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L4 Verbs The student has TAKEN a break.

The students have TAKEN a break.


VERBS indicate the action of the sentence.
The students had TAKEN a break.
o a sense
Finite – identify a particular time
Lori FEELS sad.
o present tense
o a perception of another person
The students TAKE a break.
Lani SEEMS contented.
The student TAKES a break.
o a mental state
o past tense
Jim EXPECTS a package in the mail.
The students TOOK a break.
o a connecting function
Steve IS the youngest member of the club. SUBCATEGORIES OF VERBS
MAIN VERBS
 It could also be recognized by their
- express actions or states of being
DERIVATIONAL suffixes.
- have all the five forms described
-ize nationalize
- can occur alone
-ate educate
Mike STUDIES statistics.
-ify solidify
My aunt COLLAPSED in the hallway.
 It could also be recognized by their
Cary LOOKS healthy.
INFLECTIONAL suffixes.
Mitch can SPEAK Tagalog.
-d educate educate
HELPING VERBS
-ed shout shouted
- used to support main verbs
-n take taken
o AUXILIARY VERBS
-en eat eaten
- main verb occurs in one of its nonfinite forms
-ing sing singing
- indicate the time of the action
-t sweep swept
- do, did, done, does
FORMS OF VERB
- have, had, has
Nonfinite – carry no time of their own
- be, to be, being, been, am, is, are, was, were
o bare infinitive/ base form
Examples:
The students may TAKE a break.
 I AM waiting for an answer.
o present participle
 HAVE you seen the report?
The students are TAKING a break.
 The car WAS washed by the students.
o past participle
o MODAL VERBS (MODAL AUXILIARIES) - Cats CATCH mice.
- has nine forms - describes people or things
- always occur with a main verb - Her brothers ARE both six feet tall.
- will - I FEEL sick today.
- would SIMPLE PAST TENSE
- shall - use to talk about actions, events, or feelings that
- should happened at an earlier point in time
- can - Olivia CLOSED the door behind her.
- could SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
- may - used to describe actions that will happen in the
- might future
- must - You WILL REGRET this.
- *ought - The police officers WILL FILE a report.
Examples: PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE
 Chuck WILL sell his house. (future certainty) - talks about something that is happening right now
 As a child, Irene WOULD hide in the garden. - I AM WALKING to school right now.
(repeated past activity) - As I speak, Mary IS WRITING her resignation

 The toddler MIGHT hurt himself. (possibility) letter.

 The child MAY eat now. (possibility/ permission) PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE
- used to describe an action that was occurring at
 I SHOULD call her. (obligation)
the same time as another past action
 He CAN swim a mile. (ability)
- Yesterday I WAS WALKING to school when you
 They SHOULD arrive by seven. (probability)
saw me.
TENSES OF VERBS
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
- usually used to describe an action that will occur
- talks about actions that occur repeatedly
at the same time as another future action
- I BRUSH my teeth every day.
- I WILL BE DRIVING when you call.
- We VISIT my grandparents twice a year.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
- discusses current facts, basic truths, or widely
- action began in the past and continues in the
accepted beliefs
present or has ended by the present
- The sky IS blue, and the grass IS green.
- She HAS WAITED for you.
- I HAVE FINISHED my work already. - By tomorrow, I WILL HAVE BEEN WALKING to
PAST PERFECT TENSE school for six weeks straight.
- action began and ended before another past
event
- Yesterday I rode the bus to school, but the day
before I HAD WALKED to school.
- She HAD WAITED.
L4 Verbals
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE Verbal Nouns/ Verbals
- action will be finished by a particular time in the - words that are built with verbs, but exhibit
future properties of noun
- By 8 p.m., I WILL HAVE FINISHED my
GERUNDS
homework.
GERUND ends in –ing and functions as a noun.
- She WILL HAVE WAITED.
JUMPING is fun.
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
He liked SKIING.
- used for recent past actions that happened
She had a unique way of WHISTLING.
repeatedly
- I HAVE BEEN WALKING to school on sunny INFINITIVES
days. INFINITIVE is the base form of the verb with to. It
- used for continuous past actions that are affecting usually functions as a noun, although it can also
the present in some way function as an adjective and adverb.
- I HAVE BEEN WALKING to school a lot, so I’m in TO JUMP is fun.
much better shape than I was before. I like TO SKI.
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE She had a suggestion TO OFFER.
- express actions that happened in the more She called TO WARN her.
distant past that happened repeatedly
PARTICIPLES
- I HAD BEEN WALKING to school every day, but
PARTICIPLE is a verb that ends in –ing (present
then the weather turned cold.
participle) or-ed, -d, -t, -en, -n (past participle). It
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
may function as an adjective, describing or
- used when you are anticipating a time in the
modifying noun.
future when a continuous action will be finished
The DANCING parrots entertained the crowd.
The WRECKED sailboat washed up on the shore.