behaviour under repeated loading, thus simulating the field Shahu, J. T., Yudhbir, Kameswara Rao, N.S.V. (2000). A
soil condition subjected to passing wheel loads. However, rational method for design of railroad track
since the threshold stress values are based on laboratory foundation, soils and foundations. Japanese
tests conducted under idealized condition, for example at Geotechnical Society. Soil and Foundation vol.40.
optimum moisture content or at room temperature, etc, it is
suggested that the design formation depth based on this Zhou, J., and Gong, X. (2001). Strain degradation of
approach be increased by 25% (Shahu, 1993). This saturated clay under cyclic loading. Canadian
recommendation is primarily meant to take into account Geotech. J. 38(1): 208–212 (2001)
the actual highway pavement layers and drainage
prevailing in the field.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project is sponsored by the FRGS (Fundamental


Research Grant Scheme) Universiti Malaysia Sabah no.
FRG0074-TK-1-2006 and FRG 174-TK-2008

REFERENCE

Attya, A., Indraratna, B., and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2007).


Cyclic behaviour of PVD-soft soil subgrade for
improvement of railway tracks. Proceedings of the
10th Australia New Zealand Conference on
Geomechanics, Brisbane, Australia, 21-24 October
2007, 2, 36-41

BS 1377-4:1990.Method of Test for Soils for Civil


Engineering Purposes

M. Fall, J. -P. Tisot, and I. K. Cisse, (1997). Undrained


Behaviour of Compacted Gravel Lateritic Soils from
Western Senegal under Monotonic and Cyclic
Triaxial Loading , Engineering Geology 47(1-2): 71-
87.

Kim D, Kim J. R. (2007). Resilient Behavior of


Compacted Subgrade Soils under the Repeated
Triaxial Test. Construction and Building Materials.
21 pp. 1470-1479

Koike, M., T. Kaji, Usaborisut, P.,Takigawa, T.,, Yoda,


A., Takahashi S. (2002). Several contributions to soil
compactibility induced by cyclic loading test. Journal
of Terramechanics 39(3): 127-141.

Shahu, J.T.,(1993). Some Analytical and Experimental


Investigation to Predict the Behaviour of Soil under
the Railway Tract. PhD thesis, IIT Kanpur.

Shahu, J.T., Yudhbir, and Kameswara Rao, N.S.V.(1999).


A simple test methodology for soil under
OPTIMUM BINDER FOR POROUS MIXTURES MADE BY VARIOUS
AGGREGATE GRADATIONS AND ITS PROPERTIES TOWARDS
PRODUCING GROUTED MACADAM COMPOSITE PAVEMENT
Nadiah Md. HUSAIN Hilmi MAHMUD
Postgraduate Student Professor
Dept. Of Civil Engineering Dept. of Civil Engineering
University Malaya University Malaya
50603 Kuala Lumpur 50603 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia Malaysia
Tel: 603 – 79675203 / 5339 Tel: 603 – 79675203/5339
E-mail: nadiah.husain09@gmail.com E-mail: hilmi@um.edu.my

Mohamed Rehan KARIM


Professor
Dept. Of Civil Engineering
University Malaya
50603 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
Tel: 603 – 79675201 / 5339
E-mail: rehan@um.edu.my

Grouted Macadam (GM) is generally a composite pavement which is manufactured by preparing a highly workable fluid mortar
which is specially designed with a very high early and 28 day strength (1 day-45 MPa, 28 day-105MPa) by filling the water
consistency fluid mortar into a very open porous asphalt skeleton (25-35% VIM). The combination of both components will
produced a semi-flexible pavement or GM which has the best features of both concrete and flexible pavement where it will
replace the conventional wearing course. The aim of this investigation is mainly to find the optimum binder for three (3) different
aggregate gradations (max, mid, min) by Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) and its properties towards
producing a grouted macadam composite pavement. These include voids in mix (VIM), Bulk Density, and Resilient Modulus
(IDT). The optimum binder was achieved by a binder drainage test (BDT) developed by Road Engineering Association of
Malaysia (REAM), similar to the Transport Research Laboratory, UK and commonly used to set an upper limit on the optimum
binder content. The results indicated that maximum aggregate gradation requires the least percentage of binder followed by
median and finally minimum aggregate gradation. It can be concluded that the more porous the sample (high in VIM), the lesser
the percentage of binder were to be used and vice versa. Finally, it also shows that the three (3) different aggregate gradations
significantly affected its main properties mentioned.

Keywords: Binder drainage test, Porous Asphalt, Aggregate Gradation

1
1. INTRODUCTION very high workability fluid grout and at the same
time attain a relatively high compressive strength is
Pavements or road surface is the durable surface required to bond together the two composition with
material laid down on an area intended to sustain minimal porosity (<8%). Porous asphalt skeleton is
traffic – vehicular or foot traffic. In other word, it is manufactured by using bitumen as binder, course
the structure which separates the tires of vehicles aggregates and fine aggregates. Very open porous
from the underlying foundation material. The choice asphalt is required in order to allow a self compacting
of road surfacing has traditionally been between cementitious grout to impregnate into the porous
asphalt (flexible) pavement and the concrete (rigid) asphalt skeleton under the influence of gravitational
pavement. Flexible pavement consists of asphalt as a force. Thus it is important that the porous asphalt
binder (sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or skeleton to achieve a very high air voids content of
semi-solid that is present in most crude petroleum) 28-32% with a depth of 100mm each sample
mixed with various sizes of mineral aggregates. The prepared ant at the same time maintain a very thick
total pavement structure deflects under loading. A layer of bitumen coating the aggregates.
typical flexible pavement composed of several layers
which every layer receives loads from the above Pervious or porous surfacing materials were initially
layer and spreads them out, and then passes these developed in the United Kingdom in the 1950‟s.
loads to the next layer below. Thus, the deeper the However, it was not until recently that Porous
layer, the less load it must carry. Concrete pavement Asphalt (formerly known as Pervious Macadam or
on the other hand typically comprises of binder Friction Course) has been used to any significant
(cement), water and aggregates. This type of structure degree on British highways (Woodside A. R. et. al.).
deflects very little under loading due to its high This has not been the case on mainland Europe
modulus of elasticity of its surface course. Because of where, over the past 5 to 10 years, the use of Porous
its relative rigidity, the pavement structure distributes Asphalt has expanded dramatically in countries such
loads over a wide area with only one or at most two as France, Belgium, Holland, Austria and
structural layers compared to flexible pavement. Due Switzerland (Fabb T.R.J. 1993). In Malaysia, the first
to the depth of concrete layer, it will eventually application of porous asphalt pavement took place in
increase the cost of production. 1991 and followed in the year 1995 on the Federal
Highway. The porous asphalt section along the
Road surfacing pavement has always been one of the Federal Highway carries some of the heaviest traffic
major issues in the most developing countries. and has recently been resurfaced with porous asphalt.
Finding the best design of surfacing layer had been a (Hamzah M.O. et. al.).
positive competition among manufacturers and
designers. Road surfacing pavement demands Many agencies around the world use different
adequate strength to ensure satisfactory durability. terminologies for porous asphalt pavement, and
Both pavement types discussed have their own specifications that are slightly different. The various
advantages and also shortcomings. As for example, terminologies used include open-graded asphalt
rutting as a result of increased stresses in heavy-duty (OGA), open graded friction course (OGFC), and
pavements is the main cause of deterioration of porous friction course (PFC), (Suresha S.N. et. al,
flexible asphalt surfacing (Lister & Addis 1977). 2009). But practically, all of the mentioned
Rigid pavement on the other hand can be susceptible terminologies were actually gave the same meaning
to relatively slow setting times during the and purpose which is a highly porosity or air void
construction phase and poor riding quality (and content pavement compared to the conventional
noise) caused by the joints required to accommodate asphalt pavement. Pavements with open-graded
differential expansion/contraction during service asphalt mixes were found to improve wet weather
(Hassan et al., 2002). skid resistance, minimize hydroplaning, reduce
splash and spray, and also reduce tyre-noise (Huber
However, another alternative solution to overcome G.)
the limitation and drawback caused by the commonly
road surfacing would be the joint-less Semi-Rigid The minimum air voids content specified by some of
pavement surfacing. The resultant combination the agencies or standards were actually dependent on
consist both the flexibility from the bituminous the traffic volume. Some countries specified the
component and the rigidity from the cement minimum air voids depending on the traffic volume
constituent. Semi-Rigid pavement surfacing and some does not. ASTM D 7064 suggested that a
composed of porous asphalt skeleton filled with the typical open graded asphaltic mixes should have a
best selection of fluid grout tested. Thus, producing a minimum percentage air voids of 18% in order to

2
withstand traffic loading. This percentage air void is 3. OBJECTIVES
slightly lower than those manufactured for the
purpose of semi-rigid pavement. This is due to the The main objective of this laboratory investigation is
fact that porous asphalt asphaltic pavement stands on to determine the optimum binder for three different
its own while porous asphalt skeleton with high aggregate gradations by Road Engineering
percentage of air voids will later to be filled with Association of Malaysia (REAM) and to see its
high strength fluid grout which eventually will have significance difference towards producing Grouted
exhibited much lower porosity (<8%). Macadam Wearing Course.

2. BACKGROUND 4. SAMPLING AND TEST PLANS

Grouted Macadam Wearing Course is manufactured 4.1 Materials


by the production of both a very open Porous Asphalt
together with a very high workability fluid grout. The materials used in the investigation are the
This paper is mainly focusing on the production of conventional bitumen 80/100, crushed aggregates
Porous Asphalt skeleton where three different with porous mix gradation and also Portland Cement
aggregate gradations were chosen in order to see the acts as filler. Crushed aggregates were supplied by
significance different between the two boundary lines Hanson, Kajang and the bitumen 80/100 was
(max and min). supplied by Kajang Rock. Table 1 and 2 below shows
the physical test that has been run onto the course
One of the important criteria that need to be aware of aggregates and bitumen binder before any laboratory
in producing Porous Asphalt is the amount of binder test on Porous Asphalt mixtures were carried out.
usage to coat the aggregate. It is crucial to have the
optimum binder coating the aggregates film thickness Table 1: Physical Test on Course Aggregates
as to prevent rapid oxidation of binder. Eventually
weaken the bonding between the binder and Flakiness Index (FI) – BS812 Part 20.8
aggregates. Thus, an optimum binder test has to be 105.1
carried out in order to accomplish the right amount of Elongation Index – BS812 Part 21.2
binder that requires for a certain aggregate gradation. 105.2
Optimum binder is also required to maintain the Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) –
aggregates to be intact in its original position without BS812 Part 112
having neither thin coats nor excessive coating. Thin Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV)
coats binder film thickness will not give enough BS812 – Part 110
stiffness to maintain the aggregate from friction and
durability. Bitumen will get aged and oxidation may
easily take place. Studies shows that inadequate Table 2: Physical Test on Bitumen 80/100
binder film thickness will eventually caused raveling
and cracks. Thicker coats binder film thickness will Softening Point, oC – ASTM D36 45 - 50
risk of excessive binder run-off during mixing, Penetration at 25 oC, 100g, 5s, 80 - 100
transportation and also laying. Henceforth will cause 0.1mm – ASTM D5
clogging of voids after laying process and reduce the o
Ductility at 25 C, 5cm per min – 80 - 100
important properties of porous mix. ASTM D113
Flash Point (Cleveland open cup) 200
Porous Asphalt skeleton were produced by using o
Marshall Method with 50 compaction blows on upper C – ASTM D92
and lower face of the sample. The 50 compaction
blows is an acceptable compaction value for medium
traffic flow (Wright and Dixon, 2004) and an
acceptable value to produce a desired voids in mix
(VIM). The desired VIM is essential towards
producing Grouted Macadam Wearing Course as it
will enhance the ease of filling the voids by fluid
grout via gravitational force without the aid of
vibration as it may damage the porous asphalt due to
high percentage of air voids.
Figure 1: Aggregate Gradations for Porous Mix

3
Figure 1 shows the 3 aggregate gradations for Porous 4.3 Marshall Mix Sampling – ASTM D1559
mixtures that have been analyzed and evaluated in
this study. In this preliminary investigation of Marshall mix samples were done based on ASTM D
Grouted Macadam Wearing Coarse, the coarsest 1559 standard. The temperature of each sub-
aggregate gradation (G1) mostly consists of 96% procedure has to be taken seriously into account. This
coarse aggregates and 4% fine aggregates. The finest is due to the fact that overheated bitumen will affect
aggregate gradation (G3) on the other hand comprises the bitumen binder by oxidation or by aging. Table 3
of 86% coarse aggregates and 14% of fine shows the mixing and compaction temperature that
aggregates. Coarse aggregates define those aggregate has been used during the preparation of Marshall
sizes from 4.75mm and above while fine aggregate mix. A compaction effort of 50 blows was applied on
indicates those aggregates size from 4.75mm and both upper and lower sample.
below.
Table 3: Temperature for Marshall mix preparation
4.2 Binder Drainage Test (BDT)
Mixing Temperature, oC 160 – 180
The optimum binder was achieved by a binder Compaction Temperature, oC 130 – 140
drainage test (BDT) developed by Road Engineering
Association of Malaysia (REAM), similar to the
Transport Research Laboratory, UK and commonly 4.4 Air Void Test - ASTM D 3203-94
used to set an upper limit on the optimum binder
content. Each aggregate gradation will undergo a 3 Preparation and calculation of air void test were done
times repetition test for a series of binder contents according to ASTM D 3203-94.Voids in mix (VIM)
and the amount of material drained measured each is calculated with the following Eq. (2)
time. The retained binder (R %), is calculated from
VIM (%) = 100 – (Vol. of bit. + Vol. of agg.) (2)
Eq. (1) and Figure 2 shows the typical plotting. The
mixed binder content M is assumed to coincide with 4.5 Bulk Density (BD) - ASTM D 3203-94
0.3% drainage. The target binder content is
equivalent to (M-0.3) %. According to Hamzah M.O. From the air void tests, bulk density can be calculated
et. al., the term „target binder content‟ or the with the following Eq. (3).
„optimum binder‟ refers to the maximum binder
content that can be safely accommodated without the Bulk density (g/ml) = Wa/Vol (3)
risk of excessive binder run-off during mixing,
transport and laying process. Where,

R = 100 x B [1-D/(B + F)]/(1100 + B) (1) Wa = mass of Marshall sample in air (g)


Vol = volume of Marshall sample (ml)
Where,
4.6 Indirect Tensile Test – Resilience Modulus
D = mass of binder n filler drained (g)
B = initial mass of binder and filler drained (g) Resilience modulus is computed by the indirect
F = initial mass of filler in the mix (g) tensile test (IDT) were done according to ASTM D –
4123 (82) standard. It was carried out using the
Universal Material Testing Apparatus (MATTA).
The resilient modulus test involves the application
and the measurement of a stress and measurement of
resultant displacement and hence strain. The resilient
modulus is determined by dividing stress by strain.
The testing parameters are as follows:

i. Temperature : 25oC
ii. Force : 20 x Specimen Depth
iii. Pulse Period : 1 second
Figure 2: Binder Drainage Test Typical Plot
Indirect tensile test (IDT) is non-destructive test
(NDT) method, which referring to a method that
evaluates properties of material or a system without
causing damage to the sample. This test was done to

4
assess the sample deformation properties under compared to the desired VIM for the purpose of
dynamic load application. Grouted Macadam wearing coarse which is between
25% - 32% (REAM, Zoorob S.E). The high
5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION percentage of air voids is required in order to allow a
full penetration of fluid grout by gravitational force.
5.1 Binder Drainage Test (BDT)

The results of binder drainage test for conventional


80/100 bitumen are shown in Table 4 below. It is
clearly seen that the amount of bitumen binder
increases as the gradation gets finer. In other word, as
the aggregate gradation gets coarser, lower amount of
bitumen binder is required. This is basically due to
the fact that the amount of fine aggregates gets higher
from G1 to G3. Fine aggregates contribute to a much
higher surface area which prepares a bigger area for
the bitumen binder to coat all the aggregates and Figure 4: VIM and Average Value of 3 Different Aggregate
eventually necessitates a higher usage of binder. Gradations

The coefficient of determination (r 2) represents the 5.3 Bulk Density (Gmb)


percent of the data that is the closest to the line of
best fit. Table 4 also shows the target binder or the Bulk density or bulk specific density of a Marshall
optimum binder (OB) that is going to be used in this sample is defined as the ratio of the mass in air of a
investigation based on the BDT done. The OB unit volume of a permeable material (including both
percentage obtained shows a relatively good results permeable and impermeable) at a stated temperature
based on the calculated r2. to the mass in air (of equal density) of an equal
volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated
Table 4: Target Binder (TB) and coefficient of temperature. Figure 5 shows clearly the effect of G mb
determination (r2) for 3 different gradations towards the changes of aggregate gradations. Gmb
were found to be inversely related with the changes
TB1 TB2 TB3 Average r2
of air voids from the 3 different gradations. Referring
(%) (%) (%) TB (%)
to both Figure 4 and 5, Gmb has shown a close
G1 2.75 2.75 2.50 2.67 0.9086 relationship with VIM. It is proven that due to
G2 3.30 3.40 3.20 3.30 0.8968 densification of the mix resulted in a reduction of
G3 3.80 3.85 3.85 3.83 0.9046 VIM and vice versa. The line connected the 3
aggregate gradation shows the mean Gmb of each
group which varies from 1.68 to 1.80 g/ml. Previous
5.2 Air Voids Test studies done on Porous Asphalt for the preparation of
Grouted Macadam shows similar values with the
Voids in total mix (VIM) is defined as the total current investigation (Zoorob S.E). This is basically
volume of the small pockets of air between the coated has proven that the chosen Porous Mix gradations are
aggregate particles throughout a compacted paving suitable and acceptable for the current investigation.
mixture, expressed as a percent of the bulk volume of
the compacted paving mixture. The relationship
between aggregate gradations and VIM were
established as shown in Figure 4 below. The line
connected the 3 aggregate gradations shows the mean
VIM of each group which varies from 28.3% –
32.8%. It can be seen that the aggregate gradations
significantly affected the changes of VIM. G3 which
represents the finest aggregate gradations shows a
much lower VIM compared to G1 which represents
the coarsest aggregate gradations. Thus it can be
concluded that, as the aggregate gradation gets Figure 5: Bulk Density of 3 Different
coarser, so does with the increment in VIM. A Aggregate Gradations
conventional Porous Asphalt skeleton requires VIM
between 18 – 25% which actually much lesser

5
5.4 Indirect Tensile Test – Resilience Modulus ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Grateful acknowledgment is made to Institute of


Research Management and Consultancy (IPPP) of the
University of Malaya for funding this project under
grant no PS117/2008C.

References

Lister, N.W & Addis, R.R 1977. Field observation of


Figure 6: Resilience Modulus of 2 Different
Aggregate Gradations rutting and their practical implications. Transport
Research Board No. 640: 28-34
IDT is a form of test which referring to resilience
modulus is a property of materials that absorbs Hassan K.E., Setyawan, A. Zoorob, S.E., (2002).
energy when it is deformed elastically and upon “Effect of Cementitious Grouts on the properties of
unloading to this energy recovered. The greater the Semi-Flexible Bituminous Pavement” Proceedings
resilience modulus, the stiffer the material gets, thus of the Fourth European Nottingham, United
higher in resisting deformation. The relationship Kingdom, 11-12 April, 113-120
between aggregate gradations and resilience modulus
were established as shown in Figure 6 above. The
line connected both aggregate gradation shows the Hassan, K.E., Cabrera, J.G. & Head, M.K. 1998.
mean value of each group which varies from 2584 – “The influence of aggregate characteristics on the
2483 MPa. It is clearly shown that aggregate properties of high performance high strength
gradations do not affect significantly towards concrete” In B.V. Rangan & A.K. Patnaik (eds),
resilience modulus but at the same time gives a Proceeding of the international conference: high
reasonably high value towards the production of performance high strength concrete, 441-445, Perth,
Grouted Macadam wearing coarse. G1 on the other Australia
hand is not inserted in this test due to the very high
porosity of mix which made the sample breaks during Suresha S.N., George Varghese, & Ravi Shankar
testing. Point of aggregate contact in G1 is low and A.U. (2009) “Characterization of porous friction
eventually did not allow the structure to hold on one course mixes for different Marshall compaction
another. Higher resilience modulus gives stiffer efforts” Construction and Building Materials 23
material. This will basically lead to a better resistance Journal, (2009), pp. 2887-2893.
towards permanent deformation, thus improved the
resistance towards rutting. It is clearly stated that Huber G. Performance survey on open-graded
when the resilience modulus is at the highest, it friction course mixes. Synthesis of highway practice
indicates that the stiffest material condition under a 284. National cooperative highway research program.
recoverable deformation behavior. According to Washington (DC) : Transportation Research Board;
AASHTO, 1993 Pavement Design Guide, higher 2000.
value in resilience modulus is most desirable to build
ASTM D 7064/D 7064M. Standard practice for open-
a less thick pavement which will still maintain its
graded friction course (OGFC) mix design. West
structural integrity. Comparing to the previous
Conshohocken (PA); 2008
studies done, the current investigation shows a
relatively good in resilience modulus and can be ASTM D 3203-91 Test Method for Percent Air Voids
suggested as surfaced for heavy traffic road corridors. in Compacted Dense and Open Bituminous Paving
Mixtures
6 CONCLUSION

Bitumen binder decreases as the aggregate gradations ASTM D 4123-82 (1987) Test Method for Indirect
get coarser. Finer aggregate gradations will give Tension Test for Resilient Modulus of Bituminous
lower porosity, higher in bulk density and higher in Mixtures
resilience modulus and vice versa.
Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM)
Semi Rigid Wearing Coarse Specification, (2007)

6
AASHTO GDPS-4 Guide for Pavement Design of S.E. Zoorob, J.G. Cabrera and S. Takahashi (1999),
Pavement Structures (1993) “Effect of Aggregate Gradation and Binder Type on
the Properties of Porous Asphalt” Proc. 3rd European
Fabb T.R.J. (1993) “The case for the use of Porous Symposium, Performance and Durability of
Asphalt in the UK” Institute of Asphalt Technology Bituminous Materials and Hydraulic Stabilised
Yearbook (1993), pp. 46 – 59. Composites, Leeds, April, pp 145-162
Hamzah M.O., Samat M. M., Joon K.H., Muniandy Woodsie A.R., Woodward W.D.H., Baird J.K. “A
R. (2004) “Modification of aggregate grading for Critical Appraisal On The Performance Of Porous
porous asphalt” 3rd Eurasphaly & Eurobotume Asphalt” Highway Engineering Reasearch Centre of
Congress. Vienna 2004 – Paper 196 the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Bardon
Roadstone.
Wright, P.H., and Dixon, K.K. (2004). Highway
Engineering. 7th ed, United State of America, John Subagio B.S., Karsaman R.H. “Laboratory
Wiley & Son, Inc. Performance Of Porous Asphalt Mixture Using
Tafpack Super” Journal of the Eastern Asia Society
Zoorob S.E., Hassan K.E., Satyawan A. (2002) for Transportation Studies (EASTS), Vol.5, October
“Effect of Cementitious Grouts on the Properties of 2003.
Semi-Flexible Bituminous Pavements” Proceeding of
the Forth European Symposium on Performance of Beale J.M., You Z., “The Mechanical Properties of
Bituminous and Hydraulic Materials in Pavements. Asphalt Mixtures with Recycled Concrete
Nothingham, United Kingdom, 11-12 April, pp 112- Aggregates” Journal of Construction and Building
120 Materials (2009).

Der-Hsien Shen, Chia-Ming Wu, Jia-Chong Du


“Performance evaluation of porous asphalt with
granulated synthetic lightweight aggregate”
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 22,
Issue 5, May 2008, Pages 902-910

Cheuk Ching Wong, Wing-gun Wong “Effect of


crumb rubber modifiers on high temperature
susceptibility of wearing course mixtures”
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 21,
Issue 8, August 2007, Pages 1741-1745

S.N. Suresha, George Varghese, A.U. Ravi Shankar


“A comparative study on properties of porous friction
course mixes with neat bitumen and modified
binders” Construction and Building Materials,
Volume 23, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 1211-1217

Cheuk Ching Wong, Wing-gun Wong “Effect of


crumb rubber modifiers on high temperature
susceptibility of wearing course mixtures”
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 21,
Issue 8, August 2007, Pages 1741-1745

Liseane P.T.L. Fontes, Glicério Trichês, Jorge C.


Pais, Paulo A.A. Pereira “Evaluating permanent
deformation in asphalt rubber mixtures”
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 24,
Issue 7, July 2010, Pages 1193-1200

7
EFFECTS OF WASTE COOKING OIL AS A REJUVENATING AGENT FOR AGED
BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT

Hallizza Asli
Postgraduate Student
Email: halli_izza@yahoo.com

Mohamed Rehan Karim


Professor
Email: rehan@um.edu.my

ABSTRACT: Combination of oxidation and volatility are the main cause in changing the physical properties of bituminous pavement.
Ageing process leads to hardening and caused the road failures especially cracking and rutting predictably occurred. In this paper, the
possibility of using waste cooking oil as a rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen is investigated. In addition, the parameters that would
influence the performance of the new rejuvenating agent developed by using waste cooking oil are initially considered. Unconventional
method which is simulation of aging process in laboratory is prepared by using propeller mixer at fixed temperature, 160°C with different
reaction times and speeds. The aged bitumen group that conducted in this research are 60/70, 50/60, 40/50 and 30/40 which have
penetrations between of 60 to 70, 50 to 60, 40 to 50 and 30 to 40, respectively. The binder tests that involved in this research are
Penetration Test, Softening Point Test which is well known as Ring and Ball Test, Brookfield Viscosity Test and Dynamic Shear
Rheometer, (DSR) Test with the purpose of verifying the physical characterisation of bitumen binder for five different percentages mix of
waste cooking oil. The waste cooking oil exhibited a significantly as the rejuvenator in the recycling asphalt pavement. The results
indicate that the aged bitumen will be rejuvenated by the waste cooking oil due to changes in increasing of lower penetration value that
similar as its original bitumen (Fresh Bitumen).

Keywords: Rejuvenating agent, Waste cooking oil, Physical properties, Rheological Characteristics, Viscosity properties, Aged bitumen

1. INTRODUCTION waste cooking oil as recycling/rejuvenating agent to restore


the aged bitumen to a condition that resemble of the virgin
Decreasing supplies of locally available quality aggregate bitumen. A rejuvenating agent that is commonly used is a
in many regions around the world, growing concern over low viscosity product obtained from crude oil distillation.
waste disposal, and the rising cost of bitumen binder have The use of waste cooking oil is sought to provide an
resulted in greater use of reclaimed asphalt pavement alternative rejuvenating agent, and to provide an agent that
(RAP) for road construction. Recycling Hot Mix Asphalt is considered as natural waste product. Incorporating a
(HMA) is the process in which reclaimed asphalt pavement waste product instead of a petroleum product offers a
(RAP) materials are combined with new materials (the potentially more sustainable product, and may lead to price
virgin aggregates and asphalt binder) and a rejuvenating and supply advantages.
agent to produce HMA mixtures. Recycled HMA mixtures,
properly designed, must have similar properties to those of 2. MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL
conventional HMA, fulfilling the same technical
prescriptions that are demanded for conventional ones. 2.1. Materials
Experience has indicated that the recycling of asphalt
pavements is a beneficial approach from technical, Bitumen of penetration grade of 80/100 is used in this
economical, and environmental perspectives (Chen et al. research representing most popular usage in Malaysia. An
2007 and Romera et al. 2006). accelerated ageing process on the virgin bitumen was carry
out in laboratory by using propeller mixer to obtain
Waste cooking oil was indicated as rejuvenator as well as different group of aged bitumen: aged bitumen grade
one of the recycling agent that possible to improve the 60/70, aged bitumen grade 50/60, aged bitumen grade
aged bitumen properties as similar level as the virgin 40/50 and aged bitumen grade 30/40 that have penetration
bitumen. Researchers have proved that using rejuvenator in in range of 60 to 70, 50 to 60, 40 to 50 and 30 to 40,
aged bitumen binder can reach target PG grades when the respectively.
optimum percentage of rejuvenator is achieved. This
research work will investigate the possibility of using

1
As mentioned earlier, rejuvenator that used in this study torque dial reading to yield the viscosity of the asphalt in
was waste cooking oil that easily acquired from the millipascal seconds. This test method can be used to
residential houses or restaurants. The waste cooking oil has measure the apparent viscosity of asphalt at application
low viscosity rather than aged bitumen. The fresh bitumen temperatures.
will be compared to rejuvenated bitumen by adding the
aged bitumen with various percentages of waste cooking 2.2.5. Dynamic Shear Rheometer Test (ASTM D – 4
oil which are 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. The waste cooking Proposal P246)
oil is mixed with the aged bitumen simultaneously by
propeller mixer for 15 minute each percentage for every A Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) may be used to
condition by 200 revolutions per minute at fixed determine the rheological properties of bituminous binders
temperature, 160°C. and it is generally assumed that a DSR can accurately
measure binder properties over a wide range of conditions.
2.2. Experimental Bitumen binders in the medium to high temperature range
behave partly like an elastic solid (deformation due to
2.2.1. Development of Propeller Mixer Ageing Method loading is recoverable, it is able to return to its original
shape after a load is removed) and a viscous liquid
Propeller mixer is one of the laboratory equipment that (deformation due to loading is non recoverable, it cannot
utilised as a simulation unconventional method to ageing return to its original shape after a load is removed). By
the bitumen. The original bitumen is heated in the oven for measuring G* and δ, the DSR is able to determine the total
160°C about one hour to one hour an half. Then, placed it complex shear modulus as well as its elastic and viscous
on the hot plate and stir it using the propeller mixer for components. The basic DSR test uses a thin bitumen binder
different reaction time with 300 and 350 revolutions per sample sandwiched between two plates. The lower plate is
minutes mixing speed (300 and 350 rpm). Try and error fixed while the upper plate oscillates back and forth across
process of reaction times have to be concerned to obtain the sample at 1.59 Hz to create a shearing action. These
the different aged group of bitumen. Reaction times by oscillations at 1.59 Hz (10 radians/sec) are meant to
between four hours to seven hours is possible to be simulate the shearing action corresponding to a traffic
considered in this research. speed of about 90 km/hr (55 mph) (Roberts et al., 1996).

2.2.2. Penetration Test (ASTM D5-97) 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The purpose of this test is to examine the consistency of a 3.1. Influence of percentage of waste cooking oil on the
sample of bitumen by determining the distance in tenths of penetration
a millimetre that a standard needle vertically penetrates the
bitumen specimen under known conditions of loading, time 200
and temperature. The penetration test is simply a mean for 180
FRESH BITUMEN
Penetration value (dmm)

AGED BITUMEN 60/70


grading bitumen at ambience temperature. This test is 160 AGED BITUMEN 50/60
carried out under laboratory condition at 25°C, and the 140 AGED BITUMEN 40/50
AGED BITUMEN 30/40
purpose of this experiment is to determine the depth that a 120
weighted needle sinks into a bitumen specimen within 5 100
seconds. 80
60
40
2.2.3. Softening Point Test (ASTM D36-95) 20
0
Two horizontal disks of bitumen, cast in shouldered brass 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
rings, are heated at a controlled rate in a liquid bath while Percentage of waste cooking oil (%)
each supports a steel ball. The softening point is reported
as the mean of the temperatures at which the two disks Fig. 1. Comparison graph of penetration value, (dmm)
soften enough to allow each ball, enveloped in bitumen, to against percentage of waste cooking oil, (%) for aged
fall at certain distance. To determine the softening point of bitumen grade 60/70, 50/60, 40/50 and 30/40
bitumen within the range 30°C to 157°C by means of the
Ring-and-Ball apparatus. In this study, penetration test was applied to examine the
consistency of bitumen sample which is specifically was
2.2.4. Brookfield Viscosity Test (ASTM D4402-87) the hardness of the bitumen. In term of engineering,
consistency is an empirical measure of the resistance
The Brookfield Thermosel Viscometer described in this offered by a fluid to continuous deformation when it is
procedure can be used to measure the viscosity of asphalt subjected to shearing stress. In Figure 1, increasing of
at elevated temperatures. The torque on a spindle rotating penetration value for each different group of aged bitumen
in a special thermostatically control sample holder is caused by the chemical reaction when different
containing a small sample of asphalt is used to measure the percentage of waste cooking oil is added into it and it is
relative resistance to rotation. A factor is applied to the obviously illustrated from the graph below. But, when it

2
reached for certain volume of waste cooking oil, the cooking oil caused it to returns to the original value. On the
penetration value is as similar as the original bitumen. contrary, the original value of bitumen was achieved when
3% of waste cooking oil added into aged bitumen grade
As can be seen from the graph above, for aged bitumen 40/50 which is 46°C. Meanwhile, the softening point of
grade of 30/40, approximately 4% added waste cooking oil aged bitumen grade 30/40 is similar as the fresh bitumen
is changed the brittle bitumen to soft bitumen as similar as when 4% of waste cooking oil is added.
fresh bitumen. When 3% of waste cooking oil is added into
the aged bitumen grade 40/50, the penetration value is As can be seen in the figure 2, the softening point value is
alike the original bitumen with the penetration value of 84. diminishing gradually. With the increasing of aging time,
On the contrary, the penetration value for aged bitumen the penetration value is decreased but softening point
grade 60/70 and 50/60 is similar as the original bitumen temperature is increased due to oxidation reactions
after 1% of waste cooking oil is mixed together. happened and more asphaltenese micelles appeared.
Increasing of asphaltenese content with high molecular
From the graph displayed above, it was apparently showed weight was produced harder bitumen. The chemical
that the lower group of aged bitumen, the obvious reaction and mixture of waste cooking oil was rejuvenating
transformation can be observed. Rejuvenating agent such the diverse groups of aged bitumen.
as waste cooking oil can be used in order to decreasing the
maintenance cost of exited asphalt pavement. 3.3 Influence of percentage waste cooking oil on the
viscosity
3.2. Influence of percentage waste cooking oil on the
softening point This test is significantly to ensure that the binders are
sufficiently fluid when being pumped and mixed at the hot
Contrasting some other substances (e.g water which mix plants. As compared with the capillary tube
changes from solid to liquid at 0°C) bituminous materials viscometers, the rotational viscometer provides larger
do not have an exact melting point. Instead, as the clearances between the components. Therefore, it can be
temperatures rises, these materials slowly change from used to test modified asphalts containing larger particles,
brittle or very thick and slowly-flowing materials to softer which could plug up a capillary viscometer tube. Another
and less viscous liquids. advantage of the rotational viscometer is that the shear
stress versus shear rate characteristics of a test binder can
56
be characterised over a wide range of stress or strain levels.
FRESH BITUMEN For Superpave binder specification purpose, the rotational
Softening point value (°C)

54 AGED BITUMEN 60/70


52 AGED BITUMEN 50/60
viscosity test is to be run at standard temperature, 135 °C
50 AGED BITUMEN 40/50 to ensure proper workability during mixing and placement.
48 AGED BITUMEN 30/40
Critical condition of an asphalt concrete is at the highest
46 pavement temperature at which the asphalt mixture is the
44 weakest and most susceptible to plastic flow when stressed.
42
40 When the other factors are kept constant, an increase in the
38 viscosity of the asphalt binder will increase the shear
36 strength and subsequently the resistance to plastic flow of
34 the asphalt concrete. With respect to resistance to plastic
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 flow of the asphalt concrete, it is preferable to have a high
asphalt viscosity at the highest anticipated pavement
Percentage of waste cooking oil (%) temperature.
Fig. 2. Comparison graph of softening point Temperature, The effectiveness of the mixing of asphalt cement and
(°C) against percentage of waste cooking oil, (%) for aged aggregate, and the effectiveness of the placement and
bitumen grade 60/70, 50/60, 40/50 and 30/40. compaction of the hot asphalt mix are affected greatly by
the viscosity of the asphalt. The result of viscosity towards
The effects of percentage of waste cooking oil and the elevated temperature is reported in figure 3 as the
softening point value of different aged bitumen group: following below. In this study, elevated temperature of
aged bitumen grade 60/70, aged bitumen grade 50/60, aged 90°C, 110°C, 130°C, 135°C, 150°C and 170°C is
bitumen grade 40/50 and aged bitumen grade 30/40 were concerned. As can be seen from the illustrated figure 3
presented in figure 2. As illustrated from the graph, when showed the high temperature viscosity relationships with
the group of aged bitumen is decreasing with the the different percentage of waste cooking oil to the
penetration value, the softening point is increased. For different grade of aged bitumen: 60/70, 50/60, 40/50 and
aged bitumen without waste cooking oil for grade 30/40, 30/40 which is to be compared to original bitumen grade
the softening point is 54°C but for grade 40/50, the 80/100. According to Sengoz and Isikyakar (2008), the
bitumen melted at 50°C meanwhile for grade 50/60 and increase in viscosity is not favorable because the bitumen
grade 60/70 is 49°C. Instead, the higher percentage of with high viscosity levels require higher mixing, laying and
waste cooking oil added into the aged bitumen group, the compaction temperatures which results in too much energy
lower softening point temperature is obtained. For aged consumption.
bitumen grade 60/70 and 50/60, 1% of added waste
3
Figure below showed result of dynamic shear rheometer
8000
FRESH BITUMEN test for aged bitumen grade 60/70, 50/60, 40/50 and 30/40.
7000 60/70 + 1% WCO
The rheological properties of aged for each group of aged
50/60 + 1% WCO
6000 40/50 + 3% WCO bitumen with five different percentage of added waste
Viscosity (MPa.s)

5000 30/40 + 4% WCO cooking oil are compared to original bitumen (80/100).
Behaviour of asphalt binders can be showed by plotting
4000
master curves of the complex modulus vs. temperature.
3000 R² = 0.9475
Figure 4 plot G* vs. temperature at 10 rad/s for different
2000 R² = 0.9465 aged bitumen group with optimum waste cooking oil
R² = 0.9427
1000 R² = 0.9423 R² = 0.9477
content and fresh bitumen. As the temperature increases,
0
the modulus decreases significantly. Aged bitumen grade
60/70, 50/60, 40/50 and 30/40 without adding waste
-1000 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 cooking oil was the stiffest over the entire range of
Temperature (°C) temperatures, but after adding waste cooking oil from 1%
to 5%, the modified binder become soft due to decreasing
of modulus value. The modulus for these binders does not
Fig. 3. Viscosity (MPa) versus temperature for fresh
change as dramatically as the temperature changes
bitumen and optimum percentage of waste cooking oil
compared to the other modified binders. As we can be
added to aged bitumen grade 60/70, 50/60, 40/50 and 30/40
seen, the graph curve of 1% added waste cooking oil for
aged bitumen grade 60/70 and 50/60 is the nearest due to
As to the Brookfield viscosity is increasing from 90°C to
the fresh bitumen curve. On the contrary, when 3% and 4%
170°C, the results in figure 3 clearly showed the decreasing
is mixed to the aged bitumen grade 40/50 and 30/40 it
in viscosity due to higher waste cooking oil contents. For
seems to be as similar as original bitumen, respectively.
aged bitumen grade 60/70 and grade 50/60, as can be seen
from the graph, the line of fresh bitumen is overlapped
with the 1% added of waste cooking oil. It showed that 200000
Complex Shear Modulus, G*

FRESH BITUMEN
adding the 1% of waste cooking oil achieved the 175000 60/70 + 1%WC0
50/60 + 1% WCO
rejuvenated bitumen. Meanwhile, range of 3% to 4% of 150000 40/50 + 3% WCO
waste cooking oil is obtained from the aged bitumen grade 30/40 + 4% WCO
40/50 to be similar as the original bitumen. On the 125000
(Pa)

contrary, for grade 30/40 of aged bitumen, within the range 100000
waste cooking oil content of 4% to 5% is slightly 75000
overlapped to the line of fresh bitumen. Other line for each 50000
R² = 0.991
test condition for diverse grade of aged bitumen is shift out R² = 0.9917
from the line of the original bitumen. From the Brookfield 25000 R² = 0.9994 R² = 0.9918
R² = 0.99
viscosity test, it was obviously an additional proved that 0
waste cooking oil can be used as the rejuvenating agent for 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
aged bitumen in addition to softening point test and Temperature (°C)
penetration test
Fig. 4. Complex shear modulus, G* (Pa) versus
temperature for Fresh Bitumen and optimum percentage of
3.4 Influence of percentage waste cooking oil on the
waste cooking oil added to to aged bitumen grade 60/70,
rheology
50/60, 40/50 and 30/40
When testing bitumen with the DSR tester according to the
Superpave specification, the sample is sandwiched between Phase angle, δ (°) is the phase difference between the
a fixed-base plate and an oscillating spindle plate. The stress and strain in an oscillatory deformation and is a
stress–strain pattern is recorded. The angular frequency, measure of the viscoelastic character of the material. If δ is
which is varied in many other types of test, is fixed at 10 equals to 90°, then the binder can be considered purely
rad s-1 in the Superpave specification, which can be viscous in nature and when the δ is equal to 0° would
attributed to the loading time within a pavement where represent an ideal elastic solid. The ability of the binders to
vehicles travel at 90 km/h. As binders get older, they store deformational energy at high temperatures and to
become more stiff and brittle. It is generally accepted that dissipate deformational energy through flow at low
bitumen hardening in the field is mostly due to oxidation. It temperatures is called elasticity and flexibility,
has also been recognised that the reactions taking place in respectively. In this study, phase angle as a function of
bitumen exposed to the air at low and high temperatures elevated temperatures were determined for all the condition
are different. Thus rutting is a more significant problem at at 10 rad s-l (1.59 Hz) over a temperature range of 30 to
the beginning of the service life of a pavement, and the 80°C. As can be seen graph from the figure 5, at a fixed
low-temperature cracking and fatigue failure are more frequency and at temperatures that higher than about 65°C
serious problems towards the end of the service life of a the phase angle of all the modified bitumen approaches
pavement. 90°. In this case, the stored energy per cycle of
deformation becomes negligible compared to that

4
dissipated as heat. The rejuvenated bitumen curve showed Doh, Y.S., Amirkhanian, S.N. and Kim, K.W. (2008).
the identical pattern as the virgin bitumen. Analysis of unbalanced binder oxidation level in
recycled asphalt mixture using GPC. Construction and
92
Building Material 22: 1253-1260.
Lu, X.H. and Isacsson, U (1997). Chemical and rheological
90
evaluation of ageing properties of SBS polymer
88
Phase Angle, δ (°)

modified bitumens. Fuel, S0016-2361: 00283-4.


86
84 Lu, X.H. and Isacsson, U (2002). Effect of ageing on
82 bitumen chemistry and rheology. Construction and
80 FRESH BITUMEN Building Material, 16(1): 15-22.
60/70 + 1% WCO
78 50/60 + 1% WCO
76 40/50 + 3% WCO Lu, X.H. and Isacsson, U (1996). Rheological
30/40 + 4% WCO characterisation of styrene-butadiene-styrene
74
copolymer modified bitumens. Construction and
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Building Material, S0950-0618: 00033-5.
Temperature (°C)
Lee, S.J., Amirkhanian, S.N., Park, N.W. and Kim, K.W.
Fig. 5. Phase angle, δ (°) versus temperature for Fresh (2009). Characterization of warm mix asphalt binders
Bitumen and optimum percentage of waste cooking oil containing artificially long-term aged binders.
added to to aged bitumen grade 60/70, 50/60, 40/50 and Construction and Building Material, 23: 2371-2379.
30/40
Roberts, F.L., Kandhal, P.S., Brown, E.R., Lee, D-Y,
4. CONCLUSIONS Kennedy, T.W., Hot Mix Asphalt Materials, Mixture
design and Construction, Text Book, NAPA Education
As the conclusion, waste cooking oil (waste material) is Foundation Lanham Maryland, second edition, 1996.
found to be a suitable rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen
in asphalt pavements. By using waste cooking oil as Romera, R., Santamaria, A., Pena, J.J., Munoz, M.E.,
bitumen rejuvenator in recycled asphalt pavements, it Barral, M., Garcia, E. and Janez, V. (2006).
significantly contributes to the reduction in environmental Rheological aspects of the rejuvenation of aged
degradation. In addition, recycling asphalt pavements bitumen. Rheol Acta, 45: 474-478.
reduces the use of virgin materials (natural rocks, bitumen
from petroleum). Saleh, M.F. (2006). Experimental investigation of bitumen
physical properties on foamability and mechanical
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT properties of foam bitumen stabilized mixes. Third
Gurl Conference on Roads, March 6-8: 92-98.
This study is a part of research project that sponsored by
the Institute of Research Management and Consultancy,
Sengoz, B. and Isikyakar, G. (2008). Analysis of styrene-
University of Malaya as the financial assistance by
butadiene-styrene polymer modified bitumen using
awarding the grant PS138/2009B to accomplish the present
fluorescent microscopy and conventional test methods.
and ongoing work. And it is an honour to have Kajang
Journal of Hazardous Materials. 150: 424–432
Rock Sdn. Bdn. as a cooperative supplier of bitumen
80/100.
Shen, J., Amirkhanian, S.N. and Tang, B. (2007). Effects
of rejuvenator on performance-based properties of
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5
ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF LOCAL RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT AGGREGATE

Lillian Gungat1, Jodin Makinda1 and Liew Yu Li 2


1
School of Engineering & IT, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah
E-mail:lillian@ums.edu.com.my
2
DH Perunding, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

ABSTRACT: Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) as an alternative material in road construction is not a new issue as it is being
widely accepted in many countries compared to Malaysia. The use of RAP brings about many credit and advantages in term of
environment, cost, resources and engineering value. Thus give it a sustainable usage. In pavement design and construction, selection of
material influences the overall performance and quality. Therefore, engineering properties play important roles in maximizing the
usage of the material. In this study, the properties of RAP aggregate obtained from local roads were tested and evaluated to determine
its existing condition. The study covered the RAP aggregate physical properties such as grading and shape, and also its mechanical
resistance against impact and abrasion. Tests and investigation were done in accordance to the Public Work Department (JKR)
specification and standard applied such as BS, ASTM and ASSHTO. Comparison and evaluation were done based on the original
initial properties and the road conditions such as traffic data, age and location. Results showed that tested RAP aggregate properties are
still within the pavement material limit range with some degradation. Traffic condition and pavement age found to be the main
influencing factors for the mechanical properties deprivation. Investigation findings showed that the RAP aggregate still possess good
quality properties to be used as an alternative resource in road construction.

Keyword: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), Aggregate, physical properties, Impact and Abrasion

highly affected by the aggregate arrangement and the


1. INTRODUCTION amount of filler particle to form the best interlocking
layers. Based on the function and required characteristic,
Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) utilization as an appropriate grading will be selected and evaluated. Poor
alternative material used since many years ago in aggregate grading may causes pavement deterioration
European countries compared to Malaysia. RAP is the such as segregation, improper compaction and thus leads
term use for remove or reprocessed asphalt pavement to to structure failures, surface defects and surface
be used in road construction (Huang et al.,2005). deformations. Apart from that, geological factors
Researches have shown that RAP usage minimize the (composition, texture, particle shape, pores, etc.) also
dependency to the aggregate natural resources, saving affect the mechanical degradation and strength of
cost, energy and environment. Thus contributes to the aggregates.
sustainable development in road construction.
In Malaysia, various recycling techniques are adopted for
In road construction, aggregate is the highest abundant rehabilitation work of flexible pavement (Ahmad et. Al,
material used. In asphalt concrete pavement, aggregate 2004). The stabilized RAP recently used for road
may constitute about 70-75 percent by volume or 90-95 maintenance in Sabah showed good performance and yet
percent by weight (Somayaji, 2001). Aggregate plays an fast construction, saving cost, labour and environment
important role in sustaining the vehicle loads and (Stabilised Pavement Malaysia,2007). This indicates that
transferring it from the wearing surface to the foundation RAP has the potential as an alternative resource in road
in flexible pavement (Karim et al, 1991). Therefore the construction. Therefore, further research on local
aggregate properties are very much influential to the properties of RAP is needed. This study investigates the
pavement behaviour and quality. A well understanding of physical and mechanical properties of RAP obtained from
its engineering characteristic is important in maximizing three local roads.
the usage and benefits. The principal factor that
determines the suitability of recyclable materials for use 2. MATERIALS AND METHOD
in highway construction is their engineering properties
(Aribisala,2007). Engineering characteristic is the The reclaimed asphalt pavement samples were obtained
property in term of physical, mechanical, and chemical from selected site in Sabah which is under construction
which will contribute and effect on the design and its for road maintenance. Three locations of road with
usage. different classification were selected namely Jalan
Penampang, Jalan Bundusan-Lintas and Jalan Papar
The most important aggregate properties in road Lama. The sample taken in various chainages to ensure
construction are the size of the aggregate and it’s grading. the RAP samples are not influenced by the surrounding.
This is important in order to obtain the maximum Due to the sample taken is a used material, studies of its
compaction to achieve maximum dry density; which is background history is important as it will influences the

1
aggregate properties. Figure 1 and Table 1 show the used plotted in the specification grading limits range
Asphalt pavement and road data respectively. respectively shown in figure 2, figure 3 and figure 4.

Specification Grading Limits for Wearing Course,


Class 'B', Jalan Bundusan-Lintas

120

Percentage Passing (%)


100
RAP Sample
80 Jalan Bundusan-
Lintas

60 Minimum Grading
for Class 'B'

40
Maximum Grading
for Class 'B'
20

0
0.01 1 100
Sieve Size (log)
Fig. 1. Stockpile of Used Asphalt Pavement at Jalan
Bundusan-Lintas. Fig. 2. Specification Grading for Jalan Bundusan-Lintas,
Class ‘B’.
Table 1. Road Data And Parameters
Specification Grading Limits for Wearing Course 'B',
Description Road Location Jalan Penampang
120
Jalan Jalan Jalan Papar
Penampang Bundusan Lama 100
Type State road State road Federal road
Percentage Passing (%)

Age >5 yrs <5 yrs >20 yrs 80


RAP sample Jalan
Aggregate Class B Class B ACW 20
Simpang Lido
Average daily 60
Minimum Grading
traffic (ADT) 20511 15357 2623 for Class 'B'
Heavy <2% <2% >20% 40
Maximum Grading
Vehicle (%) (2007) (2006) (2007) for Class 'B'
20
Source: JKR Sabah, 2008
0
Collected samples have to be processed prior laboratory 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
testing. The samples obtained from the site which in Sieve Size (log)
coring form, were evaluated based on it instantaneous
appearance such as the thickness of the sample and clay Fig. 3. Specification Grading for Jalan Penampang, Class ‘B’.
or silt soil content. Contaminants were washed and
cleaned from the RAP sample. Samples were then heated Both Jalan Bundusan and Penampang RAP samples fall
in oven and hot plate to obtain a loose aggregate sample within the aggregate limit range with uniform aggregate
coated with bitumen. Parameters such as boiling particles. Jalan Bundusan sample contains maximum
temperature not to exceed the bitumen flash point and percentage of particle range within the size of 4.75mm,
heating duration were taken into account to minimize 2.36mm and 600  m sieve. From the size distribution
error and to obtain consistency during the sample analysis, more than 65% passes the 4.75mm sieve
preparation. After that, laboratory testing were conducted opening which indicate most of the particle are fine grain
to evaluate the physical properties; size grading, water aggregate. Similar pattern is observed for Jalan
absorption and flakiness and mechanical properties; Penampang. However, this sample contained more coarse
abrasion and impact value The obtained tests results were aggregate compared to Jalan Bundusan sample.
compared to the standard specification which is specified
in Malaysian Standard, British Standards American
Standard Testing of Materials (ASTM) and the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officers
(AASHTO) and correlated to the local pavement design
(JKR, 1990).

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

3.1 Sieve Analysis

The gradation obtained for all the three samples were

2
Specification Grading Limits for Wearing Coarse of flakiness index might caused by the degradation of size
AWC-20, Jalan Papar Lama particle due to fracture and break down process. Overall,
the entire samples still possess reasonable FI values and
120 lower than the standard specification.
Percentage Passing (%)

100 Table 2. RAP Aggregate Flakiness Index (FI)


RAP sample Jalan
80 Papar Lama
Minimum Grading Sample location Flakiness Index (FI)
60
for AWC-20 Jalan Bundusan 30.11
40 Maximum Grading Jalan Penampang 31.81
for AWC-20 Jalan Papar Lama 26.57
20

0
0.01 1 100 3.3 Water Absoprtion
Sieve Size (log) The water absorption results are shown in Table 3.
Compared to its initial test result, some percentage drop
Fig. 4. Graph of Specification Grading for Jalan Papar Lama, are observed but still less than 2% and satisfied the
AWC-20. standard requirement. Bitumen is a hydrocarbon material
and it behaves as a hydrophobic. Therefore, the bitumen
Whereas for Jalan Papar Lama sample it shows a poorly coating decrease the water absorption, thus results in low
or gap graded curve, compared to the standard AWC-20 water absorption percentage. This also explains the lesser
gradation. The sieve size opening of 3.35mm with a low percentage drop when the age of the sample increases
weight of percentage indicate it as the missing size. The
nominal size is between 5mm and 4.25mm aggregate with Table 3. RAP Aggregate Water Absorption
the highest weight percentage of 32.18% and 30.62%
respectively. The results obtained fall outside the Sample Water Absorption Percent Drop
specification range limit. Both the coarse and fine grain Location (%)
showed a poor graded sample. This indicates that the Initial RAP
Jalan Papar Lama RAP aggregate gradation is totally out (Virgin Aggregate) (%)
of the boundary of the standard specification required. (%)
Jalan 1.23 0.70 43
Bundusan
The test results of this sieve analysis showed some
Jalan 1.23 0.96 22
degradation in RAP aggregate due to fraction and break
Penampang
down of the aggregate during the scraping of the Jalan Papar 1.37 1.11 19
pavement. The nominal size of the aggregate basically Lama
falls between 5mm to 2mm size. Aggregates are subjected
to impact stresses during handling, processing, and
compaction and repeated stresses during the service life of 3.4 Los Angeles Abrasion (LAAV) and Impact
a pavement. The fracture of the coarse aggregate into Value (IV)
smaller grain aggregate explains the abundant of this size The results for all three samples of roads indicated the
particle. Due to the heating process and spread drying, the various properties differ due to the different existing
fine aggregate such as those 150  m and 75  m tends to condition and situation as shown in Table 4. Jalan Papar
stick together because of the existing bitumen coating, Lama shows the least mechanical strength with the
and forming a group of slightly bigger than its size. This highest abrasion wear and aggregate impact value of
explains the low percentage of aggregate within this size. 26.94 and 43.81 respectively. Jalan Bundusan is the
The age of the RAP sample is also affected the grading of strongest among all three sample with 14.61 for AIV and
the aggregate as the older sample tends to have more 30.26. As for Jalan Penampang, it falls between the two
fracture particle due to its impact during service and samples with 15.78 for AIV and 33.07 for LAAV. Both
degradation of the sample. This proves the poorly graded the state road has a very close value, as the existing
of Jalan Papar Lama sample with the age more than 20 condition does not vary much. The longer period of life
years compared to the other two samples. Additionally, time service explains the weak condition of the RAP
the usage of the roads with percentage of heavy vehicle aggregate sample from Jalan Papar Lama as compared to
worsens the road condition. Jalan Penampang and Jalan Bundusan-Lintas.

3.2 Flakiness Index


Table 2 shows the Flakiness Index of the RAP samples.
Both the state road (Jalan Bundusan and Jalan
Penampang) shares a near value of 30, and compared to
its standard specification of 35, it is still under the
requirement limit. As for Jalan Papar Lama, smaller result

3
Table 4. Aggregate Los Angeles Abrasion (LAAV) and 4. CONCLUSION
Aggregate Impact Value (IV)
Tests and evaluation have been conducted on the RAP
Sample location LAAV IV aggregate samples, and the following conclusions can be
Jalan Bundusan 30.26 14.61
drawn;
Jalan Penampang 33.07 15.78
Jalan Papar Lama 43.81 26.94
 There is some degradation on the size
distribution of the RAP samples, but the
Additionally, the traffic volume shown in Table 1 also Flakiness Indexes of the samples are still under
influences the sample strength, as the traffic indicates how the requirement specification.
much load the road accommodates. The differences in  Mechanical properties of the RAP samples show
both the state road can be explained due to the different some deprivation especially Jalan Papar Lama.
traffic volume, where Jalan Penampang carries more However, RAP samples of Jalan Penampang and
volume than Jalan Bundusan. Furthermore, Jalan Jalan Bundusan still possessed strength within
Penampang service life is longer than Jalan Bundusan. the standard.
Therefore, Jalan Bundusan is slightly stronger compared  The RAP aggregate is influenced mostly by the
to Jalan Penampang. With the highest percentage of heavy traffic condition and the pavement condition
vehicle in Jalan Papar Lama; 20% in year 2000, whereas especially the period of service. Therefore, the
only 2% in year 2007 recorded in Jalan Penampang, gives existing condition is important and need to be
it the worst condition compared to the other two studied.
location’s sample.
It can be seen that the RAP aggregates do have the
Furthermore, the bitumen coating gives extra strength to potential to be used as an alternative material in road
the aggregate to resist impact and tends to group up and construction. With the aid of its engineering properties
stick together. However, the bitumen properties tend to understanding, maximizing the usage of RAP become an
weaken as the age increases. The old, harden RAP binder advantage. However due to their various individual
as in Jalan Papar Lama does not possess the original good characteristics, tests and evaluations should be conducted
quality anymore compared to Jalan Penampang and Jalan to ensure proper usage of the material.
Bundusan. . The bitumen coating in Jalan Penampang
and Jalan Bundusan tends to bind the sample together
when its heat up and give a better resistance. REFERENCES

Ahmad, J., Rahman, M. Y. A. & Din, K. (2004)


3.5 Relationship between Physical and Mechanical Degradation And Abrasion Of Reclaimed Asphalt
Properties of RAP Pavement Aggregates. International Journal of
Through the obtained results, relationship between the Engineering and Technology, 1: 139-145.
RAP aggregate properties can be identified. The variation
in resistance within the samples can be attributed to the Aribisala, J.O. and Ogundipe, O.M. (2007) Recycled
influence of aggregate particle shape and geological Materials In Highway Construction For Sustainable
features (Koukis et. al, 2007). The aggregate resistance Development. Research Journal of Applied
and geometrical properties; particularly the shape, are Sciences., 2: 393-396.
linearly related. Due to the flakiness of the particle shape,
compaction results a higher void ratio and weaker Huang, B., Shu, X. & Li, G. (2005) Laboratory
compound. This can be seen from the results of Jalan investigation of Portland cement concrete containing
Penampang and Jalan Bundusan. However, for sample recycled asphalt pavements. Cement and Concrete
obtained from Jalan Papar Lama, ages and many other Research, 35: 2008-2013.
factors influence the variation in the values obtained.
JKR 20407 0001-1990. Guidelines for Inspection and
The water absorption reflects the volume of pore spaces Testing of Road Works, Jabatan Kerja Raya. Kuala
constitute significant geological factors influencing the Lumpur.
aggregate resistance. The durability, in term of resistance
to weathering to wear, generally increases with the Karim, M. R., Hamzah, M. O., & Hasan, A.(1991)
decreasing grain size and decreasing volume of pore Pengenalan Pembinaan Jalan Raya Berbitumen.
spaces. The increase in percentage water absorption is Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
related to an increase in LAAV and AIV results.
Additionally, the grading of the sample which still falls in Koukis, G., Sabatakakis, N., Spyropoulos, A. (2007)
the grading limits, such as Jalan Penampang and Jalan Resistance Variation Of Low-Quality Aggregate.
Bundusan, results in higher resistance value as compared Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 66 (4): 457-
to Jalan Papar Lama. 466.

4
Somayaji, S. (2001) Civil Engineering Materials, New
Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Stabilised Pavement Malaysia(SPM) Sdn. Bhd (2007).


Road Recycling & Stabilisation-The New Era of
Roads Construction in Sabah Malaysia, IEM
Seminar.

5
MODIFIED BITUMEN WITH OIL PALM FRUIT ASH

Gatot Rusbintardjo1,2, Mohd. Rosli Hainin2


1)
Department of Civil Engineering and Environment, Faculty of Engineering,
Universitas Islam Sultan Agung (UNISSULA) Semarang
Email: gatotrsb@gmail.com; phone: +60177932890; +62247471703
2)
Department of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Email: roslihainin@gmail.com; phone: +6013745050

ABSTRACT: Increased traffic factors such as heavier loads, higher traffic volume, and higher tire pressure as well as studded tire
wear, demand higher performance pavements to prevent pavement distress. Some of these serious distresses include rutting, shoving,
stripping, and fatigue cracking, which ultimately may lead to complete failure of the pavement. Such distresses reduce the performance
of asphalt pavements, which not only cause inferior ride quality to motorists, but also yield higher life-cycle costs. Some of these
problems are associated with the asphalt cement or bitumen as binders. The performance of asphalt pavements is mainly governed by
the properties of the bitumen, because bitumen is the continuous matrix and only deformable component. At high temperatures (40 to
600C), asphalt exhibits a viscoelastic behaviour. Pavement made of bitumen may show distress when exposed to high temperatures. At
elevated temperatures, permanent deformation (rutting) occurs and leads to channels in the direction of travel. This is attributed to the
viscous flow of the bitumen matrix in paving mixtures, which retains strains induced by traffic. On the other hand, bitumen will brittle
in low temperature and pavement cracking will occur. Therefore, pavement performance is strongly associated with the rheological
properties of bitumen. Bitumen exposed to wide range of load and weather conditions, however, does not have good engineering
properties, because it is soft in a hot environment and brittle in cold weather. To prevent occurring of pavement distress, it is important
to reinforced bitumen to improve its mechanical properties. Modified bitumen with Oil Palm Fruit Ash (OPFASH) was studied by
analyzing its rheological properties. The results which were reported in this paper show that OPFASH-Modified Bitumen can resist to
high pavement temperature rutting up to 70°C, 10°C higher than average high pavement temperature. in addition also resist to
intermediate pavement temperature fatigue cracking 20°C.

Keyword: Oil Palm Fruit Ash, Modifier, Bitumen, Rheology, Rutting, Cracking

1. INTRODUCTION and 0.1 kg Kernel Oil or totally resulted 0.44 kg of oil


(Department of Environmental, Ministry of Science,
Traditionally, a conventional binder such as bitumen Technology and the Environment Malaysia, (1999)). This
penetration grade 80/100 was used in road pavement means that from 1 kg of oil palm fruitlets resulted 0.56 kg
construction which also most use in Malaysia. of the mesocarp waste. If the product of palm oil in the
However, increased traffic factors such as heavier loads, year 2009 is 17.56 million tonnes (44% of the oil palm
higher traffic volume, and higher tire pressure as well as fruitlets), it is means that there are 9.83 million tonnes of
studded tire wear, require the durability and strength of the waste of mesocarp in the year 2009, large amount of
the binder to resist rutting, fatigue and cracking waste that will pollute the environment if not used.
tendencies of the pavements. One means of achieving
this is by modifying the bitumen. Modified bitumen
with additive to strengthen the mechanical properties of 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
the bitumen has been practiced in many forms for over
150 years but there is a renewed interest. 2.1 Materials

Feasibility of using Oil Palm Fruit Ash (OPFASH) was The bitumen used in this study was 80/100 penetration
evaluated in this research. OPFASH is by-product of grade source from PETRONAS. Oil Palm Fruit Ash
palm oil mill, or the ash from burning mesocarp of (OPFASH) is by-product of palm oil mill, or the ash from
fruitlets of the palm oil fruits. The idea to use OPFASH burning mesocarp of fruitlets of the palm oil fruits. This
is to look for the alternative of other modifier instead of by-product has been disposed as waste thus polluting the
polymer, the most use of bitumen modifier, and to environment and affecting the health of community
reduce environmental pollution caused by waste palm surrounding. Physically, OPFASH is grayish in colour and
oil industry. Malaysia is the palm oil producing become dark with increasing proportions of unburned
countries and the country’s largest palm oil industry in carbon. The physical properties and chemical composition
the world. Malaysia Palm Oil production in the year of OPFASH were given in Table 1 and 2 respectively.
2009 was 17.56 million tonnes1. From 1 kg of oil palm From Palm Oil Mill OPFASH was in form of rough
fruilets can be resulted 0.34 kg of crude palm oil (CPO) elongated-flat grains with maximum grains size length 6
mm. In order to be able to well mixed with the bitumen, length portions with the spatula and hammer. Softening
OPFASH was grinded into the fine grains with uniform point (Tr&b) test was performed to the top and bottom
grains size 75µm or 0.075 mm. samples. The Tr&b difference between top and bottom
portions was used to evaluate OMB’s stability.
Table1. Physical Properties of OPFASH (Mohd. Warid)
2.2.3 Rheology test using Dynamic Shear Rheometer
(DSR)

The DSR was used to characterize the viscous and elastic


behaviour of bitumen binders It did this by measuring the
complex shear modulus |G*| and phase angle (δ) of
bitumen binders Test was performed based on European
Standard Test EN 14770, and was conducted on unaged,
RTFO aged residue, and PAV aged residue, both for neat
bitumen and OMB binders. Therefore, sample must be
aged by using rolling thin film oven (RTFO) and pressure
Table 2 Chemical Composition of OPFASH (M. Warid) aging vessel before being performed DSR test however,
the RTFO and PAV tests procedure were not described in
this paper.

There are two types of pavement distress can be measured


by using of DSR, these were permanent deformation or
rutting and fatigue cracking.

2.2.3.1 Permanent deformation (Rutting)

The geometry of the equipment needed to measure |G*|


and δ was shown in Figure 1.

2.2 Procedures

2.2.1 Sample preparation

The amount of 1500 grams of 2.5% to 10% of OPFASH


in increments of 2.5% by weight of bitumen were
blended with bitumen using ordinary laboratory
propeller mixer at mixing temperature 160 ± 5°C, Figure 1: Dynamic Shear Rheometer Geometry
mixing time 60 minutes, and mixing stirring speed 800
revolution per minute (rpm). Immediately after mixing Bitumen was sandwiched between the oscillating spindle
being finished, amount of 300 grams were poured into and the fixed base. The spindle was oscillated back and
25.4 mm by 139.7 mm of aluminum tube to be used for forth using either a constant stress or constant strain.
storage stability test. The rest of the mixtures were kept Constant stress means that the spindle was rotated through
into room temperature during three days for further a certain distance until a fixed stress was achieved.
aging test. Constant strain means that the spindle was rotated every
time through a fixed distance, regardless of the stress
2.2.2 Storage stability test achieved. While this rotation occurs, the resulting stress or
strain was monitored. The relationship between the
Storage stability test was conducted to evaluate the applied stress and the resulting strain provides information
possible separation of OMB under storage. The test necessary to compute |G*| and δ.
procedure was conducted in accordance to ASTM
D5892. The test procedure was as follows: immediately In this study, for rutting test were conducted at five
after mixing being finished, OPFASH-modified different temperatures 50, 60, 65, 70, and 75°C, using
bitumen was poured into 25.4-mm by 139.7-mm stress controlled sweep, and at test frequency 1.59Hz. The
aluminum tube and heated to 165°C for 1 and 3 days in binder to be tested were unaged, RTFO aged, and PAV
the oven. The selection of storage days was based on aged residue.
estimation of road construction delay. At the end of the
test period, samples were placed in the freezer at -10°C
for 4 hours to solidify the OMB. Upon removing the
tube from the freezer, samples were cut into three equal
2.2.3.2 Fatigue cracking loading phenomenon in determining the rutting parameter
chosen for specification purposes. With each of traffic
Test procedure for fatigue cracking was similar to that loading cycle, work is being done to deform the HMA
of rutting test. The difference was only in the test pavement surface. A part of this work is recovered by
temperature, test geometry, and test sweep controlled. elastic rebound of the surface while some is dissipated in
Fatigue cracking was considered as a strain controlled. the form of permanent deformation or heat. In order to
Test was conducted at five different temperatures, 20, minimize permanent deformation (rutting), the amount of
25, 30, 35, and 40°C and use small spindle (8 mm) with work dissipated during each loading cycle must be
gap 2500 microns (2.5 mm), as well as strain sweep minimized. Mathematically, the work dissipated per
control, and test frequency 1.59Hz. loading cycle at a constant stress can be expressed as
The binders to be tested were PAV aged residue. follows (Bahia, H.U. and D.A. Anderson (1995) :
⎡ 1 ⎤
Wc = π ×σ o2 ⎢ (1)
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ⎣ G * / sin δ ⎥⎦
where,
3.1 Storage stability Wc = work dissipated per lod cycle,
σo = stress applied during the load cycle,
The softening point temperature (Tr&b) difference G* = complex modulus,
between top and bottom sections was used to evaluate Δ = phase angle.
OMB’s stability. A low Tr&b difference was observed in
all of OMB as shown in Figure 2. This equation indicates that the work dissipated per
loading cycle is inversely proportional to G*/sinδ. For this
purpose, the G*/sinδ parameter was chosen as a Superpave
Different of Tr&b
bitumen binder specification. Specification requirements
for the DSR test parameters, when the unaged bitumen
binder is tested, the G*/sinδ value must be minimum of 1
1.2

1
kPa, and when the RTFO residue is tested the G*/sinδ
0.8
value must be a minimum of 2.2 kPa (Freddy L. Robert
0.6
et.al., 1996).
0.4

0.2
Fatigue cracking can occurs both in thick or thin of HMA
0
2.5 5 7.5 10
pavement layers. In thick layers, fatigue cracking is
OPFASH Cont ent ( %) by weight of bit umen
typically considered a stress controlled, and in thin layers
it is considered a strain controlled. Since fatigue cracking
Tr&b 1day st or age Tr&b 3 days st orage is known to be more prevalent in thin pavements, the
SHRP researchers assumed that it should be considered
Figure 2: Tr&b differences changing by OPFASH mainly a strain controlled.60. Mathematically, the work
content for bitumen pen. Grade 80/100 dissipated per loading cycle at a constant strain can be
expressed as follows (Bahia H.U. and D.A. Anderson
The Tr&b should be controlled within 2°C at which (1996):
OMB can be properly stored. There were no set
standard tests in Malaysia, as an approach, temperature
difference 2°C refers to the research conducted by Wc = π ×∈o2 [G *× sin δ ] (2)
researcher in Taiwan (J.C. Chen et.al., 2003) was used.
All OMB have Tr&b different below 2°C as can be seen where ∈ is the strain and the other variables are as
in Figure 2. OMB with 2.5% OPFASH has different previously described. This equation indicates that G*
Tr&b 0°C. For 1 day storage the other three OPFASH and/or δ are increased, more work will be dissipated per
content have Tr&b different 0.5°C, and for 3 days storage traffic loading cycle. The lower the amount of energy
OMB with 5% OPFASH has 0.5°C Tr&b different, while dissipated per cycle, the lower of fatigue cracking or any
the other two OPFASH content 7.5 and 10% have 1°C other damage to occur.
different of Tr&b. These results showed that OPFASH
compatible with bitumen when used as modifier. The G*sinδ parameter was, therefore, chosen for
Superpave specification purposes to limit the total amount
3.2 Rheological testing of energy dissipated thereby minimizing fatigue cracking.
The DSR specification requirement for G*sinδ parameter
As expected, adding the amount of OPFASH in the when PAV aged bitumen binder was tested must be
bitumen increasing the resistance to permanent maximum 5000 kPa (Freddy L. Robert et.al., 1996).
deformation or rutting and resistance to fatigue
cracking. The Strategic Highway Research Programme Test results shown in Figure 3 for unaged sample and in
(SHRP) researchers considered rutting as a stress Figure 4 for RTFO aged sample showed that for unaged
controlled (Freddy L. Robert et.al., 1996), cyclic sample, OMB can resist rutting until 65°C, and for RTFO
aged sample until 70°C reached by OMB with 5%
OPFASH content.
The test results for PAV aged sample shows that OMB can
resist fatigue cracking until 20°C reached by OMB with
2.5% OPFASH content, and the other resist at temperature
25°C.

4. CONCLUSION

Storage stability test was known that there was no


separation between OPFASH and bitumen or can be
concluded that OPFASH was compatible to be used as
bitumen modifier.

This conclusion was also brought the meaning to the DSR


test results. Since OPFASH-bitumen was compatible,
without doubt, the DSR test results were also valid.

Figure 3: |G*|/sinδ for unaged sample The overall conclusion was Oil Palm Fruit Ash (OPFASH)
feasible to be used as bitumen modifier.

|G*|/sin (delta) for RTFO aged sam ple


5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
45
The writers wish to thank Prof. Dr. Ir. A.A.A. Molenaar
40
and Prof. Ir. Martin van de Veen from the Road and
Railway Section, Faculty of Civil and GeoScience
35
30

25
Engineering of the Delft University of Technology, the
20
Netherlands for permitting the writers to conduct DSR,
15 BBR, and DTT tests for OPFASH-Modified Bitumen in
10 the laboratory of Road and Railway Section, and for their
5 guidance and supervision during the writers conducting
0 the test.
0 2.5 5 7.5 10

OP F A S H c o n t e n t ( % b y we i g h t o f b i t u m e n ) ,
0 i s Ne a t Bi t ume n
6. REFERENCES
Temp. 50C Temp. 60C Temp. 65C
Temp. 70C Temp. 75C Bahia, H.U. and D.A. Anderson. (1995). The SHRP
Binder Rheological Parameters: Why Are They
Figure 4: |G*|/sinδ for RTFO aged sample Required and How Do They Compare to
Conventional Properties. Transportation Research
Board, Preprint Paper No. 950793, January 1995.

Department of Environmental, Ministry of Science,


Technology and the Environment Malaysia, (1999).
Industrial Process and the Environment of Crude
Oalm Oil Industry. Printed by: Aslita Sdn. Bhd. Kuala
Lumpur, December 1999.

European Normalization EN 14770. Bitumen and


bituminous binders – Determination of complex
modulus and phase angle – Dynamic Shear
Rheometer (DSR)

Freddy L. Robert, Prithvi S. Kandhal, E. Ray Brown, Dah-


Yinn Lee, and Thomas W. Kennedy. (1996). Hot Mix
Asphalt – Materials, Mixture Design and
Construction. 2nd edition. NAPA Education
Foundation, Lanham, Maryland. p. 84-85
Figure 5: |G*|sin(delta) for PAV sample
Google Alert - Malaysia Palm Oil Industry 2009

Mohd. Warid Hj. Hussin, Prof. Ir. Dr. (2002). Blended


Cement Concrete – Potential without Misuse.
Public Lecture, Universisti Teknologi Malaysia.

J.S. Chen, M.C. Liao, and C.H. Lin. (2003).


Determination of polymer content in modified
bitumen. Journal of Materials and Structures. Vol.
36, November 2003, p. 594-598.
PROPERTIES OF DUTCH TWINLAY POROUS ASPHALT UTILIZING LOCAL AGGREGATES

Noor Halizah Abdullah


School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang,
Malaysia.
nhalizah@yahoo.com

Meor Othman Hamzah


School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang,
Malaysia.
cemeor@eng.usm.my

ABSTRACT: Porous asphalt was first attempted on Malaysian roads in 1991. It prevents hydroplaning, improve skid resistance and
overall enhancement in traffic safety. However, the life span of Malaysian porous asphalt is much shorter compared to Dutch mixes. It
is reported that the most durable and successful porous asphalt resides in the Netherlands. Therefore, it is justifiable to refer to the
Dutch porous asphalt design as a guide to improve the performance of Malaysian porous asphalt mixtures. In 1990, the Dutch
developed the double layer porous asphalt named as ‘Twinlay’. Twinlay is made up of a top finer thin porous mix which acts as a
‘sieve’ that prevents dirt from entering the bottom layer while the bottom layer consists of a much coarser but thicker porous base layer
mix that can reduce the chances to trap dirt or pollutants. Twinlay offers possibilities for even more noise reduction and cleaning of
Twinlay has proven manageable through experience in practice. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of Dutch
Twinlay porous asphalt mixes using local aggregates. Performance parameters measured includes permeability, Marshall stability and
flow, indirect tensile strength (ITS) and abrasion loss. Local granite aggregates were batched and compacted by the Marshall Hammer.
Conventional bitumen 60/70 penetration grade, modified binder PG76 and hydrated lime were used as binders and filler respectively.
Mixes incorporating modified binder PG76 exhibits better performance for all conducted tests on specimens which includes
permeability, abrasion loss, ITS, and Marshall stability test. Incorporation of modified binder increases the resistance to abrasion loss,
and the tensile strength of the mixes.

Key words: Porous asphalt; Double layer; Permeability; Abrasion loss

1. INTRODUCTION (The Netherlands) have led to a new development of PA.


In 1990, the Dutch developed the double layer PA
Porous asphalt (PA) is an advanced road surfacing designated as ‘Twinlay’. Test sections were constructed
technology which has been used in many countries. Its since 1990 and these test sections took part on a large
continuous air voids allows water to enter into the asphalt scale research project aimed at optimizing noise reduction
mix and flows through it. It is used worldwide for its of PA. Acoustic measurements showed that Twinlay
favorable splash and spray properties and its reduction of offers possibilities for even more noise reduction, even at
aquaplaning under rainy conditions as well as its noise lower vehicle speeds. Cleaning of Twinlay has proven
reduction property. Pores in the mix play the role of a manageable through experience in practice (Van
drainage mechanism which absorbs considerable quantity Bochove, 1996).
of precipitation falling on them before becoming
saturated. Compared to dense mix, PA is more susceptible The double layer PA consists of two different mix
to clogging and less durable. The pores in PA are easily gradations. The top layer consists of a finer thin porous
clogged by dirt, silt, clay and debris especially in rainy mix while the bottom layer consists of a much coarser but
conditions. When the pores are clogged, there will be a thicker porous base layer mix. The top layer acts as a
permeability loss and when the extent of clogging is ‘sieve’. Its finer layer prevents dirt from entering the
severe, the benefits associated with open mix will vanish. bottom layer, while the bottom layer, which has larger
pores, reduces chances to trap dirt or pollutants.
In European countries, the PA surfacings offer a big Therefore, only the top layer gets clogged and the dirt is
potential to reduce traffic noise at source in harmony with easily removed by existing field cleansing techniques
a stricter environmental regulations related to traffic which involves vacuuming of the dirt (Battiato et. al.,
noise. Nonetheless, the noise absorbing capacity of PA is 1996). The schematic diagram of the Twinlay PA is
greater as the gradation becomes finer (Van Bochove, shown in Fig.1. The objective of this paper is to assess the
1996). However, the finer graded PA is more prone to properties of Twinlay PA using local aggregates and
clogging. The Dutch experience with double layer PA incorporating two types of bitumen, base bitumen 60/70
was presented to the 1st Euroasphalt and Eurobitumen penetration grade and modified PG76 bitumen.
Congress held in Strasbourg (Van Bochove, 1996).

Since the 1980’s, PA had been used as a wearing course


for pavement in urban roads in the Netherlands with the
first trial conducted in 1984. Years of experience and
research by Heijmans Civil Engineering at Rosmalen

1
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of a Twinlay porous asphalt
(Van Bochove, 1996)

2. METHODOLOGY
Fig. 2. Dutch Twinlay PA gradation
2.1. Materials
2.2. Specimen Preparation
Local crushed aggregates extracted from a local source
and supplied by Quad Quarry Sdn. Bhd. were used in this Specimens were prepared in a Marshall standard mould
study. Hydrated lime and OPC were used as fillers. with a total height 70 mm with top layer thickness of 25
Table 1 shows the basic properties of local crushed mm. Mix for top and bottom layers were prepared
granite used in this paper. Bitumen penetration grade separately according to their respective binder contents as
60/70 and modified bitumen PG76 supplied by Shell shown in Table 3. The bottom layer aggregates and
Malaysia were incorporated in the mix. The properties of bitumen were blended at the mixing temperature based on
bitumen used are presented in Table 2. The aggregates viscosity results. The mix was then conditioned at the
were washed, dried, and sieved into the selected size compaction temperature for 2 hours. The top layer
range according to Dutch aggregate gradation and sieve aggregates were then mixed with bitumen and also
sizes. There were two gradations used, the top and bottom conditioned for two hours prior to compaction. The mass
layer which differs in terms of their nominal maximum of top and bottom layer mixes were calculated based on
aggregate sizes of 8 mm and 16 mm respectively. Fig.2 their corresponding single layer densities. The actual
illustrates the gradation for top and bottom layers used in amount of mixes required was calculated based on the
this study. density and volume obtained from its single layer
properties. The bottom layer was weighed first and
Table 1. Properties of local crushed granite used in this poured to the bottom of the mould and the top layer was
study then weighed and placed on top of the bottom layer. A
total of 50 blows were applied on each face of the
Specification specimen. The mixing and compaction temperatures are
Properties Requirement Result Conform shown in Table 4.
(JKR, 2008)
Abrasion Loss Less than 25% 23.6% Yes Table 3. Binder contents for top and bottom layers
Aggregate
Less than 25% 17.3% Yes Type of Layer Binder Contents (%)
Crushing Value
Flakiness Index Less than 25% 18.1% Yes Top 6.0
Water Bottom 4.2
Less than 2% 0.7% Yes
Absorption
Polished Stone Table 4: Mixing and Compacting Temperatures
Not less than 50 51.8 Yes
Value
Temperature (oC)
Table 2. Properties of bitumen used in this study Type of Binder
Mixing Compaction
Bitumen 60/70 165 155
Basic Properties
60/70 PG-76 PG-76 180 170
Specific Gravity (g/cm3) 1.030 1.024
Penetration at 25 °C (x0.1mm) 63 45
Softening Point (°C) 49 64
Ductility at 25 °C (cm) > 100 88.8

2
2.3 Specimen Testing
where F is the maximum applied load (N), h is the
2.3.1 Permeability Test specimen thickness (mm), and d is the specimen diameter
(mm).
Permeability is an important property of an open mix. The
hydraulic conductivity of the compacted specimens was 2.3.4 Marshall Stability Test
expressed in terms of the coefficient of permeability (k),
determined using a falling head water permeameter. This The Marshall test was carried out to determine the
test involved a specimen secured to the permeameter base stability and flow of the specimen when placed between
plate and pouring water into the perspex tube while two split breaking heads in an unconfined manner. Load
sealing the orifice with the rubber stopper. The rubber at a constant rate of 50.8 mm/min was applied
stopper was then removed and the time taken for water to perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the specimen
fall through two designated points on the permeameter until failure. Stability is expressed in kN and is equivalent
standpipe was recorded. to the maximum load applied and flow is the deformation
that took place up to the point where failure occurred and
The coefficient of permeability was calculated based on measured in units of mm.
the formula shown in Eq.(1).
3.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
aL ⎛ h1 ⎞
k = 2.3 log10 ⎜ ⎟ (1)
3.1 Coefficient of Permeability
At ⎝ h2 ⎠
This test was conducted using the falling head
where k is the coefficient of permeability (cm/s), A is the
permeability apparatus. Atleast three different specimens
cross section area specimens (cm2), a is the cross section
were tested for permeability and the average permeability
area standpipe (cm2), L is the height of specimens, t is
of both mixes are recorded. The permeability of Dutch
time taken for water in standpipe to fall from h1 to h2 (s),
twinlay PA is presented in Fig.3. It was found that mixes
and h1, h2 is the water level at t1 and t2 (cm)
with PG76 grade bitumen exhibits higher coefficient of
permeability compared to bitumen penetration grade
2.3.2 Cantabro Test
60/70. Incorporating a polymer modified binder in the
mix has increased the permeability of the mix. Faghri et.
The Cantabro test was conducted to determine specimen
al. (2002) had also reported that with the use of polymer
resistance to particle loss. The test was conducted in the
modified bitumen had increased the permeability of open-
Los Angeles (LA) machine, without steel balls. Twinlay
graded asphalt mixes.
specimen was conditioned at 25°C for at least four hours
before placing it in the LA machine to tumble for 300-
drum rotations. The percentage mass loss after 300
rotations compared to the original mass defined the
abrasion loss as shown in Eq.(2).

M1− M 2
% Loss = ×100 (2)
M1

where M1 is the initial mass (g), and M2 is the final mass


(g).

2.3.3 Indirect Tensile Strength

The indirect tensile strength (ITS) was used to determine


the strength required to split the specimen into two halves.
This serves as the tensile strength of the specimen. The Fig. 3. Permeability test results
test was done according to ASTM D4123, (ASTM, 2005).
The specimen was cured at 20oC for at least 4 hours 3.2 Abrasion Loss
before conducting the test. Compression loads were
applied parallel to the vertical diameter plane by using the The abrasion loss was conducted on specimens
Marshall testing machine. The specimen usually fails conditioned at 25°C. A total of three specimens for each
along the loaded plane when tensile stress loading acts type of mix was tested. The average values from the three
perpendicular to the applied load plane (Kok and Yilmaz, samples were taken as the abrasion loss. The test result is
2009). The ITS value is calculated using Eq.(3). shown in Fig.4. It can be seen that the mix made with
bitumen grade 60/70 produces higher abrasion loss
2000 F compared to PG76. Mixes made with modified bitumen
ITS = (3) PG76 has stronger bond and more resistant to particle
πhd
3
loss. Nielsen et. al. (2004) reported that the use of twinlay porous asphalt made with bitumen grade PG76
modified binder had improved the resistance of PA to exhibit 37.5% higher stability compared to mixes made
particle loss. with conventional bitumen.

Table 5. Marshall test results

Binder Stability, Ms Flow, F MQ (Ms/F)


Type (kN) (mm) kN/mm
60/70 5.32 2.77 1.92
PG76 10.38 3.38 3.07

Fig. 4. Abrasion loss results

3.3 Indirect Tensile Strength

The results for the ITS values for two different types of
bitumen is shown in Fig.5. From the results, it can be seen
that the mixes made with modified bitumen PG76 exhibit
higher ITS values compared to conventional 60/70 Fig. 6. Marshall quotient
penetration binder. The use of modified bitumen increases
the mean ITS values by 13.5%. A study done by Faghri
et. al. (2002) also found that the use of polymer modified 4.0 CONCLUSION
bitumen has increased the tensile strength of open-graded
mixes. This paper presents the results of the Dutch Twinlay PA
mixes properties using local aggregates and two different
types of binder. Generally, mixes incorporating modified
binder PG76 exhibits better performance for all conducted
tests on specimens which includes permeability, abrasion
loss, ITS, and Marshall stability test. Incorporation of
modified binder increases the resistance to abrasion loss,
and the tensile strength of the mixes.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to acknowledge the Malaysian


Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation that has
funded this research grant through eScience Fund
program that enables this paper to be written. Many
thanks are also due to technicians of the Highway
Fig. 5. Indirect tensile strength results Engineering Laboratory at the Universiti Sains Malaysia
for their help. Acknowledgments are also due to the
3.4 Marshall Stability Test RESULT suppliers of bitumen and aggregate, which include Shell
Ltd., Singapore and Kuad Quarry Sdn. Bhd., Penang
The ratio of stability (kN) to flow (mm) is used to define respectively.
the Marshall Quotient (MQ). MQ is a measure of the
materials resistance to shear stresses, permanent
deformation and hence rutting (Zoorob and Suparma, REFERENCES
2000). High MQ values result a high stiffness mix with a
greater ability to spread the applied load and resistance to ASTM, 2005. ASTM D4123: Standard test method for
creep deformation (Kok and Yilmaz, 2009). The Marshall Indirect Tension Test for Resilient Modulus of
test results are presented in Table 5, while Fig.6 illustrates bituminous paving mixtures, Annual Books of ASTM
the ratio of stability to flow. It can be seen that the Standard, Vol. 04.03, West Conshohocken, PA

4
Battatio G., Donada M., Grandesso P., Russiani M.
(1996). DDL a New Generation of Sound Absorption
Draining Layers. 1st Euroasphalt & Eurobitume
Congress 1996.

Bochove Van G.G. (1996). Twinlay, a New Concept for


Porous Asphalt. 1st Euroasphalt & Eurobitume
Congress 1996.

Faghri, et. al., 2002. Performance Improvement of Open-


Graded Asphalt Mixes, URITC Project No. 536144,
Transportation Centre, University of Rhode Island.

JKR, 2008. Standard Specification for Road Works


(Section 4: Flexible Pavement), Public Works
Department, Ministry of Works Malaysia, Kuala
Lumpur.

Kok, B. V. and Yilmaz, M., 2009. The Effects of Using


Lime and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene on Moisture
Sensitivity Resistance of Hot Mix Asphalt,
Construction and Building Materials 23, 1999-2006.

Nielsen C.B., Nielsen E., Andersen J.B., and Raaberg J.,


2004. Development of Durable Porous Apshalt Mixes
from Laboratory Experiments, 3rd Eutoasphalt &
Eurobitume Congress, Vienna, [090].

Zoorob, S. E., Suparma, L. B. (2000), Laboratory Design


and Investigation of the Properties of Continuously
Graded Asphaltic Concrete Containing Recycled
Plastic Aggregate Replacement (Plastiphalt), Cement
Concrete Composites 2000:22:233-42.

5
FIELD STUDY OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECTS FROM ASPHALT PAVEMENTS

Chitral Wijeyesekera
Professor in Civil Engineering, School of Computing, IT & Engineering, University of East London, UK
& UTHM Johore Malaysia
chiral@uel.ac.uk
John Walsh
Senior Lecturer in Civil Engineering, School of Computing, IT & Engineering, University of East London, UK
j.w.walsh@uel.ac.uk
Robert Allen
Aggregate Industries (UK) Ltd.,, UK
Bob.Allen@aggregate.com
Helen Bailey
Aggregate Industries (UK) Ltd.,, UK
ABSTRACT: The rapid growth of worldwide urbanization arouses concerns on Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects particularly within areas
where the population density is high. Road pavements are necessary facets of urbanization and have important localized environmental
effects; absorbing heat during the day and radiating it back out at night time contributing to significant localized temperature increase.
Furthermore social and ecological effects are felt in terms of heat related illness and breakdown of sensitive environmental systems leading
to derogatory contribution to global warming. Due to the large area covered by pavements in urban areas, they are an important element to
consider in the heat island migration. The temperatures of the pavements depend on the percentage composition of the solar energy, and the
pavement material’s thermo physical properties such as solar reflectance (albedo), thermal conductivity, and thermal emittance. Installation
of green roofs, cool pavements and increasing tree and vegetation cover are some of the strategies being adopted to reduce the urban heat
effects. Preliminary field monitoring of the urban heat island levels within an array of different pavement materials are being conducted on
5 test pavement bays constructed at an Aggregate Industries (UK) site. The temperature distribution within the test bays were data logged
continuously for the field analysis. The heat flow characteristics through the pavement constituents, including thermal energy input and
output are evaluated and assessed. Innovative systems to reduce such temperature variations in order to extend life of the asphalt pavements
as well as the possibility of harnessing the UHI as an energy source are explored.
.
Keywords: Urban heat island, heat transfer, road pavement, thermo-physical properties

1. INTRODUCTION
A “heat island” is perhaps a “reversed oasis” and occurs
when the thermal energy stored at a particular location
causes higher temperatures there than that in the
surrounding area. Such locations are normally found in
urban and sub-urban areas. During hot weather and
particularly at night, the ambient temperatures are warmer
in cities than in the surrounding areas. An Urban Heat
Island (UHI) is a consequence of the intrusion into the
natural green space by heat absorbing infrastructure such as
high rise buildings, road pavements, parking facilities etc. Fig. 1. Typical temperature profile across an UHI
This is further exacerbated with the lack of planned (Source: www.urbanheatislands.com)
compensating landscapes (see figure 1). With rapid
urbanization and increasing growth of cities, UHI related UHIs are becoming equally important as climate change
problems of thermal discomfort lead to derogatory human where the urban fabrics are susceptible to heat absorption.
health and mortality which are coupled with environmental Heat islands define local-scale temperature difference
issues of increased energy consumption, reduced air quality between urban and rural areas, whereas global warming
and accelerate significantly the green house effect. refers to the gradual rise of the worldwide average surface

1
temperatures. The overall UHI patterns are essentially For any surface material, certain thermal properties, such as
similar for most cities apart from the minor differences due heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal inertia,
to climate and geography. As shown in figures 1 and 2, the significantly govern the transient temperature of a body
temperature pattern is highest in the highly built up down with its surroundings. These thermal properties vary with
town area and diminishes towards the edge of the urban soil type and its moisture content. Dry, bare, and low-
areas and into the countryside. density soils have a relatively low thermal inertia. The
thermal emissivity (via the combined thermal processes of
conduction, convection and radiation) of soils is also
dependent on soil moisture conditions and the density.

Though the temperature differences between the urban and


countryside is obviously evident at midday, the UHI effect
causes the greatest temperature difference to occur two to
three hours after sunset. The latter effect results from the
gradual release of the heat stored during the day by the
asphalt and concrete structures. Most building materials are
impermeable and watertight, which does not therefore
facilitate the ready dissipation of the sun’s heat. Dark
Construction materials in concert with canyon like
configurations of buildings and pavements collect and trap
more of the sun’s energy. Temperatures of dry dark
Fig. 2. Surface temperature of London at 2130 hrs on 7 August surfaces exposed to direct sun light can reach up to 88ºC
showing the signature of urban heat island. Source: NASA during the day, whereas the vegetated surfaces with moist
soil under similar conditions might reach only 18ºC.
1.1 Aim and objectives of the research Anthropogenic heat or human produced heat, slower wind
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of asphalt speeds and air pollution in urban areas also contribute to
pavement on urban heat island and to assess the impact of heat island formation (Gartland, 2008).
the fabric of the road pavement on UHI. Permeability and volumetric heat capacity of pavement
A critical literature review of UHI is objectively followed layers greatly influence its heat exchange. Impermeable
with a description of the field set up used to make pavements reduce evaporation and the high volumetric heat
observations of the thermal flux through a pavement. capacity causes negligible flow of water or cooling air
Elements of heat transfer studies are provided as a basis for through them. These generate high night time air
UHI reduction strategies. temperatures described as a nocturnal urban heat island
(Asaeda and Thanh, 2000) Average summer temperatures
are predicted to increase by 2.5o to 3o C by the 2050s
2. URBAN HEAT ISLAND together with a high CO2 emissions scenario leading to an
increase of 5-10 days per year of exceptionally hot days
Figure 2 is an image of the Land Surface Temperature (>30oC). This hotter air contributes to the acceleration of
(LST) distribution over the London area as observed on 7th smog (ozone) production, which is a major health and
August 2009. Fractional vegetation cover modulates the environmental concern (Gray and Finster, 2000).
proportions of vegetation and ground visible to a sensor.
The temperature differences (generated by the radiated
thermal energy) between the vegetation canopy and the 3. HEAT TRANSFER IN PAVEMENTS
ground affect the measurement of LST. In non vegetated
areas, LST measurements typically represent the The wavelengths of solar radiation are less than 3mm.
radiometric temperature levels of bare soil. With increasing These heat the surfaces on which they fall. Such surfaces
amounts of vegetation cover, the temperature levels being much cooler than the surface of the sun, the radiation
recorded by a LST sensor reflect more closely the emitted by the urban fabric have a much longer wavelength.
temperatures of green leaves, and the canopy temperature. Figure 3 illustrates the thermal process prevalent in a
Therefore such LST observations need to be carefully pavement. These are important aspects to consider in heat
scrutinized to separate the contributions from each part of islands mitigation. The complex heat transfer mechanism
the hybrid shaded and sunny vegetation-ground system. involves different processes of thermodynamics. In addition
LST measurements are also influenced by the viewing to the processes, there are thermophysical properties, such
angle, the lower atmosphere and the differential as solar radiation, solar reflectance (albedo) material heat
temperature between the vegetation canopy, its variable capacities, surface roughness; heat transfer rates, thermal
biophysical properties and the soil background. emittance and permeability that contribute to UHI.

2
pavement layers as quickly as a pavement with higher
conductivity. It can be extended further that lower thermal
conductivity of the pavement causes high daytime
temperature as it stores more energy, than transfer it..

3.1.5 Heat Capacity (Thermal Mass)


Urban materials can store more heat than natural materials,
such as dry soil and sand. The higher heat capacity of
conventional urban materials contributes to heat islands at
night, when materials in urban areas release the stored heat.

3.1.6 Thickness
The thickness of pavement also plays a significant role in
contributing to UHI because it displays the amount of
energy it will store. The thicker pavements will store more
heat than thinner pavements.

3.2 Field Test Site & UHI Monitoring


Fig. 3. Heat transfer processes from and within a pavement

3.1 UHI Sensitive Thermophysical Properties of pavement

3.1.1 Solar Reflectance or Albedo


Solar reflectance, or albedo, is the percentage of solar
energy reflected by a surface. It is a primary determinant of
a material’s maximum surface temperature. Conventional
paving materials such as asphalt and concrete have solar
reflectance of 5 to 40 percent, which means that they absorb
95 to 60 percent of the energy reaching them instead of
reflecting it into the atmosphere (Golden and Kaloush
2005). These values change with time depending on age
and the type of material.

3.1.2 Permeability
Permeability of the pavement provides greater flow
capacity of air, water, and water vapour into and through
the voids of the pavement. Moisture within the pavement Fig. 4 Instrumented Road Pavement Test Site – Aggregate
Industries UK
structure evaporates as the surface heats, thus drawing heat
A dedicated road pavement testing site with 5 different
out of the pavement, similar to evaporative cooling from
pavement bays (see figure 4), constructed at the Aggregate
vegetated land cover. Permeable surfaces are currently used
Industries Research Centre based in Hulland Ward, UK has
to control storm water runoff; the evaporative cooling effect
been adapted further to accommodate the UHI monitoring.
also could be used for UHI reduction.
Figures 5 and 6 presents details of two of the five different
pavement bays made of dissimilar traditional and
3.1.3 Thermal Emittance
innovative sustainable materials to evaluate the influence of
A material’s thermal emittance determines how much heat
traditional and non-porous materials.
is radiated per unit area at a given temperature, that is, how
Also included for the identification of effectiveness and
readily a surface sheds heat. When exposed to sun light, a
influence are sustainable pavement materials such as
surface with high emittance will reach thermal equilibrium
Charcon Permavoid, Hydrain granular gravel reservoir bed,
at a lower temperature than a surface with low emittance,
reinforced and unreinforced geotextiles. These are used in
because the high  emittance surface gives off its heat more
the test bays as probable thermal barriers and porous layers.
readily
Charcon Permavoid (figure 5) is aplastic open geocellular
load bearing structure while Hydrain (figure 6) is a porous
3.1.4 Thermal Conductivity (k)
concrete. The asphalt surface and asphalt base shown in
Pavements with low thermal conductivity may heat up at
figure 5 is dense impermeable asphalt.
the surface but will not transfer that heat into the other

3
Temperature sensors in the form of thermocouples are
located at the boundaries of the various pavement fabrics.
Thermocouples have been read hourly and data logged
since August 2008. Some of these observations are
discussed briefly in this paper.

Fig. 7 Temperature variations observed from a bay on a typical


day (3rd September 2008)

Fig. 5 Cross section details of the pavement in Bay X.

Fig. 8 Temperature variations on 14/8/2008 - Bay X

Fig. 6 Cross section details of the pavement in Bay Y.


Figure 7 shows the temperature observations logged over a
typical day. Note the temperatures within the pavement
layers remain consistently higher than that of the air
temperature which is traditionally measured at a height of
2m above ground surface. There is a distinct time lag
between the pavement and the air temperatures with the
effect decreasing with depth.
A peak temperature of 35.4ºC was observed on the asphalt
surface in Bay X (see figure 8) compared to a 30.8ºC seen
on Bay Y (figure 9) confirming that the dense impermeable
asphalt (Bay X) is more susceptible to solar radiation and
more rapidly conducts and stores the heat than the porous
asphalt (Bay Y). Note that the comparisons of figures 8 and
9 are for the same day (see the same air temperature
variation and that of the sand and gravel layer). Fig. 9 Temperature variations on 14 Aug 2008 – Bay Y
Furthermore there is very little change in temperature
beneath the first geotextile layer.

4
the traditional asphalt and the porous asphalt are 1.42
W/mºC and 2.30 W/mºC respectively. While factors such as
prevailing weather patterns, climate, geography and
topography are beyond a designer’s control, there are
tangible heat island reduction strategies in vegetation,
landscaping, and improved building and road pavement
materials leading to the tangible construction of reflective
and cool roofs and pavements.

4. CONCLUSIONS
Temperature monitoring within the test pavements has
given a wealth of information for strategic analysis. There
is observed evidence that the porous pavements have low
thermal storage with indications of up to 60% reductions in
thermal gradients.
The use of sustainable and innovative materials presented
(Charcon Permavoid and Hydrain) creates a platform for
protecting the environment from adverse UHI effects. In
Fig. 10 Temperature isochrones in Bay X
colder cities at higher elevations, the heat islands are seen
as beneficial because of its winter warming effects. In most
cities throughout the world, the effects of summer heat
island are seen as a major problem.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Access to field information from Aggregate Industries (UK)
is gratefully acknowledged.

REFERENCES
Asaeda, T., and Thanh, V. (2000), .Characteristics of
Fig. 11 Equations to temperature curve fits (Bay X) permeable pavement during hot summer weather and
impact on the thermal environment Building and
Environment, 35:. 363-375.

Gartland L (2008), Heat Islands – Understanding and


mitigating Heat in Urban areas, London. Earth-scan
publication.

Golden, J., Kaloush, K. (2005), ‘Mesoscale and Microscale


evaluation of surface pavement impacts on the urban heat
island effects’, The International Journal of Pavement
Engineering, 7 (1):37‐52..

Fig. 12 Equations to temperature curve fits (Bay Y) Gray, K., and Finster, M. (2000), .The Urban Heat Island,
Photochemical smog, and Chicago: Local features of the
The temperature isochrones shown in figure 10 indicate that problem and solution,. Department of Civil Engineering,
there are significant temperature variations to depths in Northwestern University, Evanston, IL USA.
excess of 600 mm within the pavement.
Figures 11 and 12 show the polynomial fits to the Wong, N.C., and Chen, Y. (2009), Tropical Urban Heat
temperatures measured using thermocouples (A,B and G,H) Islands- Climate, Buildings and greenery, Milton Park,
placed at the boundaries of the “asphalt” layer in bays X London, Taylor and Francis Publication.
and Y respectively. Thermal conductivities calculated from

5
PCI DETERMINATION USING EXPERT SYSTEM

Norlela Ismail1, Amiruddin Ismail2, Riza Atiq Abdullah O.K.Rahmat3


Sustainable Urban Transport Research Centre / Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
E-mail: 1norlelaismail@uniten.edu.my; 2abim@vlsi.eng.ukm.my; 3riza@vlsi.eng.ukm.my

ABSTRACT: Airport networks are one of the important assets in a country especially after the air travel has become
increasingly popular as a mode of transportation. Large investments in time and money are required by aviation agencies to
sustain and maintain the airport networks operation in a safe and smooth condition. Aviation agencies responsible for operation
and maintenance of airport continually face problems with pavement distress and deterioration which occur due to environmental
factors and increasing weight and volumes of traffic. The pavement performance evaluation procedure based on Pavement
Condition Index (PCI) was developed in the late 1970s by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to help manage airport pavement.
The use of the PCI has received wide acceptance and formally adopted as standard procedure worldwide. This standard employs
the visual distress in which distress type, severity, and quantity are identified and rating system that rates the pavement condition
from 0 for a failed pavement to 100 for a perfect pavement. PCI is also used to measure the structural integrity and surface
operational condition of a pavement. Computing the PCI manually is not a tedious operation but the calculations involved are
time consuming. This paper presents the determination of PCI using expert system. The method is based on procedures in ASTM
D5340 (Standard design method for airport pavement condition index surveys). The expert system will automatically calculate
the PCI of each sample unit survey once the user enter the distress information. The system also determine the percentage of
deduct values based on distress mechanism and the primary cause of pavement deterioration. Using several sample unit of
pavement, this system is then tested by comparing the output results with manual calculation and MicroPAVER. The results
indicate that the PCI calculated from the expert system is almost similar with the other two.

 
Key words: Pavement Management System; Pavement Condition Index; Expert System

INTRODUCTION agencies have recognized the need for pavement


management (Haas 1997) to link together the
Upon completion, likes highway pavements, airport activities of planning, designing, constructing,
pavements begin to experience constantly maintaining and rehabilitating pavement. Pavement
deterioration due to larger weight and volumes of management systems (PMS) are then being
aircraft traffics and climatic factors. This developed to provide a structured and comprehensive
deterioration, if being unattended, can eventually approach to pavement management. PMS in airport
pose safety risks to airplanes taking off or landing pavement has grown dramatically since 1985. Their
which may increase the possibility of aircraft primary function is to assist engineers and decision
accident and aircraft operation delayed. Failure to makers in selecting the most cost effective way of
perform suitable treatment in the early stage of strategies for providing and maintaining pavements
deterioration may also results in serious pavement in an adequate and safe condition over a given period
distress that may require costly repairs in term of of time.
money and closure time (FAA 2003). It is important
to carry out the right maintenance at the right time in Ritchie et al. (1987) claimed that pavement surface
order to ensure the smooth airport operations and condition play a pivotal role in the analysis and
enhances the longevity of the pavement. design of pavement rehabilitation strategies. As
distresses visible on the pavement surface provide
However, managing of an aging pavement valuable input in the rehabilitation design process,
infrastructure is a difficult task especially with the most of the airport agencies conduct surveys on
growing budgetary constraints. Due to that, many pavement condition as additional information to
support their decision in maintenance and used to combine data on each distress type, severity
rehabilitation of a runway. In order to standardize the level, and distress density into a single condition
survey methods and pavement ratings, pavement value. For section samples that have distresses with
condition index (PCI) was developed. The PCI deduct value greater than five points, modified
developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers in deduct value is used, which is shown in Figure 2.
mid 1970’s seems the most common airport This value is subtracted from 100 to give the PCI
pavement distress survey used by airport agencies to value. ES-APAM also used the survey data to
help manage airport pavement (Shahin et al 1980; compute the structural condition index (SCI) and a
Shahin 1982, 1994; Michael et al. 1998). It has FOD condition index (FCI). The procedure used for
gained widespread acceptance and has been formally computing the FCI value is similar to the PCI, but
adopted as standard procedure worldwide. Shahin et only for several distresses which is shown in bold in
al. (1980) also stated that PCI is the first tool used in Figure 1. These indices are tools that could help users
the pavement rehabilitation process because it to quickly reduce the number of feasible
provides a standard measure of the pavement rehabilitation option.
condition in term of structural integrity and
operational condition, an objective and rational
method for identifying maintenance and repair needs, Distress Severity
and an early warning system for identifying Alligator Cracking L, M, H
expensive repair project. Bleeding n/a
Block Cracking L, M, H
Corrugation L, M, H
Computing the PCI manually for a single sample unit
Depression L, M, H
is not a tedious operation but it is time consuming Jet Blast Erosion n/a
especially when involving large volume of data
Joint Reflection Cracking L, M, H
(Shahin 1994). This paper presents the determination
Long and Trans Cracking L, M, H
of PCI using an object oriented expert system based Oil Spillage n/a
on KAPPA-PC to speed up the distress evaluation Patching L, M, H
process. It is part of the modules in the early stage of Polished Aggregate L, M, H
the prototyping Expert System for Airport Pavement Raveling and Weathering L, M, H
maintenance and Rehabilitation (ES-APAM) Rutting L, M, H
development. Shoving L, M, H
Slippage Cracking n/a
MATERIALS AND METHODS Swelling L, M, H
L=Low, M=Medium, H=High
The development of the prototyping expert system Figure 1: Distress List for Airfield Asphalt Surface (Shahin
for Airport Pavement Maintenance and Rehabilitation 1994)
(ES-APAM) is generally to give advice on making
decision in selecting the appropriate maintenance and
rehabilitation strategies for flexible airport pavement.
It is developed using KAPPA-PC expert system shell,
where the rule-base reasoning and other decision
process operate on objects and still in the early stage.
This system consists of several modules that include
the distress evaluation module.

In the ES-APAM distress evaluation module, the


decision made in implementing the PCI inspection is
based on procedures in ASTM D5340 (Standard
design method for airport pavement condition index
surveys). The PCI is a numerical index, which rates
pavements on a scale of 0 for a failed pavement to
100 for a pavement in perfect condition. It is
determined based on the results of a visual condition
survey in which the type, severity, and quantity of
distress are identified. For airport pavement asphalt Figure 2: Corrected deduct value for Airfield asphalt
surfaces, ES-APAM considered all sixteen types of pavement (Shahin 1994)
distresses as in Figure 1. Weighted deduct value is
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION select the correct severity level by describing each
distress by severity as in Figure 4. The user has to
The result of this study is the output of the insert the distress of quantity data for each severity
prototyping Expert System for Airport Pavement level of particular distress type and confirm the data,
maintenance and Rehabilitation (ES-APAM) in which as shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6
surface evaluation which are presented via figures respectively. For making the system calculate the
and illustration. Figure 3 shows the window of PCI, determine the percentage of deduct values based
distresses considered for asphalt surfaces of airfield on distress mechanism (i.e. load, climate, and other)
in the ES-APAM. By clicking on the help command and give the primary cause of pavement
in the interface window located in Figure 3, the deterioration, the user need to press the forward
module helps the user identify the type of distress and button in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Selection of distress type

Figure 4: Description and severity level of distress


Figure 5: Distress quantity input data

In order to verify the result of the ES-APAM system,


few sample of airport pavement with several distress
type and their severity levels was chosen in this
study. Table 1 shows the data of seven samples taken
from one section of Sandakan Airport in Malaysia.
The PCI result of the expert system is then compared
to manual calculation and MicroPAVER software,
where MicroPaver is the most widely software used
for pavement management in airport agency. From Figure 6: Confirmation of distress quantity data
Table 2, the results show that the PCI calculated from
the expert system is almost similar with the
MicroPAVER. The comparative result is illustrated
clearly on graph in Figure 7.

Table 1: Input data of local sample

Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Facility Type Runway Runway Runway Runway Runway Runway Runway
Pavement Type AC AC AC AC AC AC AC
Sample Area 450 m2 450 m2 450 m2 450 m2 450 m2 450 m2 450 m2
Distress Type
Alligator Crack (L) - - 3.12 m - - - 2.20 m2
Long/Transverse Crack (L) 29.83 m 6.96 m 356.8 m 33.59 m 21.31 m 21.3 m 68.7 m
Long/Transverse Crack (M) - - 30 m - 7.5 m - -
Patching (L) - 2.03 m2 0.25 m2 2.25 m2 0.25 m 0.25 m 0.25 m
Rutting (L) 13.33m2 - 0.70 m2 - - - -
Bleeding - - - 1.30 m2 - - -

Table 2: PCI determination by manual, MicroPAVER and ES-APAM

PCI
Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 mean
Manual 74.5 93.5 48 76 62 92 78 74.85
Micro PAVER 74 94 48 77 62 92 79 75
ES-APAM 74.54 93.7 47.64 76.16 61.57 91.64 78.22 74.78
Figure 7: Graph of manual, MicroPAVER and ES-APAM Pavement Condition Index

CONCLUSION REFERENCES

Distresses visible on the pavement surface provide FAA, Advisory Circular (2003). Guidelines and
valuable information in the maintenance and Procedures for Maintenance of Airport Pavements,
rehabilitation design process. To support their AC 150/5380-6A,FAA Washington, D.C.
decision in maintenance and rehabilitation of a
runway, many airport agencies conduct surveys on Shahin,M.Y., Darter, M.I and Kohn S.D. (1980).
pavement condition that produce a pavement “Condition Evaluation of Jointed Concrete Airfield
condition index. The PCI developed by the US Army Pavements”, Transportation Engineering Journal
Corps of Engineers has received wide acceptance and
formally adopted as standard procedure worldwide. Shahin, M.Y. (1994). “Pavement Management For
The method of determining the numerical value of Airport, Roads, and Parking Lots”. Chapman &
PCI is simple operation but the calculations involved Hall, New York. ISBN 0-412-99201-9.
are time consuming.
Michael G., and Patrick, S. (1998). “Airport
This paper presents the determination of PCI, which pavement management systems: an appraisal of
is in a part of the distress evaluation module in the existing methodologies”. Transportation Research
prototyping Expert System for Airport Pavement Part A: Policy and Practice. Volume 32 (3), pp
maintenance and Rehabilitation (ES-APAM). The 197-214. DOI 10.1016/S0965-8564(97)00008-6.
method in calculating the PCI is based on procedures
in ASTM D5340. Seven sample of airfield pavement Shahin, M.Y. (1982). “Airfield Pavement Distress
in Sandakan Airport, Malaysia is evaluated using ES- measurements and Use in Pavement Management”.
APAM. The results of PCI when compared to the Transportation Research Record, 893, pp 59-63.
manual calculation and MicroPAVER show
similarity. This shows that the expert system has Ritchie, S.G. (1987). “Expert System in Pavement
revealed satisfactorily findings in a faster PCI Management”. Journal of Transportation
determination. Research. 21A (2) pp 145-152. DOI 10.1016/0191-
2607(87)90007-0
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Haas R (1997). “Pavement Design and Management
We would like to thank the Malaysia Airport Holding Guide”. Transportation Associate of Canada. ISBN
Berhad (MAHB) for providing information and data. 1-55187-114-9.
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SURFACE ROUGHNESS
INDEX OF VARIOUS BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS IN
MALAYSIA.
SULEIMAN ARAFAT YERO
arafatyero@yahoo.com
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Mohd. Rosli bn Hainin
roslihainin@utm.my
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Abdulaziz bn Chik
Azizchik@utm.my
Dr. Haryati Yacoob
Yacoob.h@gmail.com

Abstract: The road system of Transportation is the with time, and the resulting operation cost of
major means of transporting goods and services in a the vehicle. A pavement, which is structurally
developing country like Malaysia, hence the need sound to sustain heavy load repetitions, may
for the assessment on the performance of the even be unserviceable functionally if its
pavements becomes of paramount importance. The
roughness of the road surface constitutes the
surface is rough and distressed.
frictional properties of the pavement surface and in
turn related to the safety , smoothness and the ease Roughness index is typically considered to be
of the driving Path. The roughness of a pavement is the high frequency, short wavelength
an important parameter in determining the comfort component of a measured surface. Roughness
level of the riding path on a pavement, and this plays an important role in determining how a
roughness of the pavement surface is related to the real object will interact with its environment.
vehicle vibration, operating speed, wear and tear of Rough surfaces usually wear more quickly and
the wheels. The surface roughness of a pavement is have higher friction coefficients than smooth
determined using the International roughness index
(IRI), which is a measure of the texture of a
surfaces.The roughness index is a function of
pavement surface. This study investigated mainly the smoothness of the pavement, comfort and
three classes of bituminous pavement surfaces in its safety to the road user. The surface
Malaysia using the Australia road research board roughness is quantified by the vertical
(ARRB) walking profilometer. The surfaces include deviations of a real surface from its ideal form.
asphalt concrete wearing (ACW), stone mastic If these deviations are large, the surface is
asphalt (SMA), and surface dressed (SD) surfaces considered to be rough; if they are small the
on jalan tebrau, jalan UTM-utama, jalan potian in surface is smooth. Roughness is often a good
Johor and jalan parit yaani in Batu Pahad. The study
predictor of the performance of a mechanical
was conducted on the six selected roads and 60 test
points where investigated. The results obtained from
component, since irregularities in the surface
the study indicated that the surface dressed surfaces may form nucleation sites for cracks or
have the highest value of IRI, then the SMA corrosion that will eventually lead to the
surfaces and the least was the ACW surfaces failure of the pavement [8]. It is also
indicating a smoother surface. paramount to note that examining the
performance of the wearing course of a
Keywords: Walking profilometer, ACW, SMA, SD, pavement and the quantification of the
and IRI roughness level of the pavement surface
evolves as a prime concern to the highway
INTRODUCTION engineer.
Among the various means of transportation
which include sea, air, rail, the road A road profile is a two-dimensional part of the
transportation system becomes the leading road surface, taken along an imaginary line. A
means of transportation in Malaysia. There has profile measurement is a series of numbers
been considerable publicity on the comfort and representing elevation relative to some
safety of these roads. Roughness of a road (or reference level. Generally, profile is measured
runway) is an important parameter which not along two lines per lane, one in each wheel
only indicates the comfort level of ride over a track. Roughness is the summary of variation
pavement surface, but it is also related to in surface profile that induces vibrations to the
vehicles vibration while in motion, the vehicle traversing vehicles and is defined over a length
operating speed, wear and tear of the wheels of the pavement surface.
parameters characterizing the level of
The JKR in Malaysia had adopted roughness of a given stretch of a road surface.
International roughness index (IRI) of
1.6m/km for four lane highways, 2.5m/km for
two way highways and 8m/km for minor SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
roads[6]. The measurements of the Roughness The study shall provide useful data of the
Index (IRI) for a completed pavement surface roughness level of the various bituminous
to be measured in terms of its lane IRI, can be pavement surfaces in Malaysia. The study
achieved using the Australian Road Research shall also provide necessary data for
Board (ARRB) walking profiler (WP).The determining level of comfort provided by the
road surface often used by motorist has some driving path and the pavement condition.
frictional properties that is relatively
associated with performance, of the road and
its safety to the road user[13]. They include the
aggregate interstices termed as the METHODOLOGY
microtexture and the coarse component of the
texture due to the aggregate particle on the The study involved a field survey and
road surface kwon as the macrotexture which testing using the ARRB walking profilometer
are often mentioned as contributory factors to on the various bituminous pavement surfaces.
providing comfort to the road user or other The walking profiler is an instrument used to
wise[10]. produce series of numbers to represent a
profile. The profiler works by combining three
Generally the road pavement structure is parameters mainly, a reference elevation; a
classified into the sub-grade, sub- base, road height relative to the reference; and a
base and the surfacing which consist of longitudinal distance. The International
binding course and wearing course. The Roughness Index (IRI) is calculated from a
wearing course is the exposed topmost layer measured single longitudinal road profile.
that provides the travel path, skid resistance, First, the profile is smoothened with a moving
safety and comfort to the road user. In view of average of base-length 250 mm[4]. Then,
this the study investigated specifically the response of a quarter car model, in the form of
pavement surface roughness of these vertical vibration, is accumulated, which on
categories of bitumen pavements, ACW, SMA dividing by the profile length yields IRI. If
and SD surfaces profile information of two wheel track is
available, point-by-point average is
For this study, the roughness index of various considered, and the index is called Half car
bituminous test surfaces was determined in Roughness Index (HRI)[11].
accordance to the International roughness
index (IRI) standards [4]. The roughness index The study investigated 10 test points per road
is a function of the smoothness of pavement, surface for each of the 6 selected test road
and its comfort, safety and convenience to the surfaces. The test was conducted at an interval
road user. The roughness index depends on the of 1km along each test road spanning 10km
road surface roughness, which in turn depends each, and the total of 60 test points where
on the finishing of the road surface. A good investigated. These tests were conducted in
road is expected to give an improved riding accordance with the ARRB walking
quality, a reduce surface noise, provide profilometer code [1]. The table below shows
minimum delays at road works, and provides the location and categorization of the test
enhance deformation resistance[9]. The roads;
roughness of different road surface can be
determined by various design field testing
equipments; these include the Australian roads
research board walking profilometer and other
Motorize sensors.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


The objective of the study is to assess the
roughness levels of the various bituminous
pavements surfaces in Malaysia. The study
deals with measurement of a number of
TABLE1.
Number of sites categorized by surface type The low value for the ACW makes the surface
and age to be smooth and could be attributed to the age
of the pavement and the polishing of the
Road Surface Age aggregate[13], while in the case of the SMA
Type (months) the surface is rough and generating a high IRI
value that exceeds the JKR specification [6].
Jalan Utama- ACW14 4 The SD surface as a minor road [2], generated
UTM an IRI that is slidely above the JKR
Jalan Pontian ACW20 36 recommendation [2], for such surfaces in
Malaysia.
Jalan Tebrau SMA14 24
01 For this study, the International Roughness
Jalan Tebrau SMA20 24 Index (IRI) indices profiler was used, to test
02 the pavement with some of the profiles for the
Jalan Parit SD 60 test roads shown below in Fig.1,2 and 3 below;
yani
Jalan Pt. SD 56 The profile for Jalan UTM-UTAMA in Fig. 1
Bulat below

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

All the data collected from the study were


analyzed in accordance with the Jabatan Karja
Raya (JKR) of Malaysia and the IRI Fig. 1 ACW profile
specification. All the data obtained from the
study were analyzed and the following results The road profile for the Jalan Tebrau SMA
obtained. It should be noted that the following surface could be seen below in Fig. 2;
roughness indices obtained from the study
could also be used to quantify other pavement
surface roughness indices using the Mean
Panel Rating (MPR); Profile Index (PI); Ride
Number (RN); and Root Mean Square Vertical
Acceleration (RMSVA).

The roughness index obtained from the study


for the various bituminous pavement surfaces
investigated indicates that the ACW14 showed Fig. 2 SMA profile
the lowest IRI of 1.2m/km indicating a smooth
surface, and the surface dressed road surface The road profile of Jalan Parit yaani in Muar is
showed the highest IRI of 8.05m/km indicating shown below in Fig. 3 as recorded by ARRB
a rough surface and the SMA 4.1m/km. walking profiler used in this study.
The results obtained shows that only the
surface dressed roads conforms with the JKR
specification [6], with the IRI value of
1.6m/km for 4 lane Highway, 2.5m/km for
2lane Highway and 8m/km for minor roads is
specified [2].

Based on the Arahan Teknik (jalan) 8/86


classification of roads in Malaysia, the surface
dressed are considered as R2 minor roads with Fig. 3 SD surface profile
average daily traffic (ADT) volume less than
1000. While the ACW and SMA surfaces in All the data obtained from this study were
this study are urban arterials U4 with ADT analyzed in accordance with ARRB
volume less than 3000. specification [1] using the formula below and
the average and combine IRI for all the SD Roughne s s
surfaces presented in the tables below
10

Formula used to determine the Roughness 6

4
Index (IRI) 2

IRI = {IRI1 +IRI2}/2 0


0 2 4 6 8 10

Where IRI is the International roughness index D i st a n c e ( k m )

IRI1 is the first single lane roughness index


IRI2 is the second single lane roughness index Fig. 4 IRI for SD

Table 2 The Average IRI for the test roads The SMA surfaces generated an IRI value that
exceeds the JKR [6], as shown in Fig. 5 below;
SD SMA ACW SM A Roughne s s
km IRI(m/km) IRI(m/km) IRI(m/km)
5
1 3.52 2.3 1.28
4

2 5.18 3.4 2.23 3

3 6.79 3.3 1.75 2

4 4.15 3.6 1.96 0


0 2 4 6 8 10
5 8.04 3.7 2.05 D i st a n c e ( k m )

6 5.31 4.1 2.06


7 8.05 2.02 2.76 Fig. 5 IRI for SMA
8 7.29 2.50 1.20
9 4.12 3.22 2.02
The ACW generated the least IRI values and
10 4.43 3.4 3.03
could be seen below in Fig. 6

ACW Roughness
The results obtained from the study were
4
analyzed and the average combine IRI for all 3
the surfaces presented in Table 3 below; 2

Table 3 Average combine IRI for all the test 1


0
roads 0 5 10

D i st a n c e ( k m )

Dist IRI(m Fig. 6 IRI for ACW


(km) /km)
Ave
The combine IRI for all the test roads in this
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 .
study is as shown below in Fig. 7;
1 1.62 5 8.3 3.0 3.52 4.31
2 2.55 2.76 5.1 5.8 5.18 4.29
3 7.93 6.29 4.51 4.0 6.79 5.92
4 2.71 5.76 5.8 7.3 4.15 5.12
5 6.77 6.75 8.5 8.6 8.94 7.93
6 4.95 3.11 3.6 5.8 5.31 4.58
7 5.01 4.03 3.0 4.1 8.95 5.03
8 4.38 3.81 3.5 4.0 7.29 4.60
9 3.26 4.10 4.6 3.0 4.12 4.43
10 4.41 2.70 5.90 5.3 2.83 4.24
Fig. 7 Combine IRI for all the surfaces

From the study the SD surfaces indicated the


highest frequency IRI as can be seen in Fig. 4
below
CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION Design of flexible Pavements, 2005. JKR
specification
The investigation was undertaken with the
primary objective to assess the roughness Ford W.G, Suffian Z and Smith HR
indices of various bituminous surfaces in (1996). The benefits of using
Johor, Malaysia. The study indicates; Chipseals in Malaysia.

The results obtained from the study shows that Hasnur R. B (1990). The deterioration
the surface dressing surfaces gave the highest of bituminous binders in road
average IRI value indicating high roughness surfacings.Sixth, REAA4-10March
and the tendency for high vibration and noise. 1990.
While the SMA and ACW surfaces show a
relatively lower IRI indicating a lower Hunter R.N (2000). Asphalt in Road
vibration, noise and smoother. construction. 125-196.

The study recommends the use of aggregate Kwang H.J, Morosiuk G. and Emby J.
with high polish stone value (PSV) of 55, 1992 Assessment of skid resistance
aggregate with good interstices and a surface and macrotexture of bituminous
finishing based on the JKR specification. road surface in Malaysia. Seventh
REAA conference, Singapore.443-
However, the study recommends further 449.
investigation on more test surfaces with a
propare view of understanding the mean IRI Sayers M.W. (1995), profiles of
values of these pavement surfaces. Roughness. Transport research board
(TRB), Washington D.C no.1260

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Walking Profiler G2, ARRB


technology user note, 2006.
The work described in this paper was
carried out by the department of transportation Wilson D.J and Dunn R.C.M (2005).
and highway engineering, faculty of civil Polishing aggregates to
engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia equilibrium skid resistance. 55-71.
(UTM) in collaboration with Bina Mahsyur
Sdn Bhd. and the author will like to thank the
supervisors and all those involved in making
the study a huge success.

REFERENCE

ARRB, Walking profiler AG:PT/T450,


technology note, 2006. 1-37

Arahan Teknik (jalan) 8/86 classification


of roads in Malaysia

Awasthi G. and Das A. (2001), Pavement


Roughness indices.Transport Research
Laboratory TRB vol.84, may 2003.

Book of profiling university of Michigan


(USA), Sourced
(www.umtri.umich.edu/erd/roughness)

Beaven P.J and Tubey L.W (1978). The


polishing of road stone in peninsular
Malaysia. TRRL supplementary
report 421.TRRL Crowthorne
MIX DESIGN OF COLD RECYCLED MIX USING DIFFERENT RECYCLED ASPHALT
PAVEMENT (RAP) PROPORTION

R. Razali1, Z. Sufian3
Public Work Department, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA

M.Y. Abdul Rahman2, J.Ahmad4 & E. Shaffie5


Institute for Infrastructure Engineering and Sustainable Management (IIESM)
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT: In Malaysia, pavement recycling technology is relatively new and this technique has become a viable alternative in
reducing pavement construction and maintenance cost. In this study, the modified Marshall Test procedure was adopted to identify
the mix design parameter for the recycled mixes at various RAP proportions. Four aggregate combinations with various RAP
proportions of 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% were used in this study. The optimum moisture content, bitumen emulsion content and
cement content were determined at every RAP proportions in the recycled mixes. From the analysis, optimum mix design for each
RAP proportion in the recycled mixes were produced based on the laboratory strength parameters such as Marshall Stability, flow
and density. Results show that increase in RAP proportion reduces the optimum moisture content and maximum dry density of the
recycled mix. The recommended combination and optimum RAP proportion for use in the recycled mix is 25%, 3% of bitumen
emulsion and 2% of cement to achieve maximum stability of the recycled mix

Keywords: Bitumen emulsion; optimum moisture content; recycled asphalt pavement; stabilising agent

1. INTRODUCTION investigation to determine the best combination and


selection of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and non
Various pavement rehabilitation techniques were asphaltic material mixes to produce quality recycled
adopted by the Public Works Department which mix layer was investigated. Development of an
included overlay, mill and pave, reconstruction and optimum mix design for each RAP proportion in the
recycling. Since Malaysia road network extend to recycled mix were also analysed and discussed in this
approximately 72781.35 kilometers of pave road and study.
18838.25 kilometers of unpaved roads, the desire to
maintain a safe and efficient and cost effective
roadway system has led to significant increase in 2. METHODOLOGY
demand to rehabilitate existing pavement (Razali et al.,
2010). The rehabilitation method involves haulage of In this research, several combinations of RAP and
new and old materials at the construction site which crushed stone aggregates were analysed. The RAP
may affect construction time. Hence, recycling materials were taken from milled old pavement section
technique offers better logistic with respect to under rehabilitation while the crushed stone aggregate
transportation of materials for disposal. was taken from Kajang Rock Quarry, Semenyih.
Initially, test on the physical properties of the
aggregates were conducted so as to comply with the
The reuse of asphalt pavement materials in full-depth recommendation by Malaysia Road Specification for
recycling (FDR) is cost effective. This technique uses Cold-in-Place Recycling (REAM, 2005). The material
the existing pavement material from the asphaltic layer testing was conducted to identify material properties
and a portion of the base materials with addition of for both RAP and crushed stone aggregate.
additives to produce stabilized base course. These
materials are then spread and compacted before asphalt The mix design study was established to determine the
surfacing is applied. The technique of reusing of the optimum combination of RAP and crushed stone
old materials in this study is the Cold-In-Place aggregates to produce the recycled layer. This study
Recycling (CIPR) technique. According to Sufian et also investigates the suitable grading of the combined
al., 2007, the functional and structural performance of materials, the optimum moisture content, optimum
the pavement recycling was satisfactory and better than bitumen emulsion content and required cement content.
that of the conventional rehabilitated pavements. The experimental procedure of this study is as shown
Furthermore, one of the advantages of the CIPR is cost in Figure 1. The gradation was selected at the mid
savings of up to 40% over conventional techniques range complying with REAM Cold in Place Recycling
(Sufian et al., 2005). The concept of recycling Specification gradation limit as shown in Figure 2.
technique was first introduced in Malaysia in the mid Generally, the RAP samples have coarser particles and
80s and since then, has become an alternative and lesser fine particles. The existing RAP grading was
acceptable rehabilitation measures. In this study, an modified to fit the designed grading by adding crushed
stone aggregates into the existing RAP sample. For
each selected gradation, the RAP materials and crushed
Design REAM CIPR Envelope  RAP
stone aggregates was combined in ratios of 0:100,
25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 respectively. The Proctor test 100

is conducted for each combination to determine the


80

Percentage Passing (%)
optimum moisture content (OMC). Specimens were
then prepared at OMC for each RAP proportion to 60
determine the optimum bitumen emulsion and cement
content using Marshall method. The Marshall 40

specimen of the combined RAP and crushed stone


aggregates were prepared using bitumen emulsion 20

content ranging from 2 to 6 percent by weight in at 0


increments of 1 percent at every stage of cement 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
content of 0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 percent cement content. -20
At different percentage of RAP content, all specimens Sieve Size (mm)
were tested for Marshall Stability, Density and Flow Fig. 2: Design grading for RAP
test for determination of optimum emulsion content
and cement content of the recycled mix.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

• Obtain RAP material from the project site Table 1 shows the results of RAP and crushed stone
• Obtain new materials from quarry aggregate properties which complied with REAM
CIPR specification requirements. Results from
• Sieve analysis proctor test showed that the optimum moisture content
• Physical properties of aggregate ranges between 5.2 to 6.5 percent. The dry densities
• Established the design of aggregates grading are 1.885 to 2.260 kg/m3. At 0% RAP content, no
cement is used and the highest optimum moisture
content and maximum dry density achieved was 6.5 %
Determination of optimum moisture content
and 2.260 kg/m3. The moisture content decreases as
proportion of RAP increases for the recycled mix as
shown in Figure 3. This is an indication that moisture
0 : 100 25 : 75 50 : 50 75 : 25 is retained in RAP materials and hence moisture
content must be controlled during construction.
RAP: Crushed stone aggregates Proportion
Table 1. Material properties for RAP and crushed stone
Crushed REAM Specification
Parameter RAP
stone Limit
Aggregate
0 : 100 25 : 75 50 : 50 75 : 25 Impact 25.6 21.8 < 30
Determination of Marshall Properties at various contents of Value
stabilizing agent and RAP proportions: Aggregate
• Stability, Flow & Density Crushing 22.17 15.38 <30
Value
Flakiness
16.91 16.69 <30
Establish mix design Index
• Optimum moisture content
• Optimum bitumen emulsion content Dry Density vs Moisture Content
• Optimum cement content 2.350
• Optimum RAP proportion 2.300
2.250
Fig 1: Experimental design flowchart 2.200
Dry Density

2.150
2.100
2.050
2.000
1.950
1.900
1.850
1.800
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Moisture Content

0% RAP 25% RAP 50% RAP 75% RAP

Fig. 3: Dry density vs moisture content of recycled mix


Figure 4 shows the result for the Marshall stability The density of the recycled mix was also investigated
varies for different RAP proportions, cement and as shown in Figure 5. Results showed that control
emulsion content. The peak Marshall stability results specimen has the highest maximum density of 2.300
obtained for 0% RAP was 46 kN with 1.5% cement kg/m3. The trend shows that as RAP proportion
and 2.5% emulsion. For both 25% and 50% RAP increases, the density decreases. At 25%, 50% and
proportions, interestingly, the peak Marshall stability 75% RAP proportion, the maximum density is 2.220,
results were 51 kN. However, the recycled mix with 2.200 and 2.120 kg/m3 respectively.
75% RAP have the lowest strength of between 24 to
27kN even with different variations of cement content
added to the mix. Figure 4 shows the Marshall
stability results of the recycled mix at different
percentage of RAP, cement and emulsion content.

Stability vs Emulsion Content


(0% RAP)
54.0
50.0
46.0
42.0
38.0
Stability (kN)

34.0
30.0
26.0
22.0
18.0
14.0
10.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Emulsion Content (%)

2.5% cement 0% cement 1.5% cement 2% cement

Stability vs Emulsion Content


(25% RAP )
54.0
50.0
46.0
42.0
38.0
Stability (kN)

34.0
30.0
26.0
22.0
18.0
14.0
10.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Emulsion Content (%)
2.5% cement 0% cement 1.5% cement 2% cement

Stability vs Emulsion Content


(50% RAP )
54.0
50.0
46.0
42.0
Stability (kN)

38.0
34.0
30.0
26.0
22.0
18.0
14.0
10.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Emulsion Content (%)
2.5% cement 0% cement 1.5% cement 2% cement

Stability vs Emulsion Content


(75% RAP )
54.0
50.0
46.0
42.0
38.0
Stability (kN)

34.0
30.0
26.0
22.0
18.0
14.0
10.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Emulsion Content (%)
2.5% cement 0% cement 1.5% cement 2% cement

Fig.4: OMC and maximum dry density of recycled mix Fig.5: Density for recycled mix
Results for Marshall flow test show that higher flow The mix design selection for recycled mix with various
values were observed for mix with 0% and 75% RAP RAP proportions were summarised in Table 2. The use
proportions compared to recycled mix with 25% and of 25% RAP requires minimum usage of bitumen
50% RAP. The Marshall flow values for 0% and 75% emulsion but contribute to good stability. Combination
RAP mix is 3.5mm and 4.5mm for recycled mix with of 3% bitumen emulsion and 2% cement is required to
50% RAP. However, at 75% RAP proportion, there is achieve maximum stability with 25% RAP proportion
an increase in the flow value. Figure 6 shows the result in the recycled mix.
of Marshall flow of the recycled mix.
Table 2. Recycled mix design selection criteria
Optimum Optimum
Flow vs Emulsion Content (0% RAP) Cement
RAP Stability Moisture bitumen
10.0 Content
9.0 content (kN) Content emulsion
(%)
8.0 (%) content (%)
7.0
0% 1.5 44 6.5 2.5
Flow (mm)

6.0
5.0 25% 2.0 49 6.0 3.0
4.0
3.0 50% 2.0 40 5.3 3.5
2.0
1.0 75% 1.5 27 5.1 4.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Emulsion Content (%)

2.5% cement 0% cement 1.5% cement 2% cement

Flow vs Emulsion Content (25% RAP ) 4. CONCLUSIONS


10.0
9.0 Based on the results obtained from this study, it was
8.0
also concluded that :
7.0
Flow (mm)

6.0
5.0 • An increase in RAP proportion reduces the
4.0 optimum moisture content and maximum dry
3.0
density of the recycled mix.

2.0
1.0
The cement content in recycled mix with higher
0 1 2 3 4
Emulsion Content (%)
5 6 7 RAP proportion does not effectively contribute to
2.5% cement 0% cement 1.5% cement 2% cement
strength of the mix.
• The recommended combination and optimum
Flow vs Emulsion Content (50% RAP )
RAP proportion for use in the recycled mix is
10.0
25%, 3% of bitumen emulsion and 2% of cement
9.0
to achieve maximum stability of the recycled mix.
8.0

7.0
REFERENCES
Flow (mm)

6.0

5.0

4.0 REAM (2005) Specification For Cold In-Place


3.0 Recycling. Road Engineering Association of
2.0
Malaysia. p. 13.
1.0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 R.Razali, M/Y. Abdul Rahman and Z.Sufian (2009)
Emulsion Content (%)
The effects of different RAP Proportion to the
2.5% cement 0% cement 1.5% cement 2% cement
performances of cold inplace recycled mix,
Flow vs Emulsion Content (75% RAP ) Proceeding in 13 REAAA Conference in Incheon ,
10.0 South Korea
9.0

8.0
Zulakmal Sufian, M.Z.H., Mohd Yazip Matori, Nafisah
7.0
Abdul Aziz (2007) Research on fundamental
Flow (mm)

6.0 characteristic of stabilised full depth reclaimed


5.0 pavement layer. Proceeding, 7th Malaysia Road
4.0 Conference 2007. Sunway Pyramid Subang,
3.0 Selangor, Malaysia.
2.0

1.0
Zulakmal Sufian , N.A.A., Yazip Matori, Mat Zin
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hussain (2005) Cold in-place pavement recycling
Emulsion Content (%)
2.5% cement 0% cement 1.5% cement 2% cement
in Malaysia. in 2005 International Symposium On
Pavement Recycling. Sao Paolo, Brazil
Fig. 6: Density of recycled mix at various RAP proportions
ID 167: USE OF DYNAMIC MODULUS TEST TO EVALUATE MOISTURE
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ASPHALTIC CONCRETE MIXTURES

J. Ahmad, M.Y. Abd Rahman


Institute for Infrastructure Engineering and Sustainable Management (IIESM)
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA

M.R. Hainin
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM-Skudai, Johor, MALAYSIA

M. Hossain
Dept of Civil Engineering, 2124 Fiedler Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-5000, USA
Email: juraidah@salam.uitm.edu.my

ABSTRACT: Currently, the Modified Lottman test from indirect tensile strength test is widely used to evaluate moisture
susceptibility of asphaltic concrete mixtures. In this study, evaluation of moisture induced damage of asphalt concrete mixtures
were conducted from dynamic modulus tests in a Simple Performance Tester at different frequencies by applying sinusoidal
loading to the specimens in wet and dry conditions. Results showed that there is a good agreement between the tensile strength
ratio and dynamic modulus ratio of the wet and dry specimens from both tests. There is also good agreement between
unconditioned and conditioned values from the dynamic modulus test. The dynamic modulus values appears to be very close to
the line of equality which implies that the results are more consistent and showed less variability than results from the indirect
tensile strength test. Results from ANOVA statistical analysis test showed that the SPT dynamic modulus test are more reliable
and considers many factors affecting moisture susceptibility of asphaltic mixtures compared to the indirect tensile strength test.

Keywords: Simple Performance Test; Tensile Strength Ratio; Dynamic Modulus Stiffness Ratio
 
STRIPPING PERFORMANCE OF TENDER MIX

E.Shaffie1, Z. Abd.Rahman2 & W. Hashim3


Institute for Infrastructure Engineering and Sustainable Management (IIESM)
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT: The possibility of tender mixes existing in pavement construction is high and a remarkable increase in traffic volume has
contributed to the severe stripping on highway and main road in Malaysia. This paper with objective to evaluate the stripping characteristic
of tender mixes as compared to typical mixes through laboratory tests focusing at HMA ACW 20 of mix type for wearing course. One mix
was designed with typical dense graded gradation but away from the maximum density line (MDL) described as control mix. The other mix
was designed close to Maximum Density Line (MDL) to simulate tender mix. Both mixes conformed to JKR specification. Marshall
samples were prepared in order to determine the optimum bitumen content (OBC) and volumetric properties of both mixtures. Six samples
were prepared for the the Modified Lottman Test which measured the stripping. Volumetric properties results indicate that tender mix is
not tender as expected due to high voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA) compared to control mix. The Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) value
in the Modified Lottman Test is an indication of the potential for moisture damage. The TSR result for control mix was 87% while tender
mix was 78%. In general, the average tensile strength ratio (%TSR) values for control mixes exceeded the minimum requirement. Thus,
the control mixes are not susceptible to moisture damage and more resistant with respect to the tensile strength compared to tender mixes.

Keywords: Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA); Tender Mix; Stripping; Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR)

to quite numerous pavement constructions around the


1.0 INTRODUCTION world, including in Malaysia.
An unstable mix that tends to displace laterally and shove Furthermore, a remarkable increase in traffic volume has
rather than compact under roller loads is best to describe contributed to the severe stripping on highway and main
what tender mix actually is. Tender hot mix asphalt road in Malaysia. Therefore, the evaluation of stripping
(HMA) mixes have been observed and experienced by potential on tender mixes is relevant. As due to that, this
paving contractors for many years. research was conducted to evaluate the properties of
tender mixes through Marshall Mix Design Test as well
as to assess the performance of tender mixes in term of
The tender zone is range of mix temperatures during stripping characteristic.
which the mix exhibits instability during roller action.
There have been many possible causes of the tender zone 1.2 Scope of Research
presented including differences in lab and production
aging, mix moisture, low dust to asphalt ratio, increased The research involves literature review and laboratory
asphalt binder film thickness, and a temperature works that include designing two ACW20 mixes using
differential with the lift. Marshall Design. The designation conforms to JKR
specification. One mix design was designed with a
typical dense graded gradation away from MDL and
In 1989, Crawford reports the existence of two types of described as control mix and the other was designed close
tenderness which first type is characterized by the asphalt to MDL to simulate tender mix and described as tender
mix being difficult to compact when normal construction mix. Modified Lottman Test was conducted particularly
techniques are used. Re-compaction attempts will result to evaluate the stripping performance of both mixes.
in a decrease in pavement density. The asphalt mixtures
being slow setting after construction characterizes the
second type of tenderness. This type is sensitive to 2. BACKGROUND
turning traffic and power steering. It may also lack
resistance to critical loading, especially during hot
2.1 Tender Mix
weather.
Tender pavement has been described in many ways and
according to Marker, (1977) the following difficulty has
1.1 Problem Statement and Objective
been associated with tender pavement:
The possibility of tender mixes existing in pavement i. The mix is difficult to roll.
construction is high, which can be caused from the ii. The specified density is difficult to achieve.
improper mix design resulting to lower compaction and iii. The pavement ruts after construction is
high pavement distress. Cooley Jr, et.al (2000) reported complete.
that tender mixes are often difficult to compact to the iv. The pavement is soft after completion and will
required density. The existence of tender mixes happen displace under the heel of a shoe.
v. The pavement “shoves” under traffic,
sometimes months after construction.
vi. The pavement “slips” under traffic, usually
fairly soon after construction.
vii. The pavement “scuffs” under power steering or
severe braking action.
viii. The pavement indents under a punching load.

Identifying the specific causes of tender mixes is difficult


to do. There are a number of items that can cause mixes
to be tender and any combination of these items may
result in tenderness. Works by Crawford (1989) identified
that common causes of tender mixes are any one or any Figure 2.1: Sources of water (moisture) in asphalt pavement
combination of any of the following: structure.(Larry Santuci et al., 2002)
i. Incorrect mix design,
ii. Smooth and rounded aggregates,
iii. Moisture in the mix,
iv. Abnormally high ambient temperature, 3. METHODOLOGY
v. Asphalt cements characteristics,
vi. Incorrect asphalt cement grade, This study approach mainly involved experimental work.
vii. Incorrect production and construction The study focuses on the properties evaluation and also
techniques, the rutting and stripping performance evaluation of tender
viii. Inadequate bond to underlying layer mixes. The Marshall Mix design procedure
involvedcareful material selection and volumetric
proportioning as a first approach in producing a mix that
2.2 Stripping will perform successfully.
The aggregates were obtained from Hanson Quarry
Stripping is a distress in the asphalt pavement which Production (HQP), Semenyih and undergone and satisfied
happens due to moisture susceptibility of the HMA the Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) material specification test.
mixture (Roberts et al., 1996). Stripping is defined as the Laboratory tests to be performed on the aggregates are
physical separation of the asphalt cement from the Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
aggregate produced by the loss of adhesion between the (ASTM C127), Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine
asphalt cement and the aggregate which is primarily due Aggregate (ASTM C128) and Sieve Analysis of Fine and
to the action of water or water vapor (Kenedy, T, et al., Coarse Aggregate (ASTM C136). The gradation will be
1984). Stripping is the other effect of moisture in the mix conduct to determine the grading of the Control mix and
where moisture susceptibility is a phenomenon when Tender mix.
moisture causes a loss of bond between the aggregate and
the asphalt binder. For sample preparation, mix design and compaction and
testing, the gradation which compliance with
Proper mix design is essential to overcome this moisture specification were used in this research. Marshall Mix
susceptibility problem. Even though the mix may be design procedure was used to design asphaltic mixtures.
properly design, but not compacted adequately, it may In this phase, selection of gradation and selection of
still be susceptible to moisture damage. As such, optimum binder content will be determined. The were
evaluation of moisture susceptibility of HMA mix design prepared for each binder content range from 4.5% to
should be done in a situation where moisture is allowed to 6.0% by weight increment of 0.5%. Loose HMA sample
infiltrate into the air voids of the mixture (Roberts et al., for each mix will then were tested using Maximum
1996). Several additional factors that contribute to Specific Gravity of Bituminous Paving Mixtures
stripping are the use of open-graded asphalt friction, (AASHTO T 209-82) and the effective specific gravity
inadequate drying of aggregate, overlays on deteriorated of the aggregate will be determined. Volumetric
concrete pavements and waterproofing membranes properties Voids in the Total Mix (VTM), Voids in the
(Hunter and Ksaibati, 2002). Mineral Aggregates (VMA) and Voids Filled with
Bitumen (VFB) analysis and OBC were obtained using
Source of moisture in an asphalt pavement can be either effective specific gravity of aggregate. Then, the optimum
external or internal, although generally stripping begins cement content was determined using the Marshall
and progress from bottom upwards in sealed pavement method.
layer without physically opening up the pavement. Water
can enter the pavement externally from poorly drained Finally, the samples were tested for performance
areas and from underlying layers due to high ground evaluation. The performance evaluation performed were
water sources a shown in Figure 2.1. stripping test. Samples stripping test were prepared and
will compacted to approximately 7 + 1% air voids. The
Modified Lottman test (AASHTO T283) was performed
by compacting samples to an air void level of 7% ± 0.5%.
100
Three samples were selected as a control and tested bottom
90 top
without moisture conditioning; and another three samples
80 control
were selected to be conditioned by saturating with water MDL
70
at 70-80 percent followed by immersing in water for 24 tender
60
hours at 60ºC in a water bath. The samples were then

% passing
50
tested for indirect tensile strength (ITS) by loading the
40
samples at constant head rate (50 mm/minute vertical
30
deformation at 25ºC) and maximum compressive force
20
required to break the specimens were recorded. Tensile
10
Strength Ratio (TSR) results were determined by
0
comparing the indirect tensile strength (ITS) of
unconditioned samples with the control samples. 0 1 2 sizes ^0.45
sieve 3 4 5

Figure 2: Gradation chart of control mix and tender mix for


Analysis and conclusion on stripping were determined ACW20
from the result of strength which obtained from the ratio
of mean strength of conditioned specimens to the mean Volumetric properties of HMA consist of VMA, VTM
strength of dry specimens to measure moisture and VFB. Based on the result obtained, relationship
susceptibility of the mixes. TSR will be used with 80% as between volumetric properties (Stability, Stiffness, Flow,
the boundary between mixtures resistant and sensitive to VTM and VFB) and Binder Content were evaluated.
moisture (AASHTO, 2005b). The overall experimental Volumetric properties for ACW 20 control mix and
procedure of this research work is shown in the Figure 1. tender mix were calculated using effective specific
gravity of the aggregate obtained from Maximum
Specific Gravity of Bituminous Paving Mixtures
Gradation Design of ACW20
Control mix and Tender mix
(AASHTO T 209-82) test.

The optimum bitumen content (OBC) of the mix was


Preparation of Marshall Sample determined from data obtained range of different bitumen
content. Series of curves were plotted to get the density,
percent of VFB, percent of VTM, Marshall stability and
Sample Preparation for (Modified Lottman Test) flow value. The OBC were then determined by Asphalt
Institute (AI) method which is by the average of selected
four series of curve. The OBC determined for control
Determine number of compaction to get 7.0 + 1% void. mix and tender mix was performed using AI method. The
result of OBC for tender mix was 5.4% higher than
control mix which was 5.1%.

Conduct Modified Lottman Test 4.2 Modified Lottman Test (AASHTO T283)

In this study, the samples were tested for both control and
Data Collection and Analysis tender mixtures. Results of the Modified Lottman test
conducted on both mixtures are tabulated in Figures 3
respectively. These figures indicated that unconditioned
Conclusions and Recommendations
HMA prepared for control mixes demonstrated higher
Figure 1: Flowchart of experimental design tensile strength values than tender mixes. For the IDT of
unconditioned samples results, control mix has the higher
tensile strength value of 1.15 KPa compared to tender
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS mix which has the lower tensile strength value of 1.02
KPa.
4.1 Marshall Mix Design And Compaction
For conditioned specimens, these figures also indicated
Two gradations were designed for ACW20 conformed to that control mix showed better resistance to stripping with
JKR/SPJ/1988 specification. One gradation consist a respect to the tensile strength compared to tender mixes.
typical gradation of dense graded design away from For control mix, the IDT of unconditioned samples was
maximum density line (MDL) described as control mix. 1.15 KPa and for conditioned samples was 1.01 KPa, a
The other gradation was design close to MDL to simulate decrease of 12% from unconditioned samples. It is
tender mix described as tender mix. Figure 2 shows the evident that the IDT of the mixtures after conditioning
plotted graph for both gradations. will lead to pavement failures. A similar trend was found
for tender mixes. Therefore, it could be noted that
moisture conditioning significantly affects the
performance of the hot mix asphalt.
more resistant with respect to the tensile strength
Unconditioned Conditioned
compared to tender mixes.

1.4
It is recommended that other types of mix such as
ACW10, ACW14, Gap Graded, Stone Mastic Asphalt
Average Tensile Strength (KPa)

1.2 (SMA) or Open Graded to be used in future study and


1 designed close to MDL to simulate tender mix. Various
type of mix tested will give higher indicative result.
0.8

0.6

0.4 6. REFERENCES
0.2
American Society of Testing Materials. ASTM C 127
0 (1992). Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity
Control Mix Tender Mix and Absoprtion of Coarse Aggregates. Philadelphia.
Figure 3: Indirect tensile strength of unconditioned and
conditioned samples for both mixtures tested American Society of Testing Materials. ASTM C 128
(1992). Standard Test Method for Specific Gravity
Moisture Susceptibility criterion for TSR for the moisture and Absoprtion of Fine Aggregates. Philadelphia.
susceptibility according to standards of AASHTO T 283
is minimum 80 %. The TSR value in the Modified American Society of Testing Materials. ASTM C 136
Lottman Test is an indication of the potential for moisture (1992). Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of
damage of the mix design. Table 1 shows a comparison of Fine and Coarse Aggregates. Philadelphia.
the Tensile Strength Ratio (%TSR) for both mixtures
tested. The average tensile strength ratio (%TSR) values Crawford, C.. (1989). Tender Mixes: Probable Cause,
for control mixture is 87 percent and 78 percent for Possible Remedies. NAPA. (108/86)
Tender mixture. In general, the average tensile strength
ratio (%TSR) values for control mixes exceeded the Cooley Jr L.A., Kandhal, P.S., and Mallick R.B.. (2000).
minimum requirement. Thus, the control mixes are not Accelerated Laboratory Rutting Tests: Evaluation of
susceptible to moisture damage and more resistant with the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer. Transportation
respect to the tensile strength compared to tender mixes. Research Board, National Cooperative Highway
Research Program Report. (508).
Table 1: Modified Lottman Test TSR Values
Mix Design Mixture Kennedy, T., F. Roberts, and K. Lee (1984). Evaluating
Control Tender Moisture Susceptibility of Asphalt Mixtures Using
the Texas Boiling Test. Transportation Research
Unconditioned Specimen
Record 968, TRB,National Research Council,
Ave. Air Voids(%) 7.0 6.9 Washington, D.C., pp. 45-54.
Ave .ITS (KPa) 1.15 1.02
Conditioned Specimens Hunter E. R. and K. Ksaibati, (2002). Evaluating
Moisture Susceptibility of Asphalt Mixes.
Ave. Air Voids (%) 7.0 6.9
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering,
Saturation level (%) 72.3 71 University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.
Ave. ITS (KPa) 1.00 0.79
Tensile Strength Ratio Larry Santuci, P.E., LTAP Field Engineer (2002).
87 78
(%) Moisture Sensitivity of Asphalt
Pavements.Technology Transfer Program and
Pavement Specialist, Pavement Research Center,
5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION UC Berkeley
The TSR value in the modified Lottman test is an
Marker, V.. (1977). Tender Mixes: The Causes and
indication of the potential for moisture damage. Higher
Prevention. Asphalt Institute. No. 168 (IS-168).
TSR value indicates greater resistance of the mix to
moisture damage. A minimum TSR criterion of 80
Roberts, F. L., Kandhal, P. S., Brown, E. R., Lee, D. Y.,
percent was adopted according to standards of AASHTO
and Kennedy, T. W. (1996). Hot Mix Asphalt
T 283(AASHTO, 2005b).
Material, Mixture Design, and Construction. 2nd
The TSR result for control mix was 87% while tender Edition.
mix was 78%. In general, the average tensile strength
ratio (%TSR) values for control mixes exceeded the
minimum requirement. Thus, it can be concluded the
control mixes are not susceptible to moisture damage and
SKID RESISTANCE AND THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE

Mohd Amin Bin Shafii


Postgraduate Student
Faculty of Civil Engineering,
University Technology of Malaysia
amintybe982@gmail.com

Dr. Haryati bte Yaacob


Senior Lecturer
Faculty of Civil Engineering,
University Technology of Malaysia
haryatiyaacob@utm.my

Dr. Mohd Rosli bin Hainin


Associate Professor
Faculty of Civil Engineering,
University Technology of Malaysia
mrosli@utm.my

ABSTRACT: Skid resistance is the force developed when a tire that is prevented from rotating slides along the
pavement surface. It is the most important characteristic of the road pavement. In the wet conditions, skidding will occur easily
when the water film covering the pavement act as lubricant and reduce the friction between the tire and pavement. There are
several factors that influence skid resistance such as road pavement texture, aggregate characteristic and surface temperature.
Although a number of researcher have attempted to explain and quantify the effect of temperature on pavement skid resistance
properties, the result are still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of pavement surface
temperature on the pavement skid resistance properties of different type of mixtures. Besides, this study also wants to investigate
whether the type of gradation has a significant effect on skid resistance based on temperature difference. To accomplish the
objective of the study, five types of mixture consist of ACW 14, ACW 10, Porous Mix Grade A, Porous Mix Grade B and SMA
14 were prepared. Then, the skid resistance test using British Pendulum Tester was conducted. The test was conducted using
heated temperature method and natural temperature method. The results of skid resistance using heated temperature method were
compared with the result of skid resistance using natural temperature method. In this study, it is found that temperature has a
significant effect on skid resistance value and the relationship between skid resistance value and temperature can be represent
using quadratic curve. Based on temperature different, type of gradation has also significant effect to skid resistance value.

Keywords: Skid Resistance, Temperature, British Pendulum Tester, ACW, SMA, Porous Mixture, PTV
 

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Road accident is a significant problem and a major Skid resistance is monitored using different types of
concern of most highway agencies. Statistics from skid testing device. The most commonly used device is
Polis Diraja Malaysia (PDRM) show that the number locked wheel trailer and British Pendulum Tester
of road accidents increased almost every year. The (BPT). Skid tests are subject to many influential
number of road accident increased from 279711 cases factors, which can be generally classified into three
in year 2002 to 363319 cases in 2007. Almost 3% of categories: tire-related factors (rubber compound, tread
the road accident involves the fatal accident. design and condition, inflation pressure, and operating
temperature); pavement-related factors (pavement type,
There are several factors that contribute to the road microtexture and macrotexture, and surface
accidents. One of the factors is skidding. Skid temperature); and intervening-substance-related factors
resistance is the most important characteristic of the (quantity of water, presence of loose particulate matter,
road pavement. Skidding will happen when the and oil contaminants).
pavement surface does not provide adequate friction to
the tire. In the wet conditions, skidding will occur A number of researchers have investigated the effect of
easily when the water film covering the pavement act temperature on pavement skid resistance properties.
as lubricant and reduce the friction between the tire and One of the problems encountered while reviewing
pavement. these efforts is that the type of temperature used in
these studies has not been consistent. For example, was place outside the laboratory at different time in
Runkle and Mahone [4] considered the maximum, order to obtain different temperature.
minimum and average daily temperatures; Burchett and
Rizenbergs [4] considered the maximum and minimum 2.1 Sample preparation
air temperature during a four to eight - week period; After obtaining the optimum bitumen content for each
and the National Safety Council (1975) used the type of mixture, samples for skid resistance test were
pavement surface temperature to correlate with prepared. The procedure to prepare the test sample is
pavement friction. Furthermore, the investigations similar with the procedure to prepare Marshall sample.
conducted so far have not produced consistent results. The difference is only the size of sample and
While some researchers Runkle and Mahone [4], compaction process. The size of sample is 305 mm (1
Burchett and Rizenbergs [4], indicated a statistically feet)(width) x 305 mm (1 feet)(length) x 50 mm
significant effect of air or pavement temperature on the (depth). In the compaction process, the sample was
skid properties, others Mitchell et al. [4], concluded compacted until it achieves the design air voids of 7 %
that the effect was insignificant. for ACW 10, ACW 14 and SMA 14 and 20 % for
Porous Mix Grade A and Porous Mix Grade B.
1.1 Problem Statement
Environmental factor such as temperature is believed to 2.2 Apparatus
affect the skid resistance properties of the pavement.
Although a number of researcher have attempted to 2.2.1 British Pendulum Tester
explain and quantify the effect of temperature on The measurement of skid resistance is measured using
pavement skid resistance properties, the result are still British Pendulum Tester. The measurement gives the
unclear. value in term of British Pendulum Number (BPN).
British Pendulum Tester consists of spirit level,
1.2 Objectives of Study leveling screw, pointer, vertical adjustment screw, C
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of unit scale, F unit scale, starting button and rubber
pavement surface temperature on the pavement skid slider.
resistance properties of different type of mixtures.
Besides, this study also wants to investigate whether 2.2.2 Infrared Temperature Gun
the type of gradation has a significant effect on skid Infrared Temperature Gun was used to measure the
resistance based on temperature. To accomplish the temperature of the sample during the skid resistance
objectives of the study, several tests were conducted measurement. It only measures the surface temperature
using asphaltic concrete wearing (ACW) mixture, of the sample.
porous asphalt and stone mastic asphalt (SMA). The
test was conducted at several temperatures. 2.2.3 Dryer
Dryer was used to heat the surface of the samples
1.3 Scope of Study before the skid resistance test was carried out.
Due to limitation of time, this study only limited to
laboratory test and will not consider field test. The 2.2.4 Water Spray
temperature variable only considers pavement surface Water spray was used to wet the surface of the sample
temperature (sample temperature). before the skid resistance measurement was taken.

2.0 METHODOLOGY 2.3 Testing Procedure


This study was divided into three parts: sample At heated temperature, the sample was heated using a
preparation, apparatus that was used and testing dryer at different temperature which is 28°C, 30°C,
procedure. The samples which were prepared consist of 35°C, 40°C, 45°C, 50°C, 55°C and 60°C. Then the skid
ACW 10, ACW 14, Porous Mix Grade A, Porous Mix resistance test was carried out inside the laboratory. At
Grade B and SMA 14. All the samples were prepared natural temperature, the test was carried out outside the
based on Marshall Mix Design. Each type of mixture laboratory at different time in order to obtain different
was prepared in two samples for testing. Apparatus temperature. It was done from 9.00 am to 4.00 pm. The
that were used in this study are British Pendulum measurement of skid resistance is measured using
Tester, Infrared Temperature Gun, dryer and water British Pendulum Tester based on BS EN 13036-
spray. In testing procedure part, the sample was tested 4:2003.
using heated temperature method and natural
temperature method. At heated temperature, the sample 3.0 RESULT
was heated using a dryer to obtain a certain
temperature. While, at natural temperature, the sample 3.1 Heated Temperature Method
Figure 1 show the graph of skid resistance test result the test, these temperatures occur around 11.00 AM to
for all type of mixtures using heated temperature 12.00 noon.
method. From the test, initially, the Pendulum Test
Value (PTV) decrease as temperature increased. After
Pendulum Test Value (PTV) versus 
a certain temperature, PTV increase as temperature
Temperature
increased. For ACW 10 mixture, the lowest PTV is 76 115
where it happened at the temperature of 36 °C. After
ACW 10
the temperature of 36°C, PTV show an increment as
the temperature increased. While, for ACW 14 105 ACW 14

Pendulum Test Value (PTV)
mixture, PTV begin to increase at the temperature of Porous Grade A
35 °C with the lowest PTV of 75. The lowest PTV for Porous Grade B
95
Porous Mix Grade A, Porous Mix Grade B and SMA SMA 14
14 mixtures are 83, 84 and 81 respectively. It
happened at the temperature of 28 °C, 35 °C and 34 °C. 85
Based on Figure 1, for all types of mixtures, generally
the turning point temperatures where PTV begins to
increase are around 28 °C to 36 °C. 75

Pendulum Test Value (PTV) versus  65
Temperature
105
55
ACW 10
100 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Pendulum Test Value

ACW 14
Temperature ° C
95 Porous Grade A
Porous Grade B Fig. 2. Graph of Pendulum Test Value (PTV) versus
90 SMA 14 Temperature for all types of mixtures using natural
temperature method.
85
4.0 DISCUSSION
80 Based on Figure 1 and Figure 2, generally, it shows
that the graph of Pendulum Test Value (PTV) versus
75 temperature can be represented using quadratic curve
where at the initial stage, PTV decrease as temperature
70 increased. After a certain temperature, PTV increase as
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 temperature increased. This phenomenon happened
Temperature ° C may be due to some of the bitumen was pill out at
Fig. 1. Graph of Pendulum Test Value (PTV) versus higher temperature. When some of the bitumen was
Temperature for all types of mixtures using heated pills out, it will leave the aggregate with rough surface.
temperature method The aggregate with rough surface will increase the
Pendulum Test Value (PTV).
3.2 Natural Temperature Method
The graph of skid resistance test result for all type of In this study, comparison between the result using
mixtures using natural temperature method is shown in heated temperature method and natural temperature
Figure 2. Similarly with the result of skid resistance method show that, PTV using heated temperature are
test using heated temperature method, the result of skid more consistent and have smoother curve pattern
resistance test using natural temperature method also compared with the result obtained using natural
shown the same patterns of curve where the graph for temperature method. This result happened may be due
Pendulum Test Value (PTV) versus temperature can be to the heated temperature method which has more
represented using quadratic curve. The lowest consistent temperature than natural temperature
Pendulum Test Value (PTV) for ACW 10, ACW 14, method. Furthermore, it is found that, based on
Porous Mix Grade A, Porous Mix Grade B and SMA temperature difference, the type of aggregate gradation
14 mixtures are 66, 62, 86, 75 and 79. While the has significant effect on the Pendulum Test Value
temperature where the PTV begin to increase are 38 (PTV) where Porous Mix Grade A has the highest PTV
°C, 42 °C, 39 °C, 39 °C and 36 °C respectively. From value followed by Porous Mix Grade B, SMA 14,
ACW 14 and ACW 10. In addition, type of aggregate
gradation has no significant effect on the pattern of the
graph (PTV versus Temperature). From the figure, it Gordon Wells. (1970). Traffic Engineering an
shows that the pattern of the graph, Pendulum Test Introduction. Great Britain: Charles Griffin and
Value (PTV) versus temperature almost similar for all Company Ltd.
types of mixtures. Ibrahim M. Asi (2007). Evaluating skid resistance of
different asphalt concrete mixes. Building and
5.0 CONCLUSION Environment, 42, 325–329. Elselvier Ltd.
The summaries of findings are: Pavement Management Committee. (1977). Pavement
i) The relationship between skid resistance value management guide. Canada: Roads and
(Pendulum Test Value (PTV)) and Transportation Association of Canada
temperature can be conclude as quadratic Subhi M. Bazlamit, Farhad Reza (2005). Changes in
curve where at early stage, skid resistance Asphalt Pavement Friction Components and
value will decrease as temperature increased Adjustment of Skid Number for Temperature.
but after certain temperature, skid resistance Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol.
value will increase as temperature increase. 131.ASCE
ii) The skid resistance test using heated Yingjian Luo (2003). Effect of Pavement Temperature
temperature method has more consistent value on Frictional Properties of Hot-Mix-Asphalt
compared to the result using natural Pavement Surfaces at the Virginia Smart Road.
temperature method as we can see from the Master of Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute
graph of skid resistance value versus and State University, United State of America.
temperature where all type of mix using
heated temperature method has more than .
85% R2 value.
iii) Porous Mix Grade A and Porous Mix Grade B
has the highest Pendulum Test Value (PTV) at
the highest temperature where the PTV for
Porous Mix Grade A and Porous Mix Grade B
using heated temperature method are 103 and
97 respectively.
iv) Based on temperature difference, the type of
aggregate gradation (dense graded, open
graded and gap graded) has significant effect
on the Pendulum Test Value (PTV) but has no
significant effect on the pattern of the graph
where we can see the graph of Pendulum Test
Value (PTV) versus temperature for all type
of mixtures has similar shape (quadratic
curve).

From this study, it was concluded that temperature has


a significant effect on skid resistance value and the
relationship between skid resistance value and
temperature can be represent using quadratic curve.
But, based on temperature different, type of gradation
has significant effect to skid resistance value.

6.0 REFERENCES

British Standard Institution (2003). BS EN 13036-4.


Method for measurement of slip/skid resistance of
a surface-The pendulum test. London: British
Standard Institution
Burchett J. L and R. L. Rizenbergs (1980) “Seasonal
Variations in the Skid Resistance of Pavements in
Kentucky.” Transportation Research Record, No.
788, 12p.
DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE FOR RIGID PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN

Mohd Khairul Idham bin Mohd Satar


Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Technology of Malaysia
khairulidham@utm.my
Mohd Rosli bin Hainin
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Technology of Malaysia
mrosli@utm.my
Haryati bt. Yaacob
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Technology of Malaysia
haryatiyaacob@utm.my
Dorina anak Astana
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University Technology of Malaysia
dorina@utm.my
Nur Izzi bin Md. Yusoff
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, National University of Malaysia
evxnim@nottingham.ac.uk

ABSTRACT: Rigid pavement is a frequently misunderstood form of construction. Many people assume that the rigid pavement is costly
and not effective. However, it has been proved that it is good in term of the strength and ability to cater high traffic load compare to flexible
pavement. However, in order to have good rigid pavement, the design procedures of the pavement should be properly applied. The vital
issue in pavement design is thickness. There are two main approaches of design the rigid pavement thickness which are Portland Cement
Association (PCA) method and American Association of States Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) method. However, both
methods are difficult to conduct manually and produced inaccuracy result. The difficulties can be expressed in term of time consuming and
tedious calculation. Hence, it is very important to computerize the methods in order to make it more accurate and quicker. Although there
are available software in the market but the software may not be user-friendly enough. It also does not allow the user to compare between
the methods. Generally, both methods have their own concept but there are still several same parameters considered. Therefore, the
significance comparison between both methods can be done to select most economical pavement thickness design. Microsoft Visual Basic
6.0 was the tools used to develop the new software. Software named as AnP Pave was successfully developed and the verification result
shows that there are only small differences between the software and manual calculation. A part from that, by using this software, the most
economical method was easily obtained. AASHTO method is more economical for the lower traffic loading; otherwise PCA method is
more economical for the higher traffic loading.

Keywords: Rigid pavement thickness; PCA method; AASHTO method; software; Visual Basic (VB)

1. INTRODUCTION capital cost is balanced by the less cost of pavement


maintenance and longer design period. However, proper
In general, there are two main pavement types which are
design of rigid pavement needs to be emphasized in order to
flexible and rigid pavement. Rigid or concrete pavement is
avoid lack of performance of rigid pavement (Griffith and
more complex to build, which required more specialized
Thom, 2007). Moreover, time taken during design stage
equipment. The current preference within the road industry
may also increase the capital cost. Although, many software
is to flexible and composite road pavement. Flexible
application have been introduced to counter the problems,
pavement bituminous surfacing while rigid pavement
but it may be expensive, not user-friendly enough and not
consists of a thick concrete top surface. In addition,
allow the users to compare which is more economical in
composite pavement is where a flexible layer has been
term of the thickness between the design methods. Due to
added on top of the surface of a rigid road, or where a
that, this study will concentrate on the development of
concrete layer exists below a bitumen top surface (Smith,
software that may help the design engineer as well as the
2007).
contractor to choose the best pavement in term of design
Rigid pavement design has over the years become a more and cost.
important part for the promoting of concrete roads. High

1
1.1. Objectives of the Study
i) To analyze and recognize the difference between
Portland Cement Association (PCA) method and
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) method in term of
the concept and parameters used. Eq. (1) is difficult to solve directly. The AASHTO provides
ii) To develop user-friendly software that allows the design a nomograph for determining the solution. However, the
engineer to compare the results between two methods. accuracy of the design may be query due to the human
error.
2. METHODOLOGY 2.2 Software Solution
To archive the objectives of the study, three major steps Programming software used in this study was Microsoft
need to be gone through which were preliminary study on Visual Basic 6.0. Selection of Microsoft Visual Basic as a
the manual design calculation, development of the software programming tool is because it can be integrated with other
and verification stage. Microsoft program especially Microsoft Excel. Moreover,
2.1 Manual Design Calculation programmers are able to create their own interface for the
software.
By manual design calculation, several parameters need to
be considered and carried out before calculate the thickness 2.3 Verification Stage
design. Based on PCA method the design procedures are as Verification of new design software is compulsory in order
follows: to ensure the software produce the same output compare
i) Designer assigns input parameters with manual design. The simple term is to ensure no
ii) Select trial thickness hesitation output by the software.
iii) Fatigue analysis
iv) Erosion analysis
v) Increase trial thickness minimum that just exceeds 3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
100% for both fatigue and erosion Table 1 shows the input variables or parameters required in
AASHTO and PCA methods. (Guell, 1985).
The fatigue and erosion analysis are carried out to
determine the equivalent stress, erosion factor, and stress
ratio factor for single and tandem axles. The parameters are Table 1. Input Parameters for AASHTO and PCA method
determined through specific tables and chart produced by AASHTO
PCA based on information such as type of pavement, sub- PARAMETER PCA METHOD
METHOD
base type, concrete modulus of rupture, modulus of sub- Total 18-kip
grade reaction, k and traffic data(Huang, 2004). It takes Traffic ESAL Total trucks
about 170 calculations (C&CA, 2008). Application, W18
Concrete Elastic 4x106 psi
User defined
Meanwhile, AASHTO method is established based on Eq. Modulus, Ec (27600 MPa)
(1) below: [2] Modulus of
Subgrade User defined User defined
Reaction, k
Modulus of
User defined User defined
Rupture, Sc
User defined User defined
• Coefficient, J • Dowel /
(Usually: 3.2 Aggregate-
Load Transfer
interlock
– 4.2)
• Shoulder / No
where: shoulder
= traffic carried in ESALs Drainage
User defined -
Coefficient, Cd
Design
Serviceability User defined -
Loss, ΔPSI
Overall Standard
User defined -
Deviation, So
Reliability, R or User defined -

2
Standard Normal Overall Standard
0.29 -
Deviate, ZR Deviation, So
Based on type of Reliability, R or
Load Safety R = 95% or ZR =
- road and amount Standard Normal -
Factor (LSF) -1.645
of trucks (1 - 1.3) Deviate, ZR
Load Safety
- 1.2
Several parameters are also not considered in PCA method Factor (LSF)
which are:
i) Drainage Coefficient, Cd Other general data required are:
ii) Design Serviceability Loss, ΔPSI Design Period : 20 years
iii) Overall Standard Deviation, So Annual Growth Rate :5%
iv) Reliability, R or Percentage of Truck : 13 %
v) Standard Normal Deviate, ZR Proportion of truck in design lane : 0.81
3.1 AnP Pave Software Table 3 and Table 4 show all verification result done for
The new software was developed after recognized and AnP Pave Software.
distinguished the parameters in AASHTO and PCA method
The software called as AnP Pave Software developed Table 3. Comparison of for AASHTO and PCA method
comprises of several menus and forms. The menus and
forms are: AASHTO PCA
i) Design Method Selection Menu METHOD METHOD
ii) Traffic Input Data Form Using
9.49 9.29
iii) PCA Method - Input Data Form AASHTO data
SOFTWARE
iv) PCA Method - Axle Data Form Using
9.42 9.29
PCA data
v) PCA Method – Result
9.50
vi) AASHTO Method – Input Data Form (allowable
vii) ASHTO Method – Result MANUAL 9.50 fatigue and
viii) AASHTO And PCA Results Comparison erosion
<100)
3.2 Verification of AnP Pave Software
Validation of new design software is compulsory in order to
Table 4. Comparison of total fatigue and erosion for PCA method
ensure the software produce the same output compare with
using AnP Pave and manual calculation
manual design. The simple term is to ensure no hesitation
output by the software. In this verification stage, the data TRIAL THICKNESS = 9.5 in
FATIGUE EROSION
used are as shown in Table 2. (%) (%)
SOFTWARE 54.6 4.8
Table 2. Input parameters for verification
MANUAL 50.9 4.6
AASHTO PCA
PARAMETER
METHOD METHOD
ADTT = 117 3.3 Comparison of Thickness Due to Traffic
trucks/day/direction
Design ESAL Economical pavement thickness corresponded to the
Traffic or
=5.0 x106 thickness itself. The thicker the thickness means more
Design Traffic =
1.1 x 106 expensive the pavement. Therefore, to have an economical
Concrete Elastic
4x106 psi 4x106 psi thickness, comparison between the methods need to be
Modulus, Ec performed. According to Guell, it is difficult to compare
Modulus of between AASHTO and PCA method. However the most
Subgrade 100 pci 100 pci logical comparison can be expressed as shown in Figure 1
Reaction, k
and Figure 2 below. All the thickness values were obtained
Modulus of
Rupture, Sc
650 psi 650 psi from AnP Pave Software.
Dowelled joint
Load Transfer J = 3.2
without shoulder
Drainage
1.0 -
Coefficient, Cd
Design
Serviceability 1.7 -
Loss, ΔPSI

3
the software can be used as tools to design concrete
pavement easier, faster and more accurate. Additionally,
comparison of the thickness due to traffic loading show
that, it is more economical to used AASHTO method if the
traffic is lower since the thickness is lower compare with
PCA method thickness. However, for higher traffic, it is
more economical to construct using PCA method because
the AASHTO will produce thicker pavement.

REFERENCES
Cement and Concrete Association Malaysia (C&CA),
Course on Concrete Road Pavement Design 2008, 17-
18th November 2008. Kuala Lumpur
David L. Guell, (1985). Comparison of Two Rigid
Pavement Design Methods. Journal of Transportation
Engineering. 111, 607-617.
AASHTO  PCA
Dowelled Griffiths G. and Thom N. (2007). Concrete Pavement
J= 3.2  Without Shoulder Design Guidance Notes. United States. Taylor &
Load Distribution = Category 3 
Francis.

Fig. 1. Comparison of thickness due to traffic for dowelled Huang, Y.H (2004). Pavement Analysis and Design.2nd Ed.
pavement Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Peter Smith (2007). http://incatrad.com, Road Structure.
Date accessed: 2nd March 2009.

AASHTO  PCA
Aggregate Interlocked
J= 4.2  Without Shoulder
Load Distribution = Category 3 

Fig. 2. Comparison of thickness due to traffic for aggregate


interlocked pavement

4. CONCLUSION
It can be concluded that although PCA and AASHTO have
their own concept and parameters, there are also same
parameters considered in the design. The parameters are
modulus of subgrade reaction (k), modulus of rupture (sc)
and traffic. Based on the verification result, it shows that

4
THE EFFECT OF EPOXY BITUMEN MODIFICATION ON HOT MIX ASPHALT
PROPERTIES AND RUT RESISTANCE
Dorina anak Astana
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
dorina@utm.my
Mohd Rosli bin Hainin
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
mrosli@utm.my
Che Ros bin Ismail
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
cheros@utm.my
Mohd. Khairul Idham bin Mohd Satar
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
khairulidham@utm.my

ABSTRACT: Currently, the studies on improvement of highway material quality have been done using bitumen modification since
bitumen is sensitive to temperature susceptibility and rate of loading. Thus, bitumen modification has become trigger factors to improve the
hot mix asphalt (HMA) properties and rut resistance. In this study, epoxy has been used as bitumen modifier. In this study, an attempt was
made to evaluate the relationships between Penetration, Softening Point and Penetration Index (PI) of the bitumen with the certain amount
of epoxy in bitumen. Besides, this study also determine the extent of epoxy in rut resistance of asphaltic concrete.

Keywords: Modified Bitumen, Polymer Modified Bitumen, Epoxy, Hot Mix Asphalt, Rut Resistance

1. INTRODUCTION order to reduce modification costs and obtain


Over the years, road structures have deteriorated more environmental benefits. On the other hand, from an
rapidly than expected due to increases in traffic volume, environmental and economic standpoint, the use of a waste
axle loading and tyre pressure and insufficient degree of material for replacing pure polymers is the most preferential
maintenance. In Malaysia, rutting is the dominant recycling method, resulting greater cost savings, lower
deterioration problem because of hot climate. In majority of energy consumption and lower environmental pollution [2].
local traffic and environmental conditions, the mixes using
unmodified asphalt show satisfactory performance. Study done by Downes et.al [3] shows that the epoxy
However, under adverse traffic conditions and exacerbated modified bitumen is twelve times the cost of normal
by high surfacing temperature experienced throughout the bitumen. However, the performance of the product in terms
year, surface distress become apparent in relatively short of fatigue and permanent deformation would appear to be in
period of time [1]. Therefore, the existing pavement should excess of ten times than normal AC. Recently, the
be improved in terms of rutting resistance. In order to substitution of industrial material by industrial by-product
counteract such deterioration such as rutting and fatigue (recycled) polymers such as epoxy to modify bitumen and
cracking, several measures are continuously taken, such as ac properties has been taken into consideration, in order to
improving the pavement quality and its structure design reduce modification costs and obtain environmental
methods. In order to obtain the better pavement, the benefits. Therefore, this study of bitumen modification was
bitumen properties as one of the important component in carried out using epoxy by-product. The aim of this study is
the mixture itself must be enhanced. One possible source of to determine the extent of epoxy potential as bitumen
improvement is provided by modifying present bitumen modifier.
properties which capable of incorporating weathering and
deformation problems, which may result in better road 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
surface layer. This study was conducted using bitumen 80/100 PEN. The
epoxy was grind to finer size of passing 0.15 mm to obtain
Recently, the substitution of industrial material by industrial well-dispersed blend with bitumen. The method used to
by-product (recycled) polymers such as epoxy to modify accomplish the blend was a wet process. The epoxy was
asphalt properties has been taken into consideration, in blended for approximately 60 minutes at 160 °C.

1
2.1. Epoxy with increment of 4% by weight of bitumen. In this study,
The epoxy used in this study is a by-product from the following tests are conducted on both normal and
electronic manufacturing process. The epoxy used in this modified bitumen:
study is shown in figure 1 and 2 below. It is categorized as a) Penetration tests performed at different concentration
thermoplastic polymer [4]. Epoxy exhibit hardness, of epoxy with a 100 g load applied for 5 seconds
strength and heat resistance. Generally, thermoplastic according to AASHTO T-49 procedures.
stiffen the bitumen. The physical properties of epoxy are b) Softening points tests at different epoxy content based
shown in Table 1 below. on the ring and ball method. These tests were done
following the AASHTO T-53 procedures.

Each test is repeated at a least three times for each epoxy


contents. From these tests, the penetration index (PI) was
calculated by using the following equation:
.
(1)
.
where P is the penetration values and SP is softening point.

2.3 Testing Program Applied to the Asphaltic Concrete


AC should be design to meet the necessary properties based
on ACW14 mix design according to JKR/SPJ/2007. The
bitumen content used were 4.5% to 6.5% with increment of
0.5% by weight of mix. The amount of epoxy used were the
optimum epoxy content obtained from PI values. In this
Fig. 1. Epoxy (before grind) study, HMAs were characterised through Marshall test. The
dimensions of the cylindrical samples are 100 mm diameter
by 63.5 mm height. The samples were compacted by
applying 75 blows on each side at 135 °C in accordance
with ASTM D 1559 then stored at ambient temperature for
one day. Each test is repeated at a least three times for each
bitumen contents. The Marshall properties such as density,
VTM, VFB, stability, flow and stiffness then been obtained.
The optimum bitumen content also been obtained.

The three-wheel immersion tracking machine been used to


determine the rutting resistance at 60 °C. The bitumen and
epoxy content used were the optimum bitumen from
Marshall test and optimum epoxy content from PI values.
The dimensions of the samples are 407 x 90 x 137 mm. The
samples were compacted by applying 500 roller passes the
above surface of the samples. Each test is repeated at a least
Fig. 2. Fine epoxy (after grind) three times for each normal and epoxy modified ACs.

Table 1. Physical properties of epoxy 3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION


Property Unit Value The optimum bitumen content for Bit. A is 5.1% and Bit. B
Density mg/m3 2.100 is 5.0%. Meanwhile, the optimum epoxy content used in
Tensile Modulus GPa 14.3 this study are 29% by weight of Bit. A and 38% by weight
Tensile Strength MPa 39.4 of Bit B.
Service Temperature °C 260
Hardness - D55-65 3.1. Penetration and Softening Point
Linear Mold Shrinkage mm/mm 0.002 The standard penetration test was conducted on normal and
modified bitumen and the results are shown in Figure 3.
2.2. Testing Program Applied to the Bitumen Penetration for normal Bit. A and Bit. B are 81.1 and 81.2
The physical properties of bitumen that are most important PEN. The penetration value for modified bitumen for both
to hot mix paving are penetration and softening point. The sources decrease as the content of epoxy increases. The
tests were done at various epoxy concentration; 0% to 24% bitumen becomes more viscous and harder, which would be

2
useful to obtain stiffer AC. Therefore, the internal strength
of the bitumen increases. This is an indication of an
enhanced resistance against permanent deformation of the
modified AC during their service life in pavement. The
modified Bit. B is harder compared to modified Bit. A.
Therefore, it is expected that asphaltic concrete using
modified Bit. B is more resistance to rutting formation.

Fig. 4. Softening point versus epoxy content

Fig. 3. Penetration versus epoxy content

The results for softening point are shown in Figure 4. There


are almost linear relationship between the epoxy content
and softening point for both type of bitumen. As the epoxy
content increases, the softening point of bitumen also
increases. It shows that both of modified bitumen becomes
less susceptible to temperature changes as the content of Fig. 5. Penetration Index versus epoxy content
epoxy increases. The normal temperature in Malaysia is
23°C to 33°C with average of 27°C. But in the afternoon, 3.3. Marshall Mix Design Properties
the temperature of the pavement can reach around 50°C. The Marshall properties for normal and modified bitumen
According to Figure 2, the temperature of modified bitumen are as shown in Table 2. These results show that the
is above 52°C. Therefore, at 50°C, the bitumen still does addition of epoxy generally decreases the AC density, voids
not soften. Thus, the epoxy modified bitumen helps to filled with bitumen (VFB), stability and stiffness. However,
resist the deformation in pavement. it increases the voids in total mix (VTM) and flow. Only
slight differences are apparent in the density, VFB and
3.2 Penetration Index (PI) VTM properties of AC using modified bitumen compared
The suitable bitumen PI for construction is between -1 and to normal AC.
1. Figure 5 shows the PI pattern for both Bit. A and Bit. B.
There is significant increase of the PI as the epoxy content Table 2. Marshall properties of normal and modified bitumen
increases. The optimum epoxy content (when PI = 0) for Properties Bit. A Bit. B
Bit. A and Bit. B are 29% and 38% by weight of bitumen. N M N M
Density kg/cm3 2.326 2.321 2.323 2.313
The decrease in penetration and increase in softening point VFB % 78 76 77 75.5
indicate an increase in hardness of the modified bitumen. VTM % 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.7
Hence, in addition to the increase in hardness, the PI Flow mm 1.65 2.70 1.70 2.05
increases revealing that epoxy additions enhance the Stability N 15100 14200 14100 13500
Stiffness N/mm 9000 5600 8600 6530
temperature susceptibility of the bitumen.
Note: N – normal bitumen, M – modified bitumen

3
3.4. Rut Resistance However, there are only slight differences in terms of
The graphs of rut depth against number of cycle are as Marshall properties between normal and modified AC.
shown in Figure 6 and 7. Epoxy modified AC produce Overall, epoxy is suitable to be used as bitumen modifier.
lower rut depth compared to normal AC. This shows that
epoxy modified AC have higher rut resistance. Since the REFERENCES
epoxy offers greater hardness, the modified asphaltic 1. Mohd Hizam Harun (1996). The Performance of
concrete generally will increased the rutting resistance. The Bituminous Binders in Malaysia. Proceedings of
figures also show that normal and modified AC using Bit. the 1996 Malaysian Road Congress on Innovation
A have lower rut depth and higher rut resistance compared in Road Building. 11 June. Malaysia, 55-62.
to AC using Bit. B. The maximum rate of rutting for 2. Low Kaw S., Cavaliere, M. G. Tan Nai L., and Mohd
modified AC is lower compared to normal AC. Adib Awang Noh. (1995). Polymer Modified
Bituminous Binder for Road and Airfield
In Figure 6, the rut depth of epoxy modified asphaltic Construction. Proceedings of the 1995 8th
concrete A increased abruptly compared to normal Conference of Road Engineering.. 17-21 April.
modified asphaltic concrete A. This might be due to the Association of Asia and Australasia. Taipei,
problem during compaction, which affect to the China: 295-300.
composition of mix particles. 3. Downes, M. J. W., Koole, R. C., Mulder, E. A. and
Graham, W. E. (1988). Some Proven New Binders
and Their Cost-Effectiveness. Proceedings of the
1988 7th International Asphalt Conference on
Asphalt. 7-11 August. Brisbane, Australia: 119-
132.
4. Myer, K. (2002). Handbook of Materials Selection:
Chapter 11. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Publisher.

Fig. 6. Rut depth versus no. of cycle for AC using Bit. A

Fig. 7. Rut depth versus no. of cycle for AC using Bit. B

5. CONCLUSION
The bitumen modifications using epoxy has been proven to
enhance performance in bitumen and AC. There is an
improvement in bitumen penetration index to make it more
preferable to be used during construction. Besides, the
epoxy offer improved rutting performance over the AC
using normal bitumen, which will increase life cycle.

4
EXPLORING THE USAGE OF NANOPARTICLES IN PAVEMENT ENGINEERING

Mohd Ezree Abdullah*, K.A. Zamhari**, M.K. Shamshuddin***


Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia
*ezree@uthm.edu.my, **kemas@uthm.edu.my, ***mkamal@uthm.edu.my
Nafarizal Nayan
Faculty of Electric and Electronic Engineering,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Malaysia
nafa@uthm.edu.my
Mohd Rosli Hainin
Faculty of Civil Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia
roslihainin@gmail.com
ABSTRACT: Recently, nanotechnology has become a great interest among researchers to explore into new areas with high growth
potential and competitive edge. Nanotechnology deals with blending, processing and applying of particles with microscopic scale smaller
than 100 nanometer into current construction material and practices. This paper explains an overview of nanotechnology and its historical
development, structural characterization, types of nanoparticles used as well as the applications of nanoparticles in pavement pavement
engineering. It is believed that advances usage in nanotechnology promise to have major impacts on pavement sustainability in future.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, nanoparticles, pavement engineering

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Nanotechnology has recently become one of the major medicine and healthcare, aeronautics and space exploration,
interests among experts, engineers, media as well as public environment and energy, biotechnology and agriculture,
community. It is essentially about new ways of making national security, and science and education (Zhu, W.,
things through understanding and control over the Bartos, P. and Porro, A., 2004, Konstantin Sobolev, I. F.,
fundamental building blocks (i.e. atoms, molecules and Roman Hermosillo, Leticia M. Torres-Martínez, 2006,
nanostructures) of all physical things. This is likely to Sahoo, S. K., Parveen, S. and Panda, J. J., 2007, Salerno,
change the way almost everything is designed and made. M., Landoni, P. and Verganti, R., 2008, Tegart, G., 2009).
With the backing of unprecedented funding,
nanotechnology is fast emerging as the industrial revolution 1.1 Overview of nanotechnology
of the 21st century (Zhu, W., Bartos, P. and Porro, A.,
2004, Glenn, J. C., 2006, Mamalis, A. G., 2007). Even though addition of polymers is a common method
applied for pavement improvement; it will be an eager
Advances in nanotechnology promise to have major among experts and engineers to explore the performance of
impacts on our life in the coming decades. Since the 1990s pavement properties ranging from macro and meso scales
there has been a very rapid increase in the implementation down to the nano scales. Figure 1 illustrates the evolution
of nanotechnologies and promises breakthroughs in such of length scales of flexible pavement material in macro
areas as materials and construction, manufacturing, scale and to quantum scales (You, Z., Mills-Beale, J.,
nanoelectronics and computer information technology, Foley, J. M. et al., 2010).
OPPP

Fig. 1. Evolution image of different asphalt dimensions (You, Z., Mills-Beale, J., Foley, J. M. et al., 2010).

1
Nanotechnology can be defined as the science and
engineering involved in the design, synthesis,
characterization and application of materials and devices
whose smallest functional organization in at least one
dimension is on the nanometer scale which is one billionth
of a meter (10-9 m) (Sahoo, S. K., Parveen, S. and Panda, J.
J., 2007). In general, nanomaterials may have globular,
plate-like, rod like or more complex geometries. Near-
spherical particles which are smaller than 10 nm are
typically called clusters. The number of atoms in a cluster
increases greatly with its diameter. At 1 nm diameter there
are 13 atoms in a cluster and at 100 nm diameter the cluster
that can accommodate more than 107 atoms. Clusters may
have a symmetrical structure which is, however, often
different in symmetry from that of the bulk. They may also
have an irregular or amorphous shape. As the number of
atoms in a cluster increases, there is a critical size which a
particular bond geometry that is characteristic of the
extended (bulk) solid (Glenn, J. C., 2006, Roduner, E.,
2006). Besides that, nanoparticles also have a high surface
area to volume ratio which providing the potential for
tremendous chemical reactivity. Figure 2 shows particle
size and specific surface area related to concrete materials
and the size of nanoparticles in comparison with other small
particles is shown in Figure 3.

Fig. 2. Particle size and specific surface area related to


concrete materials. Adapted from (Konstantin Sobolev, I.
F., Roman Hermosillo, Leticia M. Torres-Martínez, 2006) Fig. 3. Size scale and examples of micro- and
nanocomponents. Adapted from (Mamalis, A. G., 2007)
More than anything else, nanotechnology is being
considered as a key technology and allowing us to do new
things in almost every conceivable technological discipline. 1.2 Historical development of nanotechnology
This transformation can change to almost all aspects of
human society due to the development of sustainability The concept of nanotechnology came about by The Nobel
material, construction and many other technological Prize winning physicist Richard Feynman’s lecture in 1959
advances (Zhu, W., Bartos, P. and Porro, A., 2004, called ‘There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom’. He said that
Miyazaki, K. and Islam, N., 2007, Sahoo, S. K., Parveen, S. nothing in the laws of physics prevented us from arranging
and Panda, J. J., 2007, Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G., atoms the way we want. He even pointed to a development
Golimowski, J. and Urban, P. L., 2009, Sanchez, F. and pathway: machines that would make smaller machines
Sobolev, K., 2010). suitable for making yet smaller machines, and the classic

2
‘top down’ approach. The term nanotechnology was first a specimen and is diffracted by the crystalline phases in the
introduced by a Japanese engineer, Norio Taniguchi. He specimen. This diffraction pattern is used to identify the
described the precision manufacture of parts with finishes specimen’s crystalline phases and to measure its structural
and tolerances in the range of 0.1 nm to 100 nm. The term properties (Cao, G., 2006). XRD is nondestructive and also
originally implied a new technology that went beyond a powerful technique for investigating of the following
controlling materials and engineering on the micrometer (Arkema, 2010):
scale. Then, in 1981, Drexler pointed out a new approach • Crystallinity
which is more relate with the meaning and application • Polymorphism (crystalline phase identification)
today. He corresponds to the atom-by-atom manipulative, • Additives, pigments and fillers identification
hardtech processing methodology (Zhu, W., Bartos, P. and • Active compounds and excipients
Porro, A., 2004, Cao, G., 2006, Roduner, E., 2006, Sahoo, • Preferred orientation or texture
S. K., Parveen, S. and Panda, J. J., 2007, Salerno, M., • Residual stress and strain
Landoni, P. and Verganti, R., 2008, Steyn, W. J. v., 2008,
Islam, N. and Miyazaki, K., 2010, Pacheco-Torgal, F. and
Jalali, S., 2010, Sanchez, F. and Sobolev, K., 2010). The XRD analysis method can be applied to materials in
powder form, or to manufactured parts, films, plaques,
Today, the growing interest in nanostructured materials is fibers, cured components, coatings, wafers or multilayer
the natural consequence of advances and refinements of systems. Measurements can be made in reflection,
knowledge about the creative manipulation of materials on transmission and grazing (glancing) angle
the nanometer scale in order to perform functions or obtain modes. Temperature experiments allow the study of phase
characteristics which could not otherwise be achieved. transitions for each crystalline structure present in the
(Zhu, W., Bartos, P. and Porro, A., 2004, Uskokovic, V., material. Analysis of preferred orientation in plastics,
2007) stated that the more precisely nanomaterial properties coatings, or metals can be studied by pole figure
are magnified, the more unusual and unexpected features measurements, through texture coefficient measurements,
emerge. or using camera attachment (Lee, S. L., Windover, D.,
Doxbeck, M. et al., 2000, Ortiz, A. L. and Shaw, L., 2004,
Pattanaik, S., Huffman, G. P., Sahu, S. et al., 2004, Faurie,
2.0 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF D., Renault, P. O., Le Bourhis, E. et al., 2006, Zhong, Y.,
NANOPARTICLES Ping, D., Song, X. et al., 2009, Arkema, 2010).

One of the critical challenges faced by researches in the 2.2 Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
nanotechnology area is the understanding of
instrumentation with various potential of applications to SEM is a type of electron microscope that images the
observe, measure and manipulate the individual sample surface topography composition and other
nanomaterials and nanostructures in pavement. properties by a source of focused electrons into a beam,
Characterization of nanomaterials and nanostructures has with a very fine spot size of 5 nm and having energy
been largely based on surface analysis technique and ranging from a few hundred eV to 50 KeV, which is raster
conventional characterization methods developed for bulk over the surface of the specimen by deflection coils. As the
materials. The most widely used in characterizing electrons strike and penetrate the surface, a number of
nanomaterials and nanostructures in pavement engineering interactions occur that result in the emission of electron and
are X-ray diffraction (XRD), various electron microscopy photons from sample, and SEM images are produced by
(EM) including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and collecting the emitted electrons on a cathode ray tube
Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) (CRT). The resolution of the SEM approaches a few
(Cao, G., 2006, Kostoff, R. N., Koytcheff, R. G. and Lau, nanometers, and the instruments can operate at the
C. G. Y., 2007). magnifications that are easily adjusted from ~ 10 to over
300,000 (Joy, D. C., 1997, Cao, G., 2006, Arkema, 2010).
2.1 X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Analysis The types of signals produced by SEM include secondary
electron images, back-scattered electron images and
XRD is a very important experiment technique that has elemental X-ray maps. When a high-energy primary
long been used to address all issues related to the crystal electron interacts with an atom, it undergoes either inelastic
structure of solids, including lattice constant and geometry, scattering with atomic electrons or elastic scattering with
identification of unknown materials, orientation of single the atomic nucleus. Due to the very narrow electron beam,
crystals, preferred orientation of polycrystals, defects, SEM micrographs have a large depth of field yielding a
stresses, etc. In XRD, a collimated beam of X-rays, with a characteristic three-dimensional appearance useful for
wavelength typically ranging from 0.7 - 2 A, is incident on understanding the surface structure of a sample. This is
exemplified by the micrograph of pollen shown to the right.

3
A wide range of magnifications is possible, from about 10 • Fracture and failure analysis
times (about equivalent to that of a powerful hand-lens) to • defect analysis
more than 500,000 times. Not only does the SEM produce
topographical information as optical microscopes do, it also
provides the chemical composition information near the 3.0 TYPES OF NANOPARTICLES USED IN
surface (Joy, D. C., 1997, Kalaitzidis, S. and Christanis, K., PAVEMENT
2003, Lim, S. C., Kim, K. S., Lee, I. B. et al., 2005, Cao,
G., 2006, Arkema, 2010). At present, nanoparticles are utilized extensively to improve
the performance of asphalt pavements by applying different
2.3 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE- procedures, including modification of asphalt binder in
SEM) flexible pavement as well as modification of concrete in
rigid pavement. Much of the work to date in pavement
Field emission (FE) is the emission of electrons from the engineering has been deal with nanoclay and nano-titanium
surface of a conductor caused by a strong electric field. An oxide (nano-TiO2) (Jahromi, S. G. and Khodaii, A., 2009,
extremely thin and sharp tungsten needle (tip diameter 10– Pacheco-Torgal, F. and Jalali, S., 2010, Sanchez, F. and
100 nm) works as a cathode. The FE source reasonably Sobolev, K., 2010, You, Z., Mills-Beale, J., Foley, J. M. et
combines with scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) al., 2010)
whose development has been supported by advances in
secondary electron detector technology. The acceleration 3.1 Nanoclay
voltage between cathode and anode is commonly with
magnitude of 0.5 to 30 kV, and the apparatus requires an Nanoclays are naturally occurring minerals and subject to
extreme vacuum (~10–6 Pa) in the column of the natural variability in their constitution. The purity of the
microscope. Because the electron beam produced by the FE clay can affect the final nanocomposite properties. Clay
source is about 1000 times smaller than a standard mostly consist of alumina–silicates, which have a layered
microscope with a thermal electron gun, the image quality structure, and consist of silica SiO4 tetrahedron bonded to
will be markedly improved. The main advantage of the FE- alumina AlO6 octahedron in a various ways. One of the
SEM comes from its high resolution and long working most frequently used layered silicates is montmorillonite
length between magnetic lens and sample, which is (MMT), which has a 2:1 layered structure with two silica
unobtainable from a state-of-the-art optical microscope tetrahedron sandwiching an alumina octahedron. The
(Lim, S. C., Kim, K. S., Lee, I. B. et al., 2005, Bazzana, S., thickness of the MMT layers (platelets) is 1 nm with a large
Dumrul, S., Warzywoda, J. et al., 2006, Kimura, H. Y. a. active surface area can have an intensive interaction
K., 2007, de Souza, W., Campanati, L. and Attias, M., between bitumen and depends upon the type of material
2008). mixed. MMT is also commonly used because it is
environmentally friendly, readily available and its structure
The FE-SEM images a sample surface by raster scanning and chemistry have been well studied.(Ghile, D., 2006,
over it with a high-energy beam of electrons. The electrons Jahromi, S. G. and Khodaii, A., 2009, Yarahmadi, N.,
interact with the atoms comprising the sample to produce Jakubowicz, I. and Hjertberg, T., 2010, You, Z., Mills-
signals that contain information about surface topography, Beale, J., Foley, J. M. et al., 2010).
composition and other properties, such as electrical
conductivity. Features can be characterized at length scales The proper selection of modified clay is essential to ensure
from millimeters to around 10 nanometers. Therefore, the effective penetration of the polymer into the interlayer
FE-SEM is a very useful tool for high resolution surface spacing of the clay and so resulting in the desired exfoliated
imaging in the fields of nanomaterials science and its product. An exfoliated morphology occurs when the clay
application include (Arkema, 2010): platelets are extensively delaminated and completely
• Thickness measurement of thin coatings and films separated due to thorough polymer penetration by various
• Correlation of surface appearance and surface dispersion techniques. To achieve fine dispersion,
morphology mechanical forces alone are not sufficient; rather, there
• Characterization of size, size distribution, shape should be a thermodynamic driving force to separate the
and dispersion of additives, particulates and fibers layers into the primary silicate sheets. This thermodynamic
in composites and blends driving force is being introduced by inserting a certain
• Measurement of height and lateral dimensions of coating of surfactants (an agent such as detergent, which
nanometer-sized objects reduces surface tension) on each individual layer. These
• Characterization of cell size and size distribution surfactant molecules increase the layer distance. They,
in foam materials moreover, improve the compatibility with the polymer and
• Elemental analysis of micron-sized features can enhance the bonding of nanoclay because they can be

4
mixed with the polymer (Jahromi, S. G. and Khodaii, A., 4.1 Applications of nanoclay in flexible pavement
2009, You, Z., Mills-Beale, J., Foley, J. M. et al., 2010).
Many studies have been conducted and focused on
3.2 Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoclay modified bitumen. In Netherland, Ghile had
performed mechanical tests on asphalt mixture modified by
TiO2 has been known as a useful photocatalytic material is cloisite. The result showed that nanoclay modification
attributed to the following characteristics: (a) relatively improves mechanical behavior properties of mixture such
inexpensive, safe, chemically stable; (b) high photocatalytic as indirect tensile strength, creep and fatigue resistance
activity compared with other metal oxide photocatalysts; (c) (Ghile, D., 2006). In China, Yu et al. have used different
compatible with traditional construction materials, such as contents of montmorillonite (MMT) and organomodified
cement, without changing any original performance; (d) montmorillonite (OMMT) in modified bitumen. Results
effective under weak solar irradiation in ambient showed that the softening point and viscosity of the
atmospheric environment. The concept of titanium dioxide modified bitumen were increased at high temperatures.
as a photocatalyst is similar to plant photosynthesis which Furthermore, the modified bitumen exhibited higher
allows the decomposition of water into oxygen and complex modulus and had lower phase angle. They also
hydrogen in the presence of Ultra Violet (UV) rays (320– claimed that the MMT and OMMT modified bitumen
400 nm). Based on this heterogeneous photocatalytic enhanced viscoelastic properties, which improve its
oxidation process, nitrogen oxides are oxidized into water- resistance to rutting at high temperatures (Yu, J., Zeng, X.,
soluble nitrates while sulfur dioxide is oxidized into water- Wu, S. et al., 2007). Also, in a recent work, Yu et al. had
soluble sulfates; these substances can be washed away by investigated the effect of OMMT on thermo-oxidative and
rainfall (Kim, T. K., Lee, M. N., Lee, S. H. et al., 2005, UV aging properties of asphalt. They showed that the MMT
Chen, J. and Poon, C.-s., 2009, Hassan, M. M., Dylla, H., and OMMT modified asphalts have higher rutting
Mohammad, L. N. et al., 2010) resistance and very good storage stability (Yu, J.-Y., Feng,
P.-C., Zhang, H.-L. et al., 2009).
The bulk material of TiO2 is well known to have three
crystal structures: anatase, rutile and brookite. The anatase The effect of nanoclay (nanofil-15 and cloisite-15A) on
type is more widely used because it has a higher rheological properties of bitumen have been studied by
photoactivity than the other types of TiO2. Among them, Jahromi, S. G., & Khodaii, A. Tests performed on bitumen
the TiO2 exists mostly as rutile and anatase phases and both samples proved that the nanoclay modifications help to
phases have tetragonal structures. Rutile is a high- increase the stiffness and ageing resistances (Jahromi, S. G.
temperature stable phase and has an optical energy band and Khodaii, A., 2009). On the other research, Jahromi, S.
gap of 3.0 eV (415 nm), while anatase is formed at a lower G., Andalibizade, B., and Vossough, S. had conducted a
temperature with an optical energy band gap of 3.2 eV (380 rheological tests on binders and mechanical tests on asphalt
nm) as well as refractive index of 2.3. It is well known that mixture. They also used the same types of nanoclay. Test
generally, the TiO2-based photocatalyst with anatase phase results showed that nanoclay can improve properties such
shows more excellent photocatalytic effect than that with as stability, resilient modulus, and indirect tensile strength,
rutile phase, and the anatase phase can be transformed into and result in superior performance under dynamic creep.
the rutile phase at above 800 oC (Kim, T. K., Lee, M. N., However, they stated that nanoclays did not have a
Lee, S. H. et al., 2005). beneficial effect on fatigue behavior in low temperature.
Optimum binder content and void in total mixture (VTM)
increase by adding nanoclay to bitumen (Jahromi, S. G.,
4.0 APPLICATIONS OF NANOPARTICLES IN Andalibizade, B., & Vossough, S, 2010).
PAVEMENT
In other research, the effect of styrene–butadiene–
The most often used of pavement can be divided into two rubber/montmorillonite (SBR/MMT) modification on the
main categories: flexible and rigid. The wearing surface of characteristics and properties of asphalt were investigated
flexible pavements is usually a mixture of sand, aggregate, by Zhang et al. Results showed that the addition of
a filler material, and bitumen in a controlled process, SBR/MMT increased both the softening point and viscosity
placed, and compacted. Flexible pavements have low and decreased the penetration of the modified asphalts at
flexural strength and flexible in structural behavior under high temperatures. They also stated that modified asphalts
traffic loads. On the other hand, rigid pavements are exhibited higher complex modulus (G*) and lower damping
normally constructed of Portland cement concrete which factor (tan δ). It implies that SBR/MMT displays improved
consists of Portland cement, coarse aggregate, fine viscoelastic properties, resulting in enhancing its resistance
aggregate and water. Rigid pavements have some flexural to rutting at high temperature (Zhang, B., Xi, M., Zhang, D.
strength and have a slab action which is capable of et al., 2009). Meanwhile, Galooyak et al had studied the
transmitting the wheel loads to wider area. effect of styrene–butadiene–styrene/ organomodified

5
montmorillonite (SBS/OMMT) modified bitumen mixtures. to be environmental protection materials. Results of
Results showed that the presence of nanoclay improves the experiment revealed that decontaminating rate of the
storage stability of PMB significantly without adverse productions ranged from 6% to 12% and this kind of
effect on other properties of it. (Galooyak, S. S., Dabir, B., photochemical catalysis environmental protection material
Nazarbeygi, A. E. et al., 2010). has good environment purification function (Chen, M. and
Liu, Y., 2010).
You et al. described that nanoclay improved the G*,
viscosity and has better low-temperature cracking resistance
(You, Z., Mills-Beale, J., Foley, J. M. et al., 2010). Besides 5.0 CONCLUSION
that, Zare-Shahabadi, A., Shokuhfar, A. & Ebrahimi-Nejad,
S. had studied the used of bentonite clay (BT) and Nanotechnology has the potential for improvements in the
organically modified bentonite (OBT) to reinforce and field of pavement material and construction in future. In
modify a bituminous paving asphalt binder. They found that flexible pavement, researchers are focused on the
the modified asphalts have higher rutting resistance when modification of binder using nanoclay and with that
tested by dynamic shear rheological. It was found also modified binder they evaluated the performance of the
indicated that adding of BT and OBT can significantly mixtures. The engineering properties of modified binders
improve low temperature rheological properties and and mixtures are significantly improved, particularly in the
cracking of asphalt (Zare-Shahabadi, A., Shokuhfar, A. and areas of stiffness, storage stability, rutting resistance, low-
Ebrahimi-Nejad, S., 2010). temperature cracking resistance and ageing resistances. On
the other hand, the abrasion resistance and the flexural
4.2 Applications of TiO2 in rigid pavement fatigue performance of concrete containing nano-TiO2 as
additives for pavement is increased with increasing
In China, the abrasion resistance and the flexural fatigue compressive strength and also improved the fatigue
performance of concrete containing nano-TiO2 as additives performance. The sensitivity of their fatigue lives to the
for pavement is experimentally studied by Li et al. The test change of stress is also increased. Besides that, the use of
results indicated that the abrasion resistance of modified TiO2 photocatalyst in combination with rigid pavement had
concrete pavement was increased with increasing shown an improved on NOx removal efficiency. The used
compressive strength and also improved the fatigue of TiO2 coating as a photocatalytic compound would also
performance. The sensitivity of their fatigue lives to the provide acceptable durability and wear resistance. With the
change of stress is also increased. Besides that, the addition advances in instrumentation and computational science, it is
of nano-TiO2 also refines the pore structure of concrete and believed that nanotechnology will exploit the improvement
enhances the resistance to chloride penetration on concrete of pavement material properties and construction process in
(Li, H., Zhang, M.-h. and Ou, J.-p., 2006, Li, H., Zhang, future.
M.-h. and Ou, J.-p., 2007, Zhang, M.-h. and Li, H., 2010).

In other research, Hassan et al. investigated the used of


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8
VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT OF UNDERSIDE SHAPED CONCRETE BLOCK
PAVEMENT
Azman Mohamed1
Researcher
az_man@ic.utm.my

Hasanan Md Nor2
Professor
hasanan@utm.my

Mohd Rosli Hainin2


Associate Professor
mrosli@utm.my
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia, International Campus, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
2
Department of Geotechnics and Transportation, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
81300 Skudai, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT: A new shaped block concept for Concrete Block Pavement (CBP) by introducing Underside Shaped Concrete
Block (USCB) to the road surface layer has the potential to enhance the road construction development in Malaysia. The
USCB concept utilizes the groove patterns to grip and produce resistance to the underside surface of block units onto the sand
bedding layer. This concept is in the early stage of laboratory study to build up the understanding of its behavior to produce
better pavement performance. The USCBs were manufactured in the laboratory with three different rectangular groove depths.
An average USCBs compressive strength of 25 MPa was produced. The compaction capability and settlement of the bedding
sand and vertical displacement USCBs were studied in the pavement model. Push in test was performed to determine the
resistance to vertical displacement of USCBs. Groove depth, groove size, underside surface area and volume of USCB have
significant influence on the vertical displacement of USCB pavement.

Keyword: Concrete Block Pavement; Underside Shaped Concrete Block; Groove; Vertical Displacement; Settlement; Push In

1. INTRODUCTION lighter weight and has more underside surface


contact area than normal concrete block.
Concrete Block Pavement (CBP) differs from other
forms of pavement in that the wearing surface is
made from small paving units bedded and jointed in 2. BACKGROUND
sand rather than continuous paving. According to
Panda and Ghosh (2001), beneath the bedding sand, In CBP the load spreading capacity of concrete
the substructure is similar to that of a conventional blocks layer depends on the interaction of individual
flexible pavement. Sudip L. Adhikari 2008 blocks with jointing sand to build up resistance
mentioned that blocks are a major load-spreading against applied load. The shape, size, thickness,
component which is comprised of concrete blocks laying patterns, etc are importance block parameters,
bedded and jointed in sand. Interlock has been these influence the overall performance of the
defined as the inability of an individual bock to move pavement. The shape of the block influences the
independently of its neighbours and has been performance of the block pavement under load. It is
categorized as having three components: horizontal, postulated that the effectiveness of load transfers
rotational, vertical. Interlock is of major importance depends on the vertical surface area of the block
for the prevention of movement of pavers (Panda and Ghosh, 2001).
horizontally when trafficked
Many guidelines have been produced to provide
Various block parameters contribute to the structural sufficient concrete block’s strength, thickness and
capacity of pavement. This study discusses interlocking defined as the inability of an individual
laboratory results relating the effect of changing block to move independently or its neighbors.
groove depth, groove size, area of underside surface Concrete blocks have their own weight, thickness,
and volume of block to provide the basic strength and shape to ensure the mechanism will
understanding of the groove effects. Generally, establish high performance. Concrete block can
Underside Shaped Concrete Block (USCB) has sustain the load of vehicles, so it is used as the
material to construct pavement.

1
C136-06 and CCAA (TN 56). The blocks were cured
The laying course thickness differs from country to by covered with wet gunnysacks for 28 days.
country. Most countries require a 50 mm compacted Concrete blocks (Fig. 2) were tested to ensure
thickness. However, Australia has specified a concrete mix satisfies the specification. The blocks
compacted thickness of 20 mm to 25 mm. This is a were tested at the age of 28 days with average
very thin layer and will therefore require the surface compressive strength meeting the minimum
of the underlaying base to be very smooth (Beaty, requirement of 25 MPa as suggested by Shackel,
1992). 1990. The length, width and thickness of rectangular
concrete blocks is 200 mm, 100 mm and 80 mm
Adequate compaction is required to minimize the respectively with the length to width ratio is 2 for
settlement of CBP. The laying course material and this study (BS 6717-1, 1993). Parameter studied in
blocks should be compacted using a vibrating plate this research were groove size, groove surface area
compactor. Some blocks may require a rubber or and block volume. The details of block shapes
neoprene faced sole plate to prevent damage to the studied are given in Fig. 1 and geometrical details are
block surfaces (Interpave, 2004). The block paved given in Table 1.
area should be fully compacted as soon as possible
after the full blocks and cut blocks have been laid, to
achieve finished pavement tolerances from the design
level of ± 10 mm under a 3 m straightedge (ICPI,
2004). Normally two cycles of compaction are
applied. The first cycle compacts the bedding sand
and cause this material to rise up the joints and the
second cycle is applied once joint sand is brushed
into the joints. Fig. 1. Details of blocks shapes used in this study

Panda and Ghosh (2002), reported that the strength


and laying pattern of blocks has no influence on the
vertical displacement of the block pavement.
However, the vertical displacement is highly
influenced by block thickness. Thus, block thickness
of 80 mm is sufficient for heavily trafficked roads.

Fig. 2. USCB –R(30/25)


3. MATERIALS AND EXPERIMENTAL
WORKS
3.2 Test Setup
3.1 Materials
The tests of USCB were carried out in a rigid steel
The USCBs were manufactured in the laboratory.
box of 1000 mm x 1000 mm square in plan. The grid
These were made using ordinary Portland cement
measurement points are as shown in Fig. 3. The
comply with MS 522 Part 1. The natural aggregates
points were marked on the steel box frame. A
used include natural river sand as the fine aggregate
reaction steel frame was used to apply static load on
and crushed granite with normal size less than 10
the 12 mm thick steel plate, hydraulic jack and load
mm as the coarse aggregate. The fine and coarse
cell of 200 kN capacity as shown in Fig. 4.
aggregate complied with the requirements of ASTM

Table 1. Details of blocks used in study


Distance Underside A% of V% of
Length, Height, Between Edge Shaped Different Different
Width, B L No of h No of Groove, No of Length, No of Area, Compare Volume, Compare to
Block type (mm) (mm) 'L' (mm) Groove d (mm) 'd' e (mm) 'e' A (cm2) to NB Multiplication V (cm3) NB
NB 200 0 1 1600 0
USCB - R(30/15) 100 30 3 15 3 30 2 25 2 290 45 1.45 1465 8.44
USCB - R(30/25) 100 30 3 25 3 30 2 25 2 350 75 1.75 1375 14.06
USCB - R(30/35) 100 30 3 35 3 30 2 25 2 410 105 2.05 1285 19.69

∗ NB – Normal

2
on two opposite sides of the loading plate at equal
distance from the centre. The average value of the
two settlement readings was tabulated and drawn in
Fig. 5.

Fig. .3. Testing layout pelan

3.3 Construction of Test Sections


Fig. .4. Pavement model setup
The test sections of USCB were constructed within
the steel box. The base of steel box is covered with
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
hard neoprene of a 3 mm thick which simulate the
subgrade layer. Over the hard neoprene, a plastic
4.1 Effects of USCBs on bedding sand
sheet is used to cover it in order to avoid
contaminating the hard neoprene with bedding sand.
The types of USCBs namely USCB-R(30/15),
The bedding sand ( 4 % - 8 % moisture content) was
USCB-R(30/25) and USCB-R(30/35) are referred to
spread in a uniform layer to give a depth of 70 mm.
the groove depths of 15 mm, 25 mm and 35 mm
This value was selected to achieve an average of
respectively (Fig. 1 and Table 1). Figure 5 shows the
50 mm thick of bedding sand after two cycles of
vertical displacement of USCBs on bedding sand of
compaction process. Over the bedding sand, the
the three types of USCBs and control blocks at
USCBs of 80 mm thick were laid in a basket weave
different grid numbers after compaction. Previous
pattern. The joint width and quality of sand in
study has also shown that settlement for normal
bedding and joints were kept constant for all the
block is the range between 15mm to 20 mm.
experiments as according to CCAA, TN 56. The
whole USCBs were compacted by plate vibrator until
From this study, the vertical displacement of USCB-
the compaction was completed. Finally, the
R(30/15), USCB-R(30/25) and USCB-R(30/35) were
measurement points were marked on the USCB
18 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm respectively. For USCB-
block units as shown in Fig. 3.
R(30/15) the bedding sand has fully filled the 15 mm
groove depth. On the other hand, the of USCB-
3.4 Test Procedures R(30/25) and USCB-R(30/35) the bedding sand did
not fully fill into the 25 mm and 35 mm grooves.
The measurements were made on bedding sand to This situation is proven by push in test result as
obtain the desired thickness and the level of USCBs shown in Fig. 6. It shows the effect of loading to the
before and after compaction throughout the vertical displacement for different types of USCBs at
measurement points. These measurements were taken different location referring to the single block (block
to measure the settlement of bedding sand and No 24) and double blocks (block No 21 & 22 and No
USCBs. 27 & 28). It was observed that the vertical
displacement of blocks increased in nonlinear
A hydraulic jack fitted to the reaction frame was used manner with increasing loads. From Fig. 5, bedding
to apply a central load to the entire USCB units as sand has been able to full fill the groove of USCB-
shown in Fig. 3, through a rigid rectangular steel R(30/15) compared to other types at tested location
plate. This arrangement is call push in test. The load of block’s number. Additionally, for every type of
was increased uniformly up to 25 kN. While the USCBs were observed to have almost uniform
loads were increased, the vertical displacement were vertical displacement at it selected position. From
measured to an accuracy 0.01 mm using two Low this study the block type of USCB-R(30/15) has
Voltage Displacement Transducer (LVDT) shown lower vertical displacement at blocks location
connected to a data logger. The LVDTs were placed
3
(No.21 & No. 22), (No. 24), and (No.27 & No.28)
compared to other USCBs control blocks .

Fig. 6. Comparisons of USCBs vertical displacement


under push in test

4.2 Effects of groove depth to the USCB

Fig. 7 shows areas and volumes of USCBs versus


displacements due to the applied vertical loads. The
relationship between vertical displacement and area
and volume of USCBs is moderate considering the
R2 value of 0.568. The above relationship can be
studied for others groove pattern in the future. This
value of R2 also can be used by comparing between
Fig. 5. The vertical displacement of USCBs and height other underside surface patterns of groove in the
of sand filled into groove future.

4
This study is a one of the preliminary ways to have in Cement And Concrete Association Of Australia
the selection of suitable groove depth for USCBs. (1986). A Specification for Construction of
Besides that, further study is needed to investigate Interlocking Concrete Road Pavement. (TN56).
the compatibility between various patterns of grooves
for USCBs pavement. One other way to recognize Concrete Masonry Association Of Australia (1986).
their compatibility is through simulation study using Specification for Concrete Segmental Paving
finite elements method. Units (MA 20).

Hata, M., Iijima, T. and Yaginuma, H. (2003).


Report On The Survey And Repair of Interlocking
Blocks Used For Ten Years At Heavy-Traffic Bus
Terminal. Proceeding 7th International Conference
on Concrete Block Paving. South Africa.

ICPI (2004). Mechanical Installation of Interlocking


Concrete Pavements. Tech Spec 11, Interlocking
Concrete Pavement Institute, Washington, DC,
U.S.A.

(a) Panda, B. C. and Ghosh, A. K. (2001). Structural


behavior of concrete block paving. I: Sand in bed
and joints. Journal of Transportation Engineering,
128(2), 123–129.

Panda, B. C. and Ghosh, A. K. (2002). Structural


Behavior of Concrete Block Paving II: Concrete
Blocks. Journal of Transportation Engineering,
pp:130.

Shackel, B (1990). Design and Construction of


Interlocking Concrete Block Pavement. London
(b) and New York; Elsevier.
Fig. 7. The displacement relationship
Shackel, B. (1990). Developments In The
Specification Of Concrete Segmental Pavers For
5. CONCLUSIONS Australian Conditions. University of New South
Wales, Australia: Department of Geotechnical
The main conclusions that can be drawn from this Engineering. 56 – 64.
study are as follow:
1. The block type USCB-R (30/15) is the best Sudip L. Adhikari. (2008). Structural Performance
among the tested block because it has lower Evaluation of Interlocking Concrete Pavement
vertical displacement as the grooves were fully Crosswalk Designs. Master of Applied Science,
filled with bedding sand. University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
2. The superiority of block type USCB-R (30/15)
is consistence when tested either in the middle Teiborlang, L.R., Mazumdar, M. and Pandey, B. B.
or at the edge of the pavement. (2005). Structural Behavior of Cast in Situ
3. Groove area and groove volume of blocks are Concrete Block Pavement. Journal of
moderately related to vertical displacement. Transportation Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 9:662.

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