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Einführung in die Charakterisierung und

Modellierung von Kunststoffen:


Materialmodelle in LS-DYNA

Dr. André Haufe

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 1


Crashsimulation
Detaillierungsgrad

Cockpit
Rohkarosserie
& Mittelkonsole
Sitzanlage

Integralträger I-Tafelquerträger

Zahnstange,
Mantelrohr,
Abgasanlage Lenkrad

Vorderachse Hinterachse
Fahrwerk
(komplett)

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 2


Crashsimulation
Materialmodelle

Gummiartige Materialien
s

e
“Hyperelastisches Verhalten” Hardy-Scheibe Motorlager Bereifung Kopfimpaktor

Elastische Schäume

e Beinimpaktor
EPP-foam PU-foam Stoßfängerschaum (EPP, PU) Fußgängerschutz
“Hyperelastisch-Viskoses Verhalten”

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 3


Crashsimulation
Materialmodelle

Materialien mit permanenter Verformung


s

e
“Elastisch-visko-plastisches Verhalten” Metallische Bleche Leichtmetalle Kunststoffe

Hochfeste Stähle Kunststoffe/Schäume

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 4


Characteristic Structure of Plastics

ε
1 2
T
3
stress

4
thermoset plastic (Duroplast) thermoplastic elastomer
5

strain
1 glasslike behaviour 4 high ductility
2 plastic or viscous flow 5 rubbery
3 low ductility
crystalline thermoplastic amorphous thermoplastic

Compression
Tension connection Weak connection
loading Weak connection
Von Mises stress [MPa]

Tension loading Interlaminar defect

End of chain
Amorphous region

Separated
Homogeneous Shear loading alien phase
initial state
void filler Crystallized domain

Von Mises strain [-]


[Junginger 2002]

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 5


Selected material laws for polymers in LS-DYNA

Plasticity based models


MAT_24 , MAT_123, MAT_124 MAT_89 and MAT_187

Neo Hooke / Arruda-Boyce


MAT_168

Process chain
MAT_002_ANIS

Composites
MAT_54 and MAT_58

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 6


Material #24 and #123

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 7


Unreinforced Polymers s II
Quick solution with MAT_24/123

 Standard von Mises Material Model


sI
F  0  3J2  s y (e ) pl

s III
 Known (and sometimes acceptable) drawbacks:
 No visco-elastic response s II

 Plastic response is isochoric


 Isotropic hardening
 No damage model
s III sI
 Basic failure criteria, but may be extended with MAT_ADD_EROSION

 Strain rate dependent failure by thinning curve definition


LCTSRF
s eff

Yield curves
defined in tables

e eff e eff

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 8


Material #124

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 9


Unreinforced Polymers
Quick solution with MAT_124 (MAT_PLASTICITY_COMPRESSION_TENSION)

 Isotropic visco-elasto/visco-plastic material model with the possibility to define different


yield stress - effective plastic strain behavior in compression and tension
 Visco-elastic response by a 6 term Maxwell mode Prony-series
 Visco-plastic effect by Cowper-Symonds or strain rate scaling function
 Failure can be defined by a critical plastic strain or minimum time step
 Applicable for solids, shells, thick shells and also SPH PT
 Useful for metals and polymers
s II
tension
PC
PCUTT
hardening curve LCIDC

s III sI
sigy

εp hardening curve LCIDT


compression

PCUTC

sigy
εp

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 10


Material #89

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 11


Unreinforced Polymers s II
Quick solution with MAT_PLASTICITY_POLYMER

 Standard von Mises Material Model


(MAT_PLASTICITY_POLYMER) sI

F  0  3J2  s y (e pl ) s III
 Formulated in effective stress versus total effective strain
s II

 Known (and sometimes acceptable) drawbacks:


 No visco-elastic response
 Plastic response is isochoric
s III sI
 Isotropic hardening

 Strain rate dependent failure by curve definition s


 Rupture strain is 10% of failure strain
s y (1  d )
LCFAIL
s eff

LCSS*LCSR ep
e eff e eff e rupt
p

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 12


Material #187

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 13


Unreinforced Polymers
Detailed approach with SAMP-1 (#187)
st ss

s vm
shea
tension r shear
et compression es
biaxial tension
st tension sc
biaxial tension
f 0
3
1
compression
et ec
0 p

Stress-strain relationship Not associated Plastic strain Failure


s vm  q
s damage evolution p s failure
sc
st
F 0 g
m
ss σ
g=const.
elastic unloading
st
e 3
sc
3
p
e p,vol e

Damage & Failure Damage & Failure & Fading Regularisation Triaxiality
d s sy
 
1.0
s y (1  d )
dc 1
1
ep lc
e p p
e rupt
p e rupt
p
lc  5mm 0 1
, lc  5mm s vm
3

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 14


Unreinforced Polymers
Detailed approach with SAMP-1 (#187)

RBCFAC to switch on multi-linear yield surface


st ss

s vm
shear
tension compression shear
et es
biaxial tension 
st tension sc
biaxial tension f 0
3
1 compression
et ec
0 p

ELTYP=2

dz
ry
dy
dx
rx

s xx
ELTYP=16
s yy s xy 20% Failure
s yx
dz
ry
dy Element deletion is defined via
dx a section percentage value of
rx
integration points that is
flagged as failed

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 15


Unreinforced Polymers
Detailed approach with SAMP-1 (#187)

Typical behaviour for thermoplastics: material cards that are fitted for uniaxial tension yield a too soft
response under bending and compression. Hence different yield curves under compression and
tension are necessary!!

force

displacement

[Kolling, Feucht, DuBois, Haufe, 2006-2009, Courtesy Daimler AG]

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 16


Material #168

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 17


Unreinforced Polymers
Detailed approach with MAT_POLYMER (#168) by Boyce et al.

 Currently only available for solid elements Arruda-Boyce

 Two parallel mechanisms to describe deformations and derive stresses sB


Partial model A: Neo-Hooke for elastic spring s s
Argon model for plastic part

Partial model B: Arruda-Boyce for network stiffness of polymers

Neo-Hooke sA Argon

Part A  B
F
s true
Part A

Part B
F
e true

Deformation tensor: corresponding final stresses

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 18


Unreinforced Polymers
Detailed approach with MAT_POLYMER (#168) by Boyce et al.

Partial model A: Neo-Hooke for elastic spring Arruda-Boyce

Argon model for plastic part


sB
Intermolecular barrier to deformations due to
relative movements between molecules. s s
Multiplicative decomposition of elastic and plastic
part of deformation tensor:
Neo-Hooke sA Argon
Velocity gradient:

Rate of deformation (el. & pl.):

elastic

Neo-Hooke for elastic part: with (left Cauchy-Green)

and (Jacobian)

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 19


Unreinforced Polymers
Detailed approach with MAT_POLYMER (#168) by Boyce et al.

Partial model A: Neo-Hooke for elastic spring Arruda-Boyce

Argon model for plastic part


sB
Intermolecular barrier to deformations due to
relative movements between molecules. s s
Multiplicative decomposition of elastic and plastic
part of deformation tensor:
Neo-Hooke sA Argon
Velocity gradient:

Rate of deformation (el. & pl.):

elastic

Flow rule with s II

Plastic multiplier,
thermal activated where
and shear resistance s is
dependent on
s III sI
stress triaxiality.

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 20


Unreinforced Polymers
Detailed approach with MAT_POLYMER (#168) by Boyce et al.

Partial model B: Arruda-Boyce for network stiffness of polymers Arruda-Boyce

sB
Viscous part is neglected:
s s
Stress-stretch relation:

Chain density: n
Number of rigid links: N
Neo-Hooke sA Argon

with

Rate of molecular relaxation:

where the rate of relaxation is:

with

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 21


Short Fiber Reinforced Polymers

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 22


Characteristic Structure of reinforced Plastics

Fiber size and geometry have


significant influence on the part
performance.
Orthotropic properties increase
with increasing fiber content while
at the same time the effect of strain
rate diminishes due to the less
content of matrix material.

dependence on fiber orientation dependence on fiber content


slab

UD longitudinal GF45
UD
Slab longitudinal GF30
stress

stress
Fiber
Slab perpendicular content
UD perpendicular e GF15

e
unreinfroced unreinforced

Fiber strain strain

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 23


Fiber Reinforced Polymers
Detailed approach: Locally anisotropic model

Taking process chain into account

Injection molding Mapping Crash analysis


With calibrated
SCAImapper
anisotropic plasticity
model including damage
& failure

or LS-DYNA

In plane mapping

SIGMASOFT, Moldflow,
Moldex, CADmold etc.

Mapping in thickness direction

Fiber content & orientation

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 24


Un/reinforced Polymers / Process chain
Anisotropic elastic solution with MAT_002_ANIS

 Hyperelastic (total) formulation using Green-Lagrange strain E

 Elastic-anisotropic behavior, stiffness matrix with 21 independent coefficients:

 Several possibilities to define material directions, e.g. AOPT, ELEMENT_SOLID_ORTHO, …


(use invariant node numbering! → *CONTROL_ACCURACY: INN=4)

 No plasticity, no damage, no failure (but: brittle failure possible via *MAT_ADD_EROSION)

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 25


Un/reinforced Polymers / Process chain
Anisotropic elastic solution with MAT_002_ANIS

 Two options to define the 21 material constants:

1) Directly in material card.


Drawback: inhomogeneous distribution (e.g. from previous short fiber filling simulation)
in component needs individual part definition for every element

2) Initialization with *INITIAL_STRESS_SOLID (new option in next Release R7.1)


Only one part definition for whole component. Anisotropic coefficients are part of
material‘s history field and can therefore be initialized for each integration point individually.

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 26


Un/reinforced Polymers / Process chain
Anisotropic elastic solution with MAT_002_ANIS

 Two options to define the 21 material constants:

1) Directly in material card: small bending test

same result


2) Initialization with *INITIAL_STRESS_SOLID: small bending test

same result

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 27


Long or Endless Fiber
Reinforced Polymers

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 28


Fiber Reinforced Polymers
Quick (!) solution with orthotropic material + failure model

MAT_ORTHO_ELASTIC_PLASTIC (#108) + MAT_54 + MAT_ADD_EROSION (GISSOM, DIEM)

elastic + plastic part

 elastic and plastic behavior is orthotropic


 Plastic yield surface is Hill 1948 (others also available)
material
b symmetry planes
s 22
c cross section for σ12= σ23= σ13= 0
sy
b FH size of cross section is decreasing
with increasing shear loading
a sy
sy
a F G GH

s 33 s 11

damage + failure part

 GISSMO
or DIEM or else…

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 29


Material #83

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 30


Low and medium density foam
MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM (#83)
 Used for low and medium density foams
 Visco-elastic model, similar to Mat #57
 Input of nominal stress versus nominal strain curves or
alternatively via function parameters
 Rate effects are taken into account via table definition
 Distinguish between engineering and true strain rate
 Input of tensile stress strain curve; be aware of the fact that
negative values represent tension (TFLAG)!
 If the LCID-option is used, the provided data is split into 100
equidistant points (from -eps to +eps, including the origin)
 Use of strain rate evolution flag
 Additional input of load curve describing
pressure versus volumetric strain

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 31


Low and medium density foam
MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM (#83)

Generate energy – strain curve from (quasistatic) stress – strain curve

s0 compression
e0
first two curves
sl
e0 W  e 0    s l de
in table should
s ul
form a closed 0
loop 2
1

1 2
W (e 0 ) Wc ,max

Wt ,max
tension

Numerical integration (trapezoidal):


e0
Wn1  Wn  1
2 s 0, n  s 0,n1 e 0,n1  e 0,n 

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 32


Low and medium density foam
MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM (#83)

Generate damage – energy ratio curve from stress – strain curve

d
 W  s ul ,t 1.0
 W  s ul ,c
d    1  d   1 
 W s l ,t W s l ,c
 t ,max   c ,max 

W W

Wt ,max 1.0 1.0 Wc ,max
energy is set negative
in tension before damage
is evaluated ! unloading path under uniaxial tension and
compression is fitted exactly

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 33


Tension connectionWeak connection
Weak connection
Interlaminar defect

End of chain
Amorphous region
Separated
alien phase

void filler Crystallized domain

Thank you for your attention.

Dynamore GmbH
Industriestraße 2
70565 Stuttgart
http://www.dynamore.de

Dr. André Haufe


andre.haufe@dynamore.de

Kunststoff-Infotag – September 2013 – Haufe 34