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Waiariki Institute of

Technology

Guide to Writing
APA Style
(5th edition)

Guide to Writing APA Style


April 2007 1
Copyright © Waiariki Institute of Technology
Originally prepared August 2002
Revised November 2003, March 2005, January and April 2007

Edited by
Alison Anderson:
School of Nursing and Health Studies/Te Puna Whai Ora
and
Lee Switzer, Leonie Nicholls and Shefali Sharma:
Te Wairere Library Learning Centre

Referencing correctly is an essential academic skill. This guide outlines how to reference
using the referencing style of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides
information and examples relating to common referencing situations. If you don’t find
referencing details relating to a source you cite in this guide, the information can be found in
the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).

The referencing advice in this guide is consistent, with one known exception, with the
reference and citation system of the American Psychological Association. The editorial team
of the Publication Manual acknowledge that alternatives to their “explicit style requirements”
(p. xx) may be required. Therefore, in this guide, the place of publication includes the city
and/or state of publication. The country may be included if there is any possibility of
confusion, such as Victoria, Australia or Victoria, Canada; or where it is identified within
specific applications such as conference presentations.

A short glossary of referencing terms is provided in an Appendix at the back of the guide.
Help with using the APA style correctly is also available from your lecturers/tutors and from
Te Wairere Library Learning Centre staff. Using the guide and the available support will
enable you to correctly acknowledge sources within your essays, reports and assignments and
to compile your reference list appropriately.

Contact the library staff:


library@waiariki.ac.nz
0800 924 274 or 07 346 8805
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Copyright © Waiariki Institute of Technology
Contents Page

Section One – Copyright and Plagiarism.......................................................... 6

What is Copyright?..................................................................................................................... 6
Copyright Act 1994 .................................................................................................................... 6
What is Plagiarism?.................................................................................................................... 7
Forms of Plagiarism ................................................................................................................... 8
How to Avoid Plagiarism........................................................................................................... 8

Section Two – Citations .................................................................................... 11

Why Cite? ............................................................................................................................... 11


What to Cite ............................................................................................................................. 11
In-Text Citations ...................................................................................................................... 12
No Author.............................................................................................................. 12
One Author ............................................................................................................ 12
Two Authors.......................................................................................................... 13
Three to five Authors ............................................................................................ 13
Six or more Authors .............................................................................................. 13
Organisation as Author.......................................................................................... 14
Personal Communication ......................................................................................................... 14
Quotations ............................................................................................................................... 15
Short quotations..................................................................................................... 15
Long quotations ..................................................................................................... 16
Changing quotations.............................................................................................. 17
Secondary Sources….. ............................................................................................................. 17

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Section Three - Reference Sources .................................................................. 19

Books ............................................................................................................................... 19
Essential parts........................................................................................................ 19
Author............................................................................................................... 19
Date of publication ........................................................................................... 19
Title .................................................................................................................. 19
Edition .............................................................................................................. 19
Place of publication .......................................................................................... 20
Publisher........................................................................................................... 20
No author............................................................................................................... 20
One author ............................................................................................................. 21
Two authors ........................................................................................................... 21
Three to five authors.............................................................................................. 21
Six or more authors ............................................................................................... 22
Edited book…........................................................................................................ 22
Chapters in an edited book .................................................................................... 22
Chapter author ....................................................................................................... 23
Corporate author.................................................................................................... 23
Theses and dissertations ........................................................................................ 23
Journal Articles ........................................................................................................................ 24
Essential parts........................................................................................................ 24
Author............................................................................................................... 24
Date of publication ........................................................................................... 25
Article title........................................................................................................ 25
Journal title ....................................................................................................... 25
Volume number................................................................................................ 25
Issue number..................................................................................................... 25
Page numbers ................................................................................................... 25
Newspaper Articles .................................................................................................................. 26
Monthly Magazine Article ....................................................................................................... 26

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Section Three - Reference Sources – (continued)

Weekly Magazine Article......................................................................................................... 27


Electronic Sources.................................................................................................................... 27
Essential parts........................................................................................................ 27
Online only journals .............................................................................................. 28
Journal article from a database .............................................................................. 28
Web sites ............................................................................................................... 29
Online newspapers ................................................................................................ 29
Conference Proceedings ........................................................................................................... 29
Paper Presentation ................................................................................................. 30
Poster presentation ................................................................................................ 30
Media Resources ...................................................................................................................... 31
DVD ...................................................................................................................... 31
CD-ROM ............................................................................................................... 31
Videocassette......................................................................................................... 31

Section Four – Reference List and Bibliography ........................................... 32

What is a Reference List?......................................................................................................... 32


What is a Bibliography? ........................................................................................................... 32
How to Set Out the Reference List........................................................................................... 32
Sample Reference List ............................................................................................................. 34

Appendix A ........................................................................................................ 41

Copyright Guidelines for Students........................................................................................... 41

Appendix B......................................................................................................... 42

Glossary ............................................................................................................................... 42

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Copyright © Waiariki Institute of Technology
Section One – Copyright and Plagiarism
Institutions of higher education encourage students to research widely for information through
reading and discussions with other people. However, there are some very important ethical
and legal considerations associated with the use of such information. Important considerations
are issues of copyright and plagiarism.

What is Copyright?

The Copyright Act of 1994, Section 5, Subsection (1) states, “For the purposes of this Act, the
author of a work is the person who creates it” (Copyright Council of New Zealand 2003).
Copyright is a form of intellectual property law that protects original works of authorship
including literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works, such as poetry, novels, movies,
songs, computer software and architecture. Copyright is separate from patents; it does not
protect facts, ideas, systems, or methods of operation, although it may protect the way these
things are expressed. Copyright law varies from country to country; but if something new is
created, and it fits the definition of a creative work, the author controls who can quote from
the work, who can make copies of it and how these copies are made. The Copyright Act,
1994, Section 22, subsection (1) states that “rules relating to copyright usually last for 50
years after the author’s death or 50 years after the piece was created, depending on the type of
work”.

Copyright Act 1994

In New Zealand, Copyright Law is contained in the Copyright Act 1994 and decisions of the
courts. Copyright protects:
• written materials (journals, novels, poems, songs and reports)
• artistic works (paintings, drawings, cartoons, sculpture, craft work, photographs, maps and
plans)
• musical works
• dramatic works (plays and mime)
• computer programmes
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Copyright © Waiariki Institute of Technology
• compilations (anthologies, directories, databases)
• cinematographic (films, television programs, commercials, DVDs, videos)
• sound recordings (recorded music, recorded lectures).

See Appendix A for information of current copyright limits at Waiariki Institute of


Technology.

The Copyright Act 1994 allows the use of copyright material for the purpose of research or
study. The Act provides guidelines as to how much can be copied for private study and
research. If the use of another person’s material is fair in the terms of the Act, then there is no
infringement of copyright.

Copyright and materials on the Internet


Copyright law applies in most types of materials on the Internet – email messages, postings to
bulletin boards and news groups, articles published on databases, web sites. The fact that
something is posted on the Internet does not automatically give anyone the right to store, copy
or disseminate it, unless the author or copyright owner has specifically granted permission or
waived copyright. If this is allowed, a statement is included on the website, authorising all or
partial use of the information. Therefore, caution must be exercised at all times when using
electronic data or any form of Internet material.

What is Plagiarism?

Plagiarism occurs when one person uses ideas or exact words from another person’s writing
or other source and presents these ideas or words as if he/she were the original author. Using
information in this manner from books, articles, the Internet, or any another source, including
another student’s work, is regarded as plagiarism.

Plagiarism is academic dishonesty and is regarded as a very serious offence in tertiary


education. Students should familiarise themselves with the Waiariki policy on plagiarism.
This is detailed in the relevant section in the Waiariki Institute of Technology Student
Handbook and in the programme handbook each year. It is essential that students are
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Copyright © Waiariki Institute of Technology
meticulous about avoiding plagiarism. The policies of higher educational institutions
recognise that plagiarism can be deliberate or unintentional. It is always considered a serious
misdemeanour. At Waiariki plagiarism is unacceptable academic behaviour. Such action is
deemed inappropriate and may result in automatic failure of the assignment or course. In
severe cases of plagiarism, a student could be expelled from a course.

Forms of Plagiarism

Using words or ideas of another author without acknowledgment.


If the words or ideas of another author are used from published or unpublished sources, these
must be clearly acknowledged. This applies not only to direct quotes and to paraphrasing, but
also includes indirect usage. This is why citations must be in a conventional style such as
APA. A curious or sceptical reader must be able to locate the cited material.

Copying work from another student


A valuable part of learning at tertiary level occurs when an assignment is discussed with
friends and colleagues; such discussion is encouraged as it builds learning and professional
skills. However, it is essential that the submitted assignment is the work of the stated author
(student).

How to Avoid Plagiarism

Keeping track of reading sources can help you avoid plagiarism. Here are some strategies to
do this:
• keep all drafts of a developing work secure
• use the APA referencing system correctly, in citations and reference list
• record the sources used
• take careful notes
• paraphrase appropriately.

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Keep your work secure
While it is a very good idea to discuss assignments with other students, avoid sharing paper or
electronic drafts of the work. Maintaining this as a standard, means another person cannot use
the work inappropriately; this makes accusation of academic misconduct relating to
plagiarism unlikely.

Use the APA referencing system


Use a referencing system to acknowledge sources from which information is found. At
Waiariki it is expected that students use the APA referencing system. There are some
exceptions but only when specific instruction is provided by a lecturer.

Record the sources used


As you write, get into the habit of including the in-text (author, date) citation with each draft.
Before notes are taken from any source, record every relevant detail about the publication.
This is called the bibliographic information and is described, for each type of publication,
below. Keeping a record of one’s own reading will assist in retrieving the information.

For a book record:


• author’, authors’ name(s)
• year of publication
• title of book
• place of publication.
• publisher

For a journal article record:


• author’s, (or) authors’ name(s)
• year of publication
• title of the article
• title of the journal
• volume and/or issue number and page numbers of the article.

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For a document on the Internet record:
• author’s, (or) authors’ name(s)
• year of publication
• title of the item
• title of publication (if applicable)
• date of retrieval
• website, for example; http://www.waiariki.ac.nz

Take careful notes


To ensure that your essay or report does not inadvertently plagiarise another researcher’s
work, it is important to take clearly written notes from your readings. Develop a system to
identify where you want direct quotes, where you can paraphrase (put information in your
own words) and your additional comments about the source. Note: minimise direct quotation
of another author, it is better to paraphrase the work of others.

Compile a draft reference list as information is gathered. Recording the bibliographic detail of
each source is an easy way to build up the reference list.

Paraphrase appropriately
Paraphrasing is the process of putting another person’s ideas in writing by a different author.
Sometimes students change only a few words so that what they write is still very similar to
the original. Even if a student uses an in-text citation to show where the idea came from, a
lecturer may decide that this is plagiarism because their wording is too close to the original
source.
Note: paraphrasing is preferred to direct quotation.

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Section Two – Citations

A citation is a credit or reference to another document or source which identifies reading


which has influenced the writer and provides support for the writer’s professional arguments.
There are many rules for the format and use of such citations in academic writing.

Why Cite?

• To acknowledge the borrowing of ideas, phrases, or other material, giving credit to the original
owner of the intellectual property;
• To avoid intentional or accidental plagiarism.
• To enable readers to follow up on sources used or to provide feedback about the quality of the
work.

What to Cite

Cite all contributions made by other writers, or producers of artistic material, whose work you
are using. These contributions include:
• a direct quote from a primary or secondary source
• a summary or paraphrase of a source
• facts or data that are borrowed from another source, such as statistics, information or
ideas, tables, graphs or diagrams.

Do not cite
• ‘Common knowledge’, opinions, assumptions, or personal ideas

• Minimise citations from personal communications as these are sources are difficult to
verify

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In-text Citations

When someone’s ideas are used, even if the exact words are changed, the source details must
be provided. Two important pieces of information about the source, which are always
included in the body of the text, are:
• the last name of the author(s)
• the year of publication of the information.

Citations at the end of a sentence must be part of that sentence, place the full stop after the
citation.
There are several ways of citing works in text. Here are some examples of citation.

No author
Cite the title and the year of publication.

Examples:
1. Tirohia kimihia: A Maori learner dictionary (2006) provides details of Maori vocabulary
and pronunciation.
2. The dictionary includes details of Maori vocabulary and pronunciation (Tirohia kimihia:
A Maori learner dictionary, 2006).

One author
Cite author and the year of publication.

Examples:
1. In 2007, Follari outlined the role of culture in cognitive development.
2. Follari (2007) outlines the role of culture in cognitive development.
3. Recent reading of research (Follari, 2007) helps explain the interaction between culture
and cognitive development.
4. Follari outlines research which aids an understanding of culture and cognitive
development (2007).
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Two authors
At each mention of the work give the names of both authors and the date. Use an ampersand
(&) when the authors’ names are inside brackets ( ).

Examples:
1. Lawrie and Powell (2006) described a walk near the beach at Waitangi which ends near
some cliffs at Red Bluff.
2. There is a walk from Waitangi to the cliffs near Red Bluff (Lawrie & Powell, 2006).

Three to five authors


Mention all authors’ last names at the first citation; thereafter mention the first author’s last
name followed by et al. and the year of publication.

Examples:
[First citation in text]
1. Scobie, Gibson and Le (2005) present a summary of the household savings survey relating
to net worth.
[Subsequent citations; first author only, followed by et al.]
2. Scobie et al. (2005) developed a survey designed to measure the net worth of household
savings.

Six or more authors


From the first citation give the first author’s last name followed by et al. and the date of
publication, each time you cite work published by the group.

Example:
Solomon et al. (2006) identified the benefits of short term psychotherapy.

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Organisation or company as author
If an organisation is the author, at the first citation write out the full name (with any
abbreviation in round brackets). For subsequent entries, the abbreviation can be used.

Examples:
[First citation]
1. Changes in tertiary education in 2005 were published by the Ministry of Education
(MOE) to inform stakeholders of key education goals.
[Subsequent citations]
2. The document is published as an annual review and sets out immediate and future priorities
(MOE, 2005).

Personal communication

• This includes letters, e-mails, memos, classroom notes, lectures, telephone and face-to-
face conversations.
• Within the text cite the initial(s), last name of person communicated with, and exact date
(if possible) the information was obtained. These details should be inside round brackets.
• Personal communications are not included as separate entries in the reference list because
they are difficult to verify.
• These informal sources should not be used as substitutes for more authoritative sources.

Example:
(A. Anderson, personal communication, January 28th 2007.)

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Quotations

The words of another person must be copied exactly - word for word - including errors,
different spellings and emphasis (including bold type and italics).

If there is an error in the original, use the term [sic], in square brackets (it means “thus” or
“just as”) to indicate that the mistake is not your own.

Example:
You may [say] “oh we support the troops.” So you're not supporting what they do. “What
they's [sic] here to sweat for, what we bleed for and we die for” Wall Street Journal
(February 15, 2007), p. A.18.

A quotation may have words or lines with emphasis added by bold or underlined print. If the
emphasis is in the original paper add [original emphasis] but if the emphasis is added by the
writer using the quote, use [emphasis added] and the quote must support a specific argument.

Example:
This condition is consistent with the Johnson-Cramer and Phillips principle of stakeholder
discourse: ‘‘Particularly in times of conflict and transition [emphasis added] (Calton, 2006,
pp. 336-337).

Square brackets [ ] indicate the insertion a clarifying word or phrase into a quotation; this
may be an error in the original or [to] correct grammar. They indicate changes to somebody
else's text, or additional comments on it.

Short quotations
To indicate quotations of fewer than 40 words in your text, enclose the quotation within
double quotation marks. Do not use italics or bold type and maintain a normal paragraph
structure. Provide the author, year, and specific page number in the text, and include a

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complete reference in the reference list. Examples of the allowed variations in quotation style
are provided.

Examples:
Sheafor and Horejsi (2006) believe that “when faced with an especially difficult decision, the
social worker should seek consultation and advice from experienced and informed
colleagues” (p. 131) and it is suggested that obtaining several viewpoints will enhance
decision making.

It is considered that “when faced with an especially difficult decision, the social worker
should seek consultation and advice from experienced and informed colleagues” (Sheafor &
Horejsi, 2006, p. 131) and it is suggested that obtaining several viewpoints will enhance
decision making.

According to Sheafor and Horejsi (2006, p. 131) “when faced with an especially difficult
decision, the social worker should seek consultation and advice from experienced and
informed colleagues” and they suggest obtaining several viewpoints will enhance decision
making.

Long quotations
• Place quotations of 40 words or more in a separate block and omit quotation marks.
• Start the quotation on a new line, indented five to seven spaces from the left margin.
• Always use double-line spacing.
• Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent
paragraph within the quotation five spaces (…..) from the new margin.
• Note the second example of a long quotation, here the author/date/page number/s is placed
after the quote’s closing punctuation mark in brackets. (author, year, page number/s)

Examples:
[Citation details at beginning of quotation]
Durie (2005, p. 165) states
the point is that a single nation is capable of satisfying the parameters of indigenous

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development provided that value and recognition are afforded to indigeneity as a distinct

reality, and a relationship based on mutual respect and explicit understandings is forged

between the state and the aboriginal people.

[Citation details at end of quotation]


Career counselling clients often expect their counselling session to include some form of

career assessment. In solution-focused career counselling, assessment needs to be

qualitative and clients are the ones who determine the meaning of any “scores”. One

qualitative assessment instrument is the scaling question, or series of questions. An

effective scale can provide the main focus for an entire career counselling interview.

(Miller, 2004, p. 24)

Changing quotations
Minor aspects of the primary source may be altered to suit your text, for example:
• The case of the first letter of the quotation can change if it fits the sentence better
• The punctuation mark at the end of your sentence can change
• If you want to omit words in a quoted sentence use an ellipsis (… three points) in place of
the missing words. Use an extra point (….) if one or more sentences are omitted within
the quotation. Do not use the ellipsis (…) at the beginning or end of a quotation unless
the quotation begins or ends in mid sentence.
• The use of round brackets (parentheses) should be kept to a minimum. They indicate an
author’s supplementary remark, or another point such as an abbreviation. However,
frequent use of parentheses interrupts the flow of the developing argument.

Secondary Sources

• A secondary source is a work cited, where one author interprets or explains the work
of another author.
• If information from a secondary source significantly supports the current writing, then
such material can be used sparingly.
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• Using secondary citation is discouraged because the meaning of the original work may
differ from the first author’s intentions.
• In the reference list at the end of the work only include the reference relating to the
work you consulted. Details about the original study cannot be included as this study
has not been read.
• In your text, paraphrase the original material and make it clear you did not sight the
original.

Examples:
[First example]
Ernst and Young (cited in Mueller, Rickman, & Wichman-Tou, 2006) identified that service
providers for Maori were subject to financial strain.
[Second example]
Former surgeon general Dr. David Satcher considers the youth of society are likely to start
life with obesity and face the onerous task of overcoming this risk to avoid major ill health
later in life (as cited in Critser, 2003).

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Section Three – Reference Sources

Books

The essential parts in an entry for a book are the:


• author (name spelt exactly as it is on the book title page)
• date of publication
• title of the book (in italics)
• edition for second and subsequent publications of the same book.
• place of publication - city and/or state
• publisher

Author/s
The spelling of author first names must be copied exactly from the title page of the
publication. Initials are separated by a full stop and a space. Titles are not used.

Date of publication
The date of publication is the year the book was published. The date is in brackets after the
author name/s and is followed by a full stop. If there is no date of publication available,
substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) for the missing information.

Title
• Includes the full title of the publication as found on the title page of the book. .
• A colon separates the title from a subtitle. The first word of the title and the subtitle are in
upper case letters.
• All other words start with lower case except for proper nouns.
• The full title should be in italics.
• An ampersand (&) on the title page is always written as “and” in a reference entry.

Edition
• The second, and subsequent, edition number is found on the cover, or the title page.
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• The edition number, abbreviated to ed. is added in brackets after the title and before the
place of publication.
• Note the abbreviation for fourth is 4th (not superscript as in 4th)
• The abbreviation for edition, ed. has no capital.
• There is no punctuation between the title and edition number.
• Do not use italics for the edition number.

Example:
Speziale, S., & Carpenter, D. (2007). Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the

humanistic imperative (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Place of publication
• Include the name of the city or town, followed by a colon:
• If the place is not widely known, or if several places share the same name, include the
abbreviation of the name of the state, region, or country.
• Do not use the name of the country of publication alone.
• If more than one place of publication is given select the first place that is on the title page.

Publisher
• Use the publisher whose name appears first on the title page.
• Use the publisher’s name as it appears in the publication.
• Words such as “Company” and “Ltd” can be omitted.
• A full stop after the publisher’s name completes the reference.

Example:
Hill, C. (2007). Principles of tourism: A New Zealand perspective (7th ed.). Auckland:

Pearson Hospitality Press.

Book with no author or editor


Title (edition.). (Year of publication). Place of publication: Publisher.

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Example:
Cambridge advanced learner's dictionary. (2003). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Book with one author


Author last name, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of book. City or state/country where

published: Publisher.

Example:
Collier, C. (2006). Principles of tourism: A New Zealand perspective (7th ed.). Auckland:

Pearson Hospitality Press.

Book with two authors


Author last name, initial(s)., & author last name, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of

book. Place of publication: Publisher.

• Note the prescribed punctuation rules.

Example:
Barnett, S., & O’Rourke, S. (2006). Communication: Organisation and innovation. Auckland:

Pearson Prentice Hall.

Book with three to five authors


As above but note the form of the punctuation between authors’ names in the example.

Example:
Whitfield, P., Harper, L., & Mudd, T. (2005). The rough guide to Maori New Zealand:

Discover the land and the people of Aotearoa. London: Rough Guides.

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Book with six or more authors
List the first name and initials of the first six authors in the reference list; use the same
punctuation as for three to five authors. Use et al. if there is a seventh or additional author/s.

Example:
Solomon, M., Neborsky, R., McCullough, L., Alpert, M., Shapiro, F., & Malan, D. (2001).

Short-term therapy for long-term change. New York: Norton.

Edited book
If there is no author on the book’s title page, an editor can take the place of the author. Place
brackets after the name, with the abbreviation (Ed. or Eds.) to indicate the person’s role.
Where there is more than one editor the rules follow those already outlined for multiple
authors.

Example:
Bruce, T. (Ed.). (2006). Early childhood: A guide for students. London: Sage.

Chapters in an edited book


• The chapter author/s’ names appear first, then the publication date.
• The chapter title and/or the chapter number is given next.
• This is followed by the book’s editor/s’ names with their initial/s first.
• The book title is next (in italics), the edition number if needed and “pp.” which is the
abbreviation for pages, that is the chapter page numbers.
• There is no punctuation between the chapter title and the page numbers.
• If the chapter has its own number, but no title, then the chapter number follows the title.
• The chapter title is in plain font.
• The book title is in italic font.
• If the chapter has no author listed, begin the entry with the title of the chapter.
• There is a comma between the editors’ names and the book title.

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Chapter author
Chapter author’s last name, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of chapter. Initial(s), last

name(s), (Eds.), Title (edition) (pages). Location: Publisher.

Example:
Arbour, R. (2005). Nursing management: Respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress

syndrome. In D. Brown & H. Edwards (Eds.), Lewis’s medical-surgical nursing:

Assessment and management of clinical problems (pp. 1822-1842). Sydney: Elsevier

Mosby.

Book with a corporate author


If a corporate body (organisation) is named on the title page and there is no author, the
organisation’s name will be used as the author.

Example:
Brookers. (2005). Brookers Maori legislation handbook. Wellington: Thomson Brookers.

Master’s Theses and Doctoral Dissertations


A published thesis or dissertation follows the referencing rules of a single-authored book.

Unpublished master’s and doctoral theses or dissertations follow a similar format:

Author last name, initial, title of thesis in italics. Unpublished doctoral (or master’s)

dissertation (or thesis), University name, University town.

Example:

Mercer, C. (2006). 'Being there' when one's spouse is hospitalised in a non-local tertiary

centre. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Massey University, Palmerston North.

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Journal Articles

The essential parts in an entry for a journal are the:


• author surname and initial, (spelt exactly as it is on the article title page)
• year of publication
• Title of the article (plain font)
• Title of the Journal (in italics)
• volume number (in italics) joined to issue number in round brackets (plain font)
• page numbers

Author last name, initial/s. (Year of publication). Article title. Journal Title, volume(number),

page number/s.

Example:
Wilensky, G. (2006). Consumer-driven health plans: Early evidence and potential impact on

hospitals. Health Affairs, 25(1), 174-185.

Author
• The spelling of words in author names and publication titles must be copied exactly from
the first page of the article.
• The referencing rules relating to multiple authors of books and the use of et al. also
applies to multiple authors of journal articles.
• Surname, comma, initial/s full stop (changes with multiple authors, see examples in this
section).

If no author is listed with the article, begin with the article’s title, followed by the date and
journal title.
Article title. (Year). Publication Title, Volume(Issue), pages(s).

Example:
Portrait of the artist as a young man. (2003). Mana, 53, 47-51.
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Date of publication
• Year of publication follows the author’s initials enclosed in brackets.
• Do not routinely use the month or season; these are included where a journal has no
volume or issue number.

Article Title
• The article title is in plain font followed by a full stop and a space.
• Only the first word is capitalised.

Journal Title
• Important! Italicise the journal title, not the article title.
• Each significant word in the title of a journal has a capital letter.
• A comma and space follows the journal title.

Volume number
• The volume number is in italics
• Abbreviations such as v or vol. are not used.
• The volume number relates to one series of the same periodical title published over a
twelve month period.

Issue number
• An issue is a subsection of a journal’s volume.
• The issue number follows the italicised volume number
• There is no space between the volume and issues number,
• The number of the issue is in round brackets in a plain font, followed by a comma and a
space.
• The issue number is only required where each issue of a volume begins at page one.

Page numbers
• Most journals have continuous page numbers from the first to the last issue of a volume.
• All pages numbers must be included.
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• The page numbers of the article follow the issue number, then a final full stop.

Example:
De Bres, K., & Coomansingh, J. (2006). A student run field exercise in applied tourism

geography. The Journal of Geography, 105(2), 67-72.

Newspaper Articles

Author last name, Initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Article title. Publication title, page(s).

Example:
Caspari, S. (2006, December 2). Rotorua house market still strong. The Daily Post,

p. 1.

It is common in a newspaper article to have no named author. Articles without a name are
usually reprinted from a press agency.

Example:
Pharmac holds firm to its refusal to fund Herceptin. (2006, November 29). The New Zealand

Herald, p. A8.

Monthly magazine article


Author last name, Initial(s). (Year, Month). Article title. Publication Title, Volume No,
page(s).

Example
Kerr, T. (2007, December-January). Memories of a great train ride. New Zealand Memories,

63, 19-24.

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Weekly magazine article
Author last name, Initial(s). (Year, Month, Day). Article title. Publication title, Volume(Issue)

if available), pages(s).

Example:
Weil, A. (2006, November 27). How foods can affect cancer. Time, 47, 63.

Electronic Sources

The citation and reference style for electronic resources is evolving because of the rapidly
changing nature of electronic format of materials. An authoritative source of information
about referencing and citing electronic sources is the APA web site
http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
The APA (2001) on line guide states:
At a minimum, a reference of an Internet source should provide a document title or

description, a date (either the date of publication or update or the date of retrieval), and

an address (in Internet terms, a uniform resource locator, or URL). Whenever possible,

identify the authors of a document as well.

Electronic sources include:


• articles from databases
• online journals
• web sites
• e-mails (cite as personal communications)

The essential parts of reference of an electronic resource are:


• Author, may be corporate author
• Year/Date of publication
• Title of article
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• Title of the journal/newspaper/book (always in italics)
• Volume and Issue number (for journals) or publisher/organisation, if known, for other
sources.
• Page numbers (if not available use chapter, paragraph number)
• Retrieved month day, year, from source, note the web site address (URL) is not
underlined.
• If the source is a database then the spelling/format follows the electronic version, for
example, use ProQuest, not Proquest.
• All electronic sources cited within the text, except e-mail, must be listed in the references.

Online Only Journals


Last name of the author, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal,

volume(issue), page numbers (if available). Retrieved month, day, year, from source

Example:
Finkbeiner, C., & Koplin, C. (2002). A cooperative approach for facilitating intercultural

education. Reading Online, 6(3). Retrieved February 9, 2007, from

http://www.readingonline.org/newliteracies/lit_index.asp?HREF=finkbeiner/index.ht

ml

Journal Article Retrieved from an Electronic Database or Library Electronic


Resource
Last name of author, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal,

volume(issue) and page numbers (if available). Retrieved month day, year, from source,

(usually a database).

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Example:

Chen, M. (2005). An analysis of the driving forces for Web services adoption. Information

Systems and eBusiness Management, 3(3), 265-281. Retrieved February 8, 2007, from

ProQuest database.

Web Sites
Last name author, initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of work. (Publisher or Organisation, if

available). Retrieved, month day, year, from source (web site address or URL)

Example:
The Leadership Group. (2006). Tourism and hospitality workforce strategy. Tourism Industry
Association: New Zealand. Retrieved April 31, 2007, from
http://www.tianz.org.nz/Files/TourismHospWkbkLR.pdf

Online Newspapers
Last name author, initial(s). (Date of publication). Article title. Name of the Newspaper.

Retrieved month day, year, from source (web site address or URL).

Example:
Fox, M. (2006, December 13). Family helps doctor trace pancreatic cancer gene. New

Zealand Herald. Retrieved December 13, 2006, from

http://www.nzherald.co.nz/category/story.cfm?c_id=82&objectid=10415008

Conference Proceedings

These may be published after a conference or symposia in the form of a book, a CD-ROM or
via an electronic source. The format of the proceedings after a conference depends on the
form of presentation and of the publication source.

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Conference Paper Presentation
The essential parts for a conference presentation printed in a book of proceedings are similar
to the format for an edited chapter in a book. There are minor differences for papers and
posters from electronic or virtual conferences. Details are available in the Publication manual
of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.) (p. 276).

Last name author, initial(s). (Year and month of presentation). Title of work. In, initial,

surname of editor/compiler, name of conference/symposium, pages if available, city and

country of conference location.

Example:
Buntting, C., Campbell, A., & Coll, R. (2003, June). Designing curricula for bridging courses:

A case study in biology. In H. Anderson (Compiler) Bridging education in New

Zealand, pp. 92-105. Symposium conducted by the New Zealand Association of

Bridging Educators, Auckland, New Zealand.

Conference Poster Presentation

The essential parts of a reference to a poster presented at a professional meeting/conference


are:

Last name author, initial(s). (Year, month of presentation). Title of work. Poster session

presented at conference name, place of conference.

Example:
Lima, M., Power, L., Hiles, D. & Phiri, E. (2006, August). HIV, sex and the law: Educating

at-risk communities and those who serve them about prosecutions for transmission.

Poster session presented at the XVI International AIDS conference, Toronto, Canada.

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Media Resources

The referencing details are the same as the details for a book with the additions of the media
format in square brackets after the title of the production. The author may be a producer,
director or similar or there may be no name available. Use the same referencing sequence as
for a book.

Example: DVD
McIlwain, C., Miller-Idriss, C., & Collins, S. (2005). Cross-cultural communication: how

culture affects communication [Videodisc]. New York: Insight Media.

Example: CD-ROM
Stewart, T., Rowatt, A., & Roper, Q. (2006). Scenario based e-learning tools [electronic

resource]: PBL Interactive, Challenge FRAP. Palmerston North: Massey University,

Tertiary Education Commission.

Example: Videocassette.
Videotrain. (2005). Creating great service. East Melbourne, Victoria. Videotrain.

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Section Four – Reference List and Bibliography

What is a Reference List?

A reference list only includes materials specifically referred to, cited, in the text. Each
reference in the list must provide enough information for the reader to identify and retrieve
the source. It is very important that there is a complete match between the in-text citations and
the reference list. Every source cited as a reference in the text must appear in the reference list
and, likewise, the reference list contains only those sources cited within the text. The
reference list must be formatted as outlined below.

What is a Bibliography?

A bibliography is a list of information resources consulted as a part of wider research on the


topic but not cited within the paper. The bibliography is not part of the reference list and is
not routinely submitted with academic work.

How to Set Out the Reference List

• The reference list should be started on a new page, the single word “References” should
be typed and centred as a heading.
• Entries are arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name.
• If the author is a corporate body, alphabetise by the first significant word of the full
official name.
• If there is more than one author of a publication or other source use the first listed author
in that publication. Do not rearrange the order in which the authors are originally listed.
• If there are multiple references with the same first author but different second or third
authors, arrange the references alphabetically according to surname of the second author
and so on.

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• If you have several references by one author, place in order from earliest published to the
most recent. If several have the same date, arrange them alphabetically by publication title.
• Where an author has several publications with the same date of publication arrange them
according to the first significant word in the title. Show these are separate publications by
adding a, b, c, and so on, after the date of publication; for example (2004a).
• Single author references come before multiple author references including the same author.
• If the first word in an entry is a, an or the, the entry should be arranged by the first
significant word.
• Double-line spacing for all entries in the reference list
• Personal communications are not listed in the reference list, because of the difficulty in
verifying the sources.
• Second and subsequent lines of each reference must be indented, use the “hanging
paragraph” command in Microsoft Word
1. mark required text
2. go to format (on formatting bar)
3. select paragraph
4. select indents and spacing
5. select special
6. select hanging from the three choices available
7. click OK

A sample reference list follows.

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References

American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American

Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological

Association.

American Psychological Association. (2003). Electronic references. APA Online. Retrieved

February 2, 2007, from http://www.apastyle.org/aboutstyle.html

Arbour, R. (2005). Nursing management: Respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress

syndrome. In D. Brown & H. Edwards (Eds.), Lewis’s medical-surgical nursing:

Assessment and management of clinical problems (pp. 1822-1842). Sydney: Elsevier

Mosby.

Awaiting the dishonor roll. (2007, February 15). Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition). p.

A.18.

Barnett, S., & O’Rourke, S. (2006). Communication: Organisation and innovation. Auckland:

Pearson Prentice Hall.

Bassett, C., & Bassett, J. (2003a). Implementing nursing research. British Journal of

Perioperative Nursing, 13(5), 208-210.

Bassett, C., & Bassett, J. (2003b). The importance of research in nursing practice. British

Journal of Perioperative Nursing, 13(1), 30-31.

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Bassett, C., & Bassett, J. (2003c). Quantitative and qualitative research. British Journal of

Perioperative Nursing, 13(3), 116-117.

Bassett, C., & Bassett, J. (2003d). Reading and critiquing research. British Journal of

Perioperative Nursing, 13(4), 162-163.

Bassett, C., & Bassett, J. (2003e). What is nursing research? British Journal of Perioperative

Nursing, 13(2), 30-31.

Brookers’ (2005). Brookers’ Maori legislation handbook. Wellington: Thomson Brookers.

Bruce, T. (Ed.). (2006). Early childhood: A guide for students. London: Sage.

Buntting, C., Campbell, A., & Coll, R. (2003, June). Designing curricula for bridging courses:

A case study in biology. In H. Anderson (Compiler), Bridging education in New

Zealand, pp. 92-105. Symposium conducted by the New Zealand Association of

Bridging Educators, Auckland, New Zealand.

Calton, J. (2006). Social contracting in a pluralist process of moral sense making: A dialogic

twist on the ISCT. Journal of Business, 68(3), 329–346. Retrieved March 19, 2007,

from ProQuest database.

Cambridge advanced learner's dictionary. (2003). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Caspari, A. (2006, December 2). Rotorua house market still strong. Daily Post, p 1.

Chen, M. (2005). An analysis of the driving forces for Web services adoption. Information

Systems and eBusiness Management, 3(3), 265-281. Retrieved February 8, 2007, from

ProQuest database.

Collier, C. (2006). Principles of tourism: A New Zealand perspective (7th ed.). Auckland:

Pearson Hospitality Press.

Collins, S. (2002, April 2). Look out the window and die in town of terror. The New Zealand

Herald, p. A1.

Copyright Council of New Zealand. (2004). The Copyright Act (1994). Retrieved September

12, 2005 from www.copyright.org.nz/copyrightact.html

Critser, G. (2003). Fat land: How Americans became the fattest people in the world. Boston:

Houghton Miffin.

de Bres, K., & Coomansingh, J. (2006). A student run field exercise in applied tourism

geography. The Journal of Geography, 105(2), 67-72.

Durie, M. (2005). Ngā tai matatū: Tides of Māori endurance. Vic., Australia: Oxford.

Finkbeiner, C., & Koplin, C. (2002). A cooperative approach for facilitating intercultural
education. Reading Online, 6(3). Retrieved February 9, 2007, from
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http://www.readingonline.org/newliteracies/lit_index.asp?HREF=finkbeiner/index.ht
ml

Follari, L. (2007). Foundations and best practices in early childhood education: Histories,

theories and approaches to learning. New Jersey: Pearson Educational.

Fox, M. (2006, December 13). Family helps doctor trace pancreatic cancer gene. The New

Zealand Herald. Retrieved December 13, 2006, from Newztext Plus database.

Hill, C. (2007). International business: Competing in the global marketplace (6th ed.).

Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Kerr, T. (2007, December-January). Memories of a great train ride. New Zealand Memories,

63, 19-24.

Lawrie, C., & Powell, J. (2006) Discover the Chatham Islands: First to see the sun. N.S.W.,

Australia: Deerubbin Press.

The Leadership Group. (2006). Tourism and hospitality workforce strategy. Tourism Industry

Association: New Zealand. Retrieved April 31, 2007, from

http://www.tianz.org.nz/Files/TourismHospWkbkLR.pdf

Lima, M., Power, L., Hiles, D. & Phiri, E. (2006, August). HIV, sex and the law: Educating

at-risk communities and those who serve them about prosecutions for transmission.

Poster session presented at the XVI International AIDS conference, Toronto, Canada.

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April 2007 37
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McIlwain, C., Miller-Idriss, C., & Collins, S. (2005). Cross-cultural communication: how

culture affects communication [Videodisc]. New York: Insight Media.

Mercer, C. (2006). 'Being there' when one's spouse is hospitalised in a non-local tertiary

centre. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Massey University, Palmerston North.

Miller, J. (2004). Building a solution-focused strategy into career counselling. New Zealand

Journal of Counselling, 25(1), 18-30. Retrieved February 16, 2007 from Australia

New Zealand Reference Centre database.

Ministry of Education. (2006). Report of the Ministry of Education annual report: 2005.

Retrieved February 8, 2007, from

http://www.minedu.govt.nz/web/downloadable/dl10834_v1/ministry-of-education-

annual-report-2005.pdf

Mueller, J., Rickman, J., & Wichman-Tou, N. (2006). Not-for-profit- management systems: A

possible assessment tool. University of Auckland Business Review, 8(2), 49-62.

Pharmac holds firm to its refusal to fund Herceptin. (2006, November 29). The New Zealand

Herald, p A8.

Phillips, G., McNaughton, S., & Macdonald, S. (2002). Picking up the pace. Auckland:

Ministry of Education. Retrieved February 1, 2007, from

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http://www.minedu.govt.nz/index.cfm?layout=document&documentid=6444&indexid

=5873&indexparentid=5871&goto=00-01

Portrait of the artist as a young man. (2003, August-September). Mana, 53, 47-51.

Scobie, G., Gibson, J., & Le, T. (2005). Household wealth in New Zealand. Wellington:

Institute of Policy Studies, Victoria University of Wellington.

Sheafor, B., & Horejsi, C. (2006). Techniques and guidelines for social work practice (7th

ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Solomon, M., Neborsky, R., McCullough, L., Alpert, M., Shapiro, F., & Malan, D. (2001).

Short-term therapy for long-term change. New York: Norton.

Speziale, S., & Carpenter, D. (2007). Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the

humanistic imperative. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Steele, E., & Smith, K. (2001, April). Coaching the ‘new’ New Zealand professional: A

coach’s perspective. Human Resources, 20-22.

Stewart, T., Rowatt, A., & Roper, Q. (2006). Scenario based e-learning tools [electronic

resource]: PBL Interactive, Challenge FRAP. Palmerston North: Massey University,

Tertiary Education Commission.

Tirohia kimihia: A Maori learner dictionary. (2006). Wellington: Huia.

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Videotrain. (2005). Creating great service. East Melbourne: Videotrain.

Weil, A. (2006, November 27). How foods can affect cancer. Time, 47, 63.

Whitfield, P., Harper, L., &. Mudd, T. (2005). The rough guide to Maori New Zealand:

Discover the land and the people of Aotearoa. London: Rough Guides.

Wilensky, G. (2006). Consumer-driven health plans: Early evidence and potential impact on

hospitals. Health Affairs, 25(1), 174-185.

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Appendix A - Copyright Guidelines for Students

Please be aware of the following guidelines when photocopying from copyright protected
works. Students need to comply with the following requirements under the Copyright Act
1994:

• 10% or one chapter of work may be copied, whichever is larger


• Up to one article from a journal/magazine – additional articles if they are on the same
topic
• Up to 15 pages of all or part of a single work contained in a collection of works, even if
published separately, may be copied
• Other forms of artistic work are also covered by the Copyright Act 1994; these include
music, art, and DVDs. Some reproduction is permitted with the terms of the Act but it is
recommended you consult with the lecturer/tutor for specific advice.

This material may be used only for your personal educational purpose. You may not copy or
distribute any part of this material to any other person. Failure to comply with the terms of
this warning may expose you to legal action for copyright infringement and/or disciplinary
action by the institution.

For further information please refer to the Copyright Act 1994 at www.copyright.co.nz

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Appendix B - Glossary
Acknowledgement Recognition of another person’s ideas/work.

Author/s The person, or people, who wrote the document.

Bibliographic Details Publication details such as author, year of publication, place


of publication and publisher.
Bibliography A list of all the books and other sources read to gain
information relating to a topic.
Citing Referring to something to back up or support what you have
written.
Copyright Intellectual property law which protects an author's work
and governs reproduction of material.

Editor A person who manages contributions for a publication,


especially where there is more than one author.
et al. Is an abbreviation of the Latin term et alia meaning ‘and
others’. Therefore, et al. has a full stop after al.
Paraphrasing Describing or using someone else's ideas or work but using
your own words.
Periodical A journal, magazine or newspaper published at regular
intervals.
Plagiarism Using another’s ideas or work as if they are your own;
'copying' - whether intentional or not.
Publisher A person or company that prepares and issues publications.

Quotations Another’s ideas or work using their exact words.

Reference List A list of all the books/materials cited in text.

Referencing Guidelines to ensure a clear and consistent presentation of


written material to show whose ideas have contributed to
the development of the ideas within written work.
Sources The publications the ideas or work came from.
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