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Q u ellen zu r K h o isa n -F o r sc h u n g

R esea rch in K h o isa n S t u d ie s

Herausgegeben Von Rainer Vol5en

Johann Wolfgang Goethe - Universitat
Frankfiirt am Main

ISSN 0176 - 3369

Band 9


KOLN 1994

Anthony Traill


KOLN 1994
Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung sind eine Schriftenreihe, die sich voizugs-
weise der VerOffentlichung von Quellenmaterial im Bereich von Sprache,
Geschichte und Kultur der khoisansprachigen Bevdlkening Afrikas
widmet. Dardber hinaus bietet sie die Moglichkeit zur Vorstellung,
Besprechung und Diskussion analytisch ausgerichteter Studien. Die Reihe
erscheint in loser Folge und nimmt sowohl Monographien als auch
Aufsatzsammlungen auf. Beitrgge sind zu richten an;

Rainer Voflen, Professur fiir Afrikanische Sprachwissenschaften

Johann Wolfgang Goethe - UniversitSt Frankfurt a. M.
Kettenhofweg 135
D - 60054 Frankfurt

Die Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP-Einheitsaufnahme

Traill, Anthony:
A !66 dictionary / Anthony Traill. - Koln : Koppe, 1994
(Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung ; 9)
ISBN 3-927620-56-4

ISBN 3 - 927620 - 56 - 4
Alle Rechte vorbehalten.

Rudiger Koppe Verlag • Koln
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© Printed on acid-free paper which falls within the guidelines o f the A N S I to
ensure permanence and durability.
1. Preliminaries 7
2. Acknowledgem ents 8
3. The order of lexical entries 10
3 .1 . M ajor classes of initial consonants and vowels 10
3 .2 . Consonants within each class 11
3 .3 . Consonants within each place-of-articulation
category 11
3.4 Vowel commencing items 12
3 .5 . Items with the same initial consonant 12
3 .6 . Summary of initial consonants and page
references 13
4. A note on orthography 14

5. Separation of senses 14
6. Hyphens and morphologicaldivisions 15

7. References 15

8. Abbreviations 15
9. General grammatical notes 16
9 .1 . Notes on some syntactic constructions 16
9 .2 . Questions 18
9 .3 . Adverbs 18
9 .4 . Word order 19
10. Concordial structure 20
10.1. The noun classes 20
1 0 .2 . Lexical entries for nouns 23
10.3. Tone classes for nouns 23
11. Diminutives 24

12. Po ssessives 25
13. The category of number 27
14. Variable forms 28

15. Nom inalizations 29

16. Causatives 31

17. P assiv es 31

18. Compound verbs 31

19. Adjectives 33

20. Relative clauses 33

21. Pronouns 34

22. Optionality 35
23. The phonetic definitions of vowels and consonants 36
2 3 .1 . C lic k s 36
2 3 .2 . Non-click stops and fricatives 38
2 3 .3 . Fricatives 39
2 3 .4 . Approximant 39
2 3 .5 . N asals 39
2 3 .6 . V ow els 39

24, Phonetic rules 40

Part One; IX 6 6 -English 47

Part Two: English-(X65 201


1. Preliminaries

!X66 is the last member of the family of Southern Bushman languages. It is spoken in a
number of varieties in southwestern Botswana, in the Ghanzi and Kgalagadi Districts and in
the Aminuis Reserve in Namibia (Traill 1985).

This Dictionary has its origins in a 1300-word database which was assembled a number of
years ago for a phonetic and phonological analysis of !X66 (Traill 1985) and for comparative
work (Traill 1986 (a)). The original list was not representative of the language because it only
contained examples of words necessary to conduct a linguistic analysis of phonetic,
phonological and relevant syntactic forms; it also included the words of the 200 word
Swadesh list for comparative studies. Words were added haphazardly to this list in the course
of further research and as my learning of the language progressed, but it was only in the last
four years that I made a concerted effort to record as many lexical items as possible and to
begin the serious compilation of a dictionary of the language. There were a number of reasons
for this change of focus. Perhaps the most important of these was the realisation that the
language is threatened: a great deal of the cultural knowledge it conveys is not being learned by
the younger generation which means that many lexical items will not survive beyond the
present generation of informed speakers.

But there were pressing linguistic reasons too. There is no generally available lexical material
on !X66, the last vital Southern Bushman language, and this imposes a crippling limitation on
comparative Khoisan linguistic research. This Dictionary will go some way toward rectifying
this. There was also the need to extend the coverage of the languages's word stock in order to
explore phonetic and phonological phenomena as completely as possible. Amongst other
things, this has yielded one new consonant and click accompaniment (prevoiced aspirated
uvular) and has given a clear idea of the frequencies of the various consonants in the lexicon.
This need also explains the inclusion of plant names, bird names, pan names and personal
names which are not normally included in a dictionary.

It is necessary to discuss how I approached the task of compiling this dictionary. I assumed
that there was a de facto specification of what it should include: the first goal was that it
should include every word that could be found in all the linguistic literature on Khoisan
languages. If this could be achieved, then the Dictionary would provide as complete as
possible a source for comparative studies. This was relatively easy to achieve since all it
required was a survey of every published or unpublished linguistic analysis, dictionary or
wordlist on the Khoisan languages. Obviously, lexical gaps reflecting specializations in
different languages remain. The second goal was that it should include every native word or
concept used in the anthropological literature on the Khoi or San; this would include both
semantically commonplace concepts like marry, relative, grandfather and more specialized
ones like spouse exchange, initiate, band nexus, territory, trance, taboo, shaman. In addition
I explored as thoroughly as possible the semantic fields of anatomical and botanical
knowledge, hunting and tracking vocabulary and associated rituals, gathering, food
preparation, technology, religion, games etc. I have found Heinz and Maguire (1974), Heinz
(1966), Heinz (1971) particularly useful in this research; for example, the kin terminology is

adapted from Heinz's (1966) study. Colour terminology was investigated with Munsell
colours and each term has a reference to its focal Munsell classification. It was not easy to
ensure completeness of coverage in achieving the second goal and undoubtedly I have not
read all the relevant literature nor have I covered all the semantic fields. This Dictionary
therefore does not pretend to be complete but it does contain a systematic attempt to reflect as
much as possible of the lexical and conceptual content of a unique culture.

!X66 is an unwritten language and its speakers have no notion of linguistic standardization.
The existence of this Dictionary may give the misleading impression that this is no longer
true. But this Dictionary does not address the question of a practical orthography for writing
the language; the orthography it does use could guide the development of such an
orthography, but it must be remembered that it was designed only to satisfy linguistic critera of
adequacy. Nor has the question of standardization been examined. There are a number of
distinguishable !Xo6 varieties (see Traill (1985)) but this Dictionary only describes the one
spoken in the Lone Tree-Kagcae area; therefore it should not be regarded as a "standard" of
some kind. In fact, there are so many lexical differences between dialects (even between
neighbouring bands) that one should not be surprised to find that a number of words in this
Dictionary will not be used outside the Lone Tree-Kagcae area. There is also the question of
possible lexical differences between "men's language" and "women's language". I have not
been able to establish such differences, but a more focussed investigation may uncover some.

The English - 1X66 part of the Dictionary is not a reverse version of the 1X66 - English
part. The latter is far more extensive in its lexical coverage and it contains grammatical
informadon, illustradve examples and cross-referencing. The English - !X 66 section is
included simply to facilitate access to the other part, and it does not contain a careful listing of
all the English glosses for !X 66 words nor of the variety of grammatically conditioned
versions of a word. It should be stressed that it should never be used as the basis for any
claims about the form of a !X66 word or what it means. This information can only be
extracted from a careful survey of the !X66 - English part together with an understanding of the
grammatical information encoded there. If there should be any discrepancies between the two
parts of the Dicdonary which have escaped proof-reading, then the !Xo6-English part should
be regarded as containing the correct information.

2. Acknowledgements

I owe my greatest debt to all the !X 66 who have patiently taught me their language and
instructed me in many aspects of their culture. They have been expert and inspiring teachers
who have led me enthusuastically into their hnguistic, physical and mental worlds. They will
never really know how compellingly fascinating this education has been for me and I hope that
some of this fascination will be evident in the areas of lexical specialization in the Dictionary
and in the language examples that illustrate linguistic usage.

I have learnt most from Bolo ||xao who has grown older with me through twenty three years
of fieldwork. He has been, as he would say, the "head teacher" of an unconventional school.

He has been a brilliant teacher with a wonderful sense of humour and an uncanny
understanding of the limits of a western mind.

If Bolo ||xao was the school’s "head teacher" then Q a p a te was its "deputy head". He has
also provided an enormous amount of invaluable and original expertise. He appreciated my
endless curiosity about everything he knew and so he taught me how the hunter may use the
Puff Ball to render himself invisible to the antelope he is hunting or how he could still the
wind that drives edible flying ants away. He also cast a successful spell on me which made me
ill. This left me in no doubt that he was, as he explained, a man of status even if he might not
have any possessions!

The contributions of Peet1, Bolo ||xao's wife and Boo tjOu, Q a jia te 's wife are scattered
throughout the Dictionary. What will not be evident is the important companionship they
provided their husbands during times of taxing work.

Guhm sa’s part in the research has been absolutely central. Not only has he made a substantial
contribution to the academic side of the work, but he has been the project's organiser in the
tleld. He has relayed messages from me sent with passing trucks, co-ordinated informants,
organised all my camping arrangements, found individuals with specialist knowledge about
techniques, rituals and botanical or zoological specimens, guided me to significant landmarks
in his territory, hunted steenbuck for dissection, and much more. He even arranged two curing
dances to treat Q a jia te 's spell on me and commissioned !anu +a b e , the community's most
respected shaman, to officiate. Guhm sa’s wife Hahniti and his whole family have made their
own contribution by providing a focus for his work.

I could never acknowledge all the !X66 who have contributed to this research. Over the years
many individuals of the Lone Tree, Lokalane and Kagcae communities have taught me
something about their language or culture. Recently, however, the individuals who have made
a regular and substantial contribution have been D zao , N a a |ua, Inaate, |n a a si, Q ai
ka ’|nua.

George and Tarina Joubert of Kang have provided logistic assistance and friendship for many

Many aspects of this Dictionary reflect expert scientific knowledge in specialized fields such as
anatomy, zoology, botany, geology, meteorology, astronomy. The 1X66 possess this as
common knowledge but I do not, and therefore I have relied on experts to assist with the
appropriate English translations and identifications. I am deeply indebted to Mike Wellsted
(anatomy and physiology); Kevin Balkwill (Botany); Spike McCarthy (Geology); J. Lindsay
(Meteorology); the late Mr. T. Geary (Astronomy); Mike Toms, Wulf Haacke, Hamish
Robertson, G. de Graaf, Ferdy de Moor, S. Endrody-Younga, C.B. Cottrell, G. Newlands,
L le Roux, M. Mansell, C. Eardley, C.H. Scholtz, Neville Passmore, M. Kruger (Zoology),
for words like gastrocnemius, Securidaca longipedunculata, deflation area, fairweather
cumulus, Achenar and Striped Wind legless skink etc. Dr. Kevin Balkwill of the Herbarium of
the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg deserves special thanks for his most
10 The order of lexical entries

generous and gracious help. Dr. Michael Wellsted accompanied me on a fieldtrip to record
details of !X66 knowledge of human and antelope anatomy. His assistance was especially
valuable for the clarity with which it illuminated die unformalized scientific knowledge system
of the DC66. Dr. Mike Toms of the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria not only made many
zoological identifications himself, but he recruited the assistance of many of his colleagues at
the Museum. I am most grateful for all this generous assistance.

The compilation of a dictionary requires an enormous amount of clerical and editing work. I
have received quite outstanding assistance in this respect from Jill M. Traill and Carol Traill.
Stephen Traill’s enormous contribution to the editing of the Dictionary is to be found on every
page; I am indebted to him for his fastidious attention to tens of thousands of details. Jill has
also provided enthusiastic moral support and encouragement from the outset of my linguistic
research on the Khoisan languages. She unwittingly introduced me to !X66 respectful address
(xau -se) by incurring the name "Patrick's mother" in awed recognition of her organising
abilities around the camp. To all these members of my family I am deeply grateful for all they
have done.

I am grateful to the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg for financial assistance and
to the Government of Botswana for permission to conduct the research.

3. The order of lexical entries

The English-K 66 part of the Dictionary follows the conventional alphabetic ordering of
entries but those in the K 6 6 -English part are ordered almost completely according to
phonological conventions based essentially on the category of the initial consonants of words.
For example, all words commencing with clicks precede those that do not; voiceless-voiced
pairings are adjacent; ejective accompaniments to clicks follow oral non-ejeciive
accompaniments; labials precede dentals which precede alveolars etc. based on a front-to-back
place-of-articulation criterion. These phonological criteria have been used for two reasons.
Firstly, there is nothing more incongruous than a procrustean ordering of the almost 120
consonant onsets of !X66 according to an alphabetic tradition based on 26 letters. What user
could find this illuminating or helpful? Secondly, the Dictionary was initially compiled as a
resource for Khoisan phonologists and comparative linguists and later expanded to provide a
useful record for scholars interested in lexical matters. The phonologically based organisation
of entries serves the former preoccupation, but it does not obscure the information needed by
the "lexicologist”. Indeed, this latter aspect has been as assiduously researched as the former
and a little patience mastering the linguistic principles of the ordering will lead to fascinating
insights into the cognitive linguistic structure of the !X66 lexicon.

The phonological ordering of entries is based on die following principles:

3.1. The order of major classes of initial consonants and vowels:

clicks - non-click stops - fricatives - approximant - nasals - vowels

This ordering reflects the statistical distribution of initial elements from most frequent to least
frequent (the exception to this is the single, marginal approximant f\f).
The order of lexical entries 11

3.2, The order of consonants within each class:

A place-of-articulation continuum determines the order of oral consonant initials :

labial - dental -alveolar -palatal -velar -uvular.
When applied to clicks this gives the order:
labia! (O) - dental (|) - alveolar (! ||) - palatal (^).
The ordering of the alveolar clicks (! before 1|) is arbitrary. The ordering of the various
accompanying velar and uvular articulations of clicks isachieved bya differentprinciple
discussed in 3.3 below.

The place-of-ardculation conUnuum for the major classes of non-click consonants is a follows:
Stops: labial (p) - dental (t) - alveolar (ts) - velar (k) - uvular (q). Accompanying
velar articulations or airstream differences in these classes are ordered by an additional
principle discussed in 3.3 below.
Fricatives: labial (f) - alveolar (s) - velar (x) ■ glottal (h)
In the class of nasals, labial nasals precede the dental nasals.

3.3. The order of consonants within each place-of-articulation category:

Voiceless consonants are followed by their systematic voiced counterparts; a partly arbitrary
front-to-back order is imposed on accompanying articulations; ejectives follow non-ejectives.
This yields the following order on clicks (using || for illustration) (the column ’’recent
'standard' symbol" gives alternative symbols discussed below in A note on orthography
(paragraph 4).

Description Symbol Recent 'standard' symbol

basic II k||
voiced llg gll
velar fricative l|x k||x
voiced gllx gk||x
velar ejective ||kx’ kjjx’
voiced gllkx’ gllx’
uvular stop llq qll
voiced l|G Gll
aspirated stop llqh k||h
voiced gllqh gllh
voiced uvular stop aspirated Gjjqh G||h
uvular ejective llq’ kll’q ’
delayed aspiration llh Dllh
voiceless nasal llQ Oil
voiced nasal l|n oil
pre-glottalized nasal 1|n ?Qll
glottal stop II’ k||>
12 The order of lexical entries

And on non-click stops (using ts k q for illustration):

basic ts k q
voiced dz 9 c
aspirated tsh kh gh
voiced dtsh gkh Gqh
velar fricative tshx - -
voiced dtshx - -
ejected ts’ k’ q’
ejected velar affricate t s ’kx ’ kx’ -
voiced d ts’kx’ gkx’ -

And on nasals (using n for illustration):

basic n
pre-glottalized ’n

3.4. The order of vowel commencing items:

Items commencing with plain vowels (a e i etc.) precede those commencing with a
pre-glottalized vowels (’a ’e ’i etc.). Within this division, ordering is (arbitrarily)

3.5. The order of items with the same initial consonant (complex)

These items are ordered alphabetically, firstly according to the first vowel of the stem. Thus:
la - |e - |1 - |o - |u
and secondly alpabetically according to the second element of the stem, whether this is a vowel
or consonant. Thus:
|aa - |ai - |a1i - |au etc.
There is also the need for a further convention to order vowel qualities such as nasalization,
pharyngealization, breathy voice, glottalization etc. on the same vowel. The following
arbitrary order has been adopted (using a for illustration):

a (plain)-a (nasalized)-§ (pharyngealized)-ah (breathy)-a’ (glottalized)-§h (sphinteric)

Considerations of legibility have dictated that tone marks and nasalization are normally not
marked on one vowel. Thus it seems that in a word like laa only the second vowel is
nasalized and only the first vowel carries a tone and is pharyngealized whereas the phonetic
transcription of this word, namely [!a :], shows that there is actually a single high-toned,
long, nasalized and pharyngealized vowel. As a matter of fact, the transcription using two
vowels (aa) to represent a single vowel is adopted for phonological reasons alone; it is simply
a convenient coincidence that it also solves this problem of legibility of multiple diacritics.
Vowels are also distinguished by tonal differences and it has been necessary to impose an
ordering on vowels that differ only tonally. The arbitrary ordering is as follows (using a for
illustration): a (high)- a (mid-level) - a (mid-falling) - a (low).
The order of lexical entries 13

3.6. Summary of the order of symbols

The ordering conventions will undoubtedly be inconvenient to users initially, and therefore a
list of initial symbols x page number is included below for reference. In addition, each page in
the Dictionary has a header indicating the first and last word of that page to facilitate location of

Symbol Page Symbol Page Symbol Page Symbol Page Symbol Page
O 47 ! 74 + 130 ts 162 n 193
Og 47 «g 79 +g 133 dz 163 ’n 194
Ox 48 !x 83 +x 136 tsh 164
gOx 48 g!x 83 g+x 137 dtsh 165 a 195
Okx’ 48 !kx’ 84 +kx’ 137 tshx 166 e 195
gOkx’ 48 g!kx’ 85 g+kx’ 138 dtshx 167 i 196
Oq 49 !q 85 +q 138 ts ’ 167 0 196
Og 49 !g 86 +G 140 ts ’kx’ 168 u 196
Oqh 49 Iqh 87 +qh 141 dts’kx’ 169 w 197
gOqh 50 giqh 89 g+qh 143 ’a 197
Oq’ 50 Glqh 89 +q’ 144 k 170 ’e 197
Oh 50 !q’ 89 +h 144 g 172 ’i 198
On 51 !h 90 +n 145 kh 174 ’u 198
On 51 !n 91 +n 145 gkh 174
’On 51 !n 92 ’+n 148 kx’ 175
O’ 52 ’!n 97 +’ 148 gkx’ 176
!’ 99 k’ 176
53 P 152
ig 56 II 102 b 152 q 177
|x 59 llg 106 ph 153 G 180
g|x 60 l|x 110 p’kx’ 153 qh 181
|kx’ 60 gllx 111 Gqh 182
glkx’ 61 llkx’ 112 t 154 q’ 182
lq 61 gllkx’ 113 d 157
|G 62 llq 114 tx 159 f 183
Iqh 63 l|G 115 dtx 159
glqh 64 llqh 116 th 159 s 184
G|qh 64 gllqh 118 dth 160
lq’ 65 ollqh 119 t’ 160 188
|h 65 llq’ 119 t’kx’ 161
In 66 l|h 120 dt’kx’ 161 190
In 66 l|n 121 -----
In 70 l|n 122 191
r 71 ’l|n 126
II’ 128 m 192
’m 192
14 Separation of senses

4. A note on orthography

There has recently been a move by phoneticians and linguists to standardize orthographic
conventions for all Khoisan languages. This has been aimed at removing the confusion caused
by the numerous orthographic traditions that have developed over 100 years of research,
translation and literacy work. Most of the variety of conventions is found in phonetic and
phonological representations that have been used as part of the linguistic description of the
languages. Others have developed as pan of practical orthographies designed for translation or
literacy materials. Obviously, the criteria used to develop and assess the one type of
orthography will not necessarily be the same as those used for the other, and it must be
accepted that there is no immediate likelihood that one standard will be used for both the
linguistic and practical orthographies of the Khoisan languages.

The orthography used in this Dictionary is "phonological'', i.e. a linguistic one. It is based on
an extensive phonological analysis of the language and represents, largely linearly, all the
phonological contrasts that have been identified. Details of the particular transcriptions have
been adopted from the traditions of Khoisan linguistic research but these have been adapted to
suit special features of the language where necessary. The result has evolved over many years
and is not a "standard" orthography in any narrow sense, although it does share a large number
of conventions found in the various Khoisan orthographies. There is a strong argument that it
is irrational to ignore the recent proposals for a standard linguistic orthography that have
emerged in the last year and therefore that this Dictionary should be re-transcribed according to
these new conventions. I agree that this would be desirable, but it would involve an enormous
amount of work and would mean a long delay in publication. At this stage, therefore, I have
setdcd for the orthography I began with in compiling the Dictionary, while readily conceding
that it is not necessarily the best or most consistent way of representing the linguistic contrasts
of 1X66. The latest transcriptions for clicks and their accompaniments is included in paragraph
3.3 above, alongside the orthography I have used, for users who are interested.

The phonetic font used in the Dictionary is IPA Plus for the Macintosh; bit mapped fonts have
been used for printing. The IPA Plus font was used because it offered all the IPA approved
phonetic symbols for clicks. The print fonts are bit mapped rather than laser fonts because the
former are more legible. This is an important consideration when numbers of diacritics clutter a
word and it justifies sacrificing the aesthedc advantage of the laser fonts.

5. Separation of senses

In the English-!X66 part of the Dictionary senses which cluster together are separated by
commas; those that are distinct are separated by semi-colons. For example:

descend tholo, gam -gale, txolo (- a slope); ||naa (of vultures on a kill); kx’lia

In the IX 6 6 -English part of the Dictionary, no firm convention has been followed for
distinguishing between polysemy and homophony. In some cases, multiple senses are listed
under one entry, but in other cases they are listed separately to facilitate the search for
phonological forms with particular meanings, which may be more difficult to locate within
Abbreviations 15

entries with long, multiple definitions.

6. Hyphens and morphological divisions

Plural suffixes and noun prefixes are consistently separated from the stem with a hyphen.
This not only marks the morpheme divisions involved, but also delimits the domain of the
stem tone. The fact that a prefix, stem and suffix constitute a grammatical word is also captured
by the hyphenated structure. This convention has been extended to re-duplicated stems.

7. References

Heinz, H. J. 1966. The Social Organisation o f the !ko Bushman . Unpublished Masters
Thesis, University of South Africa.
Heinz, H. J. 1971. The ethno-biology of the !ko Bushmen: the anatomical and physiological
knowledge. South African Journal of Science, February 1971, pp. 43-51.
Heinz, H. J. and B. Maguire 1974. The ethno-biology of the !ko Bushmen: their
ethno-botanical knowledge and plantlore. The Botswana Society, Occasional Paper
No. 1.
Traill, A. 1985. Phonetic and Phonological Studies o f !X66Bushman. Helmut Buske
Verlag: Hamburg.
Traill, A. 1986 (a). Do the Khoi have a place in the San? Sprache und Gesichte in Afrika 7.1,
pp. 407-430.
Traill, A. 1986 (b). The laryngeal sphincter as a phonatory mechanism in !X 00 Bushman. In
R. Singer and J. K. Lundy (eds.) Variation, culture and evolution. Johannesburg:
Witwatersrand University Press, pp. 123-131.
Traill, A. 1992. Pulmonic control, nasal venting and aspiration in Khoisan languages. Journal
of the International Phonetic Association, 21,1, pp. 13-18.

8. Abbreviations

adj. adjective lit. literally

adv. adverb loc. locative
Afr. Afrikaans met. metonym
a1. alienable n. noun
asp. aspect neg. negative
bro. brother nom. nominalization
chi. child obj. object
cl. class pass. passive
coll. collective pi. plural
comp. complement pro. pronoun
cop. copulative rel. relative
der. derived sg. singular
dim. diminutive sis. sister
distr. distributive spec. specifically
eld. elder subj. subject
Eng. English subsp. subspecies
16 General grammatical notes

euph. euphemistic tns. tense

gen. generic tr. transitive
hu. husband Tsw. Tswana
id. idiomatic var. variant
inal. inalienable vb. verb
intr. intransitive > becomes
Kg. Kgalagadi < comes from

9. General grammatical notes

These notes are intended to explain some aspects of !X 00 grammatical structure which will
enable the user at least to interpret all the information represented in the lexical entries. A
glance at some of the entries shows that a lot of the information is coded in the form of noun
class numbers, tone letters, tone classes and other conventions. The aim has been to include a
complete grammatical profile of each item, so that its use in syntactic constructions will be
clear. But the notes that follow are by no means a full "grammar" of the language and indeed
there arc a number of important details that could not be clarified before the research was

9.1. Notes on some syntactic constructions

!X66 , like all other languages has a number of parts of speech. These are identifiable in terms
of both morphological and syntactic characteristics such as the kinds of prefixes or suffixes a
form may take, or the position it must occupy in a larger structure such as the phrase or
sentence. The pans of speech that are necessary for the description of !X o6 are noun, verb,
adjective, adverb, bound affixes, conjunctions and particles or clitics. These are combined in
sentences in which the "basic" word order is Subject-Verb-Object in both affirmative and
yes/no interrogative sentences. The functional categories subject and object are represented by
nouns, pronouns or nominalizations (nouns derived from verbs):

+qhaba-te n ba !aji +xam

dog pi. Ins. asp. stop gemsbuck
the dogs stop die gemsbuck

eh a glkx’u’na (+aa)
he tns. chew it (the bone)
he chewed it (i.e. the bone)

+nae n Hqhua ba kane ka glqhal-sa

we dual tns. not asp. want part. fight nom
we two don't want fighting.

|a Igube eh?
Do you know it what?
what do you know?
General grammatical notes 17

Complement sentences do not contain aspect or tense markers and are formed in one of two
ways. The main verb is followed either by a sentence containing a nominalization or by a
sentence followed by the complementiser te; both constructions may be glossed with
infinitive constructions in English but their syntactic requirements differ somewhat. The
subject of the complement sentence is also the formal object of the main verb and a number of
syntactic choices concerning its expression depend on the type of complement construction
used. The subject of the complement is obligatorily expressed as a pronominal suffix (i.e.
formal object) on the verb if the complement construction uses the particle tO; if the subjects
of the main clause and complement are not identical in this construction, then the pronominal
verbal suffix will agree concordially with a following explicit noun subject. If the complement
is expressed by a nominalization, and there is identity between main clause and complement
subjects, the subject of the complement is not formally expressed; if there is non-identity
between these subjects, the subject of the complement sentence is expressed by a pronominal
suffix on the main verb (perhaps followed by a noun subject) but the nominalized verb is in an
alienable possessive construction. In the examples below, the complement sentence is
enclosed in square brackets.

Complements with te

uh h ba kane k[uIqahe te]

they ^ tns. asp. want they hunt comp,
they want to hunt or
they want them to hunt

Uh n ba kane k[e !naa-te Iqahe te]

they tns. asp. want him !naa -te hunt comp,
they want !naa -te to hunt

n n ba | ’an sa[n |nae Inule te]

I tns. asp. wishI see it country comp.
I want to see the country.

Complements with a nominalization

Uh h ba kane k[a !qahe-sa]

they tns. asp. want it hunting
they want to hunt/hunting

Uh n ba kane k[u tuu |a Iqahe-sa]

theyi tns. asp, want themj people 's hunting
they want the people to hunt

A complication arises if the object of the complement sentence is topicalised by being fronted
to the head of the complement sentence. In such cases, the construction with te may not be
used; instead, the object becomes the possessor in the alienable possessive nominalization
18 General grammatical notes

Complements with a topicalized object

uh h ba llnahe k[a ||um |a qai-sa]

they tns. asp, talk about them^ springbok^ s' killing
they are talking about the kilhng of the springbok (pi.)

9.2. Questions

Yes/no questions are fomied by beginning the sentence with the concordially variable question
particle |V which is in the H or M tone class of verbs. The subject of the sentence determines
the concord.

|U tUU a Sit
Question people tns. come
Did the people come?
|e !naa h H’aa
Question money tns. not be
Is there no money?

Wh-questions (who? which? when? where? how?) are all formed with the same question
particle at the beginning of a sentence whose structure differs for each of the wh- questions.

who?/what? IV...verb eh
|a n ba kane ke eh
Question tns. asp. wantpart, who/what
Whom/what do you want?

which? |V....rel. pro. ah’a rel. pro.

|ah ba kane ka *aa-sa ta ah’a ka
Question tns. asp. want part, food which where which
Which food do you want?

where? |V...ah*a...
|e bolo llxao ri ah’a !num tshuu \U
Question bolo ||xao tns. where stay sit cop.
Where does bolo ||xao live?

9.3. Adverbs

Basic adverbs precede the verb they quahfy. But adverbial constructions may be formed with
the particle te, and these follow the verb:

tsohu saa or saa te tsohu

fast go go part, fast
go fast! go fast!
General grammatical notes 19

||am saa saa te qal

well go go part, well
go well! go well!

But if the adverb is derived from a predicative adjective with the nominalizing suffix -sa, the
adverb still precedes the verb:

uh n llali
they tns. many
they are many
Uh h ||ali-sa ba ts’aa
they tns. often asp. steal
they steal often

9.4, Word order

The rules of word order in discourse allow subjects or objects to be topicalized so that the
order of consdtuents may become Subject- Pronoun-Verb or Object-Subject-Verb; subjects or
objects may of course be simple or complex constructions:

oaa eh n ba IpalHI'af
the child he tns. asp. cheeky
the child, he is cheeky

Oaa te nba ||’ai-||’al ke n ba ahn tana +’e’e

child rel tns. asp. cheeky rel I asp. tns. scold him
a cheeky child, I will scold him

In sentences involving a main clause copulative construction, the word order is

Noun-Copulative in the positive and Negative-Copularive-noun- Copulative in the negative:

taa nna
person cop.
it's a person
llqhua ke taa nna
not cop. person cop.
it's not a person, i.e. the person does not behave properly

However in a subordinate sentence with a positive copulative construction suchas a relative

clause, the order is Relative pronoun-Copulative-noun and there isno second copulative
particle nna:

taa te n ka taa qae ka

person rel. tns. cop. woman rel.
the person who is a woman
20 Concordial structure

Adjectives and demonstratives follow the noun:

tuu Ixabu
people senior
the senior people

tuu tu’uu-sa ku
people those
those (remote) people

10. Concordial structure

!X 66 is a language with extensive suffixal grammatical concord bringing syntactically

dependent forms such as verbs, adjectives, pronouns, demonstratives, conjunctions into
agreement with the governing noun. In many cases this concord has an alliterative form, in
which the phonological shape of the suffixes resembles the phonological shape of the noun
class suffix, but in many others the agreement is only grammatical. This feature is reminiscent
of the noun class and concordial systems of Bantu languages, but in the !X 66 case, all
concord is suffixal (whereas in most Bantu languages it is prefixal), and it is based on only
five noun classes. With few exceptions, these classes generally do not have any semantic
integrity. The exceptions are Class 1 which always signifies the semantic category "singular"
and Class 4 which always signifies the semantic category of plural. But not all singulars fall
into Class 1 and not ail plurals fall into Class 4. This means that the details of class
membership and concordial agreement are pardy arbitrary and it is therefore necessary to mark
each noun with its singular and plural classes so that the correct concords can be determined.

10.1 The noun classes

There are five classes numbered arbitrarily one to five. Membership in a class must be
determined by noting the concords that a noun governs because it is frequently not possible to
decide on class membership by inspection of the phonological shape of the noun. Some noun
stems have a readily identifiable suffixal element which may bear a close phonological
similarity to the phonological shape of the concord and therefore class identification in these
cases is transparent. But a large number of nouns do not select concords in this transparent
way, and indeed some noun stems do not even show evidence of a suffixal element. Because
of this, each noun in the !X66-English Dictionary has a numerical identification of the singular
and plural class. In a very few cases a noun will show membership in two classes for the
singular, and in such cases both are marked. The classes, identifiable suffixes and concords
are as follows:

Class Identifiable suffixes Concord

1 -li -i -i
2 -a -ma -n -a
3 -le -e -je -be -e
4 -lu -bu -u -u
5 - -n
Concordial structure 21

Examples illustrating the concordial system for a variety of dependent forms follow. In each
case it is the noun functioning as the object which controls the concordial agreement.
Identifiable noun suffixes and the concordial suffixes are in bold face:

Class Subj. tense verb object adjective rel. verb stative rel.

1 n a |na-l |a-i !xa-i t-1 I’aa lli k-I

I past see lion big which dead is which
I saw a large dead lion

n a Ina-a + a -a !xa-a t-a I’aa |ii k -a

I past see bone big which broken is which
I saw a large broken bone

n a Ina-e I’u-le !xa-e t-e I’a a |n k -e

I past see dish big which broken is which
I saw a large broken dish

4 n a |na-u tii-u !xab-u t-u |’a a lii k-u

I past see people senior who dead are who
I saw the dead elders

As has been mentioned, the close resemblance or even identity in some cases, between noun
suffix and concordial suffix is not always found. In the case of Class 5, it is never the case, as
the absence of this class in the table above shows. Consider the following examples of non-
alliterative concord:

Class Subj. tense verb object adjective rel. verb stative rel.

1 n a [na-l dao !xa-l t-1 !noli-si \u k-i

I past see road big which broken is which
I saw the broken up big road

2 h a |na-a hohbu !xa-a t-a h oij-si lli k -a

I past see blanket large which spoilt is which
I saw the large spoilt skin blanket

h a |na-e ||an !xa-e t-e !noIi-si |n k-e

I past see tuber large which spoilt is which
I saw the large spoilt tuber

h a |na-u |aho-te !xab-u t-u I’a a k-U

I past see owls big which dead are which
I saw the big owls which were dead
22 Concordial structure

5 n a |na-n thaa !xa-n ta-n |’aa pi ka-n

I past see thing big which broken is which
I saw the large broken thing

The language thus shows the coexistence of a phonologically based and a purely
grammatically based concordial system. It is not reasonable to be rigid in claiming that the
balance lies in one system or the other, or indeed, which is the the older system and which the
innovatory one. The fact that a foreign acquisition like noo 111 (Class 1) 'lorry' <Eng.
governs -I alliterative concords based on the analysis of the final syllable of the word as the
conventional noun suffix -II, shows that there is something of a productive alliterative force
in the language. However, in contrast, are the vast majority of foreign acquisitions which ai e
assigned to Class 3 (sg.)/Class 4 (pi.) no matter what their phonological shape; these forms
demonstrate a productive arbitrary system, and show that there is no general linguistic
tendency which assigns a native grammatical value to the last syllable of the foreign stem.

Nominal compounds reveal a further, unresolved problem for the explanation of the basis of
the noun classes. In these cases neither semantic nor formal factors explain the noun class of
the compound.

sbo Class 1 + §a Class 3 > sbo aa Class 2 medicine man

llgaa Class 3 + aa Class 3 > ||gaa aa Class 2 onset of the hot dry season
kx’ao Class 3-1- qae Class 3 > kx’ao qae Class 2 later pre-dawn
lae C lass3+ qae Class 3 > !ae qae Class 2 height of the winter

For unknown reasons, all compounds with the male noun § a and the female noun q a e fall
into concordial class Class 2.

There is no unique semantic value associated with the classes. Although Class 4 is always
plural, it is, as noted, not the only plural class; some nouns will belong to a singular class that
is the plural class for other nouns; other nouns will not change class'between singular and
plural despite a phonological change. Clearly the basis of the 1X66 noun class system is
presently in a state of flux. There is certainly a fairly consistent semantic association between
Class 3 and nouns denoting singular living objects and Class 4 and nouns denoting plural
living objects, but there are too many exceptions to speculate about a semantic basis for the
classification. This trend in Class 3 and Class 4 is expressed in a more or less consistent way
in the inter-sentential pronouns which are largely selected on semantic criteria (see para. 21).

There is no regular pairing of singular and plural classes, nor a regular phonological form for
stems in any of the classes. Frequently, there is a phonological change in the stem
corresponding to the change from singular to plural, but this is not invariably so. There are
also a few cases of suppletive plural stems where the phonological shapes of singular and
plural stems are completely distinct. The unpredictability of these details means that each
stem, singular and plural has been explicitly marked for class in the Dictionary.

Although there is the productive and very common plural formation with the suffix -te , the
Concordial structure 23

unpredictability of so many plural forms means that all plurals are always provided for each

10.2. Lexical entries for nouns

Identifiable suffixes are not marked explicitly in the lexical entries for stems, but noun class
always is. Full plural forms are given when these are unpredictable, otherwise a suffix, most
often just -t e , indicates how the plural form is to be constructed. The following examples
illustrate some possibilities:

Noun entry Interpretation

IIg q Io 2 -te 2 sg. IIg q Io in Class 2; pi. ||GQlO-te also in class 2

llqule 3 ||q u n -sa 2 sg. ||qu1e in Class 3; pi. ||c|Un-sa in class 2. Identifiable
stem suffixes -le (sg.) and -n (pi.) and pi. suffix -Sa

Ikx’a je 3 Ikx’am 2 sg. [kx’a je in Class 3; pi. Ikx’am in Class 2. Identifiable

stem suffixes - je (sg.) and -m (pL)

Oxaa 2 -tU 4 sg. Oxaa in Class 2; pi. Oxaa-tU in Class 4

O g g o 1 O g ^ a -t e 4 sg. O g g o in Class 1; pi. G g § a - t e in Class 4; identifiable

stem suffixes -QO (sg.) and - § a (pi.) and pi. suffix -t e

Ixuma 1 -te 4 sg. |xuma in Class 1; pi. |xuma-te in Class 4

!00 2 +nun 2 sg. !oo in Class 1; suppletive pi. +nun in Class 2

|ai 1 |aba-te 4 sg. |ai in Class 1; pi. |aba-te in Class 4; identifiable stem
suffixes -i (sg.) and -ba (pi.), and pL suffix -te

Iqhoba 3 Mass noun jqhoba in Class 3

10.3. Tone classes for nouns

Nouns are not only marked for the five classes that determine the segmental phonological form
of concordial suffixes on dependent forms like adjectives, demonstratives etc. but they are also
marked for one of two tonal classes which determine the tones on the concordially dependent
forms (verbs which vary concordially are assigned their tones by separate rules). The tonal
class of a noun is arbitrary, and therefore this information must be included as part of the
dictionary entry for each noun. Although these tones have been transcribed linearly in the
examples in the Dictionary, giving the appearance of independent tones on each concordial
form, they should be viewed as melodies that have the whole dependent string as their
domain: Tonal Class I determines a melody that is level and Tonal Class II determines a
melody that falls. The lexical tone of the noun is independent of the tonal melody asociated
with a noun. Thus one can find examples of any of the four lexical tones with either of the two
melodies. The following examples schematically illustrate the details of the two melodies on
24 Diminutives

strings of increasing length involving a noun from Noun Class 3 (- 6 concord) and Tone
Class I and one from Noun class 1 (-i concord) and Tone Class II.

Tone Class I Tone Class II

jkX’a je 3 antbear llkx’ui 1 tick

Ikx’aje t e ’e llkx’ui 1 1’ I
antbear this tick this

Ikx’aje t e ’e !xae llkx’uj t i ’ i !xae

antbear this big tick this big

Ikx’aje te’ e !xae + ’ue’e llkx’ui t i ’ l !xae + ’ ui’i

antbear this big only tick this big only

only this big antbear only this big tick

Only concordially variable (i.e. dependent) forms arc assigned the Tone Class I or Tone
Class 2 melodies. In most cases the Tone Class of the plural noun will be the same as the Tone
Class of the corresponding singular noun. In some cases, however, the Tone Class changes,
sometimes unpredictably and sometimes when the noun signals the distinction between
"alienated” and "possessed” possession (this will be discussed in para. 12 below). Because
Tone Class information is sometimes unpredictable, it is marked for all nouns with Roman
numerals. Any words with an invariant form retain their own lexical tones, no matter whether
they are syntactically adjacent to a variable form.

Thus, in summary, each noun entry in the Dictionary appears with one of the numerals 1-5 to
indicate the Noun Class, followed immediately by Roman numerals I or II to indicate the Tone
Class. For example:

llnan 2 ii ||n a n a -te 2 ii cicada

This noun is in Noun Class 2 and Tone Class II in sg. and pi.

11. Diminutives

The entries for some nouns include a singular and plural diminutive form whereas other noun
entries do not include a diminutive. The reason for the distinction is that some nouns have
Possessives 25

diminutive constructions involving unpredictable complexities whereas others are quite

regular; the former mostly involve Tone Class I nouns and it is these that are explicitly
included. The absence of an explicit diminutive does not mean that there is no diminutive for
that noun, but that the diminutive is formed according to a regular and productive construction.
In the productive diminutive construction the noun is followed by the noun O k a 2 II in the
singular and O ’ani 2 II in the plural, meaning 'diminutive of. Thus, for entries like those
below, no diminutive is included in the Dictionary because they are formed in the regular way

!ahla 2 II Peeling-bark Ochna dim: lahla O aa (sg.) 2 II

tahba-te 4 ii pads dim:tahba-te G ’ani (pi.) 2 II
tamu 3 II dam dim: tamu Oaa (sg.) 2 II

In the unpredictable forms, a variety of constructions is found, some involving a prefix ka-,
some a stem change, some a tone change, some a suffix - b a and in some cases all of these.
In many of these unpredictable constructions the resulting diminutive preserves the noun and
tone class of the non-diminutive noun but other class combinations are also found. The
illustrations show that there are only loose tendencies for the unpredictable diminutive.


+nyje 3 i +nym 2 i mouse +nyju-ba (sg.) 3 I

+nyju G ’anUpi.) 2 i
+nua 3 I +num-sa 2 i club +nuu-ba (sg.) 3 i
+niiu O ’ani (pi.) 2 I
llnu’be 3 I ||nu’be-te 3 I stork ka-||nu’be, ||nu’bu-ba (sg.) 3 I
llnu'bu O ’ani (pi.) 2 I
!ana 2 II -te 2 II suricate !ana-ba (sg.) 2 ii
!ana-te O ’anI (pi.) 2 n
Oqou 2 1 -te 2 I African wildcat ka-Oqou-ba (sg.) 2 II
ka-Oqou-te O ’ani (pi.) 2 Ii
O g §I 2 I OG|n-te 2 I Biting fly ka-OG§l-ba (sg.) 2 II
ka-Oo§a-m O ’ani (pi.) 2 I
+*an 3 I +’ana 2 I penis + ’an Oaa, + ’an-ba, k a -+’alu-ba
(sg.) 3 I 4’alu O ’ani (pi.) 2 i

12. Possessives

There is a formal difference between alienable and inalienable possession. Alienable

possessive constructions use the concordially variable particle |V between possessor and
possessed noun (including nominalizations), whereas inalienable possessives simply
juxtapose the possessor with the possessed noun:
26 Possessives

Alienable Inalienable

n |e In^a taa |nan

I 's money person head
my money person’s head
quje |e fqhue ||ao Ikx’aa
ostrich 's wind axe arm
tornado axe handle
tuu |e Inule uh ’|nan-tu
people 's land they spouses
people's land their spouses
eh fl glkx’um |ai llkx’au
he 's kin lion scent
his kin the scent of lion
iih |a ts’a a -k a-sa n 9a
they's stealing I father
their stealing my father

It is not always obvious from the semantic definition of a noun whether it is alienable or
inalienable. Body parts (including the parts of inanimate objects) and one's spouse are
inalienable. But some nouns which seem to be semantically inalienable are alienable, including
one’s spirit (’|nbha) and one's relatives (glkx’iim).

There is a further formal distinction found with certain nouns involving the tone. Noun Class
and Tone Class of the inalienable noun when it is "possessed" (i.e. when it is in its normal
relationship to the possessor) and when it has been "alienated" (i.e. when it has been removed
from the possessor). This would, for example, apply to a ’’head" in it’s proper place, i.e. on
the possessor’s body; however a head separated from the body would count as an "alienated"
head. It is, however, not always easy to imagine how the distinction might be applied to some
nouns. Where such a distinction has been recorded, it is marked in the entry with the terms
'’alienated" or "possessed"; note that not all inalienable nouns show this distinction. For
example, the following do:

Possessed Alienated Gloss

|nan 2 n |nan 3 I head, skull

!ye 2 II !ye 3 I buttocks
Iqhan 2 il Iqhan 3 i lower leg
+nuu 2 II +nuu 3 I foot
But the following nouns, for example, do not show the distinction:

|x6ll (kneecap), + ’an (penis), doa (lower lip)

Below is an example of a full entry for a noun illustrating the various kinds of information
discussed above and how this is represented in the Dictionary entry.
The category of number 27

Inule 3 I Inun^sa 2 i dim: ka-lnuu -b£i/ka-lnuu -ma/luu Oaa 3 iv

Inulu-ba 3 i (sg.) (ka)-!nulu O ’anI/ka-lnun-sa O ’anI 2 i (pi.)
country, area, territory (al. or inal) (cf.InUU).

This noun is !nule in the singular; its harmonic class is Class 3 (i.e. e concordial agreement)
and its Tone Class is I ( i.e. a mid melody on dependent forms). It has three diminutive
singular forms in Noun Class 3 and Tone Class II (i.e. a falling melody on dependent forms),
namely ka-lnuu -b ^ ka-lnliU -ma/ In'uu Oaa and a fourth singular form
InlllU-ba which is in Noun Class 3 but Tone Class I. It has two diminutive plural forms
(ka)-lnulu O ’anI and ka-lnun-sa O ’anI both of which are in Noun Class 2 and
Tone Class I, the first of which may appear either as Inulu G ’ani or as ka-!nulu
O ’anI. The meaning is "country, area, territory In possessive constructions the noun
appears in either the alienable or inalienable constructions. There is a cross-reference to Inuu
which has the more restricted meaning "territory”.

13. The category of number

As is illustrated above, most nouns are either singular or plural; there are a few mass nouns
in which there is normally no number distinction. If a plural suffix is added to a noun that is
normally mass, then the interpretation conveyed is " different types of...". With pronouns, a
more complex set of number distinctions is found: pronouns may be singular like ah (you),
eh (s/he), n (I); dual like +num (you two), +naT(we two); or plural like Uh (you pl,),1h
(we pL), uh (they). An unusual aspect of the category of number is that it also applies to
certain adjectives and certain verbs. This means that these adjectives and verbs have both a
singular and plural form. In the case of such verbs, the plural form is suppletive. For

qaT (sg.) ka qapa (pi.) beautiful, pretty

eh h qat Uh h ka qajia
she tns. pretty they tns. cop. pretty
she is pretty they are pretty

ll’a o (sg.) |hao (pi.) take

Il’abe lhabu
take it! take them!

yiu(sg.) Iga’o (pi.) enter» put in

eh n ba ylu uh n ba Iga’o
he tns. asp. enter they tns. asp. enter
he enters they enter

eh n b a yie eh n ba Iga’bu
he tns. asp. put in it he tns. asp. put in them
he puts it in he puts them in
28 Variable forms

14. Variable forms

The existence of phonologically variable dependent forms raises the problem of a "basic" form
for the lexical entry. In some cases there is a linguistic environment in which a variable word
will appear with a concordially "neutral" phonological shape, and this is chosen as the
appropriate shape for the lexical entry. For example, all verbs with a concordially variable
stem suffix have a nominalization which, precisely because it is a noun, is not changed by the
concordial system; other parts of speech may also appear in a neutral form. For example:

Variable form Nominalization Lexical entry Meaning

gllkx’ov g||kx’6u-sa gllkx’ou give birth

+naBV ^nau-sa fnau take out
lajv !§i-sa \k\ stop
qaLV qala-sa qala dig

Variable form Neutral form Lexical entry Meaning

+ ’V +’a + ’a with
|nav |naa |naa to
kv ka ka transitivizing particle
sv sa sa transitivizing particle

The morphophonemic changes symbolized as the syllables V, BV, LV, JV cover the following
concordially determined allomoiphs:

Morphophonemic form Concordial class

Cla^s 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5
V i a e u an
BV bl ma ma be bu m
LV II na na le lu n
JV ji jia jia je ju n

The symbol /j/ has the phonetic value [j] (i.e. a palatal stop) or [j] (i.e. a palatal glide)

As noted above, the Tone Classes of nouns determine the melodies on all the concordially
determined forms except verbs and verbal particles. With one exception, the tones on
phonologically variable transitive verbs with an explicit object are independent of the inherent
tone of the verb (determined from the nominalization), the tone of the object noun and its Tone
Class, and therefore these tones have to be marked for each verb. Such verbs fall into one of
three tonal classes, high, mid and low and these are marked as H, M, L respectively in the
Dictionary. Verbal particles like kV, SV, |naV are marked as either H or L, again,
independently of their inherent tone. The exception is that Tone Class 1 noun objects are only
Nominalizations 29

preceded by a M tone on the verb. Tone Class 2 noun objects may be preceded by H, M, or L
toned verbs. A few examples will illustrate this:

Lexical entries for verbs

Example 1.
Dictionary entry: ||ao -sa HaBV H heat up, cook.
The inherent tone on this stem is mid-falling, but the verb will be high toned when followed
by a Tone Class II object. It will be mid-level when followed by a Tone Class I object
(predictable and therefore not marked). The -sa indicates that the nominalization is
||ao-sa. Thus,
... ||aBV (H)+ Iqhaa (Tone ClassII,Noun Class 3) > ||abe Iqhaa
...heat water >heat the water!

... llaBV (H)+ Gaje (Tone Class I,Noun Class 3) > ||abe Oaje
cook meat >cook the meat!

Example 2.
Dictionary entry: InahU -sa InahBV M split.
The inherent tone on this stem is mid-level and the verb will always be mid-toned. The
nominalization is !nahU-sa. Thus,

... ln§hBV (M) -I- tym (Tone Class II, Noun Class 2) >!n§hma tym
...split skin >split the skin!

...ln§hBV (M)+ ah (Tone Class I, Noun Class 2) > In^hba

...split your... >split your

Example 3
Dictionary entry: !oo -sa !0V L follow.
The inherent tone on this stem is mid-fall, but the verb will be low toned when followed by a
Tone Class II object. It will be mid-level when followed by a Tone Class I object. The
nominalization is l6o-sa. Thus,

...lOV (L) + tUU (Tone Class II, Noun class 4) >lbu tUU
...follow people follow the people!

...!0V (L)+ taa (Tone Class I, Noun Class 3) >!6e taa

follow person follow the person!

15. Nominalizations

All verbs and most adjectives may be nominalized by the suffixation of - s a to the stem. One
of the functions of nominalizations is to express the infinitive of the verb in certain
constructions (complement structures also function this way). The resulting nominal is Noun
30 Nominalizations

Class 2 and Tone Class II. Verbs with the variable transitivizing formative kV/tV and SV or
the variable dative formative |naV, form their intransitive nominalizations by suffixing -Sa
to these formatives. In their neutral shape kV/tV appear as ka/ta; |naV appears as |naa;
SV appears as SI. However, if these formatives are followed by a noun, pronoun or noun
phrase functioning as an object or dative in the nominalized construction, they must agree
concordially with that noun/pronoun head and the nominalizing -sa is suffixed to the whole
noun (phrase). For example.
Verb/adj. Nominalization

Iqhul kV drive, rush, hurry JqhUl ka-sa 2 II driving etc., to drive etc.
Iqhui kan-sa driving me, to drive me
Iqhui ke glimi-sa driving the cattle, to drive the
Iqhui ka-sa ta’a this driving
Inyll SV wipe the eyes Inyll sf-sa wiping of the eyes, to wipe the eyes
Inyli se !’u a-te-sa wiping of his eyes
Inyli si-sa ta’a this wiping of the eye(s)
|UV sg. obj. |naV pass to|ua |naa-sa passing to, to pass to
fua |nan-sa passing to me, to pass to me
||a11 many ||all-*sa size
I’Ul small j’Ui-sa smallness
|*ua soft I’ua-sa softness
Because nominalizations retain their verbal syntax, some complex constructions may arise. In
the following example the nominalization is marked with square brackets.

uh h ba ||y[n |a fua |au ||naa |nee-sa]

they tns. asp. refuse me 's pass tobacco to him nom.
they refuse (disapprove o f ) my giving him tobacco

eh |a [lau ka thaa-sa]
he 's grab squash thing nom.
his squashing of the thing

In addition to the productive nominalization in - s a , derived nominals without - s a can be

formed from many verbs. In this construction the basic verb stem is used but its Noun Class is
either 1 or 3 (it remains Tone Class 2). Because informants disagree on the acceptability of
some forms it is not clear whether derived nominals can be formed from all verbs, or only
some. The derived nominal is obligatory for the adjective qaT 'beautiful (sg.)' which has no
nominalization in - s a . For example:

Verb/adj. Nominalization Derived nominal

Inabe argue Inabe si-sa 2 II arguing (nabe 3 II argument

Iqahe hunt Iqahe-sa 2 ll hundng Iqahi i ll the hunt
qai kill qal -sa 2 II kiUing qal l II killing
Verb compounds 31

khala separate khala-sa 2 II separating khala l II separation

qaT beautiful (sg.) qaje 3 II beauty (sg.)
16. Causatives

Intransitive verbs may be transitivized with the particle kV following the stem. They then
function as causatives. For example:

Intransitive Transitive

llnuu run(sg.) ||nUU kV cause to run away

Inum live (sg.) !num kV cause to live, i.e. settle
*aa eat ’aa kV cause to eat, feed, ritually feed

17. Passives

Passives are formed with the passive formative which immediately precedes the verb. If there
is no subject following the verb, the verb is in its neutral form; but if a subject does follow the
verb, diis subject is preceded by the copulative formative kV. For example:

eh n ba taa eh n ba ka taa
he tns. asp. hears/understands he tns. asp. pass, hear
he hears he is heard

eh n ba t^e taa taa h ba ka t§a ke

he tns, asp. hear person the person tns. asp. pass, hear it is him
he hears the person the person is heard by him

18. Verb compounds

Extensive use is made of verb compounds to express a variety of semantic relations that a
language like English expresses with prepositions or other means. There are numerous
examples of these compounds throughout the Dictionary but a full analysis of the phenomenon
requires more careful research ; a few examples follow for illustration.

Compound verb Gloss

loa’bu yiu
slosh enter slosh into
|ua Onuu
grasp squash squash in the hand
’llnuhm glxaa
stab Split poke open (e.g. a melon)
!gahm-sa ’!naha
throw lay flat throw down horizontal
lG§ha tuu
put stomach down lie lie stomach down
32 Verb compounds

lG§ha *ln§ha
put stomach down lay flat lay stomach down
lahle Ig a’o
stand on put in (pi.) trample into
dtshum Nnahn
blow remove blow away
dtshum +nau
blow take out (pi.) blow out

In some cases the two verbs are linked by a particle ka

(kx’ali ka fnau
squeeze out remove squeeze out
ll’ujia ka tshuu
turn the back sit sit with the back
+5h6 ka llxuu
"trade" throw away (sg) sell (one object)
+oho ka ll’ao
"trade" take (sg.) buy (one object)

The verbs tshUU 'sit', tUU ‘lie’ and infrequently ||hUU 'stand' function as a sort of
copulative when they appear as ilic second member in compound verb constructions, but they
contribute a vague element of their different orientational definitions to the meaning of the
whole construction. In some cases the first verb is never found in isolation.

+bhlo llhuu
hands and knees Stand be on hands and knees
+na’n llhuu
come out Stand be patchy (of the rain)
dya tshuu
scatter sit be scattered
dza’a tshuu
conceal sit ambush
Iguh’a tuu
spread out lie be spread out
qal tuu
forceful movement lie throw oneself down

Compound verbs act as a single syntactic unit without internal structure beyond the lexical
units. There is therefore one syntactic and notional subject and one syntactic and notional
object, and negation, tense, aspect apply to the whole constituent.

As will be clear, compound verbs are a source for expressing a number of complex semantic
relations. In some cases, the second verb adds a certain amount of semantic redundancy, as in
the example "squeeze out", and the Dictionary entries will reflect this by having the same gloss
Relative clauses 33

for the compound and non-compound constructions.

19. Adjectives

Adjectives are entered in the Dictionary in terms of their initial consonant, but they always
appear in sentences preceded by either the particle ka or directly by a tense marker. This is
indicated as follows:

Dictionary entry Construction in sentences

qaT(n) beautiful (sg.) n qai

qajia(ka) beautiful (pi.) ka qajia
This notation is also used for a few verbs and nouns and for cases where the ka preceding the
stem is optional (see below).

Dictionary entry Realisation

inyhu (ka) sv remove ka !nyhu sv

!ahe (ka) sp. of plant ka !ahe
There are a few cases of adverbs being formed from adjectives with the particle te before the
stem. These adverbs follow the verb they qualify.

Adjective Post-verbal adverb

qaT beautiful te qaT nicely

^XoT bad te fxoT terribly
||a1i many te ||ali intensely

Adverbs which are semantically identical to these may appear before the verb, but then they
have a different form or are nominalized:

Pre-verbal adverb

||am nicely
+x6T-sa terribly
||al1-sa intensely
20. Relative clauses

Some examples of relative clauses were given in 10.1 above as part of the illustration of the
concordial dependencies in a sentence but their syntax was not discussed there. A sentence is
relativized by a discontinuous relative pronoun based on the remote demonstrative pronoun
tV’V kV. The first part of the relative pronoun i.e. tV’V, precedes the relative clause and the
second part, i.e. kV, appears at the end of the relative clause. Most frequently the first part
takes the form tV, but sometimes the full form tV’V is used. The relative pronoun is
concordially variable and complex and the phonological form of its parts are determined by
both the subject of the relative clause itself and the subject of the main clause. If the subjects of
34 Pronouns

the main clause and the relative clause are identical then only the subject of the main clause is
expressed and both parts of the relative pronoun are concordially determined by the noun class
and tone class of this subject. But if the subjects are not identical, the concord on the first half
of the relative pronoun is detemiined by the noun class and tone classof the (adjacent) subject
of the relative clause and the concord on the second half is determined bythe noun class and
tone class of the subject of the main clause. In the following examples the parts of the relative
pronoun are bold and the coreference is indexed.

20.1. Subjects identical

Tone class II
tuu tu ba Igaa ku
people^ reU asp. work reU
the people who are working

su’u ti ba kx’a a k'l

korhaan^ rel^ asp. call rel ^
The korhaan which is calling

Tone Class I
taa te ba Iq’un ke
person^ rel^ asp. make noise reP
the person who is making a noise

!oo ta s i ’i ka
knifei reP sharp reP
the knife which is sharp

20.2. Subjects different

Main clause subject (tUU ) Tone class II, relative clause subject (taa) Tone Class I

tuu te taa ba Inabe si ku

people^ relj person) asp. argue reP
the people with whom the person is arguing

Main clause subject (taa) Tone Class 1, relative clause subject (tuu) Tone Class II

taa tu tuu ba Inabe si ke

personireli people) asp. argue reP
the person with whom the people are arguing

21. Pronouns

As has been mentioned, DC66 distinguishes singular, dual and plural in first and second
person pronouns. Their emphatic forms require the addition of the parenthesized vowel.
Optionality 35

Person Singular Dual plural

First fi (’n)+naT (*1) 1h (I) js t , "ih ||ae (H)

Second ah (’a) +num (’u) uh (’0)
In the third person, two sets of pronouns can be distinguished. In some cases there is no
change in the phonological form of a pronoun in the two sets, but there are clear syntactic and
semantic differences. The one set is found intia-sententially and the other inter-sententially.
The intra-sentential set is selected in the syntactic domain of a head noun, and simply
expresses a trace of a noun through obligatory concord with one of the five classes. This
pronoun is obligatory if the head noun has been topicalised, but is optional otherwise. The
inter-sentential pronouns are selected according to semantic criteria of animacy and number
and thus these distinctions will often cut across those of the other set:

Intra-sentential pronoun Inter-sentential pronoun

Animate sg. Animate pi. Inanimate sg./pl.

Class 1 ih eh uh
Class 2 ah
Class 3 6h
Class 4 lih
Class 5 n

|ai (ih) n ba kx’aa. eh n ba sipa qapa |nai1

the lion Cl.lpro tns. asp. roar. pro. tns. asp. angry with us
the lion is roaring. He is angry with us.
\i& ta’a (ah) n ba glqhal Inail
women these tns. asp. fight with us
these women are fighting with us
|aa ta’a n a g|xujia
women these, I tns. swear at them (Cl. 2)
these women, I swore at them

In a few entries in the Dictionary, the inter-sentential pronoun is listed because for these cases
the semantic basis of the pronoun is not obvious.

22. Optionality.

This is indicated by parenthesizing a form. The convention may parenthesize forms like the
ones discussed above which are already parenthesized to indicate a particle must appear before
a stem. In such cases the second set of parentheses mean that the particle is optional. If the
particle appears parenthesized but in it's correct syntactic position, i.e. before or after the stem,
then the parentheses only indicate optionality. Parentheses are also used to indicate marginal
forms. For example:
36 The phonetic definitions of vowels and consonants

Dictionary entry Realisation

(ka)-lnuu-ba small area ka-lnuu -ba or Inuu -ba

Inu’a (kU) a pan name ku Inu’a
llnu’be ((ka)) stork (gen.) ka llnu^be or llnu’be
jcau (-te) marginal pi.
23. The phonetic deFinitions of vowels and consonants

Readers who require a technical discussion of the prccise phonetic values of the phonological
symbols used in the Dictionary should refer to Traill (1985). The definitions that follow
provide the main phonetic values of the segments and of a number of phonetic rules which
may sometimes yield phonetic values that are not immediately obvious from the transcriptions.

23.1. Clicks

basic O (labial with friction) | (dental with friction) I (alveolar

abrupt) II (lateral with friction) + (palatal abrupt)
The secondary closure of these clicks is released with a
weak velar plosive [k].

voiced o g Ig !g llg +g
These clicks have voicing during and through the closure.

voiceless+velar fricative ox |x Ix ||x +x

These clicks are followed by a voiceless velar fricative [X]
which is pronounced with considerable scrape, hence

voiced+velar fricative gox g|x g!x g||x g+x

As is suggested by the transcription, these clicks have
voice lead which ceases before the release of the click
which is followed by a voiceless velar fricative. In some
dialects, the voicing persists through the click release and
into the velar fricative, i.e. [gO y] etc.

voiceless+velar ejective Gkx’ |kx’ !kx’ ||kx’ +kx’

The secondary closure is released as an ejected velar
affricate [kx’] or a voiceless ejected velar stop followed
by a uvular stop [k ’q].The latter pronunciation is
standard in the dialect represented in the Dictionary,
and the former is most common in die western dialects of
DC6 6.

voiced+velar ejective gOkx’ glkx’ g!kx’ g||kx’ g+kx’

The transcription again reflects that there is voice lead.
The voiceless ejective is pronounced as [kx’] or [k’q] as
described above.
The phonetic definitions of vowels and consonants 37

voiceless+uvular stop Oq |q Iq ||q +q

The secondary closure is released as a voiceless uvular
stop. The hold for this stop is actually co-articulated with
the click, but its release is delayed considerably beyond
the release of the click and it is quite distinct auditorily
from the basic clicks.

voiced+uvular stop O g |g Ig ||g 4 c

The pronunciation of these clicks involves
pre-nasalisation with a uvular nasal [N] followed by a
voiced uvular stop after the release of the click. Thus they
are phonetically [NOG N|g N!g N1|g N + g].

aspirated stop Gqh Iqh !qh ||qh +qh

These transcriptions show that the secondary closure is
released as an aspirated uvular stop. The transcription is
undoubtedly "too phonetic" and reflects the evidence from
cineradiology that the articulation is indeed uvular. From a
systematic point of view this release could just as well be
transcribed with an aspirated velar stop, but in keeping
with the tradition of my own practice I have preserved the
transcription with the aspirated uvular stop.

voiced+aspirated stop gOqh glqh glqh g||qh g+qh

The voicing leads the release of the click which is
voiceless and is followed by an aspirated uvular stop.
Again, the transcription with a uvular stop, is too phonetic
from a systematic point of view, and like the voiceless
aspirated stop above could be transcribed with a velar

voiced+uvular aspirated stop - G|qh Glqh G||qh -

The pronunciation of these clicks involves pre-nasalisation
with a uvular nasal [N] and a brief uvular stop before the
click, which is followed by an aspirated uvular stop. Thus
they are phonetically [NG|qh NGlqh NG||qh]. These are
systematically voiced aspirated uvular stops.
The admittedly confusing transcriptions of the aspirated
velar and uvular stops, has arisen because the systematic
status of the voiced uvular aspirated stops was only
recendy recognised as a distinct click accompaniment and
it was too late to make appropriate transcriptional changes
in both dictionaries.
38 The phonetic definitions of vowels and consonants

uvular ejective Oq’ |q- Iq’ ||q’ +q*

The secondary closure is released with an ejected uvular

delayed aspiiarion Gh |h !h l|h +h

There is an inaudible release of the secondary closure
which is followed by a crescendo aspiration. The
inaudibility of the release of the secondary closure is
achieved by a complex venting of the pulmonic pressure
(Traill, 1992). In fast speech the venting may sometimes
be accompanied by a brief period of nasalisation of the
vowel and an intrusive velar nasal preceding die click. In
such cases a sequence like /a|ha/ may be pronounced as

voiceless nasal o n Iq lij ||n +n

During the hold of the click there is voiceless (velar) nasal

voiced nasal On |n !n |ln +n

During the hold of the click there is a voiced (velar) nasal.

pre-glottalised nasal ’On In ’In ’||n ’+n

This complex is best described as a click superimposed on
the sequence [ ’Q]. i.e. a velar nasal with a glottal stop
onset. The timing of the release of the click is immediately
after abrief period of [I]].

glottal stop O ’ I’ !’ II’ + ’

The secondary closure is released silently and is followed
after some delay by a glottal stop.

23.2. Non-click stops and affricates

stop voiceless p (labial) t (dental) tS ( alveolar) k (velar) q (uvular)

’ (glottal).

stop voiced b d d z j (palatal) g G

Voicing commences before release and through it. The
uvular stop has a short amount of uvular pre-nasalization
and is pronounced [NG].

stop aspirated ph th tsh kh qh

These stops have positive voice onset, i.e. are aspirated,

stop voiced aspirated dth dtsh gkh oqh

There is voice lead followed by a voiceless aspirated stop.
The phonetic definitions of vowels and consonants 39

stop+velar fricative tx tshx

The stop is immediately followed by a noisy velar

stop voiced+velar fricative dtx dtshx

There is voice lead; the stop is voiceless at release and is
followed by a noisy voiceless fricative.

stop ejected t’ ts’ k’ kx’ q ’

The phonetic values are as symbolised. As with the click
accompaniment, k X ’ may be [kx’] or [kx’q].

stop ejected+velar affricate ejected p ’kx’ t’k x ’ t s ’kx’

The phonetic values are as symbolised. kX’ is [kx’j or

stop voiced+velar affricate ejected dt’kx’ d ts ’kx’ gkx’

There is voice lead followed by an ejected stop followed
by an ejected velar affricate. kX’ is [kx’] or [kx’q].

23.3. Fricatives

voiceless f (labial) S (alveolar) X (velar) h (glottal)

All the fricatives are voiceless; the glottal fricative is i
voiceless vowel.

23.4. Approximant 1 (alveolar lateral).

23.5. Nasals

voiced m (labial) n (dental) Jl (palatal)

pre-glottalized ’m ’n

23.6. Vowels

Plain {e a 0 u

Nasalized Te a 5 u

Pharyngealized i e a 0 u

Breathy ih eh ah oh uh
These are phonetically strongly breathy voiced,
[\ e a p u].
40 Phonetic rules

Laryngealized i* 6 ’ a ’ 0 ’ U’
These vowels are always produced with a vocalic offglide
following the laryngealization. Thus [iM e ’e a ’a o’o
U’U]. If the glottalization is extreme it appears as a glottal
stop between the vowels; if it is less extreme it appears as
laryngeahzation (creaky voice) between the vowels.

Sphincteric Qh Qh yh
These vowels are produced with vibration of the arytenoid
cartilages against the cushion of the epiglottis. They are
mainly voiceless phonetically although they are
systematically voiced. See Traill (1986 (b)) for a
description of this articulation.

Combinations of these vowel qualities are possible.

24. Phonetic rules
These are some of the main rules determining the precise pronunciation of symbols whose
phonetic value is not close to that suggested by the phonological transcription.

24.1. a >3 / +
I ___ i/m/n/ji
The vowel a is raised to a central vowel when preceded by + | t and followed
directly by I mn Jl or even when i follows a consonant in the next syllable. It may
be assimilated completely when followed directly by I, i.e. in the sequence ai. This
rule is blocked if a is pharyngealised, i.e. 9
For example:

+al > + 3 i > + ii

|an > |sn
tan > tan
inajia > insjia
tall >tsli

24.2. a > 06/___i/e

If a is preceded by consonants other than +, |, t and is followed by I or e, it is
raised to [ae].
For example:

24.3. n +n +ba >rna

1st. +tns.+asp
Phonetic rules 41

The first person singular pronoun and the tense particle assimilate in place of
articulation to the labial consonant of the aspect particle, and the stop of the aspect
particle becomes a nasal.

24.4. > Q/ ___velar stop

> N / ___uvular stop

The dental nasal assimilates to the place of articulation of a following velar (i.e. [I]k
Qg]) or uvular stop (i.e. [Nq No]).

24.5. u > 0 /___a/e

The high back vowel is lowered to a mid close back vowel when follwed by a; the
effect of this rule is to neutralise the contrast between the vowels U, O. For
example, |ua is pronounced [|oa] and !gue is pronounced as [Igoe]. The
lowering of U is somewhat more general than this rule suggests, but it appears to be
restricted to a few arbitrary cases. These have been marked in the Dictionary.

24.6. U > 3^ /____ m

The high back vowel is produced as a rounded close mid vowel when followed by
m. For example tum is phonetically [t3^m].

24.7. a >D /0___

The vowel a may be raised and slightly rounded when preceded by a labial click as
long as a is not followed by itself in a bimoraic representation, i.e. a phonetically
long [a:] does not show the effect. For example Oaa is phonetically [Oa:] with
no influence of the labial click on the following vowel, but Oai may be pronounced
as [ODi] or even [OWDi] (see 24.8. below). Since this is a variable rule, it is not
always obligatory and so Oal may be unaffected and be pronouced as [O ai ].

24.8. The labial click O may befollowed by a labial offglide, i.e. Ow, where the
offglide is of variableprominence. In the speech of some speakersthis glide is
almost always absent.

24.9. As mentioned in 23,6 above, a laryngealized vowel is pronounced as V’V with the
larygealization followed by an identical, short vocalic offglide, symbolized below
with a superscript vowel. For example this gives rise to the following
ta’a will be [ta ’^a] and thus auditorily unchanged because the offglide and the
second mora are identical, but Ina’i is pronounced as [Ina’^i]. The [ ’] symbolizes
the laryngealization. Sometimes in fast speech the laryngealization may be
42 Phonetic rules

2 4 .1 0 . Phaiyngealized vowels may be accompanied by tense voice and end in a glottal stop
in monitored pronunciation. For example ||nQl may be pronounced as [||na9?^i].

2 4 .1 1 . When a breathy voiced vowel is followed by a plain voiced vowel, the breathiness
is lost.
For example:
eh + a > [ e a ] > [ ja ] (see 24.12.)
he past formative

24.12. The close-mid and high front vowels O i become the glide []] when followed by
another vowel. For example:
ih a > [ja] (see 24.11.)
Cl. 1 pro. past formative
eh e > [Je]
Cl, 1 pro. can

24.13. The transitivizing verb particle and the copulative particle kV alternates with tV,
apparently freely.

2 4 .1 4 . The plural suffix te is often pronounced as ne. This seems to be a matter of

idiolect in the Kagcae area.

2 4 .1 5 . In fast speech, the beginning of a laryngealized vowel may be elided, leaving the
glottal articulation itself adjacent to a preceding consonant. If the preceding
consonant is a voiceless stop it may thus become coarticulated with a
glottal stop derived from the the laryngealized vowel, and this would give
rise to an ejected stop. For example:
Iqa’m >[|qa’®m] (Rule 24.9.)
> [|q’®m] (Rule 24.15.)

In other cases, there is no coarticulation and the consonant is directly followed by a

glottal stop. For example:


2 4 .1 6 . In fast speech, the laryngealization of a vowel in the form of a glottal stop may be
copied to the beginning of certain high-frequency words that commence with t and
have a nasalized vowel in the second mora, i.e. following the laryngealization. The
t then becomes n. These changes represent a complex realignment of articulatory
events. For example:

k a t a ’a > [ ka ’n a’a ]

t e ’a a > [ ’ne’a ]
Phonetic rules 43

te ’e > [ ’ne’V]

In highly syncopated speech, the original glottal stop may be lost, in which case
[’ne’V] would be pronounced as [’n e :] and [’na’a ] as [’na:].

2 4 .1 7 . a >G /_
The vowel a is raised to a mid central position and assimilates in rounding to an
adjacent U e.g. !nau > [!neu].

Oaa to Oggo 47

Oaa 2 II O ’anI 2 II l.diminutive(cf. child), young of. Oaje Oaa animal, OaJ©
O ’ani animals. 2. pL formative with group names !x6jia-te G ’ani the !Xbo
people. I’aa G aa a small or distant fire.
O aa 3 II Oaa-tu 4 ii dim : ka-O aa-ba 2 ii ka-Oaa-tu O ’ani 4 ii child
(inal.) (cf. Oq §a). n Oaa[mOaa] my child, n ka-O aa-ba my little child.
6h n k0 Oaa-tu lit. it is children, i.e. it (i.e.the egg) has an embryo (in it). quje
eh n ke Oaa-tu the ostriches egg(s)) is fertilised. |ny6 Oaa-tu lit. the night’s
children, i.e. dusk, nightfall (cf.qahe).
O a a ’|nan 3 II -tU 4 II daughter-, son-, mother-in-law, husband's elder sister
(avoidance category).
O a a IgahO 3 II -tU 4 II "cousin", father's sister's child, mothers’s brother’s child
(avoidance category)
O aa 2 u n herd of eland, flesh, meat. Oaa -te pieces of meat, flesh kUU Oaa
O a’i 2 II O a ’a-te 2 II abomasum. OaM |a saa 2 II greater omentum, animals
with a greater omentum (cf. ||nah’m-||nah’m).
O a j6 3 n I meat (gen.). O a Je O a a 2 II O a Je O ’anI 2 II animals, creatures of the
wild, game. O a Je |e Iqh'ue east wind which is favourable for hunting. O a je
S a ’a gllqhal-SI first helping of meat.
Oan sleep (vb.) Oum 2 n I sleep (n.). Oan Iqholu ylu sleep deeply. Oan |’aa |n
sleep deeply. Oan 4’ee early. Oan kan +kx’an |a s a ’a -te lit. sleep in
my "cousin's" blankets, i.e. to have illicit intercourse with one's "cousin's" wife, n n
ba ll’ae Oan kan tarn s1 khube ts’an i am going out (gathering) and
sleeping out and returning tomorrow.
Oan-Oan k v rock to sleep, put to sleep.
o66 llnga, Oan ||nya-sa dream (vb.). ~ kv dream of (tr.) n h ba o66 ||nya
kU tUU I dream about people.
O o m -s a OOBV H mb in fat (cf. |q a a kV tarn kv+object).
Oum 2 n I sleep (n.) Oum Iga’o kan !’ua -te sleep fills my eyes. Oum n ba
|un sleep takes hold of me.
Ou’u (n) be jammed, stuck together (cf. Inahn ||’um), OU’U yiU jam into (tr.).


O g a h ’a - s a O g a h ’V L take or catch something in cupped hands (cf. ||gul-||gul,

_ llguu-llguu, |bho).
O g a le - s a O g a L V M gossip about.
®gbo 1 e II Ogaa -te 4 u II sp. edible caterpillar (coll. in sg.).
O g o 5 |a a 2 n II species of plant (Convolvulaceae (pomoea)).
O ggo 3 e n O g Q m -k a -te 2 u II hollow tree, hole in a tree, water-storing tree.
48 OgQp to gOkx’66

n n ba kx'ahe (Iqhaa) OgQO I am drinking (water) from the water-storing tree,

n n s a kx’ahe OgQO I am going to drink from the water-storing tree. ||aa |e
OgQO the camehhom's hole in the trunk.
O gQ P (y sound made by a pointed object (e.g. a spear, horn, knife) sliding with a flat
trajectory into the sand, e.g. a spear blade sliding into the sand (cf. g+xbp, g||xbp,
g+qhbo, Oqhbo).


Oxaa 2 n -tu 4 ii dim: ka-oxaa-ba (sg.) ka-Gxaa-tu G ’ani (pi.) eider

half brother (avoidance category).
OXUU (ka) shuffle, walk as a sick person, eh n b a !naa k a OXUU he walks with


gOxa1e-sa gOxaLV L l. twirl (as an eggbeater), make fire with firesticks. 2. instruct,
teach (id.). tUU IxabU n ba goxalu G ’anI seniors instruct children. gGxaLV
Ikx’aa-te rub the hands together (as a sign of respect, or to warm them)
(cf. |nua-|nua).


Okx’um (ri) Gkx’ube 3 i delicious (sg. or pi.) Okx’uma (pi.), n n Hqhua ba

*ee GkX'Ube lit. I am not eating deliciousness i.e. I am not enjoying myself. 6h n
Hqhua ba Okx’um it doesn't get delicious, n Iq’an n Gkx’um lit. my heart is
nice, i.e. I am happy. Uh |q'aa ka (s1l ka) GkX’uma they are happy, n
|kx*aa-te n Gkx’um lit. my hands are nice, i.e. they have been successful in the
administration of a ritual such as the singing of a skin to assess the prospects of rain or the
treatment of illness by rubbing on sweat from the armpits, tau |e GkX’Ube taste its


gOkx’al -sa gOkx’a jv H munch, chew something dry (cf. |hum, ||kx’am, qu’m,
xo’m). gGkx’aJV ||qhaa-te grind the teeth.
gGxale -sa gGxaLV L l.makefirewithfiresticks. 2. instruct, teach (idomatic).
gGkX’OO 1 e I gGkX’aa-te/-m 4 u II l. common fly. 2. A species of plant
(Crotalaria spartioides D.C.). The root adds toxicity to arrow poison and is also given to a
listless dog on the hunt to perk up it up.
Oq^a to Oqhu’u 49


O q |a 3 I Oq%a-m 4 n dim: ka-Oqgu-ba 3 i(sg.) ka-Oqoo-m O ’anI

2 I (pi.) child (gen. al.). Oqaa |a taa aa boy. Oq^a |a taa qae girl.
Oqou-ba infant.
Oqaa |hua (tshoe) 2 ll Gqaa-m |hua (tshoa) -te 2 ll species of plant
(Liliaceae sp. ? Possibly Pancratium tenuifolium or Amaryllidaceae) ( cf. Ig^hU kUU)
The leaves are eaten or chewed and then applied to bums. The plant is poisonous if eaten.
Oq^I) kV turn the head (without turning the body) to protect the neck or to look at something.
Gqohba ylu -sa Oqghba yLV L place, put in a fork e.g.ofatree (cf. dtshx^).
Oqphba tshliu (sg.)/ !’aa (pi.) be in a fork
O qou 2 I -t e 2 I dim: k a -O q o u - b a (sgO k a - O q o u - t e O ’ani (pL) Afiican
wildcat (Felis lybica). Small spotted cat {Felis nigripes).

OG [NgG]

O g|I 2 I OG|n-te 2 I dim: ka-O ofl ba (sg.) ka-O G |a-m O ’ani (pi.)
species of biting fly (Tabanides sp.).
O goo 2 II -te 2 II crack in a container.
OGymi kV suck water from an ostrich egg or water tree (slurping).


Oqhaa 3 II -sa / Oqhaa-te 3 II between, tuu Oqhaa-te in amongst the people,

in the middle of the people, between the people. Oqhaa O ’ani lit. in-between-people
i.e. groups around Khakhea; also applied to the Iqohju O ’ani of Ohe. +’e Oqhaa
and in between, khala ka thani ku Oqhaa-te lit. divide the things between,
i.e. equally (cf. !’a o )
Oqhala - s a OqhaLV H chip, peel, remove seeds from a pod. (cf. ||GUle, Iqhala).
Oqhale |an remove the Bauhinia macrantha seeds (from the pods).
Oqhall kV (tarn (sg.)/taa (pi.)) loosen the noose of a snare, slip, pull out of a snare,
escape by slipping out of a snare (cf.dtshxoll, dtshxb’n). Oqhall tShUU be
unloosened. +ai [+ii] ih a [ja] n Oqhall ki tarn the steenbok pulled out of
the snare. Ixai ih a n Oqhall kl tarn the snare loosened,
Oqhbo ylu -sa Oqhbo yLV L push under (e.g. to conceal), push into (as meat into
ash for baking) (cf. g+qhoo, Ikx’olo, ||ahn).
Oqhbo be seated or packed close together, be entangled (as branches), be jammed together
(cf. On a ’a ). Oqhbo tShUU be in the fork of a tree.
Oqhu’u (n) be narrowly separated, as forked branches or nostrils (cf. Igah ’la). ah
Inuhpa ’|n y m a-te ah n O q h u ’u your nostrils, they are close together.
so gOqhaa to Ohuu-Ohuu


gOqhaa kv break open, split open (cf. dtshale, glkx’ale, glxaa).

gOqhuu i e II gOqhaa-te 4 u il dim: ka-gOqhuu-ma/-ba (sg.)
k a - gOqhaa-te O ’ani (pi.) species of bush, Wild Currant or Kalahari Sand
Raisin, producing edible berries, Tsw. Motsotsojane (Grewia retinervis Burret).


Oq’am Oq’all 2/3 II be crossed over of the teeth or branches (cf. Il’upa).
Oq’tlbo tShbe 2 II Oq’uma tshoa -to 2 II temple, side of the face including the
temple and the cheek. ~ |e Oaje temporalis muscle, --la +aa temporal fossa .
|i guhm infra-temporal fossa.
Oq’um kv close the mouth (cf. glqhau) Oqum ka +ue shut up!


Ohaa verb used in the compound Ohaa b1h1 ’Inaha throw down and shatter. Ohaa
b1hl tUU be shattered to pieces (cf. qa I dtShale).
Ohan 3 I Ohana 2 l dim: Ohuu-ba (sg.) Ghuu-ril (pL) duiker (Sylvicapra
grimmia) Ohan |q^an lit. duiker heart i.e. " toktokkie” beede {Coleoptera
Tenebrionidae Phanerotomia), Ohan aa lit. male duiker i.e. flu and cold caused by the
moon, eh n ba Iqhabe Ohan ($a) he has flu (cf. fulu). n n ba kx'ue
11x00 IgeT ke Ohan |au |a glqhba n n ba |pam |e In^a i remove
bad luck with the duiker tail; I take up my blood. This refers to the ritual engaged in by a
hunter; the duiker tail hair (or the awn of Stickgrass (iq’ama)) is used to brush blood in
an upward movement from incisions between the eyebrows. Ohan |e ||a’n 3 II
Ohana |a' ||a’n-sa 2 Ii mature female duiker. Ohan |i ||ahi 1 II Ohana
|u llahba-te 4 II mature male duiker.
Ohan ka ||gubl 2 II -te 2 II species of Stink bug {Heteroptera Pentatomidae).
O h al ta - s a O h al tv ask.
O h bo sound of an object sliding into ash or sand with a flat trajectory (cf. O gQ p ylu,
g +x b p , g+qh bo) ^
Ohoo OGOmi 3 n -te 4 II species of grasshopper. Bush Katydid (Orthoptera
Phaneropteridae Terpnistria). In the dry season it is believed to change into |qf hm
Ohbo ka (ka) be smeared with dirt. eh n ka Ohb5 ka |ll he is smeared with
OhUU -OhUU make the sound of the bilabial click [O] (cf. Onuu -O n u u ,
O ’bo - O ’b o )
Ona’a to ’Onaje 51


Ona’a be seated or standing close together, be densely packed. +n€U ri ba Ona’a ka

!’aa we two are seated close together (cf. Oqhbo, + ’6o, ||ai).


Onaha 3 I -te 3 I species ofparasite(y4/earfl<?rc?Z)fl«c/io/WgjBe«r/i.)-Saliva from the

chewed tuber, the body fluid of the caterpillar that feeds on the plant and the root of
|nuja-te are mixed to treat sore gums of teething infants and to prevent weakness from
Onae 3 e I Onym 2 u i dim: Onyu-ba/Onyu Oaa (sg.) onyu-ni
(O’ani ) (pL) edible cucumber (Coccinia Aff. Rehmannii-Cucurbitaceae).
Onani-Onani SV s i-s a kill an insect (e.g. a tick) by rubbing it against the limb it is
OnQm -sa OnQbe 3 II ©nQBV L misunderstand, talk at cross purposes, talk at the
same time. OnQm sa ’a -sa 2 II talking at the same time, ©h h ba OnQm
sa ’a he/she misunderstands me. n ba Ongbl-si ||qhae sa ’a-n f we
misunderstand one another.
Gnu Mu squash between the fingers; pinch and twist (cf. t’uni).
Onyhm kv grasp between the thighs, n h Onyhm ka tshUU I am sitting grasping
(something) with my thighs (cf. ||qhabe, G||qha5).
OnOu kv squash, collapse, lahle Onuu kv flatten by trampling (cf. +qao, ||xum,
OnilU -Onuu to produce the labial click [O]; also to produce this sound to call a dog, stop a
cow, encourage a horse to move (cf. Oh'uu -Ohuu, O ’bo -O ’bo).
Onyu 1 e II Onaa-te 4 u li dim: Onyu-ma, Onyu Oaa 2 li(sg.)
On^a-ni, On§a-te O ’ani 2 ii( p i.) species of louse (cf. gllkx’oni).
tqha’JI Onyu praying mantids (Mantodea Mantodea Mantidae Pyrgomantis).


’Onaha 2 n II -te/nl 2 u II dim: ’Onaha-ma (sg.) l. body (inal.). 2. pure,

true, very (cf. !’ao). 3. trunk or main branches of a tree. 4. the fibre of sansevieria
after decortication, fi n ka lama aa ’Onaha I am a pure
western man. eh ’Onaha I’ao his very/whole body.
’OnaJe 3 e II ’Onaa 2 u n dim: ’OnaJe-ba/Oaa (sg.) tree (gen.), piece of
wood. tUU n ba Inum ku |a ’Onaa lit. people live at their trees, i.e. in their
territory, place.
52 O ’aa to O ’bo


O ’aa -sa O ’av (sg.) h (cf, O ’ale (pi.), Ilnaha, qo’nl) bum, set alight, light a
fire (gen.).||aa n ba O ’aa the Cjimelthorn tree is burning, n a n ||ua |’aa
|a O ’a a -sa I refused to light the fire.
O ’ai (ka) be hot, bum, burned (cf. ||ao, ka kubi). Il’an n ka O ’ai the sun is hot.
O ’ale-sa 0 ’€0.v L (pi.) bum, set alight, light a fire (gen.) (cf. O ’aa (sg.), ||naha,
O ’ant 2 II children, pi. of Oaa.
O ’bo ((ti)) (n) be stiff or cramped (cf. Inalo, ||ya). h ’Onaha n O ’bo ti ke
lla’U my body is stiff with cold (cf. OhUU -OhUU, Onuu -Onuu).
|v to l§htn 53

|V L alienable possessive particle.

|V H question panicle. |e |Ti is he here? |1 n b a t^SL fi s‘l h ||qhua b a t%a
lit. if we understand, if we do not understand, i.e. whether we understand or not.
|a a - s a |e p a 2 ll move, move off, move a little way off.
|a a - t e 3 II man’s personal name.
|aa-*Sl 3 II woman's personal name,
|a a ts’an II’ae 3 II woman's personal name.
|a a 2 n n -t e 2 n II 1. plant with swollen underground organs (tuber, corm, bulb).
2. above ground growing parts of such plant, tendrils (cf. dana).
|§a -sa jaV L not to partake of, withhold from taboo food, be stingy. Oaje O ’ani
tan j^a |fl ka animals which I withhold from eating, n a n |§e
OaJe fll Iqahe I have not taken part in hunting for meat, n ja |§ a -sa my
taboos, n a n j^a |au ||naa Gan I have not smoked since sleeping.
kV+ dative kV+ object be stingy, mean . n a h |aa ke ka ’aa -sa I have
been stingy to him with food, taa ta’be’e eh n x6o |al |nyi ’ahn Oqou
’ahn qhaa fui ’ahn H’ai ’ahn fii ’ahn +xam ’ahn this man, he
^^^thholds from eating springhare and wildcat and caracal and bat-eared fox and steenbok
and gemsbok.
tShxaa 2 II -te 2 II a species of beetle {Coleoptera Geotrupidae Bolboceras).
|aa 2 u II women (cf. taa qae (sg.)).
|a ’a - s a ja ’V H put aside, store (cf. jnui).
|a’a ’Inahn 3 II woman's personal name.
Iq I 1 II jftba-te 4 II lion (Panr/iera/eo), pride of lions (in the pi.),
jahl [fihi] 1 II lahba-te 4 ii dim: (ka-)|ahl -ba/Oaa (sg.) aardwolf
{Proteles cristatus).
|ai jl Ihuli 1 n |aj |U !hulu-te 4 II housefly {Diptera Hippoboscidae)
|ai Igui 3 II a pan southeast of Lone Tree, lit. lion's breastbone.
|a1a kV restrain, pacify, console, scold, (cf. !gae, ta h ’O, |nehe).
|a la |ua 3 n woman's personal name.
I4h’le 3 I |§ ’n - s a 2 I phalanges.
jail kV bother, annoy, irritate, trouble (cf. ||xal).
|§li1 n jalu-te 4 ii dim: ka-|ali-ba/Oaa (sg.) (ka)-jalu-te O ’ani (pi.)
Blue wildebeest (Gnu) (Connochaetes taurinus). |a1i G aa lit. baby wildebeest, i.e
\k\\ Ifhm a 2 II Sand quick grass (Schmidtia pappophoroides Steud.). It is eaten by the
IftMl 1 n |§’IU-te 4 II tongue of a snake or lizard. ’+nftli 1§’1I flick the tongue (as a
jah’li kV seal into a burrow or hole to prevent escape (e.g. a Springhare, Bat-eared fox,
Black-backed jackal, mongoose (cf. +gu’u, jguu).
I§hm 1 II jahma-te 4 n Violet-eared waxbill {Uraeginthus granatinus).
54 l^hm loo xoo to |6ha

Ifhm loo xoo/|9hm loo loo variamof Igho loo xoo.

I4hm lull 3 11 - t i 3 11 piniailcd wydah (Vidua macroura), shafliailed wydah (Vidua regia).
The long tail feathers are referred to as “to k a I’a a 2 e II long vaginas.
|ama (kV) shiver (from)» tremble* shake, shudder (cf. 4g§nf, tg^na, nabu, Inahnt
|a*ITll-|a*ml(-S0) Scalyfeathered fmch (Sporopipes squamifrons)
(cf. |q’aml-|q*aml-s6, |q*um-|q*um-se).
loni (n/ba) stupid, crazy; also used in the sense of "superlative". *aa -sa |e Okx’Ube
ah h |§m lit. the food’s deliciousncss is crazy i.e. the food is really delicious.
|4vn-ka 3 n man's personal name.
|an |6a 3 n man's personal name.
|an 3 e II A shrub. White Bauhinia, Tsw. Motshentshe (Bauhinia petersiana Bolle Subsp.
Macrantha (Oliv.) Brummit & J.H . Ross). The seeds are roasted.
|a’n >[|an] there (cf. |e’e).
lah’n -sa |ah’r/ L wait for (cf. qhoh’e).
lah’ni (ka) unpleasant smell of meat or blood of snakes, carnivores and humans. Oaje n
ka lah’ni the meat stinks,
lahjia (n) red(M un sellG l,2,40,H 2,Fl-3,39,40),crim son ,orange (cf. ||nQhba,
Qhba). ^
l^hO 1 II -to 4 II Bam owl (Tyto capensis) (cf. jq^hO).
|a ’6 > [ I’ao ] - s a |a ’BV H load up and carry with straps over the shoulders. |gah i-SI
n b a |a ’m a ts h x a a the dung beetle "straps on” dung.
|aho kV fill, increase, enlarge (cf. ||ali, ’+nuhn). InubI 1hi, Hgole, +qhun, |nylo
Uh n b a |ahO k© ||a a |a q ^ l- s a SolanumcoccineumJacg.,Scrophulahaceae
Aptosimum sp., Boscia albitrunca , Curcurbitaceae Acanthosicyos Naudinianus. increase
the poison's power.
|au 2 II (possessed) / |au 3 1 (alienated) |a a 2 II (possessed) / |a a 3 I (alienated).
1. name (inal.). 2. tail, sacrum (cf. glqhUU ), llnaa |au end section of a springhare
hunting stick., |au |*am coccyx, tip of the tail. 3. anal area.
|au llnaa 2 n ii dim: (ka-)lau ||naa Oaa (sg.) tobacco(cf. g+kx’ana). |au
llnaa |i Iq’ua i ii snuff.
|ehe k v owe, be indebted to (cf. due laa). tu’u n ba |ehe k1 s1 ka’a a -s a
these ones owe us food.
|ehe-|ehe k v tamp in.
|a’e > [|ee] there, var. of |a’n.
|TI and what (io, if» when? [T! ku n ke eh and what indeed could it be ? |TI te’e
te’e eh h |l I and if this one says he is here. \}\ ah sli fll when/if you have come
fll bc(stative. copulative formative) (cf. II’aa(neg.)). eh n fll he is present, he is here,
eh |a fll-sa her presence, n a Ijqhua |nau fli I have not seen them, n fll
lit. I am with it, i.e. I have it.
|6ha 2 n I (alienated) -te 2 n II (possessed) innards, bowels, stomach (cf. ||kx’an,
llnam s a ’a,lguh’u). |nanu |uha-te lit. iron bowels, i.e. chain (cf. tshae
ni I). |6h*a -qae-tu 4 II moist faecal matter (in the reticulum and omasum).
loh’a to |yha 55

|6ha -te ^a-tu 4 II dry, compacted faecal matter (in the abomasum), ah ri ka
ba te’e |oh’a qae-tu ah h ba ||nahe ka tshxaa ta ka ta’u ka
if you say |oh’a -qae-tU you are talking about bitter faeces.
|oh’a var. of |oha.
|6hbe kV dip into ( as meat into gravy) (cf. Iqahm SOlO).
|ohbe 2 II -te (edible) breast flesh of a bird (e.g. of Igue vulture, g||qhule guinea fowl,
SU’U Redcrested Korhaan, ||aba Black Korhaan, Inuu Kori Bustard).
|6h’ma 2 I -te 2 I dry grass used for tinder or as a filter (cf. ||kx’aa qae).
|b’na 2 II -t e 2 II possessed / |o ’na 3 I (alienated sg./pL)pectoral muscle (pectoralis
|oho (kV) finish (cf. xali, llkx’ala).
|bhO 2 II -t e 2 II sore, wound, leprosy (cf. thua, XUe).
|6hO kV follow after, behind
|bhO kV catch in cupped hands, take politely (<Nharo) (cf. O g a h ’a , ||guu-||guu,
^ IlguHllgui).
|bhO -|bhO 3 II “ te 3 II the caterpillar of Combretum collinum Fresen.(?) (+qhau) or
the hairs of this caterpillar.
|oh’6 (ka) sweet (adj.).
|blO (n) be late, delayed, to stay away, eh a tshUU te |6lO she sat for ages.
iQhO l00-X0/-se a star that rises in the southern sky in winter and is associated with the
cold south wind glxa’u (cf. ||xona). iQho !oo-xb |a ||ona-te +num h ka
ba O ’a i ||’ai, |ahi, !ao-se s u ’u + ’e ||aba uh n ba dzaba-ta
when the two stars bum, the Bat-eared fox, Aardwolf, Black-backed jackal and
Red-crested Korhaan and Black Korhaan get emaciated (through malnourishment).
Iqu (ki/ti) lack, be without (also of relatives) (c f. ’+naha, ||’aa, +gum, Iqhaa).n
k'l Iqu ka |au ||naa I lack tobacco, n fl |QU lamrelativeless.
|ua (kV) >[|6a] pass by, go by, go round, overtake; also a formative in many personal names.
’au |ua ll’am go round this way and take it. s1i |ua next (cf. lahle).
|ua - s a >[lba] |uv H hold, grab, grasp, catch hold of (+sg. object); hold etc.
collectively (+pl, object), e.g. a number of objects in one hand (cf. lau (pi.)), fua
than! take hold of the things (together), lama thani take hold of the things
(separately or repeatedly). |ua dtshale kV tear off. |ua |naa-sa, |UV + sg. obj.
|nav + dat. pass to, give (cf. !au |naa-sa ( +pi.obj.)). |ua ’a a -s a |nan
pass food to me. |ua Onuu kV squash by hand.
|ua -|u a (h) be fertilized (of an egg) (cf. + x a i-+ x a i) ^ 9^ ^ ^ 1^^ ”1^^ H* the
egg(s) is fertilized,
|ya -sa |yv h look at (cf. In^a, +ee).
|ya - s a jy v H sew.
luh'a 3 I large number of eland, herd of eland (cf. O a a ).
lyha (kV) useless, lazy, indigent (sg.) |yha -te (kV) (pi.) (cf. ’||nahe). n kan |yha
I am useless,worthless, ka |yha 3 II uselesness, worthlessness, ah |e ka
lyha your uselessness, thaa |yha nna it is a useless thing, kull jyha a
useless or bad year with deaths, famine, no rain, eh |q’an n ka |yha lit. his heart is
56 |ye to |g9h)-si'

useless, i.e. he is stingy. Also used to refer to a poor hunter.

|ye 3 1 possessions, wealth (al.) (c f. +kx’al, ||’ai, la e )
|Qhl kV beg, request, ask for (not specifically food) (cf.Gaha, ||gaa).
lyja 2 e II -te 2 u II the skin of the bulb of Crinum Foetidwn Verdoorn (|nue). It is used
to seal knots in a drinking straw, or as a protective spacer between ostrich eggshell beads.
lu’Je llgaba 2 ii -te 2 ii species of raptor.
|uhll I n n |llh1u-t6 4 u II dew, condensation. |llhlt n ba ||n§a dew spills.
I'uhm 1 II I'uhma-te 4 n owl without tufts (cf. gulu kuu gu’u , +’abe-1e).
|u’m (kV) cooldown (also of anger), cool (tr.). dtshum |u’m blow cool. Also to lose
potency of poison, t a a eh n k a b a ’a a ’a a - s a ||a a s i b a |u’m
O a je O a a s1 b a !nua if a person (i.e.the hunter) should eat food (after shooting
an animal) the poison will cool down and the animal will live,
liima 2 II -te 2 ii dim: ka-|uma-ba (sg.) ka-|uma-te/-m O ’anI (pi.)
Python {Boidae Python sebae) (cf. f qhuu). |uma ’S Iqhaa |a nna ma n ka
ba sii + ’e Iqhaa si ba ylu kf !nau tshoe si ba +gam te Iqhaa
tshoe the python is the rain's (thing) because when it comes with the rain it goes into the
pan and grows in the water, taa n ka ba qajia |uma eh n ba Iqaba; eh
n llqhua ba Iqaba Iqhaa n ||qhua ba iaa if a person kills a python he
ritually sprinkles water, if he does not ritually sprinkle water, the rain will not fall.
|unl-nf 3 II -te 3 II gonorrhoea.


Igaa kV shelter from, n n Igaa ke ^qh^e fli I am sheltering from the wind.
Igaa -sa |gav H work, use, send. Igee taa ke send the person to him.
Ig aa 2 i work (n.), use (n.). eh ja Ig a a his work, n h Ip a a k a jg a a it has
no use.
Igah ’a 2 e il -te 2 u ii dim: k a -|g a h ’a - m a (sg.) k a - |g a h ’a - m /te
O ’ani (pi.) a species oih\ds:ktAMQ^ni{HymenopteraFormicidaeCarnponotus).
Igah’a 2II -te 2 II mat of branches (e.g.for meat).
Igaha kV tarn (sg.)/taa (pi.) try, exert oneself.
Ig fh ’a - k a 3 ii -t e 3 II mature male steenbok.
|g§ha (ka) 3 II stench of faeces or very rotten meat (cf. g|kX*aa). tShxaa n ka
Ig^ha the shit stinks, tshxaa |e jg^ha the stench of shit.
Igabe-te 3 n the trickster (a mythical man), a joker (c f. +naa bli). |g§be-te taa
qaa nna. eh a qaa n ke taa. eh qaa n ba !ahi su tuu |qhii -is
a man of long ago. He was a man long ago. Lx>ng ago he went around telling people lies.
Ig^e (ka) 3 II a pan lO km. north of Lone Tree.
Ig lh l (ka) green (MunsellH13-20,C15-19,F16, 17), blue, turquoise.
Igah ’l [Ig3^] excel, do well.
Igahi-S! 1 ll |g a h m - s a / - s a - t e 2 il dim: k a - |g a h i - s i - b a (sg.)
beede (gen.), dung beetle (spec.) (Scarabacidae Pachylomera). ||aa |i |gahi-s(
Igala to Ig b o -se 57

poison beetle (diamphidiae simplex) (cf. |G§hn-SI).

Igala 3 ii-te 3 ii dim: |galu-ba 3 ii(sg,) IgaluO’anI 2 ii(pi.) a species of
plant eaten for moisture (Convolvulaceae bulusiana Schinz. subsp, bolusiana). Also
referred to as Oh an sani duiker pre- or sub-orbital gland. It blackens the tongue and
lips, eh s a ’a be Igala his face is black with dirt.
jgah^la (n) widely separated as forked branches or nostrils, eh |nuhJia-te ri jgah^la
its nostrils are wide apart, tuu |nuhjia-te ah n |gah1a xabeka Iqhuu-te
|a ah h Oqhu’u people's (i.e. Bushmen) nostrils are wide apart but white people's
are close together.
jgale 3 I jgan-sa 2 i dim: jgalu-ba/Oaa (sg.) jgaluO’ani (pi.) a truffle
whose spores have matured and turned black. This is mixed with Hgole
(Scrophulariaceae Aptosimum) and administered to the temples as an antidote to arrow
poison in the eyes.
jgile 3 I |g4n-sa 2 ii dim:|g4lu-ba (sg.) lg§lu-te 0*anl(pi.) Darkling
beetle (Coleoptera Tenebrionidae Gonopus). Women spit on it and throw it between their
legs in order to prevent the onset of menstruation. As with the toktokkie beetle, its knocking
signifies the end of the rainy season.
Igam (ka) sourish taste of the leaves of ||no’li sp.), ||kX’an {Rhus
tenuinervis), ^qh ae (Terminalia sericea Burch), and the berries of jjnaa
{Grewia flava) and Ia1 (Ziziphus mucronata)(ct ’jna’m, ta’U, qa’U).
jgam-lgam (n) variant of jgam, sourish tasting
|g§m 1 II (sg. andpl.) Sipccits of phniiCrotalariadamanensis Engl.?).
Iga’m (n) fresh (of meat).
Igan 1 II jgaba-te 4 II identifying mark , territory mark associated with the rutting
behaviours of animals (cf. tsaa, ||a1, sam).
Iga’n -sa jga’jv l bend (cf. Iqhum).
Igana 2 n I -te 2 n I leaf, labia.
Iganl-se 3 II -te 3 II Kalahari robin {Erythropygia paena).
Igah^ni kv |gah’o -sa (nom.) hide, conceal (pi.) (cf. Igah’o).
Igao 2 II - t e 2 II fold of fat below the jaw (of a gemsbok, duiker, calf).
Igah’o “S a Igah ’B V M hide, conceal, also fill in a hole (sg.) (cf. Ig ah ’ni (pi.),
Igau -Igau spit (of the rain) (cf. gjxa’ll, dts’kx’au-dts’kx’au)
I99 U |g§BV H prevent water from spilling, from e.g. a bucket by placing small branches on
the surface.
Igahu (ll’ae) 3 I jgahu jj’ae-te 3 I dim: ka-||gahu-ba/Oaa 2 l(sg.)
ka-lgahu-te O ’ani 2 I (pi.) SecrciaryhM (Sagittarius serpentarius).
IgoMa Igo’Lv M to have obstructed labour, taa qae ah n Igo’le Oq§a the
woman, she has obstructed labour with the child.
Igbo k v distribute, share out (cf. lUU, +Ul).
Igoo 1 II Ig u n -sa 4 II a giver, a generous person (cf. Iq h a a ). kl |g 6 o /k V |g 6 o
be generous, ah h kl/ka |gbo you are generous.
Igbo-se 3 II gifts.
58 Igoo-lgbo to |guu

Ig00-|gb0 honorific for thunder to bring on rain (cf. |nuhlu, baba tShOG, labe ||nUU
Igb’O ka (ka) kv cause a stinging sensation, irritate (cf. dtshxa’a). ts’kx’aje n
ba ka Igb’o kan !’ua-te the smoke irritates my eyes.
IgQhO 1 II -te 4 II species of grass (Anthephora pubescens Nees-form.). The seeds are
Igua 3 I Igum-te 2 i dim: |guu-ba/Oaa (sg.) mat (cf. tahu).
Igiia 3 n-te/|gum -te 3 ii misfortune, accident, speii. ||ahl ko llgua |nee taa
wish misfortune on a person.
Iguh'a/lguh’T -sa |guh*V M lie on (e.g. a mat). Iguh’a (intr.) lie, be spread out, line
a nest (cf. Iguh^l). sa ’bi ih h IgOh’a tuu the blanket is lying spread out.
Igyha 2 li -te 2 II 1. carnivore 2. any killer of humans such as poisonous snakes.
Igube kv break bones (with a stick), ah n ba qaf Igube kb you are smashing it
Igye 3 I frosted, i.e. inedible, berries of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata (lai),
Grewia retinervis (gOqhbo), Boscia alhitrunca (+qhun) or the fruit of Acanthosycios
naudinianus (||an). lai |e |gue Ziziphus mucronata berries.
Iguh’e +qalO 3 II -te 3 II Brubm shrike (M/ai« a/<?r), lit. spread out the warmth. The
belief is that it makes the sun get hot.
Igul 2 II -to 2 II dim: ka-|gul-ba/0aa (sg.) breastbone. This is taboo food except
for senior males.
Igul khoe 2 II -te 2 II a |gui Bushmen. |gui (kV) to speak the Igui language.
Iguh’T be spread out, e.g. a skin or blanket (cf. Iguh’a). s a ’bi ih n Iguh’T tUU the
blanket is lying spread out. Iguh'e +qalO spread out in the sun to warm up.
|gu1u-be 3 II -te 3 II queen bee, queen ant.
Igym l II |gyma-te 4 II (marginal pi.) Monkey Bulb, a species of sedge {Mariscus
chersinus N.E. Br.), The stems are eaten raw for moisture. §a, ~ qae varieties of the
Igu’m -sa Igu’BV L l. extinguish a fire 2. diy up of a sore (get better) or a liquid, i.e.
evaporate ( c f.’Idqo). Also to shut the eyes. ||qhua Igu’rn don't shut (your) eyes.
Iguma -sa IguBV l know.
Iguma-te man’s personal name.
Iguhm sv mb, smear, n n ba Iguhm san tarn ke saa -sa i rub myself with
s a a - s a . n n ba Iguhm s i |xai ke s a a -s a lit. i mb the snare with
s a a - s a , i.e. I rub myself with s a a - s a to bring me luck with my snare.
Iguna 2 ii -te 2 n a profusion of gum. ||qhaa +’e lula n ka ||all-sa ba qa’I
ka qaa Tsi n ba te’e Iguna if an acacia mellifera or acacia luederitzii produces
a lot of gum we say it is |guna. lula |a Iguna an acacia luederitzii's profusion of
Igu’ni/lgu’ll/lgu’n be constipated, produce dry faecal droppings (cf. jGO’la). ah n
+’au ku ba ’il gOqhb5 ah sli ’ee kQla ba Igu’ni you eat a lot of
grewia retinervis, you eat it even if you get constipated.
Iguu kv seal a hole (gen.), seal a hole (nest) in a tree to prevent escape (spec.) (cf. +gu’u,
Iguh’u to Ixuma 59

lah’ll). Iguu kf guhm ke +qhae(+qhee] seal the hole with Silver Terminalia
Iguh’u 3 I Iguh’a -te 2 I dim: ka-|guh’u Oaa (sg.) Iguh’a -te O ’ani (pi.)
bird (gen.); aeroplane; a person constantly on the move.


|xaa laa 3 II man’s personal name.

|xaa “Sa |xav H l. dance 2. revere 3. menstruate for the first time, also |xaa |nee
sbo lit. dance to medicine (cf. Igaba kf Iqhan, |nal sbo, |nal Iqhan).
4. turn round and round (causing giddiness), hover (as a bird), swing. |xai ^xam
revere the gemsbok (oryx), i.e. dance the gemsbok dance. |xaa ||ona revere the
hedgehog (by eating certain of it’s parts). |xae tahm dance the melon dance (a game).
|xaa kuma dance the halo, i.e. the curing dance. |xal +ai [=fli ] dance the steenbok
(children's game).
|xaa naa 2 Il-te 2 Ildim: ka-|xana-ba/Oaa (sg.) South African hedgehog
{Erinaceus frontalis). It is the animate form of a fallen star. The kidney fat> heart and bile
are powerful medicine against illness (cf. ||ona).
|xai 1 u II |xaba-te 4 u II l. a species of plant, Bowstring Hemp (5a«5ev/ena
aethiopica Thunb.). The leaves are decorticated for fibre; the bulb is a source of moisture.
2. Cord produced from the fibre; string. 3. The snare made from cord. 4, a chain. |xal
Oaa thin cord suitable for snaring birds. |xaba-t6 G ’anl lit. little chains, i.e.
handcuffs. |xai |nan (tshoe) noose of a snare.
|xale 3 II man's personal name.
|xale kV cover the legs with tatoos.
|xall-|xali-se 3 II -te 3 II Woodpecker (gen.) (P/d(iae). The beak movements are
reminiscent of the action of sharpening a knife and they signify the return of a successful
|xan tshbe 2 II |xana(-te) tshba-te 2 ii floating ribs (|xan +’aa is the
lowest rib), flank.
|xan tshbe 3 II man's personal name.
Ixbli 1 II |xblu-te 4 ll kneecap (c f. ’Inyhbi, g||x66 |nan (sa ’a)).
jxbo tsahna var. of tsahna.
lxua-|xua 2 Il-te 2 II septum.
|xul kV apply a death curse.
|xuli 1 II |xulu-te patella, kneecap..
Ixiim kV shave off, amputate, shear (cf. ka dthui (intr.)).
Ixuma 2 II (possessed)/ 2 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) back
muscle, erctor spinae , flesh of the back.
Ixuma 1 II -t6 4 II dim: ka-|xum-ba /-ma 2 ii (sg.) ka-|xum O ’ani (pi.)
2 iitatoo (cf. ||aa, qu’m).
60 glxaa ts’ee to Ikx'bo


g |x a a t s ’e e the sound of snapping.

g|xa*a kv splatter, glxa’a ka +nau remove droplets from, n n ba glxa’a ke
hampe i am splattering water on the shirt. g|xa’a ka >^nabe Iqhaa ke
hampe splatter out water from the shirt, i.e to diy it.
glxal |nav spit at (as provocation or for ritual purposes in order to heal).
g|xa*la ts’ee/g|xa’li ts’ee sound of rattling (e.g. seeds in a pod),
glxa'ii rain lightly, spit (of rain) (cf. Igau-lgau,dts’kx’au-dts’kx’au). Ikx’oe
eh n tshoa g|xa’Ii the rain it is starting to spit.
g|xa’m-ba/-be > [glxa'’m:a],[g|xa’m:e] 3 II -te 3 II Suncmc (Suricata suricatta)
(cf. tsahna, Ixbo tsahna, !ana).
glxani 3 e II -te 3 u II drill for eggshell beads.
glxb’O (n) long (of teeth) (cf. ||§0).
glxiii - s a g |x u jv l g|xuje 3 (nom.) swear at, insult (cf.k a ’a. dzao).
glxu’i 1 II g|x u’a - t e 4 II species of It is a harbingerof death, like the
crowned plover.


|kx*aa 2 II (possessed)/Ikx’aa 3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/|kx’aa-te 3 I

(alienated) dim: ka-|kX*aa-ba/Oaa hand, arm, wrist, front paw or front leg of an
animal, strap, handle, branch with leaves. *+n§na - pot handle. lG§na-te
fingers, bones of the hand. ~ I’UI foreleg joint, i.e. carpus. ~ |nan finger. ~ +nuu
spec, foreleg, front hoof, front paw. All these compounds are 2 II. kV |kx*aa |nan
fu a once, ah |kx’aa-te lit. your hands, i.e. your giving, k v |kx*aa |naa
|num twice, k v |kx’aa |naa ||ae three times, n |kx*aa-te n Gkx’um
my hands arc good. i.e. successful in administering ritual (such as singeing a skin to assess
the prospects of rain), or treatment (such as rubbing someone with the sweat of the armpits
to cure an illness).
Ikx’a e visit away from one’s home village, n n ’|nehe jk x 'a e sli I have just now
arrived on a visit.
Ikx'aje 3 I Ikx’am 2 l dim: |kx'au-ba/Oaa (sg.) |kx*am/|kx*au O ’ant
(pi.) antbear {Orycteropus afer).
|kX*an-Sl l II dim: (ka-)|kx’an-si O aa (sg.) notch in the airow for the
bowstring, point of insertion into the linkshaft of the arrow.
Ikx’oe 3 II -tu 4 II k a -|k x ’o e - b a 2 II sharing partner, friend. |kX’oe
’|nan friend's wife (avoidance category).
|kX*6o kv show respect, reserve, avoidance towards (cf. xau).
|kX*bo 1 e II Ikx’ba -te 2 n/u II dim: ka-|kX’bo -ma/Oaa (sg.) charcoal.
glkx’aa to jqa’m 6i


gjkx’a a (ka) smell of faeces or rotten meat (cf. Ig^h a).

glkx’a a k v chase, chase after, hunt (c f.|’aa,||n u u ).
g|kx’a a -k u 2 ll - t e 2 ii small branch (cf. n§u, tq h u e, g |k x ’abu).
glk x ’abu 2 II - t e 2 II small branch, rootlet (cf. g |k x ’a a -k u , D9 U, +qhue).
glkx’an 2 i g|kx’a n a -t e 2 n stalk, flower bearing part of a plant, tap root of a tree
or plant (cf. lanu), woody part of a root,
glkx’a o kv reject, abstain from, keep one's distance from e.g. food or a person
(cf. '!nuhl,||ua). n n k a b a |qhua t a a eh h k e q a jia eh n
llqhua IJam b a t§n n dl b a g|kX 'ao ke if I speak to a person (and) he is
angry (and) he does not listen to me properly then I keep my distance from him.
glkx'ap the sound of grass being tom off by grazing antelope.
gjkx’uM - s a gjkx’u’JV H lick food off (cf. lou’ l).
glkx’ii’le - s a gjkx’u’LV L gnaw meat off a bone, n ri tsh o a glkx’u’n a ^ a a
n n llqhua tsh o a ’e e O a je I am (just) gnawing a bone; I am not eating meat.


Iqaa kV rub on fat or water with the hand.

Iqab a k v ritual sprinkling of water or urine to bring rain, t'uu ri b a |q a b a ka
llqham bu ri b a c a h a ’||nuha tarn s1 b a t e ’e 1s 1 9 a b e Iqhal
1s1 ke Iqhaa people ritually sprinkle urine because they beg God saying our father
give us water (i.e. rain).
jqaBV M, L (sg.) |q§m O ’ani, Iq § a -ni (pi.) diminutive formative for pronouns, eh
|q § b e little him. ah |q§m /ah Iq ab a little you. ah |qam /ah |q§m a ’a
little it (Class 2). n Iq^m little me. Uh Iq^m O ’anl linie them. 1s1 Iq^lTI
O ’anI little we.
|q§a-ba 5 11 jqfini O ’anl 5 II a small piece.
Iqae [ jqee ] 3 I |qam 2 i dim: ka-|qau-ba (sg.) |qau 0 ’anl/|qam-te
O’ani (sg.) Nama (cf. nama).
Iqah’le 3 I |q §h ’n - s a / - s a 2 II dim ;|q 9 h’lu O a a 3 l(sg.) |q § h ’lu O ’anl 2 I
(pi.) the phalanges of an ungulate (al.).
Iqall kv cut off from, e.g. meat from a bone (cf. ||G9le, ||cyle). n ri ba Iqall ka
fa a I cut (meat off) from the bone.
|q§m invariant dim. sg. morpheme (cf. |q§BV).
Iqahm solo k v dip into, put into (e.g. meat into gravey; tea, sugar, milk into a cup of
water) (cf. |6hbe).
Iqahm |qohle/|qahm johle 3 I - t e 3 I species of cricket. It's call is a sign of cold
weather and it also signifies the onset of the ostrich laying season. It is regarded as the dry
season version of the Bush Katydid OqhOO OCQITll.
Iqa’m > [ Iq’am ] 3 I - t e 3 I species of ant (Hymenoptera Formicidae).
62 I q ih ’m to |Gu1-k‘i

|q«h’in 1 n |q9h’m a -te 4 11 species of bird.

|q«ho variant of |fthO Bam Owl (Tyto alba).
Iqohbi tsh be 2 II Iqohbi t s h b a - t e 2 II hip joint.
Iqoml/lqumI 2 I -t e 2 I mosquito.

|g [N g |]

|oaa be spitad out, dispersed (as game) (cf.

|oa*bU |oa*bU ylu jump into water or slush, splash (cf.tsh xo bu ylU).
|oall 1 II jo a lu -te 4 II a species of tree, Water Acacia, Tsw. Lerwana ( wc/?ro>v/i/i
Burn. Davy). The gum is taboo and eating it leads to malnourishment unless it has been
ritually fed by an elder. The inflorescence is eaten by duiker. The root bark is bound round
the stomach as a treatment for diarrhoea,
leal! 1 n |GalU-te 4 II pins and needles (paraesthesia), cramp, numbness (cf. GQle).
lo all; eh n ’au k a oble remove the pins and needles; it tingles like this,
lo a ll-se 3 II - t e 3 n a species of plant ( Ornithogalum amboense Schinz.). The bulb is
eaten for moisture and the leaves are pounded for moisture.
|oam kV cany a child on the back,
loahm kV mix fat into meat.
|Gaml 3 n -t e 3 n wooden scraper for pulping tubers,
jofhm iGQhle var. of|q§h m IqQhle.
|G§hn-Sl 1 II dung beetle, beetle (Lokalane dialect var. of |g § h l-sf).
|g § o wail (cf. glkx’a a ) .
|Gau 1 II (-te ) 2 II (marginal pi.) altocumulus cloud (cf. S§U).
|g § u Igya 2 II -t e 2 li movie (cf. b a ls - k o p o ,’||nbha)
|Gbe 3 II -t e 3 II phlegm (cf. ’||nohn).
Ig q II 1 II |GQlU-te 4 II a rash.
|Go*1a-sa |g o *l v m be constipated f r o m n a n |GO’le jqhoba fll
I am constipated from ledebouria .
iGOhli 1 II |GQhlU-te 4 II sXtndtr mox\%oost {Galerella sanguinea) (cf. t s ’a a - t e ,
t s ’a a §a).
loblo growl (cf. Inahna).
iGO'na 2 II be very long, tall, deep. |nyl |e dzuhe eh n m a Ico^na the
springhare burrow is very long.
|g o O - S a |g OBV M squeeze out moisture with a milking movement, e.g. removing
moisture from the Inoh’n -si "sponge” (cf. tshxbm , tsh xou, Iq’iim).
|Gye 3 II |Gym -te 2 I dim: |G yu -ba 3 I(sg.) |cuu 0*an l 2 I (pi.) omen,sign,
portent, such as an itchy glabella, hiccoughs, the unwinding of a strip of wet bark on a
stick, n tsh o a ||n§e |oye I am seeking a sign.
|gu1 i n |GUa-te 4 II l. Redheaded finch {Amadina erythrocephala)^trM?
Weaver (Ploceus intermedius).
|GUl-k1 3 II woman's personal name.
Igu’I to Iqhua 63

|gu ’I > [|q’ui] Igu ’JV H lick, clean gravey from a pot with the fingers (cf. Iq’Ul, g|kX’UM).
loy’T-sa 2 n |oy’T i ii sob. eh n ba kx’aa |oy’T she is crying with a sob.
|oyhbi-si 2 II -te 2 II tassle e.g. of a bag.
loylj kV dissolve by sucking in the mouth, suck.
|o'yp llhuu sound made when someone jumps and lands on the feet (cf. ^GUhp)
|guu nuu 2 I -te 2 I be weaned (cf. \\im). O q § a te'e eh h ka |guu nuu
be qae n |qhum fll this child is weaned, its mother being pregnant.
|GyhU I’UU have a collection of excess saliva in the lower pharynx. This is a sign to the hunter
of an imminent shot at one's prey, n ’nam Iqhaa n a |GUhU |’uu ka man
[man] dtshan ’|nym my saliva is splitting my throat, n ’|nym ah n ba
||aO n h ba sua n a |GUhU |'UU my throat bums, I itch, I have saliva in my


Iqhaa kV plane (vb.), pare off pieces (cf. G|qhaa, +xai)

Iqh aa (ka) var. of Iqhee.
Iqhaa -sa jqhav H put on (a necklace), put around (cf. ||aa).
Iqhaa -sa |qhav H build, smear poison on an arrow.
Iqhaa (kV) to be lean, i.e, lacking fat. eh n ke jqhaa he is lean.
Iqhaba tShUU sound of a light object falling down (sg. or pi) (cf. |qhobU tshUU, |’UbU).
Iqhaba ||’UBV place softly, kx’ua Iqhaba fall down gently.
Iqhai [jqhii] 1 II jqhaba-te dim: |qhai-ba/Gaa (sg.) buffalo (Syncerus caffer),
Iqhala kV chop off pieces (cf. Oqhala). Iqhala ka dtshale cut something in a
vertical orientation (cf. +qhal6).
Iqhale/lqhall kV chop off meat, cut off meat (cf. +qha1e)
Iqhan 2 n ll (possessed) / |qhan 3 i (alienated) Iqhaa 2 u II / Iqhaa 3 I
(alienated) lower leg, metatarsal of an ungulate, jqhan sa’a shin, eh n ke
Iqhan sa ’a he/she is over sexed,
jqha’pa ||gae 3 II woman's personal name.
Iqhee (ke) 3 II raw, fresh; well-covered or heavy when applied to a person. Gaje n
ke Iqhee the meat is raw. h je Iqhee its rawness,
eh a n jjao Iqhee he roasted (when) raw. eh a llabe eh h ke Iqhee
he roasted it when it was raw (cf. Iqhaa).
Iqhl I walk (pL), regularly walk about (sg. subj.) (cf. Inaa (sg.)). Inaa jqhl I walk about
Iqhoba 3 e,u, II species of plant (Ledebouria sp.). The bulb and leaves are edible
(cf. foh a).
Iqhbbu tshuu var. of Iq h aba tshuu.
Iqhblu k a 3 II -t e 3 II Greater Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandaius).
Iqh0h*5 (ka) (>|gbho) sweet (taste), pleasant (emotion).
Iqhua variant of g|qhua hair, feather, cloud.
64 Iqhua tsh oe to G|qhlipa

Iqhtia tshbe 2 ii colour (inai.). tliu Iqhua tshbe n |ahpa bu bCi

In ^ba-tb the colour of people (i.e. Bushmen) is red being (like) hartebeest.
Iqhua talk (cf. tana).
Iqhube-sa (ka) IqhUBVL squeeze, squash to extract moisture. !ao ka |qhube
squeeze by massaging (e.g an orange).
Iqhujo 3 I Iqhum-te 2 I dim: |qhuu-ba (sg.) |qhuu-m/|qhuu
Oaa/Iqhuje O ’anI (pi.) l.bee. 2. honey (sg.). Iqhuje S§a honey.
IqhUlU kV >[|qholu] slurp; slurp water from an egg; suck moisture through a small puncture
in a Gemsbok cucumber (||an).
IqhU’lU-kU 3 e II - t e 3 u II species of plant {Cucurbitaceae Corallocarpus bainesii
(Hook.f.) A. Meeuse). The berries and stems are edible.
IqhQm jkx’aa 2 ii -te 2 ll dim: |qhum |kx’aa-ba/|qhuu oaa (sg.)
deep, narrow bag or sack.
IqhUl kV drive, rush, hurry (tr.) (cf. tSOhU-tSOhU).
Iqhum -sa IqhuBV H be pregnant (with) (cf. gllkx’ou ,+’au |li (euph.), Ilnau
(euph.)). eh n Iqhube Oqaa she is pregnant with child.
IqhUU 3 I Iqhum-te 2 I Wolf Spider (Araneida (Arachnida )Lycosidae Lycosa?).
Iqhuu-Oaa is also applied to the Social Spider (Arachnida Eresidae).
Iqhuij 2 II -m/-te 2 ii dim: ka |qhuu-ba/|qhuu-ma/Oaa (sg.)3 ii


glqhabu (ka) shaggy-haired, glqhalf n ka glqhabu the brown hyena is

glqhali l Il-te 3 II brov/nhycn^i (Hyaena brunnea) ( c f.’jnllU, g+qhUU-ba).
glqhua/gjqhua 2 II -te 2 II l. hair, feather 2. cloud 3. Pula (currency of Botswana)
(cf. Iqhua). Iqhaa glqhua-te §a-tu light, whispy clouds; Iqhaa
glqhua -te qae-tu heavy , well-developed rain clouds.
glqhUU i n n -te 4 u II 1. tuft, tail hairs (al). 2. fly whisk.
g|qhubl-si/-sa 2 ll -te 2 ll eyelash.

Gjqh [Nolqh]

G|qhaa var. of Iqhaa.

0|qha5 yLV pm into, e.g push an object into a bush; walk into branches (cf. OqhOO UlU,
Xau). OlqhaO Ig a’O throw into e.g. e.g. the ritual of throwing antelope droppings
into the Commiphora africana (||aa |a a ) bush,
olqhbo m aa 2 II - t e 2 II species of plant (ledebouria sp.). The tuber is edible when
clqh'ujia rub off. olqhupa ka ’^nala rub off, rub out (e.g. caterpillar hairs from the
|q*ae-se to |ham-|ham 65


Iq’a e - s e 3 II man's personal name.

Iq’am var. of Iqa’m.
Iq’am i-lq ’a m i-s e var. of |q’um -|q’u m -se
Iq’an 2 II (possessed)/ Iq’an 3 I (alienated) Iq’aa 2 II / |q’aa 3 I dim:
k a -lq ’a n -m a (sg.) Iq’au O ’ani (pi.) heart. ~ n O k x ’um be happy; ~ n
b a kX’ua be wom out, unconscious; tShO© ||’a a hate; ~ Iq’an n I’Ul be
impatient; ~ n +x6T-SI impetuous, fierce; iDOlI SV ~ to cause someone to become
sullen; withdrawn through anger, IqhaBV ~ lit. be sick with the heart, i.e. behave badly,
eh h llqhua b a !naa ke |q^an koo k a 'a lit. he isn't walking with his
whole heart, i.e. he is walking weakly.
Iq’an +ue 2 ii Iq’aa +um-sa 2 ii Supra-stemal notch. Iq’an +ue |e ’Onaje
Trigger stick of a snare.
Iq’a n -t a (ka) smaii(pi.) (cf. l’ul(sg.)).
Iq’ii-s a backwards, behind, rear (inal.) (cf. !han-ka).
Iq’blO kV make a small hole. e.g. in a hollow tree trunk when chopping for honey.
Iq’bna 2 II -te 2 II pectoralis major muscle.
Iq’ue 3 II -te 3 II four sticks placed at the entrance and exit of a snare to guide the
approaching animal into the trap.
Iq’ue kv restrict the passage, ah n ka ba Iq’ue ke ah h ba |’u1 ki guhm
when you restrict the passage (i.e. by putting the (Iq’ue) sticks in place), you reduce the
Iq’ue k v brush, clean with a stroking movement, compact the hairs of a fly whisk by
stroking. |q’ue kan s a ’a lit. brush my face, i.e. brush my hair back.
Iq’ul - s a jq’UA^ H lick (var. of jouM).
Iq’Ull 1 I Iq’UlU-te 4 I d im :k a -|q ’ult O a a (sg.) projectile, i.e. arrow, bullet, spear.
Iq’um kv l . soften a skin by twisting and wringing. 2. squeeze out moisture (with a milking
movement). 3. wash by rubbing, e.g. clothing.
Iq’um -lq’u m -s e II -te 3 n Scalyfeathered finch {Sporopipes squamifrons).
jq’un (|nav) make a noise (at) (cf. I’ae , t s ’oo). t a a q a e tan n b a |q ’un jnaa
k a ’llnahm fua nna the woman i am shouting at i s ’l|nahm |ua.
Iq’u n H q ’u n l-se var. of |q’u m -|q ’u m -se


|haa (kV) track, search for spoor or signs (cf. + e e Iqhaa).

lhabe 3 l |han 2 ii dim: Ih a u -b a / k a -jh a b e -b a / jh a b u O a a (sg.) |hau
O ’anl /|habu O ’anI /|han O ’anl (sg.) hunting bow; musical bow
(cf. Iguma).
lhala k a tshuu fall on to the buttocks (in a sitting position) (cf. iQba).
|ham -|ham k v sieve (vb.), e.g by tossing as with a sieving mat. n h b a
66 lhana n a a to |n aa |ua

|ham-|ham ka f nama +kx ’um ka |au ||naa lit. i am sieving taking out
sand from the tobacco, i,e. I am sieving sand from the tobacco,
lhana naa woman's personal name.
|hao 3 II -te 3 II sack, sacking (cf. ’+nahe, !ao)
|haO - s a |haBV L hold, grab, grasp, catch hold of (+pl.obj.) (cf. H’ao (sg.)). |hao
khala kU take and divide them .
|hee-|hee (k V ’|n§n) make the sound of the [|] dick (with the tongue) (cf. |’a a - |’aa).
|hua 2 n -te 2 II wrist (as a whole), fetlock.
|hua tshbe 2 n |hua tsh b a -te 2 II bangle, watch strap.
|hum kV chew without swallowing (e.g. gum or the sedge mariscus capensis (IgulTi) to extract
|hum see ’a a |hum ti.
|hum 2 n |huma-te 2 II pubes, fat on the rear of the stomach of small carnivores such as
Blackbacked Jackal, Badger, Bat-eared Fox, Aardwolf etc. (c f.tS ’OO) |hum |a f a a
pubic bone.
|huu (n) tired (cf. ||hae). |huu>sa tiredness, n n |hUU flj I am tired.
|hUU kV remove meat with the fingers (e.g. from a pot). |huQ k a ||’a o take a pinch.
|hUU-lhUU 3 II man’s personal name.


jn^’ba kV sift (e.g. maize meal).

|nai k a l. be dispersed, spread out (as game) (cf. |G aa, s a i- s a i) . 2. raise (the eyebrows)
n n b a |nai kan !’u a -t e ||n a n -sa lit. I spread out my eye containers, i.e. I
raise my eyebrows.
In^m te shudder, sbo § a eh n ba |n§m te ka ’^ n fn a ||kx’a a eh h
ba +*aa ka *+n§na ||kx’a a the medicine man shudders when removing the
"medicine", he shoots out the "medicine", ah n ka b a |n§m te kula ||qhua
ba |x a a ’|n b h a-te n ba ||qhaa ka +hai tshoe if you shudder but are
not dancing (the trance dance) (it means that) malevolent spirits are pointing at the back of
your skull.
|n|*ma 2 i -te 2 i species of plant {Brachystelma arnotii Bak.). The tuber is a source of
IniiM Inu’JV H be careful with, conserve, do gently (c f.+ q ’a ’U, q a o -q a o , Iqau ,
I’uT, |a’a). Inu’ja tarn lit. be careful with yourself, i.e. be careful!


|naa kV look into (cf. +naa).

|n a a-S l l 3 II woman's personal name.
|naa |ua 3 II man's personal name.
|naa to |n^hn 67

|n aa |n av L dative formative (benefactive, directional, malefactive). |un |nee pass it to

him +oho k a ’a a - s a |nan buy food for me \i\ n b a ||q h aa |n aa
’O n a a a lion urinates onto trees (i.e. when territory marking).
|n aa - s a |n av H see. |nai [Infi] sb o lit. see medicine, |nai [|mi] Iqhan
lit. see the moon, i.e. menstruate for the first time (cf. ||x a a ). k a |n aa k1 search by
peering about.
|n aa - s i - s a |n aa SV be attracted to.
|naha In'uhm 2 11 -te 2 11 sand excavated from a hole.
|n§ha 2 II |n a h n -sa 2 11 habit (inai.).
|nabu kV pass by, brush past, against soft objects (cf. |n a’m, Ikx’aa ).
|nalj 1 II |nalu-te 4 II tuft of hair (e.g. between a duiker's horns, on an eland's
forehead), forelock. Ohan sa’a |tl |nall lit. a duiker's face's tuft.
|nam k v love (cf. ts a h a , + ’an).
|nahm +*V |nahm a (nom.) 2 11 play with,joke with, have a joking relationship with
(cf. sano). Also in the sense of "hold a curing dance". Uh n b a |nahm they are
playing or they are holding a curing dance (including singing and clapping). Also the
process of curing by laying on hands in the dance. Uh Sihn ||nae I |nahm I
|x a a they shall sing and "play" and dance.
In^m k v + obj. wipe off, dry off (cf. |’b o - |’bo). |n^m k a + k x ’um wipe off the
sand. |n§m k a +ue wipe your mouth! |n^m kV I’Ua -t e wipe the eyes, i.e. rub
the eyes.
|nahm |’ali-s'l 2 II (-k a )-t e 2 11 fibre, e.g. extemal fibre running along the edge of
the leaf of Sanseviera aethiopica Thunb. These fibres must be removed before the leaf is
decorticated for making chord. Also the fibre of Vigna Triloba (|nahn).
|na’m kv pass by, brush past, against soft objects (cf. |n§bu, Ikx’aa). n h k a b a
|ua ke ’O n a je te t s ’k x ’ani ke n n b a |n a’m when i pass a fresh bush i
|na’m k v flatten, push flat (as a herd does to grass).
|nan 2 11 [|n3n] (possessed)/|nan (alienated) 3 I |naa 2 II (possessed)/ |n aa 3 II
(alienated) 1. head (gen.), particularly skull in the alienated fomi. 2. mature fruit
(inal.). 3. tuber, bulb, corm, rhizome. ’+nyli ~ thyroid cartilage, knot (n.). g +q h e e
~ nipple. + k x ’um clod, lump of sand, ^ q h aa ~ arrow head. gllxoo kneecap.
Igul ~ breastbone. |kx ’a a - finger. ||kx’a a - sod of grass. ||am clump of
camelthorns. + ’an ~ glans of penis. ||n aa ~ tip and barb of springhare hunting stick.
I’a a ~ glowing charcoal. !ao ~ hip bone. +xubu-x'u - elbow, g^qhuli |nan
elbow. ~ k a !’ua hard headed, stubborn. +n'uu q a e big toe. |xai (tshoe)
noose. ~ |a + a a or + a a skull.
|n§n (ka) resistant to breaking, e.g. a branch.
Inana ts'e e the sound of jingling, jangling.
Inahna 2 I -t e 2 u 11 pulp, plant fibre, dregs, contents of the rumen. The latter may be
squeezed and the moisture drunk.
|nahn 1 e 11 |n ah n a-te 4 u 11 species of plant (Vigna triloba W alp.l\ fibres of this plant
and of Sansevieria aethiopica. The seeds and tuber are edible.
68 Ina’ni to |nye

jn a’nl kv reject, spum, be unco-operative, resist, refuse to do what is asked, bolo ||xao
n b a [na’nl k a * a a - s a |a + ’a u - s a s a a lit. bolo Hxao refuses to go and
take the food, i.e. spurns the food (cf. g|kX’ao). nbo 111 h b a jn a’ni the truck
refuses to move, start.
Ina’ni k v cry for (as a child for its mother) (cf. iG^i, Iqao).
jnah’nl | a b e 3 II man's personal name
Inanu 2 e ii -to 4 u n metal trap (cf. sela xaa). |nanu |bha -te lit. iron
intestines i.e. chains.
Inajia ||’ae [Insjia H’aee] 3 II woman’s personal name.
Jn^O break, split (of a branch, tree) when still green. ’Onaje a n dtShale |nao the
tree has split while green.
Injiho (n) hairy (sg.) (cf. In^ho k a (pi.)).
|nau 1 II -t e 1/3 II louse scratches
|nau |naBV H scrape a tuber.
|nehe kv restrain (cf. !gae, tah’o, |ala)
Ineh’e kv+dat. kv+obj. > [|ne:] illtreat, be disrespectful, be bad mannered, discard, joke
with (cf. Il’ai-ll’ai, !gyi, !nu’a, dzaa, kx’ao m'lT, ||’ae-||’ae). ’ahiu
Inoh’e lit. do illtreat, i.e. illtreat. |neh’e kV tam lit. discard oneself, said for
example when a person casts themselves down to sleep in the bush without blankets.
Ingba 3 i scum.
Inb’be to dehydrate of Grewia flava D .C . berries (||naa) or meat. ||na& ku ||’a a
Ino’b e the grewia flava berries are indeed just starting to dry out. (cf. HqhOle,
+na’jia, |’6o).
Inoo 3 II man’s personal name.
|noo k a 3 ii man's personal name.
|n6o kv 1. smoothe rope or chord by rubbing off the hairs with a bunch of dry grass
(cf. tsuhn). 2. desire someone intensely.
|n0 h0 |nohV L decorticate the leaves of Sansevieria aethiopica to remove the mesophyll and
extract fibre for cord.
Inghu ka |bho ku 3 u ii fog (cf. ’Inoh’ll).
|nua kv, |niia -|nua kv brush off, dust off, rub the handstogether (as a sign of respect
or to warm them).
|nya 2 II -te 2 II slime, algae.
|nu’a (ka)/(|V) 3 II smell of sexual organs, eh n ka ’|nu’a he smells of eh |e
Inu’a lit. his smell of sexual organs, i.e. the smell of his sexual organs.
|nyb! 2 II -t e 2 ii cheek (bone and flesh).
Inue 3 II -te/|n'um -ka-te 2 ii a species of plant (Crinum foetidum Verdoorn)
(cf. |yja). The pulp is used in the preparation of skins to soften them.
|nye 3 n |nym-te 2 11 night. ~ !xae deep night, i.e. midnight. tshbe !xaa
lit. night’s great centre, i.e midnight. ~ tShbe + ’um lit. core of night’s centre, i.e. the
Milky Way. ~ ||ohn lit. night’s spine, i.e. the Milky Way. O aa-tU lit. the night’s
children, i.e. dusk, nightfall (cf. qahe). - S a ’a g||qha1-si lit. the first portion of
InyT to Inuhu sole 69

the night, i.e. the first stars of the night. ~ |a lao tshoe lit. the pelvis of the night i.e.
|nyi 3 II -t© 3 II the line separating the buttocks from the upper thigh; also the rolls of fat on
the lower buttocks of an infant. These are regarded as a sign of good health, eh n ka
|nyl ka fli she (the infant) is lit. rolls of fat, i.e. is in good condition.
|nyj 1 II |nya-te 4 II springhare {Pedetes capensis).
jnul - s a Inujv L |nuje 3 n imitate.
|n'uja-te 2 n a species of plant (pi. only) {Liliaceae possibly Hexacyrtis or Tricliceras
schinzii). It causes distension when eaten. It is mixed with |an ( fruit of Bauhinia
petersiana ), ’n^n (Cassia italica), the fruit of +xali (Rhus tenuinervis), and the root of
llgaa (Hermannia) for initiation medicine. It is mixed with Onaha to treat sore gums
in teething infants and to prevent weakness from cuts. |nllja-te q a e (Liliaceae
possibly Hexacyrtis). |nuja-te Qa (Tricliceras schinzii)
|nule 3 I Inun 2 I dim: |nulu O a a (sg.) l. stone (gen.)» spec, quaitzite (cf. IqQU).
2. lightning (cf. ||naa,’m ala, tall t s ’ee).
Jnylo 3 II |nyn-sa 2 II the tuber of \\%n (Cucurbitaceae Acanthosicyos Naudinianus
(Sond.) C. Jeffrey). It is used in the preparation of skins for the removal of hair and to add
toxicity to arrow poison.
Inuhiu exclamation addressed to thunder in the distance. Used as a vocative to acknowledge or
bring the rain (cf. Iguu, baba tshee, labe ||nuu ba, |goo-|gbo).
Inum smell (intr.). |num kv smell of, taste of. Iqhaa te’e eh n |num ke Ikx’oe
Iqhaa this water tastes lit. of rain moisture, i.e. of rain water, i.e. this water tastes like
rain water.
|num I II |numa-t6 4 II (marginal pi.) beard, whisker, hairs on an unsmoothed rope
|num tea -sa |num t^v h smell (tr.).
|nu ’m 2 I -te 2 n dim: ka-|nu’m -b a/ -m ^ O aa (sg.) pesde, stamper.
Iniimlkv turn round and round (e.g. twisting or winding up a thong, riem) (cf. donl),
bend back and forth as a piece of wire being broken. 1s? h ka ku tUU s“l ka ba
^ahle qhule s"i ba +ham a tym si ba |numi ka when we who are
people (i.e. Bushmen) make a thong we put up the skin and twist it.
|nunl SV crumble (tr.).
Inuhjia 2 n II (possessed) jnuhjia 3 I (alienated) -t0 2 n II (possessed)
|nuhpa-t6 3 I (alienated) dim: ka-|nuhjia-m a/O aa (sg.) nose, stopper,
cork. - Ilqai spec, nostril. ’|num nasal cavity. ~ tshoe nasal cavity.
|nuu kuma 3 II -te 2/3 II l. amniotic fluid (cf. Iqhaa). 2. a fat female gemsbok.
Inuhu I’uu 1 n,e II a species of sedge with scented roots (Kyllinga alba Nees var. alata
(Nees ) C B .C L ). It is used as a stopper for ostrich eggshell water containers and it scents
the water (cf. |gym, +goo |gym).
|nuu 1 II |nua-td 4 II dim: ka-|nuu-nria 2 II(sg.) porcupine (Hystrix
Inuhu sele 3 II man’s personal name.
70 ’|naa to ’|nQhlo


*|naa kv suit, fit. Ihbo n ’|naa kan [kan] / n h ’jnaa kf Ihbo the hat fits me.
’Inftha 3 II -til 4 II father-in-law, son-in-law, brother-in-law. n ’|naha kan
[kan] tee taa lit. my father-in-law is this one, said as an expression of respectful
gratitude. Avoidance category.
’h i I llqhUU be on hands and knees (cf. IhUU golo, +bhlO).
’|n*l k v / |n a v insult someone by raising the leg and showing off the anus.
’|n im *|nyll kv spit out pips, kernels, pits.
*|nama 2 II -te 2 n thigh muscle {adductor magnus), haunch.
’|n§ma (ka) l blink, wink (cf. ’Ilnohbe, ’|nuhn).
’Inahrn |nule 3 I - t e 3 I a species of plant, Tsw. Moragoamogumahadi (Grewia
avellana Hiern.), The berries are edible and the root is used to treat stomach pain or
diarrhoea; moisture from the chewed root is used to treat eye infection.
’|na*m ( k a ) bitter tasting (cf.|g a m , t a ’u ,+q 4 n ).
’|nan 2 II ’|nana-te 2 II lone female eland (Taurotragus oryx).
’|nan [’|n3n]3 lie -tu 4 liu dim: k a - ’|nan-m a/Oaa (sg.) spouse (wifeor
husband) (inal.).
*|n§n 3 I dim: ’jn ^ lu -b a ’|n4u-n1/’|n § lu -b a (sg.) a species of cucurbit. The tuber
is eaten for moisture. *|n§n til |n a a ah n I’a a bl ’|nQn II’a a these inan
tubers (lit. heads) are far (down) (i.e. deep) because there are no ’jnan.
’|n§n 2 n I ’|nana/’|n aa 2 u i tongue. !oo ’|nan blade of a knife. ’|nan
O a a uvula.
’In a jia [’jnajia] 2 II - t e 2 ll marriage.’ah n a ’In a jia marry, ’ahlu k v +o b j. k a
’jn a jia , |u a ’|n a jia |n a v +o b j. marry obj.
’|nah*0 k v insult verbally, swear at (cf. g|xuj6, d zao ).
’|nee push out. ’|nee k a ’tn ^ le O a a push out a child (as a woman giving birth)
’jnehe 3 n this moment, right now, just now (cf. xbo). ke ’jnehe t e ’e this moment,
now. eh n + ’au ku ’|nehe it (an animal being tracked) is right now i.e. here.
’|ne’e > [’|ne :] grunt with effort as when lifting a heavy weight.
’jnbha 2 ii -te 2 ii 1. spirits of an individual (malevolent) (al.) (cf. ||k x ’UU, sbo
O’anI). 2. movie (cf. jCQU Igya). eh ’jnbha-te n fl1 te Ut. his spirits are in
him, i.e. he is disturbed, badly behaved, eh *ahle tam fll ka 'jnbha -te lit. he
has made himself into malevolent spirits, i.e. he is crazy, possessed, eh n Oan fli ka
’|nbha -te !*a5 lit. he is asleep in the midst of the spirits, i.e he is asleep out in the
’jnbha Iqhan 2 ll *|nbha Iqhaa -te 2 II a species of plant (Jephrosia spX lit.
the spirit's lower leg (cf. qh alo laa).
’jnbha taa / ’|nbha ta’ma earth god (cf. k'uu +be, too-loo Ixae, uhbuku,
’Ijnuha tarn).
’jngbu k a (k a -) nod the head, eh n tsh o a O a n k a ’|ngbu k a he is nodding
off to sleep.
’jnQhlo limp (cf. ’Inuma).
’Ingm to |’aa 71

’InQm-sa *|riQBV H hold pips in the mouth. *|nQm ’+nala spit out pips.
’|ngn (ka) drowsy (of the eyes).
’|ngo evaporate, boil away, die (euph.) (cf. |gu’m). Iqhaa a n ||ao ’|noo the water
has boiled away.
’Inuha taa v a r.o f’|nbha taa.
’jnua 2 n *|nlim-te 2 ii aggression, dispute (cf. 1|n^ha). ’ahna 1nua
be aggressive, cause dispute, taa te’e n +’ama ’|nua be n ba glqhal this
man has aggression, wanting to fight, ah n ba ||*ama ’|nua lit. you take
aggression, i.e. you are aggressive.
’|nya 3 I ’|nyn-sa 2 I sex, over-sexed person, behaviour (cf.
|qhan sa ’a). Uh
n ba tsaha ke ’|nya uh n ba Iqhabe ’|nya si t’kx’au they love with
excessive sex; they suffer from (are sick with) being over-sexed and they copulate.
’|n'ya Iqhan 2 II *|nya Iqhaa 2 II spades of p\mt(Monechnuidivaricatum)
(synonym of qhalo §a)
’|num-te 3 II man’s personal name,
’|num 2 II (possessed)/3 I (alienated) ’|n y m a-te 2 II/3 I (alienated) throat, tube,
ditch, trench, ^nuha auditory canal. ~ |kx’a a oesophagus. ~ O a a oesophagus.
+ g a ’a ~ vagina. Inao - (underground) watercourse. |nuhpa nasal cavity, nostril.
+qhue ~ lit. wind's throat, i.e. wind's speed. All these compounds are 2 II. ^qhU6 ~
n I’ul the wind is gentle (i.e. is a breeze). Iqhue ~ n ||all the wind is strong, n a
h ’+n a la k a ’|num tsh o e lit. I came out of your throat, i.e. I passed across ahead
of you. n ’|nym tsh o e n ||ao fli lit. my throat is burning, i.e. I am about to see
the animal I am stalking.
*|nyhm 2 ii ’|nyhma-te 2 ii prostate gland.
’Inyhn -sa ’|nyhjv m cough up, a cough (nom.). n n ba Inyhje ’||nuhn i am
coughing up phlegm.
’Inyhn wink (cf. ’|nama, ’||nohbe).
*|nuu 1 n ’|nua-te 4 II brown hyena ^rw^w^a) (cf. glqhal i).

|*aa powdered, n n ba xai ka qan h |*aa l grind it to powder, g+kx’aa

qaju uh |’aa lit.grind break them they powder, i.e. grind them to powder.
I’a a 2 II (sg. only) corpse.
I’a a - s a |’aV H chase off, chase away, chase after (cf. g |k x a a , ||nuu). n b a ahn
I’a e [mahn |’e e ] I'll chase him off. n n b a |’a a k x ’ue kan tarn lit. i
chase him off from myself, e.g. when one wants to be alone.
I’aa die, go into trance, get drunk; be broken. ~||kX ’a e death throes. O an |’aa \]\
sleep deeply,
j’aa-l’aa SV finish off a wounded animal.
|’aa-|’aa make the sound of the dental click (cf. |’ee -|ee).
I’aa 2 II I’an-te 2 ll dim: ka-|’aa-ma/|’aa O aa (sg.) I’an O ’ani/
72 I’a a +nuu to I’uja

I’a n a -t e 0*an1 (pi.) fire, firewood, !anu a piece of firewood burnt at one end.
~ O ’ani twigs; - § a fire drill; q a e base fire stick; |nan a piece of glowing
charcoal; ||q haa |n aa ~ urinate on the fire to bring cooling wind and rain. ~ ||9§G
firelight. Iqhan ti ih n m a |’a a bi n k a ’oh ba |’e e this moon is like
fire, being red.
I’a a +nuu 3 II man's personal name (lit. fire foot).
I’a l [ I ’ii] 1 II I’a b a - t e 4 ii dim: k a -|* a l-b a / O a a (sg.) lover (ai.),
promiscuity, any promiscuous relationship. |’a b a - t e |o O q ^ a illegitimate child.
I’a lo 2 n -t e 2 II eyebrow of a human, brow stripe of certain antelopes. !’ul I’a lo
eyebrow, brow ridge.
|*am 2 n I’am a-n V -t© 2 n/u II point, narrow end, tip (e.g. of the tongue, a tree,
a hunting bow (but not a knife cf. s a ’a ). f qhue |’am downwind.
I’au - s a I’aBV L carry with straps over the shoulders (as a rucksack).
1*00 formative used in certain compounds e.g. ’Qhba |’6o descriptive of the redness of the
moon, k a ’lna’6 |’e © ,k a ’+nu’m I’©e descriptive of rod-shaped or tubular
objects or a lanky person.
I’e© - |’©e var. of |’a a -|" a a
I’ola - s a poLV h full (intr.), fill (tr.) (cf. Iglihm).1s1 n b a I’on a Hq’a jia lit.
we are filling up mess, i.e. we are making a mess.
I’OlO be absent for a long time.
I’OO kV treat an illness with medicine, dress a sore or wound (cf. ’ahiu |iia, qhalo laa).
I’OO be dry. (cf. Inalo, ||ya). n |k x a a -t e n |’6o |fi lit. my hands are dry, i.e. are
stiff (with cold).
1*00 I’bo tv dry (tr.) (cf. ||ya, |n§m).
I’ua (n) L soft (of flesh). 2. light. 3 loose. 4. easy. 5. flabby (of flesh) (sg.) (cf. I’Uja (pi.),
toh’m, d tsh o ’m, lloh’m ,+ q a b e ). I’u a - s a softness e tc.+g u ’u |’Qa shut/close
loosely, ah jk x 'a a n |’ua ke iqhaa lit. your hand is soft for rain, i.e. your
hands are right for making rain (referring to the ability of a person to bring rain by, for
example, burning a skin).
I’UbU tShUU sound made by a flat, light object falling down e.g. a blanket (cf. ||hbp,
Iqhaba, ||hbbu).
I’UbU tShUU sound made by a light object falling (cf. IqhobU tshUU, Iqh aba tShUU).
k x ’ua I’ubu tshUU fall down gently, eg. a blanket.
I’u i-s a I’UJV L 1. straighten (cf. !aa, +qhbna). 2. stretch oneself (cf. IkX’am |UV
tam). 3. straighten someone out i.e. set them on the right track, n b a k a |’Uj©
bahl© k a |’a a I straighten the arrowshaft in the fire.
I’Ul (n) small quantity, extent, duration i.e. little, narrow, small, thin (be not thick or be not
fat), few (sg.) (cf. Iq’a n -t a (pi.)). |’u1-sa slowly, gently, a little. |*u l-sa ta n a
talk softly, respectfully.
I’u l(-I’ui) k v limit, reduce, trim .1s1 h b a |’u i-|’ui k© k a llg g m a -te we limit
it (i.e.the approaching animal’s passage) with dry branches (as it approaches a snare).
I’Uja (kif) 1. soft. 2. light. 3 loose. 4. easy. 5. flabby (of flesh) (pi.) (cf. |’u a (sg.)). ||naa
I’Ul kil reduce them by pouring.
I’uu to I’iim 73

I’UU 1 II I’u a - t e 4 II dim: k a - l’UU-m a (sg.) carrying net made from sinew,
cat's cradle,
I’um 1 II I’u m a -te 4 n bent, flexed elbow, uh n llnuhbu I’u m a -te + q ’a a lit,
they are sticking in flexed elbows lying down, i.e. they are lying on bent elbows,
eh n g ix a a ’||nuhbi |’um tuu lit. he on the side sticks in flexed elbow lies, i.e. he
is lying on his side on his flexed elbow.
74 la to lahT

la the clicking sound produced by the knee joints of an eland when walkingor running,
la a rain (vb.). h n b a |a a laa it goes on raining,
la a xoo 3 II -t e 3 ll fresh egg (cf. +g §h e).
la a (kV) be straight, straighten (cf. |’Ui, +qhbna). laa tshiiu sit withthe legs
straight out.
la a (kV) wait (for), wait a moment, ambush (cf. loh’la, qhoh’e, |a h ’n). la a kan
[k3n] hang on a moment!
I§a kV look for game.
laha -ku 3 II -t e 3 II Bateleur Eagle (Terathopius ecaudatus),
laha 2 n -te 2 n servant, serf. (<Nama).
la ’a > [!*aa] > [Iq’aa] 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) - t e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I
(alienated) outside of the thigh, vastus lateralis and tensor fascia lata.
Ia’a > [ ! ’a a ] - s a la ’V H skin (gen.), flay by cutting ( T, ||naho, ||qhum).
laa khbe 3 n woman's personal name,
lab a ka-kUU 3 II woman's personal name.
labe 3 I !a m -s a 2 I dim: labu-ba/!abe O a a (sg.) labu O ’ani (pi.) Grey
Hombill (Tockus nasutus) (cf.qui). labe ||nuu-ba honorific form of address to
thunder to bring rain (cf. b a b a tsh ee, a a kuse, jnOhlu, |go o-|gbo ).
labi-li 3 II - t e 3 II water beetle (cf. Inabi-li).
l§bu (ba) to be thick textured, e.g. a skin, a tarpaulin (cf.lylu-lylu). labu t s ’e e the
sound made by a thick textured material,
lae 3 I lam -te 2 I dim: lau -b a / G a a (sg .) cold dry season, winter,
lae Ig ab a dialectal var. of lau ||gae.
la e - s a 3 n man’s personal name,
lae tuu stand in line.
lae 2 II la m a -te 2 li possessions (inal.) (cf. |ye, +k x al, ||’ai).
l§he (ka) 3 n - t e 3 n sp. of plant. The stalk is used for the firestick drill, (cf. quje |a
la ’e 3 I la’m - s a 2 I species of green stinkbug (Hemiptera Pentatomidae Heteroptera
lai 1 n !a b a -te 4 n a species of tree, Buffalo Thom, T sw . Mokgalo (Z/z/p^M5 mwcromjra
Willd.). It produces edible fruit and the chewed leaves and root are a poultice for sores.
laT [!el] 2 II la m a -te 2 n the non-buming end of a stick.
I^f - s a laJV L halt by surrounding (e.g. a fleeing animal), encircle, stop, bring to bay,
head off and stop (cf. Inah’o ) .+ q h a b a - t e n k a b a s a a ki + x a m uh n
b a !ajl 1 b a ||qhUU n n b a q aji when dogs go to a gemsbok they stop it and it
stands and I kill it.
lahi SV s f - s a |naV (nom.) tell a lie, feign (cf. IkX’OO (n.)).
lahT kV beat (as a blanket) (cf. gohba).
la ’I llg a’u-ku to lao 75

la’i llga’u-ku var.of Ina’i jjga’u-ku

laja 3 IILone Tree pan, also called ||aa (camelthom).
!ala k a tUU walk in single file.
lahla 2 II !ahn-ka-te 2 II a species of tree, Peeling-bark Ochna, Tsw. Monyelenyele
{Ochna pulchra Hook.). The ripe fruit !noo q'uli is edible,
lahle -sa lahLV L (sg.) ka !ahle ka kv (pi.) stand on, tramp on; also in the sense of
"next". Iqhan ti n ba lahle ki next month (cf. s1l |ua). lahle Gnuu
squash by trampling, lahle ||hUU stand upon, lahle Iga’O trample into/in. lahle
kxaba rise up.
lahle kV climb up on, ride e.g. a donkey,
lahle kv cut up meat into pieces (not strips) (cf. Inahle).
lali 2 II (marginal sg .) -te 2 II (possessed)/3 I (alienated) mane, also neck hair of a
1^1i (n-) whitish and shiny (silver, light grey, gold) (cf. Inupa, 4qali ka).
lalU (sg.) ka-lalu-ka (pL) jump up suddenly and rush off. eh n ba lalu sT ba
||nuu he jumps up and runs o ff. lalu I’ae ka |gaa jump up and leave the job.
lam lali3 II -te 3 II a species of plant, Rough-leaved raisin, Tsw.Mokgomphata (Grewia
flavescens Juss. var. flavescens). It provides the drill for a firestick.
lama 2 II west, lama O ’ani 2 II western groups of 1x66.
lama *ee ka 3 II woman's personal name.
I§ma 2 n -te/nf 2 II lark (gen.) {Alaudidae).
lahm-tT 3 II woman’s personal name.
lama 49^’^ 3 II -te 3 II Sun-scorpion (Solpugida (Arachnidae)). Lit. repeatedly grasp
the vagina, so-called because it crawls under women’s aprons or into panties,
lam ta bolo bolo/lami ka bolo bolo 3 II -te 3 II species of Carder Bee
(Hymenoptera Megachilidae Anthidinae) or Leafcutter Bee (Hymenoptera Megachilidae
Megachile) .
Ian -sa laJV H 1. (spec) carry on the shoulder. 2. lift up, raise (also of a leg as a dog
urinating). 4qhl i h ba laji lao the dog is raising its leg (to urinate).
Ian ta -sa Ian tv var. of lan-sa.
Ian kv/tv-ta-sa hold steady. Ian ta ||’uma steady something vertically. Ian ka
Il’uma si ’l-sa hold down a snake (e.g with a forked stick),
lana 2 Il-te 2 II dim: lana-ba (sg.) %\mc?iit{Suricatasuricatta).
lani (tshbe)/lan-ti (tshbe) 2 Ii (possessed)/ lanl 3 I (alienated) lani
(tshba)-te/lan-tl (tshba)-te 2 II (possessed)/ lani-te 3 I (alienated)
area of the trapezius muscle including the hollow next to the collar bone,
lanu 2 e I “te 2 u I upright growing parts of a plant, bush or tree; a rod; a metal rod, also
metal (gen.) (cf. tshli pit). |’aa lanu a piece of extinguished firewood,
lanu 4^be 3 II man's personal name.
lao remain, lao kV leave behind, pi ta’be lao ke ke ||nae if that one leaves him
76 lao to lah’u

behind in the village. ||am !ao lit. stay well, i.e. good bye. !ao s1i come after
(cf. Ilaha Sli), eh n ka ke + ’ue !ao |li he is the last one remaining,
!ao go “up” backhome (cf.+am). eh a !ao !naa he's gone (up) home,
lao kV cut, make an incision, tatoo. lao Iqhum cut through, sever. !ao ka dtshale
cut by splitting.
!ao 2 II (possessed)/ lao 3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/ lao-t6 3 I (alienated)
pelvis, '‘hip" area, also "leg" of e.g. a dog, femur of an ungulate (lao ta ka saa
ka lit. femur which is fat, i.e. fatty femur (cf. ||ganu)). lao |nan the head of the
pelvis on the waist, lao qae hip bone,
lao tshoe 2 II lao tshoa-te 2 II hip. |nye lao tshoe 2 II Pollux,
lao +nul 3 n -te 3 II Pin-tailed Whydah ( V t V ^ u ^ a n d Shaft-tailed Whydah
{Vidua regia) (<Naro?) (cf. |ahm lulf).Also referred to as ^9^’^ ka I’aa
(long vaginas) because of the tail feathers,
lao-se 3 II lam-ka-te 2 n Black-backedjackal (Cam.?
lao-se ||nam 2 II lao-se lama-te 2 II a species of plant, Bluebush,Tsw.
Motlhajwa (Diospyros lycioides Desf. sp.). It is used as a toothbrush,
lao 2 II -te/laa -te 2 I large sack, bag made from two steenbok skins (cf.|qhum
Ikx’aa, ’+nehe, +gube, |hao).
laho 3 II -te 3 II slope, area of soft sand between dunes.
laho 2 I I - t e 2 II matter, problem (inal.). n lahO n ||’a a I have no problem, i.e. it
doesn't matter,
lah d-iaho kV hang up meat to dry.
I§6 sit in a circle.
I§5 that side, over there. Uh n lao |u they are over there, yonder, (cf. Ina’m, ’hn,
I^ho ts’ee the sound of bashing about (of heavy objects).
lau llgae 3 n -te 3 II Crimson-breasted shrike (Laniarius atrococcineus) (cf. !ae
lau /lau - s a laBV H grasp, grab hold of, take (pi.), grasp repeatedly (cf. |ua (sg.)).
wrestle, grapple with, also head butting of antelopes (cf. Pum). lau k a ||x6be, lau
^qao grasp and squash, lau |nav pass to. lau *fq*aa squash flat, lau k a
llxum squeeze (as a python), lau k a Iga'a beat down (e.g. grass),
lau tv become affected by standing on the place where someone has urinated, n h b a lau
kan tarn k a Hqharn I am affected by urine, ah n k a b a lahna s b o § a
llqham -te ah ’O n a h a I’a o k oo ka*a ah n b a s y a if you stand on the
place where a medicine man has urinated your whole body itches,
lahu l§n/’!nahu !§n 3 II - t e 3 II a species of plant (Dipcadi sp. nov?). The stalks and
bulb are eaten.
I§U (h) grazed.
lah'U like that/this, so. n h lah'U ba tam lit. I say like that, i.e. that's what I say, I say
so. ||nu*m-se |a lah’u |xaa-sa lit. the initiation school's this way dancing, i.e.
iQba to lubl-n' lat 77

this way of dancing of the initiation school.

iQba kV stoop, stalk swiftly with the torso bent over (cf. 4 tshuu fall onto
the buttocks in a sitting position (said of a woman) (cf. |hala),
lohba menstruate (euph.) (cf. |xaa fli, Iqhan, [gaba kf Iqhan).
lohba ||naa 2 II !ohba ||nan-sa 2 II large front apron wom during menstruation,
lohba tf 11gab! 3 II -te 3 II a species of plant (Ledebouria sp.). The leaves and tuber are
loh’bi 1 I -te 4 II a species of grass (D/g/ranfl Used as tinder,
lobo 2 I -te 2 I Quail (gen.) {Coturnix suhsp.) (cf. +g4le).
lohMa -sa loh’LV M expect, wait for, await (cf. !aa, qhoh’e, |ah’n). n n ||gaa
tshoa loh’na Iqhuu I am spending the day waiting for the whiteman.
ibh’la kV cause to spin (of the dzani toy). Ibh’la ka dzanl "spin" the dzani.
!ghm tshuu kneel.
!ohna-sf 3 n man’s personal name.
!oo 2 I +niin 2 II knife, loo 2 I +nun aa-tu 2 II spear.
!oo +nul 3 II -te 3 II species of bird.
!bo -sa !oV L follow.
!oo-!6o 3 II -t e 3 II Toktokkie beetle (Tenebrionidae Tarsocnodes sp.) (cf. + a i Iq'an).
As with the Darkling Beetle (|gale), its knocking signifies the end of the rainy season.
!00-sa !oVL give gifts (cf. !uu).
lbo-!bo kV tap(cf.qai). !bo-!bo ke Oaje n di ’aa tap (ash off) the meat and then
ril eat.
ibhO kV tap, e.g a cooked bone in order to loosen the marrow, ibho ka tap out.
!bho menstruate (euph.) (cf, !ohba, s a ’a). eh n Ibho |?i /eh n ba ibho she is
Ibho 1 II ibha -te 4 II vein or artery, spec, smaller blood vessels (cf. + ’um).
iOh’O 3 I -te 31 cobra.
iQho flame, burst into flame.
iQhO-kU 3 II man's personal name.
iQhO-tl llqai 3 II-te 3 II \ea£~cuittTbt& iMegachilidiaeChalicodomafelina(Gerstaeker)).
Ibhp ts’ee thudding sound. Inaa Ibhp ts’ee walk with a thudding sound.
lua come out, emerge (pi.) (cf. ’+nala (sg.)).
lua-ma 3 II man’s personal name.
lu’a kV separate (tr.) (cf. khala).
I(j*a |ua 3 II man's personal name.
luBV H ought, must (cf. !n§a). n n !um saa te I ought to go.
lube kV tell (cf. Ilnale, sav...te’e).
lube 3 u -te 3 n mistake, error, problem (c f. +nua dzum). !ube ||’aa no problem!
luhbi 1 II luhbu-te 4 II any green, i.e. moist, plant.
lubl-li lai 3 II -te 3 II Red-eyed bulbul {Pycnonotus nigricans).
78 lye to luu Ibhbe

fye 2 n (possessed)/!ye 3 I (alienated) !ym-te 2 II (possessed)/!ye-te 3 I

(alienated) buttocks. +nuu fye sole of the foot,
lui |\] (exaggerated falling tone) exclamation of delight.
lyi (ka) be scarred from bums, n tym n ka !ui my skin is scarred from bums.
!U’T make a furrow. !u’T ||abe Oaje make a furrow; roast the meat! n n ba Oan
!u’l lit. I sleep ‘'furrowing”, i.e. I sleep restlessly,
lula [!ola] 3 I !un 2 I dim: ka-fulu-ba (sg.)!ulu O ’ani (sg.) l. species of tree.
Bastard Umbrella Thom, Tsw. Mokala (Acacia luederitzii Engl. var. luederitzii), 2. quiver
(made from the root bark); met. for gun. The gum is taboo and eadng it leads to
malnourishment unless it has been ritually fed by an elder,
lulu |e Igue 3 I lulu |e Igum-te 2 II ant-lion (2ndAnsisr)(NeuropteraNeuroptera
Myrmeleontidae Myrmelon quinquemaculatus) (cf +G ah a +hai).
lulu |ehe-se 3 n -te 3 II Fork-tailed drongo {Dicrurus adsimilis). This bird gave fire to
humans and is invoked when fire is being made, lulu |ehe-se ka mala ka |nan
ka mala ka +h ai drongo, turn your head, turn the back of your head round!
Iylu-!y1u (ba) be thick textured, e.g. a skin, tarpaulin, fylu ts’ee the sound made by
thick textured material (cf. .%bu).
lum lUBV H resemble, be like (cf. BV, taBV, InaBV). lubi luhm like heavy sand
lum lUBV H pull off (berries of Boscia albitrunca, Grewia avellana, Grewia fla v a , Ziziphus
mucronata, Grewia retinervis, gum, seeds from a cob) (cf. ||’ali, ’ahlu).
lum-ta IganHg^nl 3 II -te 3 II ?i^^tQ\^soi^\mx{LabiataeLeucasmartinicensisR.
Br.). Cows and antelope eat it when it is moist,
lum compact (vb.), clench or knead into a lump (cf. galo).
lum kv beat flat (cf.qai thia).
Ilim 3 II Oaa 2 ll dim: luu-ba/!uu O aa (sg.) luu -ni/!uu O ’anI (pi.) eland
(Taurotragus oryx). AhoTtfcTTtd to sisWgu^S. s a ’a (piss-face) because
of its strong-smelling forehead brush,
luhm 1 II luhma-te 4 II niche for Lonchocarpus nelsii (Inuu), Combretum collinwn
(+qhau), Grewia flava (||naa), Eragrostis trichophora (+’un-ta), Panicum
kalaharense (+nale), Ochna pulchra (lahia) characterised by heavy sand; hill
(cf. iGuma). luhm sa ’a hill, dune, luhm |nan heap, pile. +gba |a luhm
s a ’a ash heap,
luma 2 I -ni 2 I hunnng bag.
lun 2 I pi. of lula stone.
I'uni 3 II -te 3 II 1. man-made hole (cf. dzuhe, g'uhm, Oggo). 2. dig sucha hole,
luhni 3 II -te 3 II bead decorations wom on the head,
luu - s a var.oflbo
luu kv distribute, share out (cf. |gbo, +ul).
luu |ua 3 II woman's personal name.
luu Ibhbe 3 II -te 3 II species of plant (Sida chrysantha) (cf. ||naa aa). The berries
are eaten. It is regarded as the male version, i.e. ||naa §a, of Grewia flava.
luu to Igam 79

!UU kV put on the head (not a hat) (cf. ||aa), !uu + ’au or !UU + ’am kV carry on the
!uu ka |kx’aa-te3 II ||aa |kx’aa-te 3 II lit. put your hands above your head,
i.e. a road grader (the reference is to the conventional way of indicating tall objects by
joining one's hands palms outward above one's head),
luu ku !hUU 2 II -te 2 II spotted dikkop (Burhinus capensis).
lyu -sa !yV H wet (tr.).


!gaa kV ’H’UBV(sg) ||huv (pi.) kv+loc. lean or place upright against, lean (intr.) sitting
or standing. Igaa ka ||’ubl |nu’m ke ’Onaje lean the pestleagainst the tree.
!gaa ka tshuusit leaning against.
!gaa ka tUU 3 II man's personal name.
!gaa kV accompany.
Iga’a (kV) l. below. 2. lower (tr.), bow, stoop (vb.) (cf. kx*ua kV) eh ri Iga’a ka |Ti
he is lowered i.e. bent over, as in a curing dance.
Ig§ha kU 3 II -te 3 II a species of plant (Dipcadi glaucwn (Ker. Gawler) Bak.). The bulb
is roasted.
Igaba 2 I Igam-te 2 I dim: !gabu-ba (sg.) !gam-te O ’anI (pi.) fascia/sinew
from the neck or splenius (al.).
Igaba kV answer, n a n igaba kf Iqhan lit. I have answered the moon. Said by a
girl to her grandmother when she first menstruates.
!gah*bi 1 II !gah’bu-te 4 II knobkienie, club (c f. +nua).
Igae kV restrain, console, calm, pacify, reprimand, act as an antidote. (cf.tah’O, |a1a,
I ’au fua, |nehe). qhana h ba Igae kf Ixali dagga restrains (i.e. reduces
the effect of) alcohol.
Ig§e 3 I !g4m-te/!g4m-sa 2 I dim: Ig^u-ba (sg.) !g§nfi-sa O ’ani (pi.)
tortoise shell container (cf. ||nahl-SI tym).
Igal 1 n Igaba-te 4 li mortar.
Igal kV breakinhalf (cf. Iqhum, ll’ala).
Igal tS’il 3 n apannorthofKagcae.
Iga’i kv call (cf. +ii, I’ai).
Igajo -sa be sexually aroused (male or female), erect (of penis), n + ’an n ba Igajo
my penis is erect.
Igale Iqhum kv cross over, place crossways.
Ig§h1e -sa lg§hLV dig a furrow, ditch.
Igall 1 II !galu-te 4 II l. species of plant {Ferraria glutinosa (Bak.) Rendle). 2. the toy
top made from the bulb of the plant.
Igalo-se 3 II Igan-ka-te [IgaQkate] 2 II honey badger (Me/Z/vora cape/is/.y).
Igam kv place or put up. Igam ke Oaje ke ’Onaje put the meat up into the tree
80 Igam to igei

(cf. Ihiiu,+habi).
!gam -sa IgaBV L share a load. +nai n ba !hao !gam thaa tan’h we two
share lit. the thing (i.e. load) (in turns).+naT h ba Igabi nbo !li we take turns
with the lorry, i.e. with the driving.
Igahm sv Igahm -sf-ja (nom.) throw (gen.), igahm kv throw at (cf. Hhant).
!gahm-sa ’Inahv throw down horizontal, eh ri ba Igahm ’Inaha !oo he
throws down the knife, igahm ylu throw in, pop into (e.g. food into the mouth).
igahm sa !oo/!gahm ’Inaha !oo 2 i (sg.and pi.) Black cuckoo (Cmcm/mj
clamosus). The tones are onomatopoetic of the notes of the bird's call.
Igahm l ii left (side), saa ki Igahm go left! |kx’aa ta ki Igahm ka
left hand.
Igahm kv tam beat, of the heart, (c f. +aho-+aho).
Ig§h*m 1 II erythema; heat marks caused by sitting close to the fire with uncovered legs
(cf.tQhlO). eh Iqhaa sa ’m n kl Igahm her shins are erythematous
Igahn'h /Igahn |a’n right, precisely, the same, ka ta’a Igahn’n here precisely,
n a Igahn’n ba |nee bblo Hxao isaw B b lo Hxao right here, uh a sam
ke naa kbo tl a Igahn’n ba sam ta ke they drank at the same time we
Iga’n girl, taa Iga’n fee 2 il girl Iga’n |ii, Iga’na |ii 1 il girls. Also
Gqaa Iga’n |ee.
Iga’na 2 ll -te 2 ll facial pattern of certain antelope. ||ua h |li + ’a Iga’na the
springbok has facial patterns.
Igao-ba 2 II Igao-te O ’ani 2 ll a deflation area, i.e. an incipient pan (an area of
greyish-coloured hard sand due to calcification of the surface).
Igaho 3 n -tU 4 II kinship term: qae Igaho mother’s sister, father's brother's wife,
step mother, great grand mother, aa Igaho mother's sister's husband, father's
brother, step father, great grand father. Oaa Igaho "cousin", father's sister's child,
mother’s brother’s child (avoidance category).
iga'o -sa Iga’ BV H pour in, put in, put on shoes, enter (pi.), go into (cf. yiu (sg.).
I4ba-te uh a n Iga’o kan |q’ii-sa the lions poured in behind me, i.e. the
lions followed me. Tum ^nljma-te ah h ba Iga’o ka ^l^x’um eland tracks
go into the sand (because of the animals weight).
Ig^hu kUU 3 II -k u - te 3 n species of plant (Dipcadi glaucum (Ker. Gawler) Bak,)
(cf. Igohmi kUU). The bulb is roasted and eaten by seniors. The bulb should only be
dug up after the rainy season sets in; if dug up earlier, drought results.
IgeT 2 II -te 2 II luck, fortune (inal.). taa te’e Ig^ n Okx’um this person's luck
is nice (cf. s a ’a n Okx’um). ah Ig ^ n ’||naa / kx’ua lii your luck is
awful/down (cf. ||X00). n n ba tshuu n Ig^ kx’lia I am sitting (because)
my luck is down (said e.g. by an unsuccessful hunter), n h ba q4’i kx’un
Igei I shit (and) cause bad luck (said by a hunter who has not emptied his bowels before
Igei |ua to Igube 81

IgeT |ua 3 II woman’s personal name.

Igoa 3 II cooler part of the afternoon; also to cool down of the sun in the afternoon
(cf. Ikx’oba). II’an a !goa the sun has cooled.
Ig o a -ig o a gbh ba k a Ig o a -lg o a pass, spend the whole day. n a h goh b a
k a !g 6 a -!g o a ke ||’an s1 +n'uT sli I spent the whole day in the sun and
arrived (back) at night.
!goa kV+dat. kV+obj. lend, borrow. !goa kan k a !oo lend me a knife!
Igoba kv hit with a flat object, slap (as with the flat hand or a skin) (c f. +qhui).
Iggba-ku 2 II -te 2 II heel. +nuu IgQba-ku foot's heel.
Igb’bi 1 II !gb’bu-te 4 II XtrTm\v&{IsopteraTermitidaeMacrotermes)\ihc^i\y\n%%X2igi& '\s>
edible (cf. dt’kx’am). |a ka ©an ae [ei] ehe [e:]? n a n Oan ’li
Igb’bi What did you eat before sleeping? I slept having eaten Isoptera Termitidae
Macrotermes, i.e. without having eaten satisfying food.
Igoh’bl 1 I (sg. and pL) a species of grass (Digitaria eriantha Steud?)(cf. dzubu-dzubu).
The green leaves are softened by rubbing and used to bind the knots in sucking straws, n n
ba gOxall Igoh’bi ih |’ua n di ^cani ke ^nale I mb the - and it
softens and I bind the straw (with it).
Igoh’bi 1 II !goh’bu-te 4 II walking stick (cf. +§n).
IgoMa -sa !go*LV M cover with sand, bury, fill a hole, cover.
IgohMe 3 e n dim: Igoh’lu-ba (sg.) n/u 1. evening west wind that brings rain. 2. early
summer tornado in the afternoon from the east, associated with the ostrich hunting season,
jgoh’le quje |e ^qhlie hna the is the ostrich’s wind, i.e. it signals the ostrich
hunting season.
Igohli 1 II IgQhlu-te 4 II firefly (cf. Ingh’Ii).
Igolo 3 II -t e 3 II Speckled striped-skink (species of lizard) {Mabuya puncatissima).
IgblO kV blow away sand, ash; winnow with a sieving mat (4'’u n -ta), e.g. roasted jan
(Bauhinia petersiam) seeds to remove sand and pieces of charcoal.
IgQhIO 2 II - t e 2/3 II sugar sntiHymenopteraApocritaFormicidaeCamponotus
Igghml kuu var.oflg§u kuu.
!gbo (-!gbo) 1 II -te 4 II 1. bad luck, misfortune (cf, !g^) 2. stale of food, eh n
ba ’ahli Igbo |nan she is causing misfortune to me, eh n kl !gbo he is bad
luck (for me), aa -sa ta’a n ki Igbo this food is stale.
Igbo-igbo (vb.) suffer from bad luck, n n lgbo -!gb o fli I am unlucky.
IgQO hunched, stooped, crouched (cf. Iqhom, ||gQho). IgQO ka tshuu be seated
hunched up.
IgQhO k v bring news of, report, e.g. report a kill.
Igoh’U 2 II or 3 I wet faecal matter as found in the abomasum of a ruminant.
JgQh’U -k a 3 II - t e 3 II juvGnile Bushveld Wzaid (Heliolobus lugubris juv.)
(cf. +GQlO).
Igube k v notch (e.g. the lower firestick), cut holes in (e.g. a skin for pegging it out).
82 Igu’be to Iguh’u

Igu’be [Igo’be] 3 I (sg. andpL)dim: Ig'u’bu G aa (sg.) a sptcits of plant (Oxygonum

alatum The leaves are eaten. The root of igu’be is pounded with
steenbok and duiker hooves and rubbed into tatoos to bring luck to the hunter who is about
to set snares. The leaves of Igu’be qae are chewed to clean the teeth and to relieve
irritated gums.
Ig'u’bi var. of Igb’bi.
igiie 3 e/u I dim: !guu-ba (sg.) !gUU -m/!guu O ’anl 2 I (sg.) vulture (gen.); Cape
vulture (spec.) (cf. ||au ). Also referred to with the honorific tsuhu ku tsohba
ehe). IgiJe ||naa lit. vulture's nests, i.e. the name of a landmark Acacia luederitzii
tree 20 km. southwest of Lokalane.
Igue +nuu 2 II !gue +numa-te 2 II a poisonous succu\tnt(CarallumalugardiiN£.
Igyl SI -sa !gyi sv spum, reject, illtreat, insult (verbally) (cf. ||’ai-||’ai, |nehe,
dzaa, Inu’a, kx’ao mn).
Igyhli l ll !gyhlu-te 4 ll glow-worm.
IgUlU tS ’e e / tS ’ M the sound of a mortar being pounded. !gai n ba Igulu t s ’e e the
mortar goes Ig'ulu.
!gum 3 II !guma-te 4 ii jaw muscle.
Iguhm be full, euph. for pregnant (dialectal) (cf. |’Ula).
Iguh’m-sa Iguh’m l (der. nom*) Iguh’BV H prize out, spec.truffles, to open spaces
between baking tubers or bulbs to allow hot sand to trickle between them (cf. gkhola,
llqhbla). Iguh’m ’+n4la/+nau prize up and take out sg./pl.
iguma 2 II -te 2 II musical bow (cf. |habe), Jew’s harp.
lgum-!gum kv +ue pout the lips (sullenly or in anger), sulk (cf. +geJia).
Igunu 2 II -te 2 II trachca, windpipe.
Iguu 1 n -te 4 II dim:lguu-ba (sg.) !guu-te/-le O ’anI from apron of a woman
(cf. Ilgabi). eh n ba qaji Iguu tshde lit. he plays the inside of the apron. The
allusion is to sexual intercourse represented by a particular performance on the musical
Iguu-be (ka-) 3 II -te 3 II wild cotton {Asclepiadaceae Pergularia daemia (Forssk.)
Chiov). The root aids fertility in a person by cleansing the innards.
Iguu kx’ubi tv regurgitate (antelope, cow or man).
Iguu |hUU 3 II-te 3 II LitdeSpa^rowhawk(Acdp/rermmM//^^^).
Iguu 2 II -te 2 II skin water bag (made from the skin of a springhare or duiker, or the
rumen of a gemsbok).
Iguu -sa thunder (vb.) (cf. ’mala).
IgiiU-sa 2 II thunder (n.).
Igu’u 1 n Igu’a-ni 4 II a species of plant. The aromatic bulbs are used in necklaces.
Iguh’u 2 II -te 2 II bowels, spec, caecum (cf. |oha).
Ixaa to glxa’n 83


!xaa kV search for, seek (e.g. food, water, work).

!xaa !ao variant of !xai lao
IxaV L (sg.) IxaBV L ||a1i-sa (sg. nom.) ka !xama-sa (pi. nom.) big, senior,
many. tUU IxabU elders, seniors, traditional people, many people (coll.). Th ix a i’T
we all. 1h koo k a ’a !x aa k a t a ’a all of us here. 1 si !xai t l ’T all of us.
!xaa aa 2 l !xam aa-te 2 l headman, chief.
Ixaa qae 2 i !xam qae-te 2 I head woman.
!xai 1 II !xaba-te 4 II dress, clothing, cloth, blanket (cf. ||g§ha, g||kx’ali).
!xai !ao/!xale !ao/ Ixaa lao 2 n -te 2 II night with no moon.
Ixala 3 II -te 3 II Tsamma melon {Citrullus Lanatus) (cf. tahm).
Ixale !ao variant of Ixai lao.
Ixali 1 II !xaiu-te 4 II alcohol, booze.
Ixam kV stir a soft substance (e.g. mealie meal).
Ixama-sa(ka) big (pi.).
Ixam-te O ’ant 2 II forefathers.
Ixoa - s a IXOV M !xoa (relative) pick up, find, n a Ixol [!xui] |ai lit. I picked
up lion, i.e. meat from a lion’s kill.
1x66 2 I !xojia-te 2 l !Xo6. Ix6jia-te O ’ani 2 ll theDCoo people. Ix6pa
4 a a the DCOO language.
Ixou-te 2 I varoflxuu.
Ixua 3 I Ixum-te 2 I dim: !xuu-ba (sg.) Ix'uu O ’anI (sg.) bead headband.
Ixuli 1 II IXUlU-te 4 II spQcies o f bush (Antizoma angustifolia M iers.).Tht root is used
to increase toxicity of arrow poison and as treatment for gonorrhoea.
Ixuu 1 n -te 4 II pipe (for smoking) (cf. tshana, ahli).
IXUU 2 I -te 2 I a Nharo Bushman (cf. nahro).
Ixum stop suddenly.


glxaa kV split (cf. dtshale, gjkx’ale, gOqhaa). '||nuhm glxaa ke |nan

lit. stab-spht its head, i.e. cleave its head.
g lx a a lie on one's side (cf. + a la k a tUU), walk with the feet turned outward, n n
glxaa ba +q’an gulu-te I walk with the feet turned outward, laying down my
ankles, glxaa ba ’Inahn place it crossways, on its edge.
glxaa over there (cf. I§6, Ina’m, ’nn).
glxan kV soften by pounding (e.g. a skin, or berries).
glxa’n si -sa glxa’n SV make a large number of tracks, crossing of many tracks in
all directions, glxa’n S l- S a 2 II the place where there are many tracks, i.e. a sign of
plentiful game. Oaje O ’ani n ba glxa’n sa ||qhae ka ta’a the game are
84 g lx a ’Je to Ikx’oo

crossing over one another ('s tracks) here in large numbers.

g lx a ’je 3 n g !x a ’n - s a 2 n udder.
g!xa*n 3 II the moisture ofGemsbok Cucumber (||an), Wild Currant (||naa, gOqhUU).
g lx a ’u (>[g!xau], >[g!kx*au]) l II g !x a ’a - t e 4 II cold south wind of winter.
glxu’ni SV bore out (e.g. the pith of ||iiI i {KalanchoepaniculataHarv.)vj\iex\m^in%di


Ikx’aa Ikx’av H overtake, pass, surpass, brush past (a hard or rough surface) (cf. |na’m,
|n§bu). n n ka ba |ua ke ’Gnaje te ka gkx’au |n ke n n ba
Ikx’ae if I pass by a rough tree I ’’scrape passed" it.
IkX’aa kV spread out (e.g. to dry).
Ikx*aba ripple of water (c f. ’Inaba, qho’ba).
Ikx^abe 3 I Ikx’am-sa 2 I species of tree, violet Tree, Tsw.Mmaba(5ecwr/^iflca
longipedunculata.). An infusion is made with the bark taken from below the sand and
drunk for the treatment of chest ailments and coughs.
Ikx'ai 2 n !kx’aba-te 2 ii i. woody root (cf. loana, !oabi-sa). 2. a person's
roots i.e. kin. relatives (al.)(cf.mapa-te,g!kx’um, tuu). |aa |a Ikx’ai
ah’a who (lit. where) are you kin? h ’au |Tl they ( are in that direction (i.e.
specifying a locality). 3. certain small blood vessels of the body. luT IkX’al lit. eye’s root
i.e. lachrimal sack. |qhan-tO IkX’al lit. testicle’s root i.e. vas deferens.
Ikx’all kv wring out by twisting, squeeze out (c f, +guu, Hguu). Ikx*all ka ^fnabe
Iqhaa kl !xai wring the water from the cloth.
Ikx’am 2 I I -te 2 II bead (glass or plastic) (cf. Hgajia).
Ikx’am |uv tarn twist the body when stretching or as part of a curingtreatment, twist the
mouth in a grimace.
Ikx'anl kv tum by twisting, e.g to tighten a bowstring (cf.gul).IkX’ani ka fgU'U
twist open. Ikx’anI ka g§hle twist shut.
Ikx’au 2 II (possessed)/3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/3 I (alienated) hamstring
(biceps femoris).
IkX’b b a -sa cool down of the sun in the afternoon (cf. !goa). a h n s1i a h h
Ikx'oba at this point it is cooling.
Ikx*be 3 II 1. rain(n.) (cf. Iqhaa). 2. Pula (currency of Botswana) IkX’be ||nan-sa
clouds (cf. iqhaa glqhua -te).
Ikx'OlO 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) bicep
(cf. folo, + ’um, +nuje).
ikx’olo kv push into , under (e.g.the ash to roasl/bake) (cf.OhOO ylu, g+qh oo ulu).
Ikx’obi -SV -si-sa poke a stick into the ash to dry it.
Ikx’oo 3 I dim: ka-lkx’66-ba (sg.) lie(n.). Sl’je Ikx’oo lit. bite lie, i.e. to lie
(cf. lahl (vb.)). n |e Ikx’oo my lie/lying, eh n ke lkx’o5 he is lying.
glkx’a a to Iqyu 85


glkX 'aa cry incessantly, wail (cf. |g §0).

glkx’ala 3 i glkx’an 2 li dim: g!kx’alu-ba (sg.) glkx’alu 0 ’ani(pi.) l. leather
thong (cf.qhule). 2. amulet with medicines, ah a ’+nan ka glkx'an lit. you
removed me from thongs, i.e. you kept me out of jail.
glkx’ale -sa glkx’aLV L crack, split open (cf. dtshale, gOqhaa,glxaa).
glkx*um 3 I -to/glkx’uma-te 3 I l. sinew, specifically back sinew; tendon
(cf. Igaba); also plant fibres e.g. of Sanseviera aethiopica or Ledebouria sp. or the fibres
in tree bark (cf.tsahbi), thread 2. ligament. 3. bowstring. 4. kin, relatives ( al.)
(cf. mapa, !kx’ai, tuu). |aa |e glkx’um ah’a where/who are your kin?


Iqaba kv follow in the spoor, tracks; retrace one’s tracks, go back on one's tracks. ’|nllU
n ba mall ka si n ba Iqama kl +nuu ’In^ho the hyena turns round and
retraces its tracks (backward).
Iqaho kv (tr.) -sa hunt.
Iqahl 1 II the hunt.
Iqama var. of Iqaba.
Iqau (n) l II sharp(ness) (of a knife or person), have wisdom, be on one’s guard, take
Iqau kv take care, be careful (cf. +qa’u, qao-qao, |nu*l).
Iqahu 1 II Iqaha-te 4 ii cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).
Iqo’a kv grind, e.g. tobacco in the hand or a root on a stone (cf. xal, g+kx’aa)
Iqga-le 3 ll meaiiemeal (cf. phalitshe, +gu’nl, +qhau-te).
Iqohjo 3 II -te 3 II puddle. Iqohjo O ’anl lit. puddle people i.e. groups around e.g.
Iqohjo splash, e.g. of urine when urinating.
Iqoll 1 II Iqolu-te 4 11 cornea, ah I’uT tl Iqoll lit. your eye is cornea, i.e. has a
IqQU 1 n -t e 4 II calcrete (surface limestone deposit) (cf. |nule).
Iqum 1 II lquma-te/-m 4 il bag (dialectal) (c f. +gube)
Iqtima kv become accustomed/used to. Llh n Iquma kU ||qhae III they are used to
one another, n n Iqiima ka |l1 I am used to you.
Iquma-lqiima kv+dat. kv+tam introduce oneself to.
Iqyu -sa IqyV H wet (, dilute, wash (clothes).
86 iG^a |ua to iGQil

lO [N g !]

iG^a |ua 3 n woman's personal name.

Icaa iGaa ka tuu be spaced, spread out. tUU iGaa ka tilU the people are
(seated) spread out (cf. iGan-tean).
iGaa 2 II -te 2 II central nervous system i.e. spec, brain, spinal cord. Brains are used to
soften a skin n n ba +qaa ka tym ka iG^a I mb the skin with brains, i.e. to
soften it.
iGSha be stomach down. ~ tUU lie on the stomach. ’iH jh a lay stomach down (e.g. a
whole duiker for roasting) (cf. Hguhu k a ’!n a h a ).
iG^ha 2 n caterpillar (gen.).
iGabI 1 II iGabU-te 4 II o f Acacia mellifera (||qh aa), Lonchocarpus
nelsii (Inuu), Acacia luederitzii (lula) (cf. +q h a n -te ).
iG^bt-sV-Sa 2 II -te 2 n adventitious root, rootlet (cf. iG^na, IkX’al).
iG ie kl (ka) 2 II - t e 3 U (Pancratium tenuifoUumHochst. ex A.
Rich). The tuber is mixed with eland or goat fat and applied to an infant's navel to prevent
iGfi (n) be wrinkled with age (cf. !huu).
iG^hl-SI 1 II -t e 1 n unmarried woman, widow, n n b a Oan ki Ig^I-si lam
sleeping as a widow, eh n ||’Ubl iGfhi-si she is a widow.
(G^I “S a IG ^ V L iGQje 3 II (der. nom.) cry for (as a child for its mother or as someone
begging) (cf. Ilqao, |na’ni). Oq§a n ba teaje qae the child is crying for its
iGahma 2 n stemum. ||nahi-SI Icahma Skin Beetle (Coleoptera Polyphaga Trogidae).
iG^n-lG^n be spread out of a number of objects (e.g. of ostrich eggs) (distr.) (cf. ^ 9^ ^ ^
(coll), iGaa, dzaa). eh h iG^n-lG^n ka I’aa it (the ostrich) is sitting on a large
number (of eggs).
iG fn a 2 n “te 2 II l.metatarsal, metacarpal, fmger, knuckle, toe, toe joint 2. adventitious
root, rootlet (cf. lo a b i-s a , Ikx’a i).
lGan-!Gan/!Gai-!GaT 3 II - t e 3 II a species of bush,Trumpet Thom, Tsw,
Mophuratshukudu (Catophractes Alexanderi D . Don). It is used for the firestick drill.
iGau kV fix up, neaten e.g. by cleaning a child, adjusting the clothes, shaving the hair on the
brow. iGau k e O q § a sa * a clean the child's face, fix up its appearance, ah
q a e a h n ||am iGau k a s a ’a b a h qaT your mother has neatened up your
face well because you are beautiful.
iGObe SV soak, e.g. dry berries to make them moist, lai n k a ||ya fll IS I n b a
||ah1 k e Iqh aa si iGObe si if the Buffalo Thom (Ziz/p/iMjMMcro«aralV/7W.)
berries have dried out, we scoop up some water and soak them.
iGQia k a a 2 II - t e 2 U die fleshy part of a berry.
iGOh^la 3 II -te 3 n \ytXTy o f Grewiaretinervis (gOqhUU) when fresh and edible.
iGOh’la-lGOh’la kV restart something infection, a dispute, a fire. (cf. iGOh’ni,
qo’ni, G ’aa, t’kx’bli-t’kx’bli).
IGQII 1 n iGQiU-te 4 II skin rash, skin blemishes.
lebhll Mnaha to Iqhaa 87

iGohll ’Inaha swallow something smooth.

iGOlU G a n iGOlU tshuu sleep seated.
iGQma 2 II - t e 2 II community of Acacia luederitzii EngL (lula), Grewia retinervis
Burret., (gOqh'uu), Rhus tenuinervis Engl. (||kx’an). Acacia mellifera (||qhaa),
Terminalia sericea (4qhae) (cf. I'uhm).
iGOh’nl k v stoke a fire to relight it (cf. iGOh’la-lGOh’la, q o ’nl, O ’a a ).
iGUa 2 I semen, ovary (cf. +n§hO)
iGya 2 I -t6/ni 2 II worm. ||a a ~ caterpillar of the Camel Thom tree . ||n aa
caterpillar of the bush (cf. !nuu |a loaha ).
!cya s a ’a 2 II - t e 2 II wild asparagus (Protasparagus suaveolens (Burch.) Oberm.).
The root is chewed to treat gonorrhoea.
Icy’a 2 I - t e 2 I sl sptci^s of plant (Compositae helichrysum Felicia lutea). It is used as a
medicine to bring success in hunting eland.
iGyl k a tshuu sit with the head lowered (cf. f c a a k a tShUU).
iGUlU q a e 3 II - t e 3 n Woodland Doormouse (Graphiurus murinus). Its call and that of
certain owls signifies the presence of eland.
iGUm grow, develop (of an infant).
iGU’m (h) be recendy pregnant.
iGIJma 2 II - t e 211 area of soft sand (cf. luhm).
lounu 2 II -to 2 II infant still too young for her mother to fall pregnant.


Iqh aa k v cough up and expectorate (cf. qh ala).

Iqh aa 3 II e water, rain, amniotic fluid. Iq h aa glqh u a - t e clouds (gen.). Iqh aa
Inan the wind. Iq h aa ’O n a h a water itself, eh |nan k e Iq h aa lit. her head is
water, i.e. she is stupid. |nuu ku m a ti k a s ^ a b e n k e Iq h a a the female
gemsbok is fat being like the rain (i.e. referring to a desirable condition indicating
succulencc). Iqh aa |e s b o lit. rain's medicine, i.e. medicine to protect one against
Ughtning. t a a t e ’6 h k e Iq h aa eh t e ’e h k'l g lx a ’u lit. this person is the
water (i.e.rain); this one is the south wind, referring to a person's ability to cause rain or
die south wind by the ritual of burning a skin.
Iqhaa k a ||n6’m a 2 II -te 2 II velvet mite (Dinothrombium).
Iqh aa Iqh av H Iqh aa - s e 3 ii (der. nom.) Iq h aa ta (lei.). give, t a a tan n
b a Iq h aa ta k e a h ’a nna the person to whom I am giving is you, n |e
Iqh aa - s e my gift(s) (to someone).
Iqh aa 3 II Iq h a n -sa 2 n generosity, eh h k e Iqh aa lit she is her giving, i.e.
she is generous. Uh n kU iq h a n -sa they are generous (cf. |gbo).
Iqh aa k v pound, stamp widi a pestle (cf. I’um, + a h m -+ a h m , Hq’a le ).
Iqhaa - s a Iqh av L not to find, get, have. + e e Iq h av search in vain . n a
Iqh ae I did not find him.
Iqhaa 2 II moisture, juice, sap (non-milky), amniotic fluid (cf. t s ’k x ’o a ). ’n§m ~
saliva. O a je ~ moisture of meat. Ikx’o e rain.
88 Iqhae to Iqhuu-lqhuu

Iqh ae - s a Iqhae ||n ae 3 II (der. nom.) go out hunting or gathering and sleeping out
(c f.||’a « , I’o o Inoo).
Iqhae-kU 3 n man's personal name.
Iqh am a - s a IqhaBV L be sick with/from, eh n b a Iqh abe |nan he is sick from
his head, i.e. he has headache, or he is behaving badly, eh n b a Iq h ab e s b o lit. he
is sick with medicine i.e. he is in trance (in the ku m a dance).
Iqhan l n Iq h a n a -te 4 il dim: lq h a n -m a / -b a / O a a (sg.) i. moon. 2. snail.
moonlight. ~ |a g +k x * 6a H g^e new moon, |nal [|ni i] Iqhan lit.see the
moon, i.e. menstruate (euphemistic).
Iqhan 1 II Iqhana-te 4 II species of plant (Commelina probably Commelina Livingstonii
C B .C iy
Iqhobo-lqhobo 3 n -te 3 n Puff Ball (LycoperdaceaeTulostomalacticeps.), species o f
mushroom (c f. +’uma-+’uma, +06-+ee).
Iqhblu go right through. Iqhblu ylu deeply (of sleep), n a Oan Iqhblu ylu I slept
deeply. Iqhblu *+n§la come right through, e.g. a spear or arrow (cf. G||qhbbU,

Iqhbo kV-Kiat kv+obj. teach, learn (cf. ||xaa-||xaa). Iqhoo ke ke taa

+aa teach the black man person's language i.e. !X 66. eh n ba Iqhbo ke tam
he is teaching himself, i.e. he is learning. Iqhbo ke ke |a |naa -sa lit. teach
him his seeing i.e. teach him to see.
Iqhua 3 I (sg. and pi.) a species of plant (Melhania species). The tuber is chewed for illness of
the liver.
Iqhul ka (ka) heaving. Ilqho'a ka Iqhui ka breathe with a heaving stomach.
IqhUlU 3 n -te 3 II Bushveld elephant shrew {Elephantulus intufi),
Iqhum kV l. cut through, cut across (also a path) (cf.+hum (pi.)), also break in half
(cf. Igal, ll’ala). ||4ha Iqhum puli apart. igaMe Iqhum cut through, bh a
Iqhum kf dao he crossed the road, eh alqhumka he crossed behind you. eh
’|n§n Iqhum ka |li lit. his tongue is cut through, i.e. he is dysarthric. Inule |a
Iqhum-ka-sa the border of a territory. 2. bent (cf. Iga’n), crooked, stooped,
hunched. lOO n Iqhum ka |l1 the knife (blade) is bent. 3. fold in half, fold up
(e.g. a blanket) (c f. +abu). |ua Iqhum kl s a ’bl fold the blanket (in half).
Iqhum be drunk, intoxicated (sg.) (cf. +hllbe (pi.), Inahle).
Iqhum-ka 3 n woman’s personal name.
Iqhuu -sa IqhuvH tam (sg.)/taa (pi.) fall over (tr. & intr.). Oan Iqhuu kv tam
fall off to sleep. ||nae a Iqhue tam the hut fell over.
Iqhuu kv tam (sg.)/taa (pi.) stagger about, fall about (cf. Inabu, Inah’ni).
Iqhuu -sa Iqhuv L place (pi.) (c f. +habl (sg.), Igam ). Iqhuu tshiiu (sg.)/-'l’a a
(pi.) be placed. Iqhua |*aa ka '^n^na pile up fire against the pot. Iqhlia
tshxaa ka tym put shit on the skin (i.e. to remove the hairs).
Iqhuu -Iqhuu 3 n -te 3 n the twig used to anchor the chord of the snare. The ka +ona
is secured round it
glqhae to Iq’obi 89


glqhae /glqhaa 2 ii glqhan-sa 2 ii quill, straight thom (cf. g||xau).

glqhai (|naV)/(+’V) fight (with).
glqhal |naa 3 II woman's personal name.
glqhau -sa glqhaBV H join by linking or insertion (without fixing) (sg.) (cf. glqhalU
(pi.), 1|§0). glqhaina 4qhaa ke +qhul1 join the arrowhead to the linkshaft.
glqhaba +U6 lit. join your mouth i.e. shut up! glqhaU Inaha insert into the
socks, shoes, a belt.
glqhalu glqhaLV L join by linking or insertion (without fixing) (pi.) (cf.glqhau (sg.).
glqhobo -sa sound of bursting (e.g. an eggshell when cooking, or a gun).
glqhbp ’+ n 4 la sound of a trap being sprung.
glqhum (qae) l II glqhuma-te 2/4 n & sptd&s o f p\a.nt (AsclepiadaceaeCeropegia
mulnflora subsp. tenticulata). The tuber is eaten for moisture.
glqhum 9a 1 11 glqhuma-te 2/4 n a species of plant probably
Ceropegia). Duiker, steenbok and porcupine eat the roots which are poisonous to man.

Glqh [NGlqh]

Glqhapa (ka) grey haired.

Glqhum 1 II inflorescence, flower, also emergence of the adult insect from the pupa (n. and
vb.) -sa 2 n flowering. Uh n ba Glqhum ke ||gaa they emerge in the hot dry
Glqhuu 1 II Glqhuu-te 4 II an empty container.+ua-te n ku GlqhUU-te the eggs
are empty, i.e. they contain no water. tS’OO |’6 a n ki GlqhUU the bottle is empty.


Iq’a le turn around (to look) (intr.) (cf. m all, ga ll, t s ’an).
Iq*al0 3 II - t e 3 11 species of plant ^p.). It is roasted for food.
Iq’am k v turn around (tr,).
Iq’a m a 2 11 - t e 2 n Uneofseparationof the white belly hair from the redder hair of the
skin of certain antelope.
Iq’a m a 2 II - t e 2 II ^Uck^ss(AristidacongestaRoem .etSchucht subsp. congesta)
(cf. ||kx *aa 9 a). It is used to bring luck to the hunter in the ritual involving the
brushing of blood from incisions between the eyebrows.
Iq’a o 1 II spec, the awns of Stickgrass, also Stickgrass (Aristida sp,) (cf. Iq’am a).
Iq’obi s i - s a Iq^obi s v heat a stick by pushing it through hot ash in order to facilitate the
removal of the bark (cf. Iq’o b u -lq ’obu, I’ai). Iq’ob i s e ’G n a je s1 Mn§hle
ty m a -te heat the stick and take off its bark(s).
90 Iq’obu-lq’obu to IhuM

Iq’obu-lq’obu si-sa Iq’obu-lq’obu SV heat a stick by pushing it through hot ash in

order to facilitate the removal of the bark. (cf. Iq’ObI, I’al)-
|q’bbu-!q*bbu t§ha 3 II -te 3 II of ^diSsiEragrostislehmannia(Nees),
var. chaunantha (Pilg.) de Winter).
Iq’bo shrivel (cf. ||n§u).
Iq’ua kv Iq’ua i ii (der. nom.) grind to a powder (cf.xai, g+Kx’aa). |au llnaa |i
Iq’ua snuff.
Iq’ua 3 II snuff.
Iq^llbU t s ’ee the sound made by a fresh, unfertilised egg when shaken (cf. Ihulu). 49^^^
n ba Iq’ubu ts’ee the unfertilised egg make the sound Iq’ubu.


Ihal ti /lhaa ti/li fall, set (of a star) (sg.) (cf H n^a (pi.), k x ’ua).
lhan 2 n lh a n a -to 2 n inside of e.g. a dense clump of trees, the bottom or inside of a
hole, interior space of a container, inner layer of a skin, the part of a person inside his/her
skin i.e. a persons insides, innards. Also the centre of a circle, n b a Iqham !han lit.
I am sick from my insides, i.e. I have a stomach ache. !han tsh o e 2 II lit. the inside
(of the eyes) i.e. area of the glabella i.e. the point between the eyebrowswhere tatoos are
cut. This spot itches if a hunter is about to make a kill or if another hunter already has.
’Inahl lhan (tsh o e) lit. the inside of the ceremonial clearing, i.e. the part of the
initiation school clearing opposite the fire and behind the log.
lh a n -k a [IhaQka] backwards eh n !h a n -k a b a s a a he is going backwards
(cf. Iq’ii-sa).
lhao 3 II apaneastof Kagcae.
■had Igam (si I) relieve someone of a load. ^naT x6o lhao Igam thaa tan’ri
we two are taking turns at carrying this thing.
Ihee -Ih ee make the sound of the [!] click.
IhOO briskly. Inaa Ihoo walk briskly.
Ihoo k v brush past (cf tso h le, 4h ale).
Ihoo 1 II - t e 4 II hat, cap.
Ihbp t s ’e e the sound made when a non-fresh egg is shaken, (cf Ihulu tS ’e S ).
Ihua/ Ihuu - s a Ihuv H to cut open with an incision, to cut open, slit open (cf + n a ’n).
1s1 n k a b a (hue O a je G a a 1h k a b a ts h d a -ts h o a k e ||q’a b e
tsh o e V i h b a Ihue s1 b a ’^ n fle ||k x ’an 1 b a 4 q ^ u b e 1 b a ||a b e
when we cut open an animal we begin at the sternum and we make an incision and we take
out the stomach and stitch it up and grill it.
Ihlia 3 n yawn, eh |e ~ his yawning, fi H b a 6 6 ~ I am yawning.
Ihuu - s a Ihuv L put up (pi.) (cf +h a b i (sg.)).
IhUla 3 II woman’s personal name.
IhuH 1 II -t e 4 II {Dipterahippoboscidae).\^\ |l Ihull Lousefly sp, lit. lion's
Ihulu t s ’e a to lijyjia 9i

Ihulu t s ’e e the sound made by an unfenilised non-fresh egg when shaken (cf. Iq’UbU
t s ’e e ). Ig u h l n b a Ihulu t s ’e e the unfertilised egg make the sound !hulu.
Ihlllu burst out, e.g. an animal from a bush.
Ihuma 2 n (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) - t e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) external lower
part of the belly, above the pubic area.
Ihun ta var. of Ihuu old, used with q a e and g a.
IhUU - s a IhUV H scoop out dung from a slaughtered animal.
Ihuu golo IlhUU be on hands and knees (cf. ’|n f I, ^bhlO).
Ihuu (n), k a Ihujia tam (sg.)/taa (pi.) be old (cf. ||ah v , lo |l). n n Ihuu |il,
n k a Ihujia tarn I am old. uh n Ihupa t a a |ii they are old. t a a |a Ihun
ta 9 a old man. t a a |a Ihun ta q a e old woman, eh h Ihuu |il b e n k a
tym he is old being wrinicled.
Ihuu (-Ihuu) kV bounce up and down to settle a load, shake into, n h ba IhUU-lhUU ka
yll + a l[fii] llnam ki ||kx’an si b a ||am a I am shaking the steenbok liver into
its stomach and (will) roast it. IhUU-lhUU ka Iga’O shake into, qai tl IhUU
bounce up and down, bang.
Ihuu feed (intr.) (pL) (cf. ^habl). ||um n ba Ihuu ka mala ka tarn the
springbok (pi.) are grazing a small area.
Ihuu-Ihuu ka yLV knock into the ground.
Ihuu kV stick to, adhere (cf. dt’kx’aba).


Ina’a 2 II deliberately conceal something (n. or vb.). ’ah n a Ina’a to make a

concealment, ’a a Ina’a eat secretly (to avoid having to share); also eh n b a
Ina’a ’a a he is secretly eating.
InjjT-ln§T make the sound of the [!f] click (i.e. a noisy version of [0) e.g. during ritual feeding
of an initiate or while rubbing a festering sore to remove a thorn. Also to talk about
(cf. + h e e -+ h e e ).
Ina’I Ilg a’U kU 3 II -te 3 n sLsptci^sof^lsLniiAsclepiadaceaeCarallumalugardae
N.EMr.) (var. of la’ i ||g a ’U kU) (cf. gllkx’a jia aa). it is regarded as poisonous.
Ina’la tsh b e 2 ii InaM a-te 2 ii palate.
In§*m - s a ln§*BV h 1. avoid, evade (cf. *^nahm, ’||nahle). 2. watch out for, fear (cf.
g|kX*ao, ’Inuhl, ||ya). Ilia’bl g||xau avoid (e.g. by ducking) the thombush!
In§’m watch out! Inaa Ina’m walk, avoiding objects.
Ina’m a -S l 3 II man's personal name.
Ino’a kV call the attention of someone at a distance (cf. Ig a’ i, +li, I’al, kuhll).
hjQll 1 II IpQlU-te 4 II Si sptcics o f plioitiMenispermaceaeAntizomaangustifolia (Burch.)
Miers ex Harv.). The root is a powerful general treatment for infection.
iQulu ’+nftla jerk, snatch away, jerk loose e.g. in anger (cf. gllkx’Qbu, dtshup, ||hup.
iQlijta variant of Inyjia
92 Inu’u to Inabe

ll}U’U go straight to a destination, follow a track, path to a destination, n n iQli’U b a s a a

I am going straight there.


Inaa 2 n-te/!nam-te 2 n container (cf. Pule).

Inaa 2 nInan-sa 2 II spirit, being, "humour” of someone alive or a living animal,
taa h ka ba paa Iqhaa n ka ba !aa eh Inaa h Okx’um if a
person dies and if it rains his spirit is good. ||’an tO’O t6 taa |*aa ta te’6 taa
te’e Inaa |e ||a’u ke n ba qan on the day a person dies it is the chill of this
persons spirit that kills me. ah Inaa n GkX’um lit. your hands are nice, i.e. your
spirit is good, said of someone who successfully invokes the rain by singeing a skin.
Inaa-se 3 I - t e 3 I spirit, soul, spirit of someone recently dead, associated with omens
such as meteorological events, e.g. clouds or wind.
Inaa 3 II -tU 4 II same age, coeval, contemporary (cf. +ama kX’am, + ’ao,
f u ll- t e ) .
Inaa -sa walk(gen.), spec. sg. (cf. Iqhil (pi.)). ~ Iqhll walk about. ~ §a male
traveller. - Hg4i female traveller. IqahO ~ go off hunting. - IhOO walk briskly, ah
|nan h ||qhua ba Inaa lit. you head does not go, i.e. you are crazy. Inaa
O ’anI travellers.
Inaa-to 3 n man's personal name.
In§a -sa ln§V H notice, look at, investigate.
In^a 3 n II dim: ka-ln§a-ba/Oaa (sg.) blood (al.), money (cf. In^m).
In§a |e *OnaJe 3 II In^a |6 ’Onaa 3 II lit. blood's tree, i.e. a species of plant
(Melhania acuminata Mast, var acuminata). It is mixed with the root of Harpagophytum
procumbens (||Gaba xaa) to "treat the blood".
In§a BV +vb.(+te) ought, ah h Inaa ba saa te you ought to go. In§a
man’n [man’n] h ke ^qhue Lit. I ought to be the (northeast) wind, i.e. I ought to
cause the northeast wind (through the ritual burning of a skin).
In^ha-te (ka) striped (e.g. as an Aaidwolf) (cf. Hg^a).
Inah’a kv l. respond to the cry of an infant. 2. To make the calf of a duiker, steenbok,
wildebeest, gemsbok, eland cry so as to bring the mother to the hunter (springbok,
hartebeest and kudu are tshxaa (shit) because they do not respond).
InftBV H like (same as) (cf. BV, tftBV, lum). In^be ka |g^6 like Kagcae. Infbl
||ae q§m *nn xbo sll like we (pi.) were coming there yesterday.
Inahba (n) belargeandround, e.g. thesun whenred, oreyes. ||’an n Inahba tshoa
lahjia the sun is turning into a red round (thing).
Inahba ||hoa I’ua-te/lnahba Ipoba PuT 2 II omasum (cf. ’^r^ahfTl,
llkx’an bai-bili).
Inabu (ka) stagger, shake, shiver (cf. Inah’nl).
Inabe SV si-sa Inabe 3 II (der. nom.) dispute, argue, disagree; criticize, find fault
(cf. ||XUU). gumi |e Inabe the dispute over the cow.
Inabl-lnabt dzaha to In^m 93

Inabi-lnabi d z a h a 3 ii -t e 3 ii giddiness (cf. d zam -d za ll). n h b a |x a e -

I dance (i.e. go round) giddiness.
Inabl-ll variant of Iab1-li.
Inae [Inaee] die down of the wind, blow gently (cf. + ’alO).
Inat - s a In aJV H roast meat on a stick.
Inai-lnai-se 3 U -te 3 II sp. of beetle eaten by the Bat-eared fox
Drosochrini Micrantereus sp.) (cf. I*al-l’at-se).
Inal-lnat stagger, move unevenly as a drunk person or a malfunctioning helicopter toy
(’ahna)(cf. a h a ).
1 n ln§ba-t©/-le 4 II Red hm^b^tsi (Alcephus buselaphus).\f\^\ |a ||ga’a
lone male hartebeest.
Ina’i llg a ’u ku var. of Ina’i Hga’u ku.
InaM-lnaM 3 II -t© 3 II species of beetle.
Inaja 3 II a pan about 60 km. east of Lx)ne Tree.
Inah’Ja 2 II -te 2 II a species of small stink bug.
ln§la -sa InaLV H split dry pods (vb.) (cf.tsa’ii).
Inala 3 l ln§n-sa 2 l dim :!n§1u-ba (sg.) !n§lu O ’ani (pi.) small spotted genet
(Genetta genetta).
!n§la ka t'uu be spread out, spaced out (cf. loan-loan).
Inahle be intoxicated (alcohol or dagga) (cf. Iqhum (sg.),+hube (pi.)), eh n Inahle |fl
he is drunk.
Inahle kv give an omen, indication; have a presentiment, be apprehensive, anticipate
(cf. Ilqhala). *||nybi tshde h ka ba ||ao 1 ba Inahle ku tuu tu xoo
sli ku when the armpit gets hot it indicates/is an omen of people who are coming, n n
tshoa Inahle ke be xbo s1i I have a presentiment that he is coming,nn
tshoa Inahle ka thaa Inuu ta n ba ahn [mahn] s1l ka i anticipate
something that will come.
Inahle (ka) kv cut meat into strips (cf. lahle).
In^H hatch . quu-m n ln§1l |?l the ostrich chicks have hatched.
Inalo (n) be stiff (also with cold), viscous (cf, |*bo, ||ya). In§i s§a ma Inalo
hartebeest fat is stiff, ah !nam n ka Inalo |ii s\ ka ||qhua ba |gaa ah
h I’aa te tsohu if your blood should become viscous and not function, you die
Inalo kv tshoe assuage hunger, e.g. as a young child or antelope eating sand.
Inahio ka tshuu be grouped (as people seated together or things close together).
Inam 1 II Inama-te 4 II a clearing or clear place; open area in the bush, e.g. space
between bushes or trees; an area without dense vegetation . O ’aa |’aa kl Inam
light a fire in the clearing (cf. Inahl). *yhm n kU Inama-te ’"uhm (a locality)
does not have dense vegetation.
In^m 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) In^ma-te 2 U blood (inal.), money (cf. In^a).
n ln§m n ||qhua ba Inaa lit. my blood is not going, i.e. I am not feeling well,
n In^m n ka ||q’apa ah n Inalo |n my blood is dirty; it is viscous, i.e. I
feel unwell, n ln§ma-te n ka 4num lit. my bloods are two, i.e. I have two
origins (referring to e.g. a K o o father and |Gwi mother), h In^m n |’Ul lit. its
94 Ina’m to Inahu I’ae

money is little, i.e. it is cheap.

Ina'm (ka) k v l, surround, go round, around, in the sense of vicinity of. (cf. Inah’O,
»llg^f'rna-llgahm a). 2. threaten (e.g. with a weapon). 3. cover (e.g. with
branches (cf. ’||nahna). k a Ina’m k a ||um surround the springbok! 1h n b a
Inum k a Ina’m ke laja we live around !aja, i.e. Lone Tree.
Ina’m ( - k a ) - s a be the other side of, be behind (cf. t a ’m -s a , t a ’m -ja, ’nn-ja). tuu
n Ina’m t a ’bu I’a a k a kuni |q ’ll- s a the people are behind there seated at the
back of the lorry. IIyh6 n Ina’m the plain is behind, te Ina’m |ll k e the one on
the other side from the speaker, i.e. the other one.
Inah’m k v move carrying fire, inah’m k a I’a a move off with some fire!
Inah’m 3 II man's personal name.
Inah’m l II Inah’ma-te 4 II species of fly that lays its eggs in the ears and eyes of the
Inam a 2 n be jealous, jealousy. Uh n b a Inam a you (pi.) are jealous. Oh n b a
Inam a you (pi.) are feeling jealous.
In^ma k v stare at (cf. o||qhbbu).
InamI 3 II (sg. and pi.) a species of plant (Liliaeceae sp.?).
Inana k a 3 II woman's personal name.
Inahn ||’u m a -s a Inahn ||’uBV(sg.) Inahn ||h u a - s a Inahn ||huv (pi.) jam
into (cf. OU’U).
In^hna 2 II (|n av) snore, growl (at) (n. or vb.) (cf. |g o Io ).
Inani k v find, come across, come up to, reach up to, join up with others (e.g catching up to a
group of people).
InanI - s a shirk from doing, loaf, n n b a Inani tl jx al I am shirking from going to
inspect the snare (c f.’||nahjia). eh n b a Inani k a jg a a she’s loafmg.
Inah’nl (ka) stagger, shake, shiver (cf. Inabu, ||ahbu).
ina/ia 2 ii -te 2 ii species of larger flying ant (cf. dahbl-Slt).
Inajia |e ^qhue 3 n -t e 3 II Daikling btttic {Coleoptera PolyphagaTenebhonidae
Anomalipus elephas). It is hung from a branch with Terminalia sericea bark to prevent the
wind from blowing in order to encourage the appearance of flying ants (cf. jgale).
Inaho k v load up.
Inahd hold onto with the knees (cf. jjqhabe). |naT Inaho k1 |n a i ||qhae si b a
O a n the two of us are holding one another (by the knees) and sleeping. InahO kan
th aa hold the thing between the knees!
Inah’5 - s a Inah’BV L surround (cf. Ina’m, l§l). Inah’o k a tam wrap yourself
up (e.g. in a blanket).
Inah’o var of Inaho.
Inau [Inou] i ii In a a -te 4 ii dim :ln au-ba (sg.) pan. tsh b e 2 ii spot where
water collects in a pan, ~ s a ’a surface of a pan, - ’|nym (underground) watercourse
into a pan, - +hUU ku tsh oe dune of a pan, ||q haa ^ a m a -te lit. pan's
maxilla, i.e. the sides of a pan. + ’an jau tapering part of a pan.
Inau t a a Inau (sg.) 2 ii Inau (pi.) l ii male youth.
Inahu I’a e 3 I Inahm I’a m - s a 2 I felted material of the nest of the CapePenduline Tit
Inahu to Inuha 95

made from inter alia the inflorescence of Asclepiadaceae Pergularia daemia (IgUU-ba).
This substance is traditionally lit during the initiation ceremony and carried by the initiate
from fire to fire in the village.
Inahu k v hug (cf. oUqhao).
Inahu - s a In^hBV M l.splite.g. meat, a melon by cutting straight along. 2. rip, split the
skin, scrape (e.g. as a stick on the leg) (cf. gllkx’alu, n||qhua). In^hu
d t s h a l6 - s a Infhu dtShaLV L split and tear i.e. split by cutting (e.g. a skin), also
cut a groove. 3. lit. scrape a light, i.e. strike a light (with a match). Infhu k x 'u a |’a a
scrape off fire i.e. strike a light, match. In^hma |’a a lit. scrape fire, i.e. strike a light
(c fk x ’ua).
Inoha (kV+obj.) become lost (intr.), lose (tr.).
InQba race, run very fast (also of a wheel turning) (cf. dQba).
Ingbe 3 n Ingm-sa 2 n dim: Inobu Oaa (sg.) |nQbu O ’anI /InQm-sa
G ’anl (sg.) a species of frog (probably Breviceps sp ),
InohbU 2 II -to 2 II skin blanket.
IngbU tUU fall over, crash over, crash down e.g. a person hurled through the air by a lion. I«1
'ih n ba ||*am ti jkx'aa si ba Igahm san ndi saa ba Oqhaa
Inobu tUU the lion grabs me in its paw and throws me and I go and crash down in
InQl (ka) shorn off, amputated (cf. dthu I, kua). ah |kx*aa n ka -yo u r arm is a
stump, ah |nan n ka - your head is bald (id.).
Inoll 8V s f - s a l. spoil. 2. waste, eh a [eajInoH s o Iq^an lit. he spoilt his heart,
i.e. he behaved badly, eh n Inoli-SI |li he’s dead (euph.).
InQli SV S H S a wipe or rub the eyes, pick the nose (cf. In^m).
Inohio 2 II - t e 2 n Pririt Batis (Batis pririt) and Threestreaked Tchagra (Tchagra Australis),
InblO-ka 3 n -te 3 II Pearl Spotted Owl (Glaucidium perlatum).
InghlO smoulder, h n s a a Inghlo Inaa it goes along smouldering.
Ingni - s a flow (vb.) (cf. synl).
Inoh’Jia 2 II !noh*n-te 2 II kidney. A taboo food except for senior males.
InQhm 2 II !n gh m a-te 2 li larynx.
Inbo -sa Inov cover, hide, conceal, eclipse. ||’an ri ba ka Inbo s1i qum |n
when the sun is covered it is overcast. Inoe ||nae cover (i.e. thatch) the hut.
Inoo quil/xult l n the ripe fruit of the Wild Plum (Oc/ina pw/c/ira) (lahia).
InbhO (kV) speculate, imagine, think, n n ba Inbho k6 bO I’aa |ll I am thinking
that he is dead.
InQhO -sa InohV L lit. impale, i.e. hunt, springhare.
In^m -ta subu-subu 3 II -te 3 II 2iS^ecv&soi^\ 2ini{CucurbitaceaeMomordica
balsaminaL.y I’aa-l’aa -se is edible.
Inoh’n -s i l n Hay grass (Aristida meridionalis Henrard), It is used as a sponge to soak up the
liquid from pounded H^n (Cucurbitaceae Acanthosicyos naudinianus),
Inua be alive, sober (sg.) (cf. Inujia (pi.)), kule Inua fli even if he is alive.
Inuha 2 II what kind, sort of? |aa ka taa Inuha ta ah*au nee ka what kind
of person are you, i.e. who are your kin? (cf. m apa, glkx’um, Ikx’al). |an ka
96 Inu’a to Inuu

|nule Inuha ta ah’au neS ka what kind of stone is this?

Inu’a (ku) 3 n a pan southeast of Lokalane.
Inu’a (ka) 3 n -te 3 n species of small raptor. Referred to as lum |e IgOh’U lit. the
eland’s bird, because it is supposed to lead the hunter to the eland.
Inu’a -sa/!nu’u-sa Inu’v H ilitreat (cf. !gyi, |nehe, dzaa, H’a H I’al, kx’ao
Iny*a 3 n woman's personal name.
InybU-lnybU kv play (a thumb piano or musical bow).
!nubt 1hl 1 n -te 3 n {SolanumcocdnewnJacq. or Solamm
panduriforme) The fruit is boiled and used as an additive to arrow poison to increase
toxicity* The root is a general medicine and is either chewed or boiled. The fruit is mixed
with the root of Scrophulariaceae Aptosimum sp. (Hgole) as an antidote to arrow poison.
inyl 1 II Inya-le /-to 2 II l. any small bush not at full size. 2. enlarged sides due to
gorging food or water.
Inya-le 3 n man's personal name.
Inule3 I Inun-sa 2 i dim: ka-lnuu-ba/Oaa /ka-lnuu-mMnuu o a a 3 11/
Inulu-ba 3 I (sg.) (ka)-lnulu O ’anf / ka-!nun-sa ©’an! 2 I (pi.)
country, area, territory (al. or inal.) (cf. InuU). Oq^a eh a [ea] |nae [|nee]
Inule lit. the child has seen the land, i.e. the child has been bom. n h ba f Upa
Inun-sa lit. I divide the territories, i.e. I move to another teiritory.
Inuli sVvar.of Inoli sv.
Inum Inum-sa live(sg. andpi.)(cf. Inupa(pi.)). n h Inum tshuu |ti ke ka
Ig^e I am living at Kagcae taa te’e n ||'aa ba Inum |ua Iqhii lit. this man
just lives and passes walking about, i.e. he is nomadic, unsettled.
Inum kv settle (tr.).
Inuhm see Inaha.
Inum ll’ae 3 n woman’s personal name.
Inupa (ku) white (Munsell AO-40), silver, light grey; ka-!nui-sa (nom.) whiteness.
Inujia be alive, survive (pi.) (cf. Inum (sg.)).
Inyjia 2 I -ta 2 I thymus gland (al).
Inypa/lnyjia 2 I -te 2 I a species of plant (Kalanchoe paniculata Harv). The stalk ||u11
is used for tubes and the pounded root mixed with water is used as an emetic.
Inuu 1 II -te 4 II a species of bush, Kalahari Appleleaf, Tsw. Mhata (Lo«c/wcflrpi«
(schinz) Heer et Grimme).'Thtc 2X<ST^\\\2J - |a iG^ha is eaten.
InilU-ma-ni 3 II man's personal name.
Inuu-Inuu 3 n -te 3 II bugs (//em/pfera dca^iW/iV/ag), gnats, midges. The bugs are found
'\ns\m6soiLonchocarpmnelsii. Inuu-lnuu-te +qhan-te ah n ku
+guha-te lit. the scrotums of ~ bugs are sterile. An incantation sung when entering a
stand of Lonchocarpus nelsii to ward off the swarms of bugs from entering one's ears and
eyes. Also sung while throwing handfuls of sand into the wind in order to still it so that the
’^ h n a game can proceed.
Inuu 1 n Inujia 4 iidim ; Inuu-ba (sg.) Inuu O ’anl/lnuu-ni (pi.) Kori Bustard
(Ardeotis kori).
Inuu to 1n§hn 97

Inuu 3 n territory (al or inal.) (cf. Inule).

Inyu 1 n In y a -te 4 II dim: k a -ln y u -b a (sg.) Scrub hsrciLepussaxatiUsy
!nu*u (bl) be in a large pile. Ix a b a -te uh n bi Inu’u the blankets are piled up high.
Inu’u - s a lnu*V H refuse without giving a reason (cf. ||y a , x a o , tao , §hf, |a a ,
g + k x ’um).
Inuh*u 2 n nyctophobia. - h b a qan nyctophobia is killing me.
InyhU (ka) SV - s i - s a remove, move off(tr,), move aside (e.g. a pot from the fire).
Il’um a k a Inyhu s a ’^n^na pull the pot from the fire. ||huu k a Inyhu s1l
come (and) stand back.


’ln§a 2 II -t© 2 II Pied Crow (Corvus albus) or Black Crow {Corvus capensis\
’Inaha -s a Inahv L lay horizontal (sg.) (cf. +q’au (pi.)), kx’un thaa ’Inaha
put the thing down horizontal. ’Inaha +am kV remove in the horizontal plane
(cf. Il’um a |a m ).
1n§h’a 2 II herd of Gemsbok {Oryx gazella) (cf. +n^hni).
’!n§ba ripple (vb.) (cf. Ikx’aba, qhb’ba). !nau tshoe ta’a ka ah n luma
luma fii ta te ma |e Iqhaa eh n ba ’Inaba te ||ali that pan must
have a python in it because it ripples so much.
1n§b1 / ’In^ba l II ’In^ba-to 4 II ridge e.g. on a horn or on the palate of an antelope,
series of humps or bumps, corrugation, wrinkle (cf. IlgibI, gllkx’al). ah sa ’a n
k'u ’ln§ba-te your face is wrinkled.
’Inai 1 n ’Inaba-te 4 ii i. bachelor ( cf. teghl-si). eh n ||’ubl Mnal |il he is a
bachelor, n n ba Oan kl ’!nai I sleep in bachelorhood, said by someone without a
wife. 2, jail (n.).
’Inal -sa bebom. O aa |a ’Ina1-sa the child’s birth.
’Inal 1 n ’Inaba-to 4 ii meeting.
’Inahi l l ’Inahba-te 4 II l. ceremonial circle, clearing for initiation, the dance circle or
clearing or fire for the kuma dance; also a Tswana court (kgotla). 2. halo round the moon
(after the shape of the dance circle). 3. Met. for the kuma dance. O ’ai ’Inahi set alight
the dance place i.e. light the dance fire. ||xaa h ka ba |xaa uh n ba ’ahna
kiima p ’Inahi men when they dance, they do the dance circle, tiiu Ixabu p
’Inahi the initiation school clearing. ’Inahi lhan lit. the inside of the initiation school,
i.e. the area opposite die fire and behind the log. ’Inahi +ue lit. the mouth/entrance of
the initiation school clearing, i.e. the place where the fire is made.
’Inahi tana 3 II man's personal name.
’In^m 1 II Kang, a village 85 km. southeast of Lokalane.
’In^m 3 II woman's personal name.
’Inj^hm -sa In^hBV M rummage in.
’In§hn -sa ’In^hLV L lower, take down, unload, remove, come off (e.g. leaves in
Autumn) (pi.) (cf. k x ’ua(sg.)). eh h ba dtshum ’Inahna |gQh’a -te ka
98 Mn^na to ’Inehm

llnaa k e ^qhue |qhan she blows-removes i.e. blows away, the binds from the
Grewiaflava berries with the +qh'ue Iqhan tube. ||’a1 n b a ’In^hle ^n u h a-te
s1 ba k a Ig a 'a k a the bat-eared fox lowers its ears and puts them down (i.e. when
listening for ants). 1n§hna ||g a ’m a -te remove, i.e. cut the finger nails. ’Inahn
Ikx’a a k a s a ’a S\ ||’am th a a lit. lower the arm across your face and take
something, i.e. lean across and take something.
•m in a 211 M nsna-te 2 ii Starvation, weakness; weakling (cf. tQh*a). Uh n ka
’In^na-tO they are weaklings. A condition caused by eating taboo foods like *lnyla
{Asclepiadacae Tenaris Schlect), dtshaa qaa (Brachystelma cupulatum\ quje Ostrich
{Struthio Camelus)y !nuu Kori Bustard (Ardeotis kori), SU’U Redcrested Korhaan
(Eupodotis ruficrista), ||nahl-SI Seriated tonoise {Psammaobates Hodotermes), ||aba
Black Korhaan {Tribulus terrestris L.), In'uu Brown hyena (Hyaena brunnea), ||ul
{Pafuhers pardus), qhaa +u I (/^w/5 caraca/)-thani ta’a n ba ’ahna
’ln§na ka ’InjiJla dtshaa qaa ||n6’m the things that cause malnounshment
are, Asclepiadaceae Tenaris Schiechu Brachystelma cupidatum and ||n6’m.
’!n|ini (n/ba) be malnourished, starve, be weak through food deprivation (sg.). ka *!n§ni
ka (pi.) (cf.dts’kx’bm). eh n ||’aa ’In^nl fii she’s just malnourished.
inah’nl grow physically, mature.
Inah’nI-’Inah’nl 3 II -to 3 II a species of sedge (Cyperaceae sp.) (cf. dza^nl). The
bulbs are eaten.
’In^hO 2 II -te 2 II base, broad end, backside, end e.g. of a rope, termination e.g. of a
season (inal.), last bit of water in a container. ||uhn 1n§ho small of the back, lie
’In§h0-te end of the cold season. +nuu InahO lit. spoor’s rear, i.e. original spoor.
Iqhue ’In^ho upwind, ^nuha *ln§hO lit. behind of the ear, i.e. the hollow
between jaw, ear and skull, ’a a -sa *lnQho leftovers (food) (c f. ’aa |hum tl).
lula te’e |e Iqhaa eh n ke Irij^ho this Acacia/wgrfmrz/rs (stored) water is
nearly at an end. |habe ’In^hO broad end of a bow.
’Ina’5 I’e e (ka) round, tubular- shaped (as opposed to flat) object (e.g. a branch, rod),
descriptive of a lanky person ( c f.’+n u’m |’e e ).
*lnahu l^n 2 II -te 2 II ei species o f plmt (UHaceaeDipcadisp.nov.?). The bu\b and
leaves are eaten.
’iRQa -sa ’IDQV find out about, inspect (e.g. a snare), n |aa ba ’iHQa I have come to
find out about you, things arc.
’Inbla - s a dawn (vb.), passing of the night, light up. Uh a ||nae s1l ’Inbla they
sang until dawn. ’In bla~sa |a ||ona lit. the dawn's star, i.e. Venus. |nye eh a
n llqhua ||am ’inbla |nan man ||qhua ||am ba t^n O aa-te te qaT
this night has not passed well for me because I do not feel my flesh is good.
’Inohia -sa ’Inoh’LV M respect, treat with reserve (certain kin, i.e. +kx’an, Oaa
Igaho, qae Igaho, |kx’oe ’|nan, or taboos) (cf. xau). ’Inohle taa te \\\
ke ||nae tshbe te treat with reserve the person (i.e.initiate) who is in the hut.
’Inoh’H 1 II ’InohMu-te 4 U mist, spray (cf. ||ohbU).
•InQhm -sa MnghBV L clear an area (e.g of twigs), clear out, sweep out. ’InQhma ^ll
clear the area.
’Inghm to Tale-I’ale 99

Inghm kv var. of ’InghBV.

•InQhm 2 n Inghma-te 2 n sod of grass (cf. ||kx’aa |nan).
’Inbo 1 II (possessed)/ ’Inoo 3 I (alienated) - t e 4 II/ ’!n o o-te 3 I (alienated) Achilles
tendon, fetlock, calcaneum of an ungulate (cf. gyn-te, gulu, gubi-si ).
MriQhO 1 n -te 4 n \onc male springbok (Antidorcasmarsupialis) or hmcbcest{Alcephus
buselaphus) (also refers to the shape of the horns), honorific term of address for these
antelope (cf. Ilga’a). ||ua |i Mngho a lone male springbok.
’Inoh’U bark (vb.).
’In'ua (ka) 2 n unmarried man or woman, widow, widower (cf. *lnai, !G§hl-Sl, |gao).
eh h ka ’Inlia she's a widow, taa qae/taa ^a |a Mniia
•Inya 2 ii ’Inym-sa 2 n woody part of a tree or root, hard part of somediing.
4qhan-te *lny m -sa testicles, seeds in a pod. ’Iny a ta |ahjia ka red
heartwood, + ’an ’Inya glans of penis. |a ke eh ’Inya what on earth are you?! H
a oan kan[k3n] ’!nya lit. I slept with my essential body, i.e. I slept uncovered,
i.e. without a blanket
’Inuhl kv fear (cf. ||ya).
Inuhl |nV remove oneself, jump up and run away, scatter (of people). Inuhl |naa tam
remove yourself!
’Inyla 3 I Inyn-sa 2 I a species of plant {Asclepiadacae Tenaris Schlecht .). The bulb is
eaten by elders for moisture but is regarded as poor nourishment for others unless ritually
fed. The leaves are eaten.
Inyhbi l n ’Inyhbu-te 4 II kneecap (patella) (al.) (cf. |x6li).
’Inum 2 II (possessed)/’lnum 3 I (alienated) -sa/-sa 2 II frontal sinus. Sa’a
’Inum forehead.
Inuma -sa limp (cf. ’|nghlo). n ri ba ’Inuma/n yla ’Inuma i am limping.

I’a a sit (pi.) (cf.tshuu (sg.)).

!’a a (ka) tall, long deep (pi.) (cf. !’am (sg.)).
I*aa-l’a a - s e 3 II - t e 3 n the fruit of Cucurbitaceae Momordica balsamina L.
(Inghm -ta su bu-subu ).
r a b e (ke) not fully ripened or cooked, e.g. meat or berries (cf. Iqhaa)
I’a e - s a be startled, get a fright; - kV startle, rouse, shout at.
I*al-!’al-se 3 n -t e 3 II species of beetle eaten by the Bat-eared fox (TeneMomdoe
Drosochrini Micrantereus sp.) (cf. !nai-!nai-se).
I’a l - s a I’aA^ H grill, toast (e.g. food on hot coals or in the flames) (cf. qola, ||ao,
I’a l k v I’a J ® 3 (der. nom) call (cf. +fl, Ig a’I, Ino’a, kuhll).
I’a la k v give instructions when departing, take leave of.
I’ale-I’ale kv whittle (cf. ||’ale-||’ale), - ke dzau whittle the throwing stick.
100 ram to rum

eh + ’an n rale-l’ale |lt his penis is skinless, i.e. with the foreskin drawn back,
eh |ga*a n ralo-rale [\\ her labia are exposed, i.e. long
ram (n) -sa tall, long, deep (s g .)(c f.r a a (pi.), |Gb’n a).h |a ram -sa +hanl
tUU its (e.g. a furrow) depth lies high, i.e. it is shallow, dzuhe ’|nym n Tam the
hole (lit. the hole's throat) is deep,
ran i 3 n woman’s personal name.
rim k v tam (sg.)/taa(pl.) nod the head when walking (as antelope, cattle), nod in
agreement (cf. igum ). |^ll h b a Inaa ran i the wildebeest walks nodding.
ran -tl7 r a a - n i 3 II outside, out. -'|u tUU lit. outside's people, i.e. people living in the
bush, away from settlements. Uh n r a n -tl b a Inum they live out (in the bush),
s a a ke r a n -tl go out! ( i.e. go out to the bush!). r a n -t ( llhuu urinate (euph.).
r a o 2 n - t e 2 II the midst, the middle, the space between things, equally, the very, n
’Onaha ~ my whole body. Iqhaa- the middle of the water. ’Onaa ~ the midst
of the trees, k h ala kU Vko -t e lit. divide in their midst, i.e. divide them equally.
tUU - the space between the people,
r o a 3 n -tu 4 II wife's elder or younger sister, husband’s elder or younger brother,
r o a close to or towards the speaker, this side . r o a ’au tshUU ta* (< te ’a a ) sit this
side!, to r o a ||hUU this one, i.e. near the speaker,
r b a 3 II face to face, n n k a r b a ke tshUU I am seated face to face with him.
rb a (-rb a ) kv/ka r b a kv facc (vb), approach, r b a - r b a k an face me! tuu
n b a k a r b a kan people are approaching me, coming towards me. +n ai
r o a - r b a +q’aa k1 +nai ||qhae let's lie face to face,
rb le -sa I’O L V L mb dirt off the skin.
r6o Inoo - s a (kV) look around (for) (e.g. food), explore (cf. ||*ae, Iqhae).
ru a (ka) - s a 3/2 II hard, difficult, tough, strong, rigid, substantial, n ||*aa ke rua
lit. I lack strength i.e. I am weak, eh |nan n ka rua lit. his head is hard, i.e. he is
stubborn, n n ||qhua ba kani kf Ixall n h ba kani ka thani ta ka
rua ka I do not want alcohol, I want substantial things, ah h rua-sa ba
kan [kan] you are lit, calling it forcefully, i.e. pronouncing it carefully.
I*UI k v take care of, look after, handle gently (cf. |nu’I).
I’ilT 2 II (possessed) / rOT 3 I (alienated) rija -te / m 2 II eye, joint, globe (of a torch).
|kx’a a - knuckle, ||naa orbit of the eye, ~ tym eyelid, |’a a ~ notch in the
firestick for insertion of the drill, ||n aa joint of a springhare hunting stick,
eh ru a - t e n s i M ke lit. his eyes are sharp to him i.e. he is sharp-eyed.
ruT + ’an |au 2 n r u a - t e 4 *in a |a a 2 n lit. the eye’s tapering part's tail,
i.e. outside comer of the eye (lid).
riJl +nyn 2 II ru a - t a |n y n a -t e 2 II lit. eye's navel, i.e. inside comer of the eye.
I*ule 3 I I’u n -s a 2 I d im :k a -ru lu -b a (sg.) rulu O ’anl (pi.) container, dish, plate
(cf. Inaa).
IH/m -sa I’uBV H bash, pound, bump into, collide with (cf. Iqhaa,+ahm-4ahm,
llq’ale, ||kx’um). n n ba rube kan |kx’aa +hii tshbe I bash him with a backhand, n |q’an h ba I’um n n ka ba Oan my heart pounds
when I sleep ( a sign of illness).
I’unI tsh o e to I’uu lo i

I’unI tShbo 2 n ante-cubital fossa (junction of the upper and lower arm opposite the elbow).
I'UU Il’UBV *|n§n mumble.
102 ||aa to llaha

||aa 3 I ||am 2 i dim: ||au-ba/||aa O a a (s g .) ||aa-ni/||au O 'an i (pi.) species

of tree. Camel Thom, Tsw. Mogotlho (Acacia Erioloba E. Meyer). The gum is taboo and
eating it leads to malnourishment unless it has been ritually fed by an elder. The caterpillar
is eaten. A branch of this tree provides the initiation school headrest.
||aa 3 I ||am 2 i dim: ||au-ba^||aa O aa (sg.) ||aa-m/||au O ’anI (pi.) tatoo.
||aa 3 I jjam 2 i dim: ||au Oaa, ||ei-m (sg.) ||au G ’anI (pi.) eggyoik.
||aa kV 1. be aggressive toward, provoke a fight (cf. sa a kV). 2. attack (cf. q^ha).
||aa -sa I|aa (der. nom.) I ||av L put around i.e.put on (a hat, a necklace). ||aa
IkX’am put on a bead necklace.
||aa |kx’aa-te 3 II -tU 4 11 lit. a-to-put-your-hands- around- (i.e. link above)
-your-head, i.e. a road grader. This derives from the !X 66 way of linking the hands palms
outward above the head to indicate a very tall object (cf. greldara).
I lia 3 e/u II poison, the larva of Diamphidia simplex. ||aa *Onaa the larva. ||aa |6
sbo h ki Inubi 1hi, Ixuli, ^qhun, |nyl0 the medicine (to strengthen the
toxicity) of poison is Solanim coccineum Jacq., Antizoma angustofalia Miers, Boscia
albitrunca, Cucurbitaceae acanthosycios Naudinianus, taa n ka ba qale ||aa
ah n ba ||qhaa ||qham s1 ba tyhla |kx’aa-to s1 ba ||'abl ia i
[fig tshxan-te si ba G|qha5 lga*m ka ||aa |aa rao 1 ||nae ba
tShUU 1 ||nae ba *+n§le ||aa when a person digs poison, you urinate (your)
urine and wash your hands and pick up steenbok droppings and cast them into the middle
of the poison bush and then sit and then take out the poison. The ritual may involve the
droppings of any antelope; the larger their size the larger will be the larvae.
||a a |a a a species of bush, lit. poison bush (Commiphora africana). The beetle of Diamphidiae
simplex feeds on this bush and the poison larvae are dug from its base or the grubs picked
off the leaves, dim: ka ||alU -be 3 I (sg.) lit. small poison, i.e. jocular vocative
addressed to the bush or larvae when digging poison.
||a a |l iG ^h l-si 1 11 I|a a |i |G ^h m -sa 2 11 arrow poison beetle (Coleoptera
Polyphaga Chrysomelidae Alticinae Diamphidia simplex).
||aa (Hl^a) kV invoke rain, make rain, ah |kx’aa h pua ke Iqhaa; ||aa ke
lkX ’60 your hands are soft (i.e. suitable) for rain; so make rain! (i.e. by the ritual burning
of a skin or clippings from a person's hair). The belief is that the smoke spreads into the
sky and brings rain. The skin of males of the following may be used to invoke rain : eland,
gemsbok, wildebeest, kudu, hartebeest, ostrich, korie bustard, plover, owl, pangolin,
tortoise, python, cobra. The skin of a female is not effective.
||aa -sa ||§V L chop (sg.) (cf. ||§6 (pi.)). ||ao ka dtshale split by chopping in a
horizontal orientation,
llaha S}\ arrive behind (cf. lau sll, than ka s1l).
jjaha -sa ||ahv l old, mature, eh |a ke ||ahe-sa, eh |a ka ||aha-sa his
maturing, taa ||ahe nna it is an old person. Ohan |i ||ahi mature male duiker
identified by its prominent preorbital glands,
llaha -sa ||ahv L set alight, set on fire, torch (e.g. tobacco, the veld, a hut), singe.
llQha to llaM 103

(cf. Ilahni). Ilaha Oqou +naT s1l Inan man ||’ue ka singe the wildcat
(skin) and let us two come and see whether I am out of harmony with it (this refers to a
ritual to seek a portent concerning rain). ||aha ka Igu’ma or ||aha Igll’m flicker
on and off, as a light.
||4h a - s a ||ahV L pull, stretch, drive a vehicle, tie up, tether (e.g. a cow for milking).
Il4ha Il’um tie in place. Hftha ’tn^la pull out. ||§ha Hq’al tv pull apart.
Il^ha -sa +ua 2 II ||§ha-sa-te +'un-sa 2 II the track of something that has
been dragged.
Ilaha glkX’Cim 2 II (sg. and pi.) Achille's or hamstring tendon(s).
||aba 3 II ||am-ka-te 2 II BlsLckKorh^^n {Eupodotisafra).
Ilaba (ka) kv |nan shake the head in negation (cf. I|n§nH|n§ni, hbm).
liQba 3 II ||§m-ka-te 3 il a species of plant, Devil’s Thom (Tribulus terrestris L .\ spec.
||9 b a q ae. ||4 b a U a long thin thorn (cf. Ilqaba).
Ilahba 3 ii deprivation, lacking, hunger (cf. dz4i). n n k e ||a h b a k a |au ||n aa
I am deprived of tobacco.
Ilahbl 1 II ||ah b u -te 4 ll pile, heap.
Ila’bi-lla’bf spurt (as blood from a bloodvessel).
Ilahbu Stagger.
||ae 3 II I|a n -s a 3 II horn (inal.).
||ae >[|lSE] three. 1h ||ae we three, te ka ||ae three times.
||ae kv make a threesome.
||ae 3 I ||ama-te 2 I dim: l|au-ba, ||aa-m (sg.) ||au G ’anI (pi.) 1. scorpion
(gen.). 2. point, top (of a tree), narrow point of a bow.
||ae f nuha 3 II man's personal name, lit. scorpion's ear,
||ae + ’an [+ ’3n] 2 II ||ae ^’ana 2 IIa species of plant, lit. scorpion penis
{Hojfmanseggia burchellii (DC) Benth. ex oliv. subsp. Burchellii). The tuber is eaten.
||ahe 3 I lone gemsbok male (Or^x^t^z^/Za), honorific term of address for the gemsbok.
(cf. +goo xolo).
||ai tshoe 2 II ||aba tshoa-te 2 II clump, cluster, group (e.g. of people, bushes,
||al 2 I -te 2 I the hole dug by sexually mature wildebeest and hartebeest and scented with
the pedal gland to mark territory.
I|al 1 II ||aba-t6 4 II l. persistent rains. Iqhaa n kl I|a1 the rain is persistent. 2.
Diederik Cuckoo (Chrysoccyx cupreus).
||ai kv move close together (cf. Ona’a ,+ ’6o). +naT n ||al k1 +naT ||qhae I’aa
we (dual) are seated close together,
llahl kv scoop, also scoop out, i.e. dish up (food) (cf. ||naa). ||ahl ke Igoa to wish,
bring misfortune, ah n ba ||ahj ku tuu |e Igoa kan [ksn] tuu tu a |’aa
ka Inun-sa ku you are bringing the misfortune of people on me, those who have
died in the world, i.e. the curse of the dead. Hahi ka jhab© sukuli scoop up sugar.
Ilahi 3 II jjahba-te 4 II lit. old one, i.e. mature male duiker gnmmw)),
honorific term of address for the duiker. Ohan ji ||ahi mature male duiker.
llaM Ija’JV H stalk unsighted (cf. +n§a).
104 ||QhT-||«hT to ||ao

|l4Ki-||9h1 3 n -t« 3 II pod of the Camel Thom tree (Acacia Erioloba E. Meyer).
Ilahia 3 n -te 3 n rainbow.
||4 la " S a ||§LV L have diarrhoea (cf. q § ’i).
Ilahia li1 -se 3 il -te 3 ii {Upupa epops).
Hi*® llg§u (ka) 3 II - t e 3 n Cape turtle dove, lit. the Ehretia rigida -shitter {Streptopelia
capicola) (cf. dz^u).
Ilile ln4a 3 n -te 3 II Titbabbler, lit. blood-shitter (Parisoma subcaeruliumY
||al1 (n) >[|lat:i] (emphatic form) 1. many, numerous 2. big (sg. noun). ||a1l-sa 1. size,
quantity. 2. to a great degree, often (c f. +’au-ku). Uh n ||ali they are numerous,
eh n ||ali he is big. eh n jja ll-s a b a glqhai he fights often.
||al1 kV enlarge.
Hall (te) often, to a large degree.
Ilalo cluster (vb.). Halo ka ’aa -sa cluster around the food, as a group eating from one
pot. Ilalo ke Ijnae be clustered in a hut
||am-||am kv press, feel.
||am well, nicely, ah n jjam ba ’ahn you are doing it well. ||am saa go well, i.e.
||am-||am kv l. press (gemly). 2 shake an egg to assess its freshness.
I|§m 2 I ||®ma-te 2 I a weaned infant (cf. |0UU nuu).
Il^m-te 2 II incapacity. Sll ^nam j|§m-te come and remove my incapacity.
Ilahm kv push (cf. yhm). ||ahm ke ’Gnaje 1 ba Iqhue push the tree and make it
fall. Ilahm ka yie push it in. ||ahm ka *in§le push him out.
llama 2 n -te 2 II kraal (for livestock).
||an 3 II ||apa 2 n dim:||alu-ba 3 I ||alu O ’ani 2 I a species of plant
{Asclepiadaceae Raphionacme burkeii N. E. Br.y The tuber is a source of moisture.
Il^n 2 n ||9n-te 2 II diarrhoea (sg. inal.; pi. al.). taa H^n a person's taa |a
ll^n-te a person’s--S.
Il^n 3 I (sg. andpL) dim: ||4lU -ba 3 I (sg.) ||§1u O ’ani 2 I (pi.) Gemsbok
cucumber, i.e. the fruit of jnylo {Cucurbitaceae Acanthosicyos naudinianus (Sond.) C.
Jeffrey). The fruit is eaten and the tuber is a source of moisture (cf. glxa’n).
Ijahn ka ylu (sg.)||ahn ka lga’0(pl.) push under (e.g. sand, or ash) (cf. Oqhbo
ylu, g+qhbo ylu, Ikx’olo).
Ija’n mature female duiker (with horns), Ohan |e ||a’n 3 I (sg.) Ohana je ||a’n
-te 2 I (pi.) mature female duiker (with horns),
liana 2 II alternative pi. to H^n-te 'diarrhoea'
||an1 kxao 3 II -te 3 II Boomsl^ng^DisphoUdustyphusy
llahni kv set alight, torch (cf. ||aha).
Ijahnl tf/kl 3 n woman’s personal name.
||ao 2 II -t e 2 II axe.
ll4o be long-toothed (cf. g|xb’0).
||ao -sa ||aBV H heat up, roast wet or dry food, bake in hot sand, boil, warm up (e.g.
inside a tent), be ripe (of berries or fruit), be heated up, bum, be burnt (intr.), be hot,
cooked (of food), be alight (of a lamp), (cf. O’al, ||nalu, qola). n sa*a n ||ao
||a d - ||a o to llQhd los

pll lit. my face is burning, i.e. I have a presentiment of someone about to arrive.
kX*ab&. k x ’a o a n ||ao get up! The early dawn is burning.
||ad -||a d kV ignite, set alight in a flame
||4o - s a llaBV L join, fix together, insert and fix (e.g. an arrowhead) (cf. glqhau).
1145 - s a IteBV L c h o p (p L ) (cf. ||a a (Sg.)).
||a u -b a 3 I Lokalane borehole, 25km southeast of Lone Tree, lit. little camelthom.
||au ta ^nale 3 il -to 3 n a species o f sw a llo w (c f. Inahle).
||au 2 I -to 2 I Whitebacked vulture (Gyps africanus) (cf. IgUO).
||a*U 1 II ||a ’a - t e 4 n the protected side of a tree, the warm side of a tree. This is the west
lla’U 3 n cold (n.). k a Ha’U be cold.
||6a-||6a-SO 3 n -to 3 II Rtd-biWcd VTancoWn (FrancoUnus adspersus) (cf.W xOM ).
||6’a t v > [ ||’6a] ||6’a-ta-sa open(sg.)(cf.||gu’b o (p i.),g ih lo ).
jjoba kV cradle (vb.).
||6ba 2 II -to 2 II Namaqua dove (Oena capensis).
IIOhbO>[| 10hp:0] (emphatic) jump, jump over, step over. ||0hb0 k a ||xubo leap, spring,
n n ba ||ohbo k a s1 ba ||am th a a ta'h k an [ts'h ksn] I lean over (lit.
jump over) you and take this thing.
Ilohbu 3 II froth, spray (cf. Inohll). Iqhaa ko ||ohbU the water is frothy, bubbly.
Iqhaa |6 ||ohbu a n xall ka ’Onaa |n aa the spray of the rain has lit.
finished, i.e. concealed the tree tops.
||oo still, n n ||oe b a s1i I am still coming.
IIq Io tSOO the sound of a light thud (cf. ||q’6lu ts*00). ||q 1o tShUU /||hUU sound of
falling of a hollow object, e.g. a pot.
||6h*m (ka) light, soft, insubstantial in weight (cf. dtsho’m, toh’m, |’ua).
llQhm 2 II llQhma-to 2 n flank including the muscle and fat on the waist.
Ilona 2 II -to 2 n 1. star (gen.). 2. the star form of a hedgehog {Atelerix frontalis) (also the
animate form of a falling star) (cf. jx a a naa).
||ohn 2 II (possessed) / ||ohn 3 I (alienated) ||o h n a-t 6 2 II (possessed)/3 I (alienated)
spine, spec, thoracic vertebrae. |nyo - lit. night's spine, i.e. midnight, - Mn^hC
lumbar vertebrae, bh ||ohn ri k x ’ua |Tl lit. her spine has descended, i.e. she has
miscarried. ’||nahU || 6 hn the latter part of the rainy season (regarded as the best time of
the year), lao ||ohn the latter part of the cold dry season. Ilg aa ||ohn the latter part
of the hot dry season. !00 9 a ||ohn lit. the spine of the spear (blade) i.e. the middle of
the blade.
Hoc kV tam/taa act in a calm manner, do something calmly (cf. qClT, +a’U). ||bo ka
tarn lit calm yourself i.e. be careful!
IIqo 2 II -tU 4 II parent of a married couple.
Iloho 1 n -te 4 II male G-stting of skin, modem underpants.
Iloho k a 3 n man's personal name.
jjo’o 2 II -t e 2 II waist, region of the iliac crests, hip adductor muscles.
llQho (-llQhO) kV suck out noisily (e.g. marrow from a bone or the last water in a hollow
106 ||ua to llg aa

||ua 3 I Hum 2 i dim: ||u u -b a/ O aa 3 i (sg.) ||uu-nT/||uu O ’anI 2 i (pi.)

Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialisY
Ilya (kV) l.dry. 2 . stiffen (cf. O ’oo, |’6o, !nalo, |nam). uh a h ||ya they have
dried, n n Ilya fii ke ||a ’u I am stiff with cold.
Ilya (n) dry (intr.) (cf. |’6o).
Ilya - S a ||yv H 1. fear, respect (cf. x a o , tao). 2. refuse. Ilya k h ala take fright and
Ilye t s ’k x ’a je 3 11 man's personal name.
Iluh’a become exhausted (cf. ’In^ni).
Ilyi ’Inahl 3 II woman’s personal name.
Ilyhbi heaviness of a tread (so that it sinks into the sand). |ai n b a (!n aa) ||yhbi the lion
walks with a heavy tread.
Ijubu kV fold together (something soft) (not in halves) (cf. dthum, +al6, Iqhom).
Huhbu k a (ka) flutter, as a bird in a snare.
Iluh’bu swell up. ||uh*bu-sa (nom.) a swelling. Ijuh’bu kV dzum pout the lips.
Ilyhe 3 I ||yhm -te 2 I dim: ||yh u-ba (sg.) ||yhu O ’ani (pi.) plain, open grassland,
treeless area.
||u1 1 II ||u a -te 4 II leopard (Panthera pardus).
||y l- s f 3 II a pan southeast of hon& Tree.
Iluh'l (ka) the smell of rain or wet grass
||uli 1 II ||ulu-te 4 II the sialk of \nu*J\3. (Kalanchoepaniculata Harv.). It is used &
sucking straw.
Ijuli |xai 3 II - t e 3 II sl spccits of plant (OtopteraburchelUD.C.).
Hum crouch (cf. Hgobe, ||xum).
||um - s a ||UBV H 1. wear (a bangle, watch). 2. grasp round, bh h H ^^^ lan u-te
she is wearing lit. irons, i.e. bangles, n h ||um jll kan |k x ’a a lit. I am grasping
round with my hand. i.e. I am grasping myself (e.g. my wrist) with my hand.
Hum - s a HyBV h support, raise, bring up (a child), n a Hy^^ tsh o e
t a ’a I raised him in this palm, i.e. in this very hand, fi a n ||ybe O q 4 ^
I brought up the child.
Hum-||um var. of ||uu -||u u .
||u*/ia 2 II ||u’n-te 2 11 lung.
||uhu kV overturn (face down or upside down). ||uhu ka |j’uma-sa (nom.) ||uhu ka
H’UBVH overturn in an upright position. ||uhu ka ’Inaha lay face down.
||UU-||UU 3 II - t e 3 II Elegant Grasshopper (Orthoptera Pyrgomorphidae Zonocerus


llg a a 3 i ||g a m - t e 2 i dim; ||g a u - b a (sg.) ||g a m - t e O ’an I (pi.) hotdiy

season, early summer, jjg a a a a onset of the season.
llg a a 2 II hail.
a to IlgQhm 107

llg a a 2 n -t e 2 11 a species of bush (Hermannia stricta). The root is used during initiation
when it is rubbed into tatoos cut between die eyebrows. It may only be dug up by seniors,
and if dug up in summer the rain will be driven away. The root is also roasted and ground
and rubbed into tatoos as a treatment for eating taboo foods,
llg a a Spend the day, pass the time,
llg aa - s a ||g a v L beg for (cf. oaha).
Ilg^a (ka) scent or smell of certain acacias, lula ’ahn ||a a ’ahn |cah *ahn iih
||ae n k a ||g4& Acacia LuederitzU and Acacia Enoloba and Acacia Nebrownii the
three smell llgaa.
||g § a k a (ka) flecked, spotted, striped (as a zebra or wildebeest) (cf. !n^ha-te).
Ilgaha belch.
||ga*a 2 II -t6 2 II lone mUe springbok (Antidorcasmarsupialis) or Haitebetsi
{Alcelaphus buselaphus); also refers to the shape of the horns which diverge outwards and
then inwards in the middle and is tiie honorific term of address for both antelope.
(c f.’Inoho). ||ua ja jjg a 'a ahn ta^a jjhuu a lone male springbok is standing
Ilgaha 2 I - t e 2 I cloth, rags, tatters (cf. !xai, g||kx'all, n am a lai khbe).
||g 4 h a “ ||g 4 h a -s a on edge. ||g 4 h a -||g a h a -s a H’ube place it on edge.
IlgQba run (pi.) (cf. Ijnuu (sg.». ||g $ b a k h a la scatter, of people,
ilg^hba var. of Hgyhm s i Hg^hba.
IlgabI 1 II -te/llgabu-te 4 u woman's rear apron (cf. IgUU).
||g§e 2 II (possessed)/3 I (alienated) -t e 2 II (possessed)/3 I (alienated) shoulder,
shoulder b l a d e . ja + a a scapula.
Ilgae 2 n/u (-t e 4 II marginal pi.) light, sunlight, firelight.
Ilgahe 2 u ||g a h n -sa 2 ii dim: jjgahe O a a (sg.) ||g a h e -te 0*an l (pi.)
Ilgal 1 II llg a b a -te 4 II large protrusion of sand, antheap, termite mound.
Ilg^i 2 n H g 4 b a -te 2 II female (attributive)(cf. qae). |§i Ilg4) ^ female lion. All
compounds with ||g§i are 2 II.
Ilga’i 1 II red oxide. It is used for facial decoration.
||g§hla 2 II - t e 2 II species of termite {Hymenoptera formicidae sp ) (cf. Igah'a,
Igo’bl, ||nal, |q*am). it is eaten by the earth god ’|noha t a a .
||ga*1e - s a near, next to (cf. ||n 9 a,*+niihm a tf, l*oa). ah n j j g a l e - s a tshuu
tan [tsn] you are are seated next to me. Hga’le ’au tShUU S\\ lit. near this way sit
come, i.e. come and sit near by this way.
jjgalo kV carry something hanging from a stick over the shoulder (cf.|oam , |’aO, Ian,
Ijhaa, llgih o).
Ilg§m 1 II ||g 4 m a -te 2 II folds of skin (e.g. on the neck of an eland), ridges on horns
(e.g. of a sprinbok), brow folds (cf. ’In jb a -te ). eh |nan n ku llg ^ m a -te his
hair (lit. head) is awry.
Ilga’m 2 11 ||g a ’m a -te 4 n nail (of hand or toe).
Ilg§hm ||g§hBV M tie onto the body (e.g. a skin, a blanket), n n ba Hgi^m *!nahn
’jnan jqhl I lit. I go about with my wife tied on, i.e. I am inseparable from my wife.
108 llg^hm to llgolo ka tshuu

||g§hm 3 n man’s or woman’s personal name.

||g9hma(-||gihma) (kV) go round, (en)circie, be around (cf. Inah’o, Ina’m,
k a la, n !num ||g§h m a-||gah m a ke !ula |n we are living around
iht acacia luederitzii tree.
Ilganu 2 II Hganu 3 I (possessed)-te 2 Il||ganu-te 3 I (possessed) hip bone,
ilium of an ungulate, lao ta ||’aa ka S^a ka Ilganu nna a hip without fat is
Ilganu (cf. lao). - |nan iliac crest.
II9 9 P ® 2 u n - t 6 2 n (marginal pi.) ostrich eggshell beads (cf. Ikx’am).
Hg4o be dizzy, giddy.
Ilga’O kV l.flex ab o w b y twisting, stress a rope (cf. IkX’ani). 2. load a bullet. 3. raise
the tail. Hga’O ke jhabe tighten the bow(string).
IlgQhO -sa lig^hBV M carry a bag with the strap across the body (cf. HgalO, |Gam,
pad, Ian, ||haa).
IlgfthO paw the ground (as an animal marking territory), shovel while kneeling, excavate
(cf. q ala).
Ilgau ku straight.
Hg4u 3 e/u I - t e 2 I (marginal pi.) a species of bush. Puzzle Bush, Tsw. Morobe (£/ir5/<a
rigida (Thunb.) Druce). Used for the firestick drill; the roots are used to treat bums; the
berries are eaten.
||g§U (ka) taut, rigid. |xa1 Ih h ka ||g9U the snare is taut.
Ilgahu 1 II llgaha-te 4 II spotted hyena (CrocMWcrocwra).
Ilga’U (ka) yellow (Munsell C7-10), chrome orange, terra cotta, (cf. g^qhul, ^nahi)
IlgQba 2 n -te 2 II/3 II or Hgoba aa 2 II Blow fly (Diptera Cyclorrhapha
Calliphoridae Chrysomyinae Chrysomya regalis). IlgQba -qae 3 II Flesh fly {Diptera
Ilggba-llgQba 3 ii -te 3 n var. of Hggba.
Hg6be curl up, crouch down (as a lion ready to pounce), duck down (cf. ||xum, kUh’m).
Ilgobe tshuu sleep curled up.
Ilgo’be sv be unable to reach (c f. +nu’a). Oq§ni n ba Hgo’be se +gube |a
kx’ua-sa the children are unable to reach the bag to get it down,
Ilgo’be - s f 3 n man’ personal name.
Ilgoh'bt kV put between the legs (e.g. a dog’s tail, a G-string).’||naha Ugoh’bl kV tie
between the legs.
Ilgobo 3 n deep mud,
llgole 3 e/u I -t e 3 u I dim:||gulu b a (sg.) Ilgulu O ’anl(pL) a species of bush
(Scrophulariaceae Aptosimwn sp.). The root bark is an ingredient of the ritual mixtures
+nQO and d tsh a a . This is mixed with mature truffle spores and administered to the
temples as an antidote to arrow poison in the eyes.
llgole (ts’an) tum suddenly, run around e.g. a tree, change direction (cf. ||gblO, dtShun
tshuu). dbo-ka ah n lhan-ka ba ||gb1e ah h ka ba j’ae [|'ee]
the kudu turns back suddenly when chased. ||nuu ka ||gble run with sudden turns,
llgole kV tam tum oneself back suddenly. Hgole tShUU slip while running.
llgolo ka tshuu/tuu sit with the legs entwined, across one another (cf. Ilqhabe).
Ilgblo to llguu 109

llgblo var. of llgble.

IlgQhm 2 II IlgQhm a-te 2 II waist, fat on the side of the waist, area between the lowest rib
and the hip (cf. +u’i, |xan tshoe).
Ilgohpa 2 II -te 2 I the bitter and inedible mature tuber of ’||nam {Cucumis kalahariensis
A. Meeuse),
IlgO’O kV >[||g’6o] desire intensely (e.g. work or a lover).
IlgQhO hunched, stooped. ||gQhO ka tshuu (sg.)/!’a a (pi.) sit hunched up (cf. !qo ,
Ilgyha (ka) 2 II -t e 2 II long horn beetle (Colyoptera Polyphaga Cerambicidae). q a a
|a k a Ilgyha lit. gum's long horn beetle, specifically associated with the production of
gum on Acacia luedertzii and Acacia Mellifera .
Ilgu’a (ka) smell of urine. ||qham n ka ||gu’a urine smells Hgu’a. ||gu’a sa ’a lit.
urine smell face, i.e. eland, referring to the marking behaviour of sexually mature eland
which involves rubbing the forehead brush in urine. Also an old eland.
Ilg'u’a -sa ||gu’V L Hg'u’u (rel., comp.) put on sandals, shoes.
Ilgyba-llg'yba 3 II -te 3 II var. of Hggba.
Ilg'u’be-sa ||gu’BVHopen(cf. ||6’a(sg.))
Ilgubl (tshoe) 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) (tsh6a)-te 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I
(alienated) groin (cf. +GUli tshoe).
Ilgul-llgul kV take with cupped hands (cf. ||guu-||guu).
IlguM-sa Hgu’JV L smoke out bees. Hgu’je |qhuje ke ts’kx’aje smoke out the bees
with smoke.
Ilgulu k a |uhm -se/ Hgiilu k a ||uh m -se 3 ii -te 3 ii Giant Eagle Owl
lacteus) (cf. ’||nyhm).
Ilgyma 2 II -te 2 II dried branches, a dry fallen tree, old thing, an abandoned hut. taa
ja llg'yma a large person (humerous).
IlgO’m 3 I llgu’m-sit^llgu’m sana-te 2 I dim: ||gu’u-ba/Gaa (sg.)
Ilgu'U-nVllgU’tl O ’ani (pi.) Pangolin {Manis temminckii). The scale, blood, anus and
intestinal matter are used to make a good luck mixture and to treat illness.
Ilguhm 2 II a distant sound or noise.
Ilguh’m 2 II a pan 20 km. east of Kagcae.
Ilgyhm - s a IlgyhBV L pouring, dripping with. 1 llnae k x ’a b a Hgyhbe In4a
...and then got up pouring with his blood.
Ilgyhm si ||g§hba 3 II -te 3 II species of plant {Dipcadi spirale) (cf, ||g§ba). The
bulb is regarded as poisonous to humans.
Ilgunu 2 I -t e 2 II Lx)ngbilled Crombec {Sylvietta rufescens).
Ilg'uhpa kV scrape away surface sand (cf. +Ge’e ).
llguu 2 II (possessed)/3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated)chest
(cf. GQlO). eh llguu tshoe n I’ui lit.her voice is small, i.e.high-pitched (c f. +aa
G aa n I’ui). eh ||guu tshoe n I|a11 lit. his voice is big, i.e. low-pitched.
+nuu llguu ball of the foot, eh llguu n khala fli lit. his chest is separated, i.e. he
is broad shouldered.
llguu - s a llguv M wring out moisture (cf. Ikx’ali, +guu, d tsh x o ’ll, t s ’k x ’al).
110 llguu-llg'uu to llxobe

dts’kx’ani, Igoo, tshxom, tshxou).

Ilguu-llguu kv var.ofllguHlgul.
Ilguhu ka ’Inaha - s ^ Hguhu ka ’!nahv L lay flat, stomach down (e.g. a duiker in
the ash for roasting) (cf. Icaha ’Inaha).
Ilgyhu 3 I llgyhm-te 2 II dim: ||gyhu-ba (sg.) ||guhu-n1 (pi.) chameleon.


||xaa -sa ||xav L scrape off (e.g. hair from a skin with a dZUU, or rind from a pot)
(cf ||nam, ||nau, 4xal). h n ka ||xaa fif it is smoothed off.
||xaa 2 II men (cf. taa (sg.)).
||xaa-l|xaa kv teach (< Nharo) (cf. ||xae-||xae, Iqhoo).
Ilxabi unwind (intr.) (as a twisted thong).
Ilx a e -llx ae var. of ||x a a -||x a a .
||xal kv clear , sweep (cf. ’InQhm).
||x al-||x ai var. of ||xan-||xan .
||xai kv irritate, bother, trouble, provoke, also used of dogs irritating an animal at bay. ||xai
k a - s a tribulations, troubles, eh n b a ||xai kU tUU Iqhli he goes aroung
irritating people (cf, ^G aa, |ali). ah n k a b a ||xai ke t a a ah h b a
ll’am a ’|nua |nee si b a tan a + ’© when you provoke a person you take
aggression to him and argue with him.
||xal tl 3 II woman's personal name.
||xai ||xao 3 II man's personal name.
||xai kU tbu 3 II man's personal name.
Ilxale again (cf. ||qhao). ||xale ’ahn do it again!
||xam 1 kv steer a lorry, turn a horse (cf. ||§ha).
||xan 1 II ||x a n a -te 4 II poison container.
||xan -||xan 3 II -t e 3/4 II 2iS^tc\^soi\}m\\{CrotalariaspartioidesD.C.)
(cf. l|xai-||xal). The root is boiled with the penis and prostate gland of the eland to make
a potion that is drunk to increase a man's supply of semen. This is !oy a |e SOO
semen's medicine.
Ilxao kv cache young as certain antelope, leave an infant at home.
||xau 2 I -te 2 I treed, bushy area without heavy sand, bush (coll.) (cf. *Onaa).
||xau kv peg out, spread out a skin for preparation, also peg a tent. (cf. +num).
||xau kv snare, trap (vb.). ||xau ke O han kl |xai to snare a duiker with a (cord)
||xau 2 II ||x a a -te 2 II point between the shoulder blades, the area of the vertebra
prominens (cf. ||qhaba), the hump in this area. It is particularly at this point but also along
the rest of the spine that the ||kx’a a is expelled in the curing dance. ||n aa ||xau the mid
section of the springhare hunting stick.
Ijxoa la give way, move away (c f.+ x a a ). ||x 6 a la |nan move away for me!
llxobe rise, get up, awake (pi.) (cf. k x ’a b a (sg.)).
llxbT to gllxau ill

llxoT 3 II a pan east of Lone Tree.

Ilxona 2 Il-t e 2 11 Red-billed FrancoUn (Francolinus adspersus), {cf.\\6B-\\6ei~se).
Ilxo n a(-qae) 2 11 Canopus (cf. |bho !oho-xo). ||xona a hn k a b a !ahle
g lx a ’U n b a sli when Canopus rises (lit. climbs up) the cold south wind comes.
Ilxona § a a star in the southern winter sky.
Ijxoo be out of luck (tr. and intr.). n a n ||X00 I have had no luck. Also used in the
compound jjxoo !g ^ . n a h ||xoo !gei I have had no luck, n b a q 4 ’l 11x00
Igei I shit bad luck (this is said by a hunter who has failed to clear his
bowels before going on a hunt), eh h b a sli ||x 00 k a he brings you bad luck, n
n k a b a ^ h aa s a a ki Iqahl t a a te 'e s1 k a b a k x ’a b a k e jjnae
s} llg au -k u b a !un +nuu si b a s\\ jjxoo kan [ksn] if I go out first on
the hunt and some man gets up from the village and straight away follows my track it brings
me bad luck.
jjxon >[||x66] 1 II ||x 6 a -te 4 11 arrowhead without poison (cf. |q h a a ).
||x6u 2 I -t e 2 I v/anhog {Phacochoerus aethiopicus).
Ilxum k v chase off (cf. I’a a , jjnuu, glkx’aa ).
||xum k a |jhuu/tshuu (sg.) ||xum k a ’||nyha/!’a a (pi.) be crouched, curled up
(cf. Ilgbbe). ||xum k a I’a a O an to sleep crouching (i.e.alert).
jjxum (ka) - s a k a jjxUBV L flatten by collapsing, trample, squash flat, squeeze by
pressing (cf. jjubu, + q a o , Onuu, + G a ’m). jua k a jjxum lit. grasp squash, i.e.
spec, squash by hand, lahle k a ||xum spec, trample, jjao k a jjxuba ([||xoba])
+ ’an jnan b a + ’an k ’a a - t a an axe to squash your glans, it being out of its
foreskin! (offensive),
jjxuu - s a jjxuV L berate, criticize, find fault with (cf InabO).
jjxuu - s a ijxuv L throw away, discard (sg.) (cf jjn§i Sl(pl.)). k x ’ua jjxuU throw
down ( as a horse ~ its rider). +6h 6 k a jjxUU sell (sg.).


gjjxal 1 II magical power.

gjjxai (ka) k v bewitch, have a bad spell on one. tuu n k a b a jx a a kCinfia uh n
ba s o o te t a a k a gjjxal k a fll ta te when people dance the curing
dance (kuma) they feel the medicine by which/where a person has been bewitched, gjjxal
nna it is magic.
gjjxaM juhm 3 e 11 -t e 4 u 11 bullroarer (Afrikaans woerwoer) (cf tS§hT-tS§hT).
gjjxaMa sniff about (as a dog or hyena), eh n b a g ||x a 1 a bl +qhll it is sniffing
around being/like a dog.
gjjxa’m j’e e (ka) be leafless, lun n k a g ||x a ’m j’e e ihc Acacia luederitzU are
gllxa’n i ii g||xa’n a-te 2/4 ii calf (of leg) (cf.||Gum).
gllxau 1 II bush or tree with hookthorns (Acacia Fleckii Schinz (+oahli). Acacia Luederitzii
(lula), Ziziphus mucronata (!ai), Acacia mellifera (jjqhaa). Acacia ataxacantha
112 gllxau to ||kx*oa

(llqahni), Acacia nebrownii (|Ga*ll)), hookthorn, thombush (gen.) (cf. l|q§ba,

gllxau kV make a bush fence with hookthom, cover something with bushes (to hide it).
gllxo’bu 1. peel off, become separated (of layers). !nau tshoe ja +GUa n gljxo’bu
111 the pan surface is peeling off. g ||x 6 ’bu ||hUU be peeled o ff 2. be bent over as a
person from the torso.
g||xo1a-te 2 II male personal name.
gllxbo t s ’e e the crackling sound of walking on dry vegetation or gravel (cf. g k x ’au,
g k x ’bp, xbp).
gjjxbo-gllxbo var. of g||xbo. s1i t a ’a ah n g||x b o -g||x b o m an [man] ||ua
fli here its is "crackling" being dry.
gllxbp (ylU) the sound made when someone walks through bushes because the way is lost
(cf llobp, g k x ’a u , Glqhao). eh n b a gljxbp k a Iqhll he is "stumbling"
through the bushes, i.e. he is walking through rough vegetation, ’’bundu bashing", as a
blind person or a hunter returning empty handed after dark.
gllxuu |nan 2 ii g||xula-te |naa 2 ll knee (as a whole). g||xuu |nan s a ’a


llkx’a a 2 n I dim: ||kX’a a - m ^ O a a (sg.) l. grass (gen.), Stickgrass used for thatch
(Aristida sp.) 2. any affliction or illness (sbo) that is removed during the curing dance.
q a e grass suitable for tinder such as Anthephora pubescens Nees, Digitaria eriantha
Steud.y Panicum maximum Jacq. ~ a a the affliction to be expelled during trance
(c f+ x a m je sbo).
Ijkx'aa finish (cf xali, joho). |u a ’a a ||k x 'a a have you finished eating?
ijkx’am - s a ||kx’aBV h chew (gen.) (cf g o k x ’ai, |hum).
IjkX'ae - s a ||kx’a e kV l.join. 2. junction, similarity. 3. compact. 4. close a book. HsI
n jjkx’a S I’a a |Tl we are sitting compacted. ||aO ||kX’a e lit. heat up and mix,
i.e. dissolve. Uh s a ’ni n ||kx’a e fli ht. their faces are joined, i.e. they are face to
Ilkx’a la finish, end (<Nharo) (cf xall, joho).
Ilkx’an 3 I Ijkx’a n a 2 I l. stomach of a human. 2. rumen (also ||kx’an qae).
3. mature, grown. ~ +U6 reticulum. ~ 4 ^ omasum (cf ’+nahm ). - ||GObU kCl
contents of mediastinum, t a a - a mature person. Igall the mature bulb of Ferraria
glutinosa . eh ||kX’an n |*ua lit. her stomach is soft, i.e. she has miscarried. +g u a
Ijkx’an lit. squeeze the rumen, i.e. drink from the rumen.
Ilkx’an 1 II IjkX’a n a -t e 4 II a species of plant {Rhus tenuinervis Engl), The leaves are
chewed to clean the teeth or to treat itchy gums. The root is used as a toothbrush.
jjkx’au 2 II -t e 2 ii smell, scent (inai.). ||qham ||kx’au n ’jjn^a the smell of
urine is awful.
Ilkx’o a 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) -t e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) upper arm,
Ilkx’b a to gllkx’ou 113

llkx’oa do suddenly (cf. te tsoho). ||kx’6a kx’aba get up suddenly! ||kx’6a

’+ n 4 la to come out suddenly.
Ilkx^ube tahm (ka) 3 II - t e 2 II ?\^^b^hti{Lybiusleucomelas).
Ilkx’ui 1 II llkx’u a -t e 4 ii species of tick (cf. kon-kon).
IlkX’UlU tS ’e e the sound of rattling (e.g. matches in a box, arrows in a quiver).
IlkX’um >[ llkx’om ] - s a HkX’UBV H l. bore, drill, chisel out, gouge out, break open
(e.g. a tsamma melon). 2. hit, punch, strike, knock down, bash, butt, kick
(cf. dtshQhu). eh n b a ||kx’um +n abi !gal ’Inya tsh o e he is chiselling out
the mortar's heartwood. ||kx’ubi !gai hollow out the mortar.
Ilkx’um k v tenderize meat by pounding.
||kx’um -||kx’um kv poke, stoke a fire.
IlkX'unu 2 II - t e 2 II bridge of the nose, nasal bone, part of an animal's face anterior to the
eyes, muzzle.
Ilkx’uu 1 II ||kx’u a-m /te 4 ii spirit, ghost (c f.’|noha). t a a |i ||kx’uu lit. a
person's spirit, i.e. his/her death, his/her corpse.


gllkX’a a 3 II -te 3 II tumour, haustorium (of Loranthus ), gall (in a branch), knot in
wood (cf. 4uli).+*an |nan be g||kx’a a penis's head is a hard swelling!
gllkX’abU snap (as a dog), grab at.
gllkx^al (n) wrinkled (of skin or a berry) (cf. tum, ’!naba). g||xai k v Iniihjia
wrinkle up one’s nose,
gllkx’ali 1 ii g||kx’a lu -te 4 ii cloth, rags, tatters (cf. !xai, ||gah a, n am a lai
g||kx*a1u kv scratch, scrape (cf. G||qhua). gllkx’alu k a d tsh a le rip to shreds,
gllkx’alu ka (ka) be scratched, scraped. ’+n a n a s a ’a n k a gllkx’alu k a |il
the pot is scratched.
gllkx’aJia 2 ll -te 2 II a species of plant (Asclepiadaceae Duvalia polita N.E. Br.\ The
stalks are eaten for moisture. Only the "female" plant ~ qae , a subsp., is edible; the
"male" plant, ~ 4 ^ {Asclepiadaceae Caralluma Lugardae N.E. Br.) (also called lija*!
Ilga’U ku), a subsp., causes stomach pain if eaten,
gllkx’obe s v fail to do. n h ba kane kan Ipabi |xam tf'i te xabeka n
n ba gllkx’obe si I want to lift this gemsbok but I fail, n h ba kane kan
!qhoo kan tarn te xabeka n n ba g||kx’6be si i want to teach myself
but I fail.
gllkX’ObU / gllkX’bbU force into or out of, e.g. the sound of a bullet striking an animal.
g||kx*0bu ’^n^la jerk loose, snatch away from (cf. Inu’lu, dtshup, ||hup,
Gllqhobu, tshabu). g||kx’bbu ylu shoot into, throw into,
gllkx’oni 3 II - t e 3 II a species of louse (cf. Onoo).
gllkx’ou -sa gljkx’ov H 1. put a skin across the shoulder for gathering. 2. met. for
114 gllkx’um to ||qahn

pregnant, be born, give birth (humans or non-humans) (cf. ’Inal). |a a h ’a ka

gllkx’ou |ii where were you bom? (polite) t a a qae ahn b a gllkx’oe O a a
the woman is pregnant with child or is giving birth to the child, eh n b a Sli
gllkx'OU ke she is coming to help (her) give birth. g||kx’6 u -s a 2 II offspring
(cf. Ilnani). n g||kx’6u O ’ani +num |ti i have two children.
gllkx’um ka sa g||kX’UBV L break off (e.g. grass, as a grazing antelope). Oaje
Oaa n ka ba g||kx’uma ||kx’aa ah n ba te’e glkx’ap when an
antelope breaks off grass it goes g|kx’ap.
gllkx’um kv van of g||kx’uBv.


llqaa 3 I drought, dry area, eh Inaa te llqaa her (bad) spirit is drought, said if a
woman gives birth and there is no rain. InulO te ||qaa the country is drought
stricken, ah n ka ba jjqhaa jnaa paa, Iqhaa n ba sli, ah h ke
Iqhaa, Iqhaa h jjqhua ba s1l ah h ke ||qaa if you urinate on the fire (and)
rain comes, you are rain; (if) rain does not come you are drought.
llqaa +han taa 3 II -te 3 II a species of plant (t/rgmea 5/?. «ov.?).
llqaa 2 II (possessed)/||qaa 3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/||qaa 3 I (alienated)
femur, tibia of an ungulate.
Ilq^a 2 I ice, frost. Ilq^a tsh x a n -te the effect of frost e.g. on leaves.
Ilq^ba 3 I H q 4m -ka/ka-te 2 i dim: ||q 4 b u -b a (sg.) Hq^bu O ’anI (pi.)
straight thorn (gen.). Devil's Thom (Jribulus terrestris L.). q a e spec. Devil's
Thom (lit. '’female" thorn). Ijqab a § a long thin thorn (lit. "male” thorn) (cf. glqhae,
g ||x a u ,||a b a ).
Ilq ib i - s a llq^BV M spit (at).
Ilq^bl 4nau 3 II man's personal name.
Ilqabu 3 II -t e 3 II very hot weather with no rain.
Ilqai 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) ||qaba-te 2 II (possessed)/(alienated) nostril
(cf. jnuhjia ’Jnym/tshoe).
Ilqai (n) be far away, be absent (cf. |6lo).
Ilqai (ka) spotlessly dean (cf. ||qal-l|qai).
||q ai-||q al (ri) spotlessly clean (cf. jjqal).
Ilqala(n ) patchy (of shade).+naT s a a kf sum tl Hqala k'l let us (dual) go into the
patchy shade. ’Onaje n Hqala the tree gives patchy shade.
Ilqale -sa llqaLV M stand on, touch something wet (cf. ||na’ba). ah n ba llqana
tshxaa you are standing on a wet turd.
Ilqall llnaa 3 II -te 2 II the yellow-tipped horns of a mature male kudu.
Ilqali leak, pour out (Intl.). eh n b a ||qali he is bleeding.
llqalU k a (k a ) shiny clean.
Ilqahn -sa HqahJV M miss, be off target, get away (sg.) ||qahn SV (pi.), n a
llqaJia +aa I have missed the language, i.e. I have misinterpreted it. eh a[ja]
Ilqahni to Hc^hle H5

llqahji +’an the thought has escaped hen +al [=f li] eh a n Hqahje tarn the
steenbok has got away by itself, i.e. has escaped (from the snare), ©h a ||qahj6 ||ua
he missed the springbok.
Ilqahni 3 II -te 3 II a species of bush, Flame Acacia, Tsw. Mogogatau (Acacia ataxacantha
D .C ), Bows and spearshafts are made from it. The gum is taboo and eating it leads to
malnourishment unless it has been ritually fed by an elder.
Ilqao kV cry for, cry after (e.g. as a child for its mother, or as when begging) (cf, iGQl,
|na*nl). O aa h ba ||qao ke qae |a l6o-sa the child is crying to follow its
Ilqap the action of suddenly jumping. kx^aba suddenly get up.
Ilqau 2 II -te 2 II sun's rays, sunlight, sunshine (cf. ||g§e).
Ilqoho 2 II -te 2 II small quiver used for spare arrowheads, glue etc.
Ilqobe sprout. ’Onaje n ba - the tree is sprouting.
llqQiO fall back to the ground as a Black Korhaan or a thrown object.
liqblu ts’ee the sound of a light thud (cf. ||qIo ts’ee).
liqbp sound made of an object sticking point first into the sand (cf. 4quhm ||hUU). ||qop
IjhUU sound of a spear falling point first into the sand. lIqbp tshUU sound of a light
object falling point first into the sand.
Ilqua kV give a negative response, also the sense of refuse or deny someone, complain about,
report, eh n ba Ilqua ka |kx'aa-te she is complaining about your lit. hands,
i.e. gift, what you have given.
Ilqule 3 I llq u n -sa 2 I dim: ||q ulu-ba (sg.) ||qulu O ’ani (pi.) hoof, nail (al.).
t a a |e Hqule a person's nail (cf. ||g a ’m).
Ilqyu kV be bunched together, n |kx’aa-te n Ilyu ka fli my fingers are bunched.
Ilqyv (kV)L new, young, fresh (predicative); ||qyV (attributive). Glqhum ||qyl fresh
inflorescence, n kan [Qksn] ||qyn I am young. tUU ||qyu new people, i.e. modern

||G [NG||]

||caa kV hght up, illuminate, glow (as a lion’s eyes). ||G aa ka light up here!
Ilcaa ka Igu’ma flicker (as a light).
Ilcaa loo >[||GalO] 3 e/u II ?iS^tc\^soi^\dSiX{NeorautaneniaamboensisSchinz).
||G§a be inseparable from one's spouse, visit as a married couple (cf. +GOna). +naT n ba
||G§a saa kan majia we (dual) (i.e. my wife and I) are visiting my relatives,
eh h Ijoaa ke ’|nan sli he has come visiting with his wife.
||G§ha 2 II -te 2 II rag (cf. gllkx’ali).
||Gaba x a a 3 II -te 3 II ?i%^tcv^soi^\2ir\\.iHarpagophytumprocwnbensD.C.).
Ilca’bu >[Nc||q’abu] suddenly straighten up (cf. Hq’af ta).
IlGa’bU ka (ka) step over, pick one’s way carefully as when hunting or avoiding thorns, n
n ba ka Ijca’bu ka I am picking my way.
Ijcala xam/xom/xcim tSQha 2/3 II -te 3 II Lilacbreasted roller (C(9rflc/Vw cau^am).
ilcahle - s a ||G§hLV L cutoff a piece of meat, (cf.qhole).
116 lloaml to llqhaa |a e

llcaml 3 II -te 3 II a species of plant (Liliaceae sp.). The bulb and stems are edible.
||o4hnl-ka 2 II -te 2 II species of lizard.
lloa’6 -sa Hca’BV L.
lloa’U -sa lloa’BV L pull, rip, out take out, e.g. pegs from a stretched out skin (pi.)
(cf. Ilq’ai (sg.), cyhm, tshxum).
llooh’a 2 n -te 2 ii 1. plastron of a tortoise (breastplate), sternum. 2. Skin beetle
(Coleoptera Trogidae Trox asperulatus).
IlGQbl SV shake up a liquid (cf. ||nghbU-||nQhbU).
||GObU-kU 2 II -te 2 II llkx’an ~ contents of the mediastinum.
||GObU-||GQbU kV shake about, e.g. water in a container to clean it or to rinse the mouth
(cf. Ilnyhbu).
IlGQhle -sa IlGQhLV L break off at a joint (of bones) (cf. qhole).
||g6Mo fall out downwards (e.g. from a tree). ||go’1o k a kX’lia fall down out of
(cf. tholo).
||go1o xbm 2 II -te 2 II Jewel beetle {Coleoptera Polyphaga Buprestidae Julodinae
Sternocera) (edible).
IIgoIo 2 II -te 2 II fillet.
||g61u 3 n -te 3 II a species of aloe {Aloe zebrina Bak), The leaves are a source of
IlGQm k v stuff the mouth with food (cf. xobi). ah n ||Gpm k a ’a a - s a fil
||GOp the sound made when someone walks through bushes because the way is lost(cf.kX’au,
gllxop). eh n b a ||GOp k a Iqhli he is stumbling through the bushes
||Gy1e - s a ||GyLV M peel (gen.), strip, remove bark, pull back a sleeve (cf. O q h a la ,
G a’le, + g a ’le). ||cy1e (h) be peeled, chipped (intr.).
||Gyl1 2 II -te 2 II genitals (penis or vagina). ||Gy1t tshoe groin. ||GyII tshoe, ||Gyl1
•|nym spec, vagina (cf. +ga’i) .
IlGUIt tuu slip (cf. 4qaba ka tuu, ^qyll, tshult tuu, g^kx’u’II tuu).
||ao a n ~ the axe slipped.
Ileum 1 II ||GUma-te 4 II any bulging muscle e.g. bicep, calf, biceps femoris. taa j'l
||6Um a person’s bulging muscle (alienated form).
||oym var.ofllcgm .


llqhav L another, otherness (predicative); (kV) (attributive), h n kan ||qhan [Qksn

llqhan] it is different, eh n ke jjqhae he is different, i.e. he is someone else, taa
llqhae a different person,
llqhaa urinate (cf. |6h’ma).
llqhaa 3 I Hqhaa 2 I a species of acacia {Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth subsp. detinens
(Burch) Brenan). The gum is eaten,
llqhaa |e ka q a 'Jia q a a 3 II - t e 3 II long horned beetle associated with the
production of gum on Acacia mellifera .
llqhaa + a e > [+e e ] 2 II Hqhaa + a m a - t e 2 II edge, side (e.g. of a surface, skin),
Ilqhaa to ||qhua 117

line of the mandible (i.e. the edge of the face).

Ilqhaa kv+obj,+|nav+dat. ||q haa k a |n a a - s a (nom.) show, point, aim. ||qhaa
kan |nan [ksn Insn] show it to me.
Ilqhaa 3 II ||qhan 2 II digging stick.
Ilqhaa |aa 2 II a species of plant {Rhizogum brevispinosum). The branches are used to
make the digging stick.
Ilqhaa k a ts^ m a/s^ m a k a 2/3 II - t e 2 II a species of bird. When it calls at night it
warns of the presence of lions.
Ilqhaa -sa ||qhav L warm oneself at the fire, n n ba ||qhaa |’aa I am warming
myself at the fire.
Ilqhaa 2 II (possessed)/ Hqhaa 3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/ ||qhaa -te 3 I
(alienated) tooth, edge of the blade of a spear. ||qhaa §a 2 II ||qhaa-te §a-tU
4 II incisor, canine. ||qhaa qae 2 II jjqhaa -te qae-tiJ 4 II molar.
Ilqhaa tsh o e 2 II ||q haa t s h o a -te 2 II fork (of a tree, or that formed by the toes),
cleft in an animal's hoof, gap between the teeth.
Ilqhaba 2 II -te 2 II thoracic vertebra, also vertebra prominens.
Ilqhabe kv grasp around (e.g. the body), between (e.g. the knees or fingers) (cf. G||qhao,
Onyhm). Hqhabe ka tshuu/tuu sit with one's legs across or between someone
else's (cf. Inaho).
Ilqhae 2 II reciprocal formative, i.e. one another. Uh +num n ba ||yu +num ||qhae
you two reject one another. Uh n ba giqhai |nuu ||qhae they are fighting with
one another. Llh n ka !’oa ku ||qhae |Ti they are facing one another.
Ilqhala - s a HqhaLV H have a presentiment (cf. jnahle).
Ilqhala 3 II -te 3 II field for cultivation, vegetable garden.
Ilqhala kv cultivate.
Ilqham 2 ii - t e 2 ii urine, t a a |a Hqham/taa ||q h am -te a person's urine, t a a
llqham -te n ke s b o !x aa a person's urine is potent medicine. ||q h am -te
t a ’a ah n s b o lit. this urine has medicine, i.e is bewitched.
Ilqham ||naa 2 II ||qham jjnan-sa 2 II lit. urine container, i.e bladder.
Ilqhanu kuu 3 II apantothe west of Lone Tree.
Ilqhao again, more. |a h ba llqhao kane kan do you want it again, do you want
more? Uh ||qhao ’ahn uh ||qhao ’ahn lit. they more and they more and. i.e.
more of them and more of them.
Ilqho’a breathe, become blown as an antelope;. ah h ka ba gjkx^aa ke Ohan
eh n saa ||qhO"a if you chase a duiker it will blow.
Ilqho’a 2 II -te 4 II spirit, thought (cf. ^^c^hue, + ’an).
Ilqhola k v remove baking Ledebouria sp. bulbs from the ash with a piece of wood in one
movement (cf. gkhola, Iguh’m).
Ilqhole to dthydrsAt of Grewia retinervis hemts (gOqhUU) (c f. +na’pa, |nobe, pOO).
Ilqhba kv remove a lid, cover; open
llqhua not.
Ilqhua O a n jua 2 II female personal name.
llqhua -sa ||qhuv H place (gen) (pL), spec, vertical/upright (pL), stand (tr.) (cf. ||’uma).
118 llqhlil to gllqhum

llqhul 1 II ||qhua-te l ll Homed adder (fi/rw (c f. +xam +abe).

Ilqhull kv 1. be surprised. 2. be disappointed. 1sl h ba ||qhull ka thani fis1 n
llqhua Iguma ka we are amazed by things we do not know.
Ilqhum kV flay, skin by beating the skin off with the fist or a thick stick (cf. sOT, ||nahO,
Ilqhuu kv snatch. Ilqhuu ka H’ao -sa ||huu ka H’aev L(sg.)/|h M V L(pi.)
snatch (cf. tsahbu). n a ||qhuu ka’a tan [tan] lit. I snatched from you it, i.e. I
snatched it from you.
Ilqhuu +abe 2 II woman’s personal name.
Ilqhuu ka 3 II man's personal name.
Ilqhuu 3 I llqhujia 2 i dim: ||qhuu-ba (sg.) ||qhuu-m/||qhuu O ’ani (pi.) giraffe
(Giraffa camelopardalisy
llqhupa |a |«a 2 ll lit. giraffes' women, i.e. a constellation consisting of Sirius, Canopus,
Ilqhujia |a ||xaa 2 II lit. giraffes' men, i.e. a constellation consisting of Alpha Crusus,
Beta Crusus and Gamma Crusus.
Ilqhuu ka lg§ma-ka 2 II -te 2 II Groundscraper thrush (Jurdus litsitsirupa),
so-called because the colouring of its feathers resembles the patterns on a giraffe's skin.


gllqhaa 2 ii g||qham-te 4 ii bone tipped arrow (cf. Iqhaa).

gllqhaf l ll g||qhaba-te 4 il beeswax.
gllqhal sii (sa’a) 2 ii g||qhai sii-te (sa’ni) 2 II first portion, first helping,
jj’abe sa ’a gjlqhai sfi take the first portion. |habu Oaje gljqhai sil-te
sa*a-m take the first portions of meat,
gllqhal i i ii g||qhalu-te 4 II illness affecting the liver, contracted when a person eats the
food of a woman who is having her first menstruation, eh n ba IqhabI g||qhall
ke ||nam he is ill from a liver disorder,
gllqhoo-te 4 ii hairline (al.). eh s a ’a n ||’aa !’am s1 |paa ku g||qhdo-te
his face is just long and has no hairline,
gllqhule 3 I gllqhun 2 i dim: g||qhulu-ba/g||qhule Oaa (sg.) gllqhulu O ’ani
(pi.) Helmeted Guineafowl {Numida meleagris), flock of guineafowl. gjjqhijle |e
’Onaje species of plant (Pavonia burchelli). Lit. guineafowl’s flesh,
gllqhum SV tarn (Sg.)/taa (pi.) to walk in another person's tracks, to walk in its own tracks
(as a gemsbok, kudu, eland, duiker, steenbuck or a stalking camivorc). taa te’e n
ba gllqhum se taa te’e ihis person is walking in the tracks of another person. |§i
n ka ba gllqhum si tam eh |kx’aa ah h s1 ba ||huu s1l ba
’+n^la eh +qhala +nuu ah n sll ba ylu ke |kx’aa +nuu when a
lion walks in its own tracks, its front paw, it stands, and then it comes out; its hind paw then
comes into the track of the front paw. uh +numa-te n ||qhua ba khala uh n
ba Inaa gllqhum SU taa their (i.e. gemsbok, kudu etc.) tracks are not separated;
cllqhae to Hq’a p a 119

they walk in their own tracks. g||qh'um SV ||qhae walk in single file in the tracks of
the person ahead.

Gllqh [NGllqh]

cllq h a e push off, thrust away. G ||q h a e ka kX’UV kV tarn stamp off hooked on
thorns e.g. of Acacia ataxacantha (||qahn j) or Harpagophytum procumbens D .C . (jlca b a
x a a ) (cf. gahle kx’ua).
cjlqhad kv (jj’ao) grab around, grasp around, hug (cf. jjqhab®, Inaho, Onyhm).
n n ba c||qhao ka ||’abe kan |nuu ||qhaa tshoe lit. i am grasping it
between the fork of my foot, i.e between my toes, i.e. picking it up between my toes.
Gllqhoba kv trip over, against (cf. +guli, +gali). n a ||qhua |nee
’O n a je s1 G||qhoba k e I did not see the tree and tripped over it.
Gjlqhbbu -sa oHqhoBV L stare (cf. In§ma).
cllqhbbU burst out, burst through e.g. a spear; snatch away from (cf. g||k X ’QbU, ||hup,
dtshup, Inu’lu). ollqhbbu come, burst right through (as a spear through a
bush) (cf. Iqhblu, ll’ali).
Gllqhua scratch, scrape (cf. g||kX’alU).
ollqh'ube - s a oUqhuBVL open the eyes (cf.||q ’ali).


llq’abe 2 ii ^te 2 ii solar plexus, xiphisternum (cf. ||nam s a ’a).

Ilq'abu-llq’abu lap, gulp food as a carnivore (cf. ^qam ).
Ilq’a e smile, n n b a ~ ]nee I am smiling at him.
Ilq’ai tv pull out /apart (sg.) (cf. ||Ga’U (pi.)), moult, remove (e.g. a thorn). Hq’a i ta
llkxaa pull out the grass, Hq^ai ta k h ala ka~ the arrow apart,
h h b a Ilyn k a ||q’a1 ta s a it refuses to come apart. ||9 h a llq’a l tv pull
out e.g. a grass tuft or something stuck fast.
Ilq’ai ta suddenly straighten up (cf. ||Ga’bU).
Ilq’a le - s a jjq’aLV L pound to pulp (of. ^ ah m -^ ah m , Iqhaa). q a i jjq’a le
pound, n b a qai Hq’an m an [msn] h a h ||qhua ||ao I am pounding it (the
meat) because it didn't cook.
Ilq’alt ’+n$BV I’ua-te (ka) (cf. ollqhube) / Hq’all ka ’+naBV I’u a -te open
the eyes wide. Hq’all kV I’ua -te move the eyes back and forward (cf. loanl).
jjq’am (ka) var. of jjq’an.
Ilq’am kua 3 li man's personal name.
Ilq’an (ka) the sensation of tenderness or softness when chewing something not fully cooked
through, e.g. meat or bread. O a je t e ’e h k a Hq’an this meat is underdone.
jjq’ajia (ka) 2 I dirty, dirt, rubbish, mess, rust. taa qae ah n ka Hq’apa lit.
the woman is dirty, i.e. the woman is menstruating.
120 Iq’o b u -llq ’obu to ||h e e -||h e e

||q ’6bu-||q*6bu k v shake, shake about, swirl, also the action of boiling water
(cf. +n a h a -+n a h a ).
||q'6 e - s e 3 e/u I a pupa used to purge the liver, treat nausea or biliousness.

Ilq’oe k v have an upset stomach, n n b a ||q’6 e k a ’a a - s a the food has upset my

Ilq’oe kh06 3 II woman's personal name.
||q*6e 4abe 2 II man's personal name.
Ilq’ole -sa Hq’OLV L listen to, attend (cf. H’ule).
llq’OlO 2 I -t e 2 II game track (of any antelope) (cf. dgba).
Ilq’olo death spasm or rattle (cf.+n ah a). O a je O a a n k a b a |’a a eh h b a
llq’olo ke Iq’an as an antelope dies its heart gives death spasms.
Ilq’bma-llq’bma kV +ue twitch the mouth ( as a hare), suppress a smile, (cf. do*ma).
Ilq’bp the sound of an arrow or spear striking. Hq’Op ylU to go in Hq’bp.
Ilq’ua pull back the foreskin (cf. k’aa). ~ ka + ’an pull back your penis (foreskin)
(offensive), ah + ’an n tsh o a - *tn§la your penis is coming out of its foreskin
Ilq’uli k a s a ||q’ULV H peel, remove a cover e.g. the capsule of the kidney or the seed of
Bauhinia Petersiana (|an) from the membrane. Hq’Uli k a ’+ n § le Inuh’jia incise
and remove the kidney.
Ilq’un 1 II llq’lin a -te 4 II skinless (offensive), referring to the penis (foreskin) or to small
labia (cf. x a a , q ’ao , I’a le -I’ale). ah kl jjq’un you are "skinned" (offensive).
Ilq’uni var. of llq’un.
Ilq’u p a var.of Il’upa.
||q ’UU-||q’UU-se 3 II - t e 3 II Sc\m\X2jh\\\t&hoo^(x,{Phoeniculuscyanomelas).


||haa - s a ||h av H l. carry with a strap over the shoulder (not across the body)(cf. Hgalo,
jGam, I’ao , ||aho, !an). 2. Put a knife in a bag or pocket.
||hai +xam 3 II man's personal name.
Ilhabe k v deviate, turn off from/out of a track.
Ijhae k v be tired of doing something (cf. jhUU). n ri jjhae k a |g a a I am tired of
Ilhala k v search for (e.g in the sand by scratching about).
Ilham 3 II “tU 4 II grandmother, father's mother, mother's mother, grandchild of
grandmother, father's elder sister, father's younger sister, mother's brother's wife.
Ilham 3 I -t e 3 I l.freckle, mole. 2. termitarium, met. for termite. ||ham ||nae lit.
termite home, i.e. termitarium (black coloured) (cf. ||n a b a -te ||nae). ||ham
’O n ah a lit.termite body, i.e. termite.
IlhanI k v throw a spear (cf. Igahm).
l|hee -||h ee make the sound of the [||] click (cf. ||naa -||n a a , ll’a a -H’a a ) .
Ilhobe to llnu’a 121

llhobe kV take out sand. ||h o be k e d zu h e take (sand) from the hole. ||h o b e k a
+ k x ’um k e d zu h e take sand from the hole. ||h o b e k a + n a m a + k x ’um k e
dzu h e lit. take-out-remove sand from the hole i.e. remove sand from the hole.
Ilhobu tshuu fall down of a flat, light object e.g. a blanket (cf. ||hbp, Iqh aba, |’UbU).
Ilholu [> llholo] (ba) yla ||holu (n) be loose (fitting) (cf.qho’lo, oqhalo, ||hbo
t s ’e e). Ilholu k x ’lia fall of something light. ||holU t s ’e e the sound of something
loose fitting; met. for pant.
Ilhbp tshuu var. of ||hobu.
jjhoo t s ’e e l. pant. 2. loose fitting (cf. ||h6 lu t s ’e e ).
Ilhbp tshuu var. of||hbbu tshuu.
Ilhua s v steady (vb. tr.). tuhu s e h b a ’jjnuhm jjh'uas e tarn k'l Igoh’bi be
n +g o le [\\ tuhu se pokes steadies himself with a walking stick because he is blind.
||hum t s ’an 3 II man's personal name.
||hup ’+n a la snatch away from (cf. g||k x ’obu, dtshup. G||qhbbu, Inii’lu)
||huu 1. stand (intr.) (sg.) (cf. ’jjn y h a, hglO). 2. urinate (euph.). l|hUU + a m k a
stand back to your rear, i.e. move backwards. !’a n - t l ||hUU urinate
Iq’i i - s a
outside (of the village). Acts as a copulative in certain compund constructions, e.g. ^bhlo
||hUU lit. stand on hands and knees, i.e. be on hands and knees. + n a ’n ||huu be
patchy (of rain).


llna’b a kV walk on something wet (cf. ||qale).

||nae 2 I -tU 2 I Crowned plover (Vanellus coronatus). Like the species o f rnous^ g\xu^
it is a harbinger of bad news.
Ilnam i ii ||n am a-te 4 ii whip.
Ilna’m (k a) damp (cf. ||n a ’ u ). h a n ||q ’a i ta tym a h !han t s h o e k a k a
llp a ’m I took out (the pegs from) the skin and its inner layer was damp.
Ilna’u (ka) var. of Ijna’m.
||n§U 1 e/nll j|n § a -te 4 u II stirring stick, stick for the dzani ( ’ahna) game.
Ilno’Ii 1 II ||no’lu -te 4 II l. mistletoe, woodrose or haustorium of mistletoe (Lora«r/zw5 5p.
hemi-parasitic on Acacia luederitzii and Acacia mellifera). It is believed to cause ear infection
and tumours if bumt in the fire. It is a favoured source of moisture for kudu, ah ri ka
b a ylu k a ||qhaa ||ai tsh o e si k a b a jn aa d b 5 - k a - t e ^ lia s 1
kane ka t e ’a a bu ri b a ’au ||n o ’lu>te b a b a |nau te tsohu
when you go into a clump of Acacia mellifera and see kudu spoor look for them there
because they eat Loranthus sp. because you will see them (i.e. the kudu) very soon.
2. hiccough, sob, stifle l a u g h t e r . ||no’li to hiccough. Hno’ll k a k x a a sob,
stifle laughter.
llnu’a 2 II sob.’a a Hgii’a lit. to eat a sob, i.e. to sob (c f.’||n§be, joy’T, ||no’li) .
122 llnaa to ||nae-||na6


llnaa 3 i ||nam 2 i dim:||nau-ba (sg.) ||naa-m (pi.) l. stick, stick for hunting
the springhare, initiation sticks. 2. lightning (cf. ’mala). Iqhaa n ’au ba
’+nale jjnaa the rain takes out its stick, i.e. there is lightning, over there,
llnaa 3 I ||nam/||naa 2 ll dim: ||nau-ba (sg.) ||naa-m (pi.) species of bush,
Wild Currant, Tsw. Moretlwa (Grewia flava D.C.). The berries are eaten; the wood is used
for making bows, huts and clubs; the root is an ingredient of dye for skins and is used to
make a paste for shaving hair on the forehead. ||n a a a a species of plant (cf. lUU
lohbe). The berries are eaten, jjn a a jn a a the berries of Grewia flava..
lln a a pi. of |jn ae hut, village.
llnaa 2 ll ||han-sa 2 II dim: ka-|lnaa-ma/Oaa (sg.) ||nan-sa O ’ani (pi.)
container, holder, lair or burrow (inal.) for Hyena, Honey Badger, Antbear and Pangolin,
jlqham ~ bladder, lo ah a - cocoon; |q ’a n - pericardium; |ja a cocoon of
poison larva. IkX’o e ||n a n - s a clouds,
lln a a k v dish out food.
||naa-||naa make the sound of the [||] click (cf. ||h ee -jjhee, II’aa -||’aa).
llnaa -||naa a little, almost (<Kg.).
llnaa near (cf. Hga’le, !’oa, ’+nuhma). jjnaa xoo |ua be small in extent (e.g. a
skin), llnaa ’au tshuu sli come and sit closer this way.
llnaa j|n§V L i. pour, spill (sg.), bleed (cf. ||nani (pi.), Iga’o, |jn4i, |jxuu).
2. move across the sky (of stars) (pi.) (cf. !h a i-tf (sg.)). 3. descend on a kill (of
vultures). 4. develop into a large crop, grow in numbers, of certain crops (e.g. Wild
cucumber (+ n y ’lu -ku ), tsamma melon (tah m ), Gemsbok cucumber (l|§n)). +OhO
k a Ijn aa sell (pi.). ||n a e |GUe seek an omen, portent, jjn a a Iqhuu lit. spill
place, i.e. sprinkle, jjn a a jjxuu throw out.
Ilnaha 3 I - t e 3 I species of plant {Hermannia Tomentosa (Turcz.) Schinz ex Engl).
Ilnaha kv light a large fire in a trench for grilling a whole animal.
Ilnaha 2 li a species of bush. Candle Acacia, Tsw. Setshi (Acacia hebeclada D .C . subsp.
hebeclada). The gum is eaten. The wet rootlets are rolled on the thigh to make wrist or ankle
||n§ba walk briskly.
Iln^hbe 3 II |lnahm-ka-te/||nahbe-te 3 II Yellow mongoose (Cywcrw pemdZ/flrfl).
Ilnahbu strong blowing of wind, rain, sand; drive at speed (cf. jjnahp). ||nahbu tUU be
numerous (e.g. people, animals trees).
||nae and then (consecutive). 1 |jnae kx’lia tShUU ...and then sit down.
Ilnae 3 I |jnaa 3 ll dim: j|nau-ba (sg.) ||nau O ’ani (pi.) hut, village, nest,
Ilnae -sa j|nav L sing. Uh n ba jjnaa kuma they are singing (the song of) the
curing dance.
||nae-||na6 kv instruct, initiate.
||n a e -||n a e to ||na’ml 123

||nae-||nae 3 li man's personal name.

Ilnahe kv talk about.
Ilnahe |ua 3 li woman’s personal name.
||nai 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) ||n a b a - t e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated)
womb, uterus; euphemism for children (cf. +n 0h 0). ||nai |n a a fallopian tubes.
||nal/||nai q a i- le and then, eh a n [ja h ] ’e e t s ’a a 1 ||nai q a i- le s a a he
stole and then went off.
||nai 1 II ||n a b a -te 4 II harvester termite //o^/orerme^). I|n a b a -te
||nae harvester termite termitarium (red coloured) (cf. ||ham).
||nahi-sf 1 II I|nahm-sa 2 U {Psammaobates oculifer). ~ turn
tortoise shell container for +noo anddtshaa (cf. !g a e ) . ||n a h i-S I ||GOh’a 2 II
lit. serrated tortoise plexus, ||n a h i- s f ||guu 2 II lit. serrated tortoise chest,
||nahj-Sl Icahm a lit. serrated tortoise sternum, i.e. skin beetles {Coleoptera
Polyphaga Trogidae Omorgus).
||n4l SV throw out, get rid of, spill out (cf. ||nani, ||n4d, ||XUU).
||n§i |u a 3 II woman's personal name.
Ilnale kv tell (cf. lube kV, sav+N+te’e).
||n§hle 3 I -t e 3 I mark, pattern (as the pattern of colour on a hide, or ceremonial marks on
the face). +x a m s a ’a |e ||nah1e the gemsbok's facial marks.
Ilnalo be stiff (cf. Inalo). n g||xuia-te ||naa ah n ||nalo my knees are stiff.
Ilnalo kv collect together, pool together (e.g. money).
||n§hlo kv remove with a stick. ||n ah lo ka ’Inahna take down with a stick. ||nah)o
ka ’+ n a n a take out with a stick.
||n §h ’l0 >[ llnahio] to make the spoor of an old or weak creature, e.g. a person or lion
(cf. g a b a ). |a i ti 'i n b a In aa ||nah*lo this lion is dragging its feet.
IlnalU kv grill in a pot (without adding fat) (e.g. meat, seeds of Bauhinia Petersiana (|an)
seeds (cf. q o la , ||ao).
IlnalU 2 II - t e 2 II sheet metal.
Ijnam kV scrape out, remove a deposit, e.g. on the sides of a mortar (cf. ||x a a , ||nau,
+x a i). ||nam k a + n a b u remove them, e.g. pus from the eyes.
||nam 2 II (possessed)/ ||nam 3 I (alienated) ||naa 2 II (possessed)/ ||n aa 3 I
(alienated) liver. The liver is taboo except for senior males. ~ s a ’a the upper external
part of the abdomen (cf. ||q ’a b e ), genitals (offensive). + a b e - a species of plant,
ju a ||nam s a ’a lit. grab your penis, i.e. put your penis away! n ||n am ri b a
!n aa ht. my liver is walking, i.e. I have indigestion (cf. ||’ue). ||nam O a a 2 II
caudate lobe of the liver, g a h JV ||nam lit. awaken the liver, i.e. eat the first food of the
Ijnahm lope, run fast (cf. tso h u , thumi-thumj). ||nahm kuhm-kiihm heavy lope as
of a lion or eland. ||n§hm k x ’a b a accelerate.
Ilna’mi 3 ll a species of plant, Elephant-foot, Tsw. Mositsane (Elephantorrhiza near
elephantina (Burch.) Skeels). The tuber is used with the bark of !ula and the root of ||naa
124 ||nah’m-||nah’m to ||nya

to dye skins a red colour.

||nah’m-||nah’m 3 II -te 3 ll omentum (cf. O a’i |a s§a). eh tshoe |e
||nah’m-||nah’m its omentum. !iim |e ||nah’m-||nah’ni nna lit. it's eland's
omentum, i.e. it is a fat eland.
||nan l II ||nana-t6 4 II cicada (Hemiptera homoptera Cicadiae).
Ilnfhn SV shaipen, file.
I|n§ni-||n4ni kv/sv variant of ||n 4n l-||n 4n i kv/sv
||nQnf-||n%ni kv/sv shake the head from side to side in negation (<Nharo) (cf. ka ||aba,
||n4ni-ka I II -te 2 II offspring (of anything), immature stage (e.g. of a tuber)
(cf. gllkx’ou). eh n ke ||n§ni-ka he is immature.
||n§n1 kV spill out (pi.) (cf. Ilnaa (sg.), ||n4l, ||xuu).). ||n4nl ki |ln§1 sV throw
out. n h ka ba ||nanl ka than! n ti ba ||n4a ||xua if I throw out things
I throw them out.
||n§pa 2 I -te 2 I species of snake.
Ilnah’pa turnover, place face up. ||nah’pa tUU/ tshuu lie on the back, i.e. face up.
||n4h’pa Il’uma lay on the back (for skinning or roasting).
Ilnaho 2 II (possessed)/IlnahO 3 I (alienated) - t e 2 II (possessed)/||n a h O -te 3 I
(alienated) lower arm, forearm muscles. g>fqhlJli x b o ||n ah o funny bone.
Ilnaho flay, skin (vb.) (with a sharp instrument) (cf. sy i, ||qhum).
Ijnahp var. of llnahbu
llnau -sa IjnaBV H scrape off (e.g. bark , or mealiemeal from a pot) (cf. +xai, ||nam,
||nau (ka) heavy, eh n ka jjnau she is pregnant (euph.).
Ijnau 3 II heaviness, weight.
Ijnau shrivel through heat from a fire, scorch (cf. + q h o ’bu, Iq’bo).
Ijnau 3 II man's personal name (<Nharo).
Ilna’u (ka) damp (cf. ||na’m).
||n6ha-la 2 n -te 2 U Black or Pied crow (Corvus albus, corvus capensis).
Ilnghba (-sa) 3 ii Hnghba-sa-te 3 ll something red
Ijnohba -sa (n) red (cf. jahpa). je Oaje ke te’e-sa !hua ||nohba lit. is
that meat placed up diere a red thing?, i.e. is that red thing up there meat?
Ijnohbe 3 II -te 3 II membrane of a egg (cf, ||nbhO |’Ube).
Ijnobo talk softly, murmur, talk to oneself (cf. GUm-GUm, g o b o -g o b o ), make a noise as a
fire or people in the distance or a distant truck.
Ilno’m 1 II ||n6’ma-te 4 ii species of plant. The bulb is a taboo food and leads to
malnourishment unless fed ritually by an elder.
||noo kV smooth by scraping.
||noo ^ a b e 3 II man's personal name.
Ilnbho I’ube 3 II -te 3 II membrane of an egg (cf. ||nbhbe).
Ijnya 3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed) diaphragm.
Ilnu’b e to ||nuu“b a 125

llnu’be >[||no’be] ((ka-)) 3 I -te 3 I dim: ka-||nu’be/||nu’bu-ba 3 I (sg.)

Ilnu’bu G ’an i 2 I(pl.) stork (gen.) {Ciconiidae).
Ilnyhbu SV >[ Hnohbu ] shake (of liquids), shake liquid in a container to clean it out.
(cf. IlGQbi).
Ilnyhbu HInyhbu sv var. of ||nyhbu sv.
Ilnue 3 I ||nu^||num 2 I dim: ||nuu-ba (sg.) |jnuu-nV||nuu O ’ani (pi.) Leopard
tortoise (Geochelone pardalis).
||nue |a ||kx*aa 2 I Buffalo grass, lit. Leopard tortoise grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.)
Ilnue ||nam a a 2 II ||nua ||n aa a a - t u 4 II a species of plant, lit. tortoise liver
(male plant) {Geisekia africana (lour.) Kuntze.). The leaves are eaten.
||nui 1 II ||n u a -te 4 II species of lizard; k a ||nui a a monitor lizard,
k a ||nui a a
n k a b a s i ’je t a a § a eh + g a ’a n b a ’+ n § la 1 k a b a s i ’p a
t a a q a e ah + ’an h b a *4>^§1a when the monitor lizard bites a man, his vagina
emerges and when it bites a woman, her penis emerges.
||nyl (intr.) enlarge.
Ilnyle > [||noIe ] 3 i ||n y n -sa 2 i dim: ||n y lu -b a (sg.) ||nylu G ’an i (pi.)
1. millepede, 2. met. for a long thin penis.
Ilnyle |e k x ’o o - k x ’oo gu h b a 2 ll - t e 2 II assassin bug (Alloporus sp.?) that kills
the millepede (Heteroptera heteroptera Reduviidae).
Ilnyli se etsah m ||nyli.
Ilnum -sa ||nuBV H shoot (pi.) ( c f .+ ’aa(sg.)).
||nuhm the sound of a humming (e.g.bees, a vehicle).
Ilnu’m kV twist by rolling together, coil (tr.), twisted, coiled, entwined, spiral (as the homs of
a Kudu), crossed (as legs crossed over) (intr.) (pi.) (cf. dgmi (sg.), doni, |q’um).
Ilnu’m k i |x a i twist the (fibres of) the cord! eh ||a n - s a n k a ||nu’m k a ta
|li its horns are twisted.
||nu’m-se 3 e I initiation ceremony, school. ||nu’m-se |1 ’Inahi the initiation school
Ilnu’m sv initiate.
Ilnyhm sound of a humming sound higher pitched than the humming of bees (||nuhm).
Ilny’mi 3 II -te 2 II cartilage (al.) (cf. d§hli).
Ilnunu visit (cf. ||G§a, |kx’ae).
Ilnunu 3 II man's personal name.
||nupa writhe as a snake, be restless. Oan ||nujia sleep restlessly.
Ilnuh’p a tshiJU bent, as a spear tip.
Ijnuu run (sg.) (cf. ||g§ba (pi.)) (kV) (tr.) chase (cf. j’aa, glkx’aa).
Ijn uu-ba lab e ||n u u -b a honorific incantation to the thunder to bring the rain
(cf. |g o o -|g o o , jnuhlu, a a k u se , b a b a tsh ee).
126 1|n^a to ’llnahm |ua


’||n §a 2 I speed (inal.). t a a q a e ’||n a a ah n ||’a a a woman has no speed

(i.e. when running).
’||n aa (n) foul tasting, tasteless, awful, also awful luck, kuli 1 |n aa a bad year, i.e. one
with drought, hunger, death, n !naa h ’||naa my spirit is bad. fi |q’an n
’||naa lit. my heart (feels) awful, i.e. I feel sorry for someone, grieve for someone.
’Ilnaha - s a ’||nahv M bind, tie, knot, be hooked ( a thorn) (sg.); also in the sense
of accuse, bring a charge (c f.’||nahni (pi.)). ’||nahn ^guni k v tie a loop (as for a
snare) (cf. q a ’ni). *||nahi ||bhO lit. tie the G-string, i.e. wear a G-string. ’||nahV
tarn hide oneself behind (cf.+n a h b e tam). + a i [+ii] a n ||qhua ’||naha
lit. the steenbok did not tie, i.e. it did not get snared. ’||naha |au ||n aa lit. bind
tobacco, i.e. roll a cigarette (cf. +am , tsh op a). th aa n ’||naha the thing is snared,
trapped.’||naha +haBV+obj. (sg.) tie up above.
’Ilnahle - s a k a ’||n ah LV L(p i.) tie up (cf.+n6lo).
’Iln ah a -fl 3 II woman's personal name.
’Ilnaha 2 II amount, quantity, size (inal.). j|nunu ’||n ah a k a n t a ’a llnunu *s size is
here, i.e. this much, h ’||n ah a h n ||qhua Igum its size, I do not know it. 1sl
’Ilnaha ko o k a ’a k a h t a ’a lit. all our quantity is here, i.e. this is our number.
’Ilnaha-t1 3 II woman's personal name.
’Ilnaha k v threaten, be aggressive toward, ah n k a b a ’||n ah a ah n + ’a m a
’jnua when you threaten you have aggression,
’Ilnaha (n) be well-nourished, fat.
’Ilnabe k a kx’a a sob (cf. ||nii’a , |g u ’T, ||no’li, ’||nabe).
’Ilnahe 3 I ’||n ah m -sa 2 I l. worthless, useless person 2. the Lala people (cf. |yha).
t a a t e ’e eh h ke ’||nahe ||qhua ke t a a q'uhm ke hna this person is
worthless, is not one who is a proper person.
’Ilnah’e 2 II ’||nah’m -te 3 II raised platform for storing food or possessions
(cf. ’Ilnah’la). !hue O a je k a ’||nah’e ta bu + q h a b a - te ||qhua ’a e
[’ee] place the meat up on the platform so the dogs do not eat it.
’Ilnahle (ka) - s a k a ’||nahLV L avoid objects, e.g. bushes by walking round them,
conceal oneself behind an object (cf. ’+nahm ).
’Ilnah’la 2 ll -t e 2 ll dialectal version of ’||n ah ’e.
*||n§m 2 n II (sg. and pi.) a species of plant (Cucurbitaceae Cucumis kalahariensis A,
Meeuse). The fruit and tuber is eaten. ’||nam + q h a n -te the fruits. If this is grilled to a
black state and eaten by the hunter after an animal has been shot, the poison gains strength.
But if it is baked in the hot sand and eaten, the poison loses potency and the animal dies a
great distance away.
’llnahm l ii ’||n a h a -te 4 li Bullfrog.
’llnahm kv hate, dislike.
’llnahm |ua 3 ll woman's personal name.
*||nahm to ’||nuhm 127

’||nahm ka 3 II woman's personal name.

’Ilnam a SV mix words through speaking too fast, clutter words.
*||n4nii 3 II white of egg.
’l|nan l e/u II ’||n a n a -te 4 II a species of plant {TalinumarnotiiHookf.?),T\\t\^?^/ts
are eaten for moisture.
1|n§hn 3 e/u I dim: ’||n §h lu -b a 2 li(sg.) ’||n 4h lu -te O ’an i 2 ii (pi.) a species of
plant, Morama nut creeper,Tsw. Morama (Bauhinia Tylosema esculentum). The nuts
(+nym) are eaten.
’||nahni-ti-sa ’||nahLV L tie up, entangle (pi.) (c f. ’||naha (sg.)).
’Ilnahni k v var. of U nahLV .
’Ilnah/ia rest (cf. inani).
’Iln ahjia k v put off doing something (c f. + n a o ) .’||n ah jia kl |x ai put off inspecting
a snare.
’Ilnaho kv (ka) prepare, arrange, tidy, also of hanging up meat, ka ’||nahO kV |a
’IInaha prepare by tying together.’IInaho ||qhae twist together.
’||n§u -sa 1|n^BV H choke (on food) (c f. +oyhnu I’UU).
’Ilnahu 1 e II rainy season. ’||nahu ||ohn the end of the rainyseason (this is considered to
be the best time of the year).
’Ilnahu 3 e/u II shoe, traditional sandal made from the thick hip skin of Wildebeest, Eland or
’Ilnohba 3 II -tu 4 II Purple roller {Coracias naevia).
’Ilnohbe k v !’uT wink (cf. ’|n §m a).
’Ilnoh’lo 2 II - t e 2 II whirlwind.
’Ilnoh’o kv bristle ( e.g. the hairs of a dog, lion, or hyena).
’Ilnya 2 II a species of plant, {Liliaceae Dipcadi longifolium (Lindl.)Bak.?),i:h^ hw\h is
’Ilnuha tarn 2 e II earth god (cf. too loo !xae, uhbu-ku, kuu +e e ,’|nbha
’Ilnyha stand (intr.) (pi.) (cf. ||hUU). k h a la ’||nyha Iqh'll lit. separate stand walk, i.e.
walk abreast.
’Ilnybi tsh o e 2 II ’||nybi t s h o a -t e 2 n armpit, n ’||nybi t s h o a -t e n
Okx’um lit. my armpits are nice, i.e. my sweat was effective in curing someone.
’Ilnybu 3 II ’||n y b u -sa 2 II a heavily-built person, animal, object e.g. a bulldozer
’jjnuhm “S a ’IjnuhBV M > ’||nuhpv stab, sting, inject (sg.) (cf. ’jjnuhm k v (pi.)).
’Ilnuhm ylu poke into. ’Ilnuhm (H’urn) tam k e ||n aa support oneself with a
stick. ’Ijnuhm tshuu squat, ’jjnuhm g lx a a poke open (e.g. a tsamma
melon).’Ilnuhm huu poke out (e.g. the contents of an intestine). ’||nuhm q a ’bf
poke inside out, tum inside out, also to "stir" cooking meat by bringing pieces at the bottom
of the pot to the surface and vice versa. ’||nuhm tsh o a O a n sleep sitting on one’s
*||nuhm k v stab, sting, inject (pi.) (c f. ’||nuhm (sg.)). ’||nuhm k a + a a speak (!x66)
fluently. ’||nuhm yn stick into. ’||nuhm ylu lit. stab enter, i.e. penetrate, e.g. a bush.
128 ’llnuhm to ll’al-ll’al

’llnuhm ’in a la - k a 2 I - t e 2 I 1, spouse exchange between two married couples.

2. polygamy, ||nunu n b a ’a h n a ’||nOhm ’+ n a 1 a -k a -te +num ||nunu
has two wives, uh 4num n [+nu rh :]ba ’ah n a ’||nuhm ’+ n a la - k a ;+ n u m n
b a ’a e [ee] >|>kx'ad they two are spouse exchanging; they are eating the joking
partner's portio i.e. are having sex with one's joking partner's spouse).
’Ilnyhm i li ’||n y h m a-te 4 ii Giant Eagle Owl (cf. ||gulu k a
I'uhm -se).
1 |n y m a -te 2 ii perspiration, n ’||n y m a -te h k a b a ||a o n Ig'um fii b e
t a a xb o s1i if my perspiration gets hot I know that a person is coming. This may also
be a sign of meeting game the next day.
’Ilnyhn 3 n/u II mucous.

II’a a just, merely, eh h ||’a a k a t s h x a a he is just shit.

Il’a a |ua 2 II woman's personal name.
Il’a a not to be (negative of |li), malfunction, uh n ||’a a they are not here, eh |nan ja
ll’a a - s a his head's malfunction, n n ||’a a k a |au Ijn aa I have no tobacco.
Il’a a k v not to have (negative of + ’au) (cf. |0U).
Il’a a -Il’a a make the sound of the lateral click [||] (cf. ||h ee - ||h e e , ||n a a - ||n a a ).
Il’a b i 1 2 Il’a b U -te 4 II a game of stick throwing, q a ji ||’a b i lit. kill the i.e. to play
the ~ game.
Il’a e formative used in female personal names, t a a q a e jj’a e what's-her-name.
II’a e - s a ||*av H go out hunting and/or gathering (cf. Iqhae, !oo Inoo).
Il’a e k v suspect, mistrust.
Il’a e / 11*^ k v look after, save, herd, fi n b a ||’a e kan tarn k e In ^a I am saving
money for myself ||’a e kan tan [ksn tsn] look after for me it, i.e. look after it for
Il’a e /ll’aT 3 II -tU 4 II master (inal.).
Il’a e - I l ’a e jn v v joke with, trick (cf. H’a H I ’al).
Il’a i 2 I possessions (al.) (cf. |u e ,+ k x a i, !a e ).
||’a i- ||’a l- s e 3 II -te 3 II Ashy Grey Tit {Parus cinerascens).
Il’a l 1 II ll’a b a - t e 4 II fox {Otocyonmegalotis).
Il’a i-ll’a i (|naV) be disrespectful, illtreat, be cheeky, disobey, joke with, tease (cf. !gu i,
d z a a , Inu’a, k x ’a o miT, |nehe). a h h k a b a ||’a i- ||’a i |n a a |k x ’o e
ah n b a g|xu je if you joke with your friend you swear at him. ah n k a b a
Il’a i-ll’ai |n a a >fkx’an ah n ||qhua b a Iqhae if you illtreat your "cousin”
you do not give him (anything).
||’a i- ||’a1 1 II cheekiness, disrespect, eh n kl ||’a i- ||’a i she is disrespectful. kuM
’|nuu k a b a |n ee t a a eh n ||’a a b a t s ’a a k a thani b e n ki
ll’a i-lla i even if a hyena sees a person it just steals things because it is cheekiness.
Il’a la to Ipupa |ua 129

ll’a la - s a ||’aLV L fall, break, stumble against (sg.) (cf. ||’ali (pi.)).
Il’a le -ll’a le remove the skin, peel, whittle (cf. !’a le - !’ale).
II’all SV 1. snap, break off or strip off berries or seed pods, spec, gather the pods of Bauhinia
Petersiana (|an). 2. crack the knuckles (pi.) (cf. ||’a la (sg.)).
Il’ali ’•^n^la come right through, stab through, come out the other side (cf. G||qhobU,
jqhblu). eh a ||’ali ’^nala k a ’O n a a he burst throught the bushes.
II’am k v grasp a handful of things.
Il’a o - s a ll’aBV L take (sg.) (cf. |hao (pi,)). ||’a m a +6lo take a path.+oho k a
ll’a o buy (sg.). q ai ||’ab i jxai spring a snare.
II’an later.
Il’an 3 e I ll’a n a -t e 2 u l dim: ||’a lu -b a (sg.) H’alu O ’ani (pi.) l.sun, day. 2.
thirst, eh n ke I|’an she is thirsty. ||’a n a -t e koo k a ’a a every day. ||’an
+ ’e Il’an each day. Iqhabe ||’an have heatstroke.
Il’ap the sound of falling down, q ai ||’a p tUU fall down with a ||’ap.
Il’e e - l l ’e e var.of ||’a a - | | ’a a .
Il’om a - s a ||’OBV H keep, hold (as a pan holds water).
Il’ube k v suck out, also kiss (cf.qam, qum, tshxble, GQO, + ’um a). ||’ube k a
jau Ijnaa lit. suck, i.e.smoke tobacco.
Il’ue k v be out of harmony with, be out of touch with, alienated from (e.g. the feeling one has
toward a person who has ill-treated one). + a a n b a ||’ue ke the language is too
hard for him. Ig aa h b a ||’ue k e the work is unsatisfactory for him.
Il’uT-le 3 II woman’s personal name.
Il’ule - s a Il’uLV L listen to (cf. ||q’6le).
II’um 3 II forgiveness. I'ua ||’um |nan give me forgiveness, i.e. sorry!
Il’um a - s a ||’UBV H place (vb.) (gen.), spec, place in a vertical/upright orientation (sg.)
(cf. Ilqhua (pi.)). ||uhu k a overturn. ~ +am remove a pot (from the fire) (in the
horizontal), - k a InyhU s f remove a pot (from the fire); H’Ubi guhm make space;
Il’Ubi ’Inal be a bachelor; q ai ||’um stamp. ||’um |nan keep it for me. ih n
O q h a a ||’ube !u1a fit lit. we in between place the Acacia luederitzii trees, i.e. we
are (placed) in the middle of the Acacia luederitzii trees, i.e. we are amongst them.
||’um a-||a1e 3 II woman’s personal name.
Il’UJia >[ llq’UJia] turn the back on, be crossed over of the teeth, eh n IpUJia k a tshUU
he is sitting with back turned, ah ||q h a a -te n H’UJia |ua ||qhae your teeth are
back to back, i.e. crossed over, also a euphemism for the first menstruation (cf. tUU).
eh n b a k a ||’u p a |un he has his back to me.
Il’u p a |ua 3 II man’s personal name.
130 ja a to ^a1 |q*an

+ a a (possessed)/ + a a 2 II (alienated) + a m - te 2 II bone. |nan + a a lit. head’s

bone» i.e. skull, eh n ||*aa k a + a a lit. he has no bone, i.e. he has no strength.
+ a a 2 II (possessed)/ + a a 2 I (alienated) + a n -s a / + a m -te 2 II language (inal.).
word, voice. Ixo pa + a a the 1X66 language. +naT n +*am a + a a + ’e we
(two) are having words about him, i.e. complaining about him. ^ a a ll’a a lit. no
word(s). i.e. no problem! + a a Ix aa a serious issue.
t 9 a 2 II east.
| § a - s a 3 II man’s personal name.
<f§a ||*ama 3 II woman’s personal name.
4 a h a -4 d ^ A var. of + a h o -+ a h o .
^Qha Ijhuu / *||nyha <f4ha k a I’a a leak, drip (cf. ^un, ||qall).
^ i h ’a kV restrain, stop, prevent (cf. Iga©). + g a ll + # h a kV trip and stop, e.g. a
ninning animal one has brought down with a thrown stick (cf. 0||qh6ba, +galf).
+ § b a (n) shiny.
>fabe 3 e/u I (sg. and pi.) dim: 4&U~ba 3 I (sg.) 4 ^ ^ ^ ^ (^S ) black person ;
also speak the black language, i.e. Tswana, n b a + a b e I am speaking Tswana.
4 a b e 4g&*& 2 2 II species of plant (C/ie/iop^^i<^n), lit. black woman’s vagina.
~ ri k a Inu’a it smells like sexual organs.
^ a b e ||nam 2 II (sg. and pi.) a species of plant,“black person'sliver". If one eats it, one
rejects one's relatives, th e e -p e q § a n’e e + a b e ||nam b e n ||qhua b a
+ ’an s e m a p a - t e Thee-pe long ago ate "black person’s liver" since he does
not like his relatives.
t & e 4 ’an 2 II a species of mushroom (Montagnea sp, Gasteromycetes Basidiomycotina),
"black man’s penis".
4 a b e 3 II formative used with certain personal names.
+ a b l [+3bll I II •fa b u -te 4 II young steenbok.
|a b u k v fold up in halves (cf. Iqhum).
4 a e l ^ e e ] 3 II ia m - t e / f a m a - t e 4 il jaw, mandible. Hqhaa >^ae spec,
•fa*e khbe 3 li man's personal name.
^al [fii] I II ^ a b a - t e 4 il dim :^abl [43bi](sg.) ^ a b u -te (p l.) l. steenbok
{Raphiceruscampes(ris){cf.^g^heL'‘k a ).2 .Y ^ \ q a e .+ a l § a two stars that form
part of a 1X66 constellation.+al q a e + ’e O a a -t U lit. the female steenbok (star)
and her children, i.e. the larger star and the two smaller ones on either side.
| a l fq h a n [fii >fqh'3n ] 2 ll | a i |q h a n -t e 2 II a species of plant, lit.steenbok
testicles (Jatropha sp. in Euphorbiaceae?). The whole tuber is boiled with Pollicfiia
cmtpestris Solland (SIJ’U 6zun\)^ndCephalocroton mollis Krotch (+niEhm
g + k x ’a n l-k a ) for the treatment of vomiting.
+ a l Iq’an 2 II 4 ^ b a ~ te Iq’a a 2 II ToktokkicbQCilciTenebrionidaeTarsocnodessp.)
lit. steenbok hean, also a species of bird (cf. loo-loo). If this beetle crosses the huntei^s
path when he goes to inspect a snare it signifies a steenbok has been caught.
+ a l I’m to + a ’u I3i

f a1 l*uT 3 II a pan west of Lone Tree, lit. Steenbok Eye (Maitloaphuduhudu).

3 II -t 0 3 n Bdrk'mg gecko (Ptenopiis garrulus).
4 |h T -+ |h T 3 II -t e 4 II BlackchesicdPrinia(Prmwy7avica/ij)(cf.+yhl-+yhT,+G|l,
4&)a/4al6 kV sleep close to a fire, eh a lea] ^ala ka I’aa tuu he laysleeping
close to the fire. | a l a ka tUU lie on one's side near the fire(cf. g lx a a ). |a la
k a I’a a tuu lie on one's side at the fire.
+ a le - s a +aL V L fold, fold the arms, coil, plait (e.g. grass), weave (cf. dgml, doni,
||nu*m). k a 4^1^ be coiled, be folded, be around, circle (vb.) (as vultures)
(cf. kala). >fana ^qahm a, 4'ale ||nue tshuu sit cross-legged. 4 ’u n -ta n
k a + a le pj *he sieving mat (+*un-ta) is woven.
+ahlO kV loop (vb. tr.).
+a m go or return home, go back (home), return, back (adv.). ||hUU +a m back up, stand back,
reverse. O q ^ a n +a m si I lit. the child is coming home, i.e. is being bom. ||*uma
+a m pull back i.e.remove something e.g. from the fire.
+am kV roll a cigarette (< Naro) (cf.tshopa, *||naha, dthum).
4am ka (ka) bound (cf. ||nu’m, dgml). h h ka |am ka [\\ it is bound, uh n
ka ku ||qhae fll they are bound together.
4am-ka-te 2 II (pi. only) calf muscle, gastrocnemius.
+a m + a le 3 I - t e 3 I a succulent plant ( C a r a / / w m a P / i / / / . ) . The stems are
4am-4am / +aml-+aml take a circuitous route (slyness is implied), creep away from, hide
+ahm-4ahm kv pulp (vb.) (cf. Hq’ale, Iqhaa).
4ama kx*am 2 n fam a kx*ama-te 2 ii coeval (cf. Inaa, •fao, 4’uli-te).
uh +num n ka +ama kx*ama-te bu +num + ’ama Inaa those two are
coevals by having tlie same age.
+aml-+aml kv var. of +am-+am.
+a h n -+a h n k v pat flat e.g. sand (cf. t ’k x ’a l a - t ’k x ’ala).
fa n a -te 3 ll man's personal name.
+a n guu (+8Qg'u:]2 I I - t e 2 II a species of plant (Thymelaeaceae Gnidia polycephala
(C A . Mey) Gilg.). The root bark is beaten in water to produce a froth which is drunk as a
treatment for gonorrhoea.
1 II >f9na-te 4 II walking stick (cf. Igoh’bl). txobu + § n a - t e lit. regularly
space the walking stick, i.e. Orion’s Belt (this line of stars is seen as resembling the
regularly spaced impressions made by a walking stick in the sand).
+a*Jia ku -sa black(MunsclU l-40), dark navy, ultramarine, Prussian blue.
+ao kv miss (be lonely for), long for.
•fa h o -fa h o pound, beat loudly of the heart, beat (of wings), ah n k a b a I’a o ah
|q*an n b a +ahO - + a o k a tarn when you get a fright, your heart pounds in
^ahp tshuu / 4^hp ||huu sound made when a heavy object lands.
+a ’U restfully, quietly, in a relaxed manner (cf. quT, qao-qao, ||6o).1sl n ^a*U-sa
132 + e e - + e e to +ul

I’aa Iqhua ka ta’a we are quietly seated talking here; also+a*u kV tam calm
+ e e - + e e 3 ll puffball (Lycoperdaceae Tulostoma lacticeps) (cf. Iqhobo-lqhobo).
f e e - S a awake, wake up, open the eyes (after sleeping). + e e Iqhaa look for, search.
|a a + e e have you woken, i.e. how are you? n a O a n + ’e e + e e lit. I slept
long ago awoke, i.e. I woke up early, n a + 6 6 Iqhan x a b 6 - k a n a ||qhua
Inan I searched for it but did not see it.
+6’6 ka ylu force into.
+li kV call, name (cf. Ig a ’U ’a l ) . +11 kV |au give someone a name.
+11 3 n woman's personal name.
+ ll-k a 3 II woman's personal name.
+l1 |ua 3 II woman's personal name.
+ b h a 1 n - t 6 4 II a species of plant {Bahiana hypogea Burch.). The corm is eaten but not
by the hunter who has shot an animal because the corm is stodgy and this will weaken the
+bh 6 kV tilt, bend over, lean at an angle (cf. Igaa).
+6lO 2 I - t e 2 I path.
+bhlO llhuu be on hands and knees (cf. 1n§1 ||hUU,lhUU golo ||hUU).
+6h’ma -sa urinate (polite) (cf. Hqhaa, ran-ti ||huu).
+ o n a (ka) part of the trigger mechanism of a snare. |nuhjia k a +o n a columella
(fleshy part of the nasal septum). |nuhjia k a +on a |i d ao philtrum.
+bhO x a I’OO 3 II a pan west of Lone Tree.
+6 h 6 2 I -t e 2 I sand or ash bathing of e.g. ostrich, q a jia +OhO to sand bathe.
+6 h 6 kV buy, sell, trade.
+6ho ka ||*ao-sa +oh& ka ||'aBV L (sg.), +oh5 ka|ha5-sa +ohd ka
IhaBV L (pi.) lit, ”trade"+take i.e. buy.
+oh o ka ||x u u -sa +ohd k a ||x u V L (sg.), +ohd k a ||n § a - s a +ohd k a
||n§v L(pl.) lit. trade-fdiscard i.e sell.
+bhO kV smell (tr.), sniff.
+bhO 1 n line(n.). lahll +bhO +*Ul lit. climb on one line, i.e. walk single file.
+ua 3 n +um-sa-te 2 ii sleeping mat (cf. tahu, Igua).
+U a 2 n +Lin -sa 2 II place (inal.); in the pi. tracks (distr,),i.e. set of tracks.
+ y a k a a § a 3 II sptcics o f ^\3nt (Commelinasp.). The pseudo-bulbs of Eulophia
Orchidaceae are also given this name. The raw bulb is eaten as food, or for moisture.
Guineafowl also eat the bulb.
+u b 6 s v tam to zig-zag. ah n k a b a ||xai ki |§l ih n b a +u b e s i tarn
if you irritate a lion it moves in a zig-zag.
iu e 2 II + u m -sa 2/4 n mouth, doorway, opening, burrow (of e.g antbear, porcupine,
mongoose, badger, springhare), den (of a hyena). lOO ~ knife scar; |q’an ~
suprastemal notch; |n'yi ~ springhare burrow; ||kx’an - reticulum (of a ruminant);
+guV +U6 squeeze moisture into the mouth from tuber pulp; !’uT ~ lit. eye's mouth, i.e.
lower eyelid; I’a a ~ the fireside.
+Ul 2 II (possessed)/3 I (alienated)-te 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) collarbone, the
+ul to +g§le 133

pair of anterior sticks in a snare for the Redcrested korhaan.

+Ul - s a +UJV H 1. share out, divide (cf. IgOO, lUU). 2. be separated (cf. khala).
thani ta’a n 4^pa taa !’aa [\\ lit. these things are divided themselves seated,
i.e. are separated, eh !’ua -te n ^UJia ||qhae fli his eyes are squint.
+ u ’ i 2 II +u’la(-ka)-te 2 ii fat on the waist (cf. ||gQhm,|xan tshoe).
+yhT-+yhT var. of +fthl-+§hT Blackchested Prinia.
+Ull 1 II 4ulu-te 4 II remains of a broken branch still on a tree or bush, knot (n.)
(cf. gllkx’a a ).
fyli tuu slip(cf. tsh'uli tuu, g^xu’li tuu, ^qam ^quli, Hcbli tuu, 4qaba ka
+Uh’li 1 II the moisture remaining in dry wood that causes bad smelling smoke.
+ylu 3 II -te 3 II fibrous tissue.
+uml kv massage.
4un - s a | u j v L drip, leak (cf. llhuu, llqall). n h b a fu je ln |a i am
dripping blood (e.g. from the nose) (cf. d z a d ).
4unu (n) - s a 2 II thick (e.g. a tree trunk or sand), dense (of shade), rigid (cf. !^bu,
4uml k v massage.
+UU 1 II +ua-te 4 II empty ostrich egg (c f. +gua). +UU s a ’a the "point” of the
egg, i.e. where the hole is drilled. Also met. for a water bulb.
+UU 1 n +u a -t e 4 II abcess, boil.


^gaa sv -si-sa exploit.

+ga’a-tl /-ll 1 II -te 3/4 II a species of plant {Walleria nutans Kirk.). The tuber is
eaten raw or baked.
+ga’a -sa +ga*v h warm up (tr.), heat, scorch (cf. oaa). +ga’e [+ge’e] !qhaa
warm up the water.
4ga’a 2 U (possessed) / +ga’a 2 I (alienated) -te 4 II woman's sexual organs.
~ |nan clitoris. ~ ’|nym spec, vagina. ||’an ~ (visible) rays of the sun.
4ga'a -te ka !’aa lit. long vaginas, referring to the long tail feathers, i.e. met. for
Shafttailed or Pintailed Wydah.
tgaba 3 II smegma.
fgabo ka tshuu (sg.) ka +gabO ka Paa (pi.) lie curled up as an animal.
4gahe 3 II -te 3 n fresh egg.
+9^* [+9>Q 2 II (possessed)/3 I (alienated) +gaba-te 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I
(alienated) thick skin on the neck of certain animals. On the Eland it is behind the head; on
the Hartebeest or Gemsbok it is at the base of the neck, on the shoulder.
+gale ta +xal 3 ii -te 3 u Ground beetle {Coleoptera carabidae).
I g s l e 3 I 4 g § n - s a 2 I dim; k a - + 9 9 lu -b a/ + 9 9 lu © a a (sg.) +g §lu O ’ani
(pl.) Common quail {Coturnix coturnix) or Harlequin quail (Coturnix delegorguei.)
(cf. !obo).
134 t g a ’le to + g o o xolo

tg a ’le -sa tg a ’LV L pare, whittle, scrape or shave off (e.g. bark off a stick). +ga’le
’Onaje s a ’a lit. pare take out the wood’s surface, i.e. smoothe the wood.
+gali (+aha) kv trip over, fall over. Also used to describe a running animal that has been
tripped and brought down by throwing a stick sideways into the legs (cf. G||qhOba).
+gall ke ’Onaje trip over a piece of wood,
tgall ka kx’uv twist off (cf. dyml ka +gall)
+gal1 1 II +galu-te 4 ii short person, dwarf.
tgall ka |§ll |nan 2 ii f gait ka |9lu-te |naa 2 n horsefly, bee fly.
4 gam l II 4 gama-te 2 11 recently dry tree or bush. |an |i ^ g ^ ^ l the dry seeds or
wood of Bauhinia macrantha.
4gam grow (intr.) (sg.) (cf. 4gama (pi), kai).
|gam-4gam kv cause to grow up (as the initiation ceremony does to an initiate), mature
4gahm +gull kv trip (tr.) by ankle tap or inserting a leg (cf, G||qhoba).
tgahm 2 ii +gahma-te 2 II spoon.
4g9hm 2 II + g 4 h m a -te 2 ll floating rib (cf. + ’aa).
t g a m a (h) naked.
^garna (ka) grow (intr.) (pi.) (cf. +gam (sg.), kaba-ta).
tg^na (ka) shiver, tremble (^g^nt, |ama, Inabu, Inah’nl).
tgsnl tremble (of a limb), shake (cf. lama, +g9na, Inabu, Inah’nl).
f g a o 1 n unmarried woman.
+gau bile, n h tshUU + ’ai lit.I sit with bile, i.e. I am hungry.
+gau-ku-se 3 II man’s personal name.
+gee (n) dense (of texture, e.g.mealiemeal), stodgy;placid or calm (of personality).
tshxaa ta +gee ka compacted faecal matter in the abomasum.
+ g w 2 II north, igoe 0*an1 northern groups of DCOO.
4gee Inaho qaa 3 II woman's personal name.
4gee (ka) 2 II -te 2 II leather "nock" at the thick end of the hunting bow.
■fgehe 2 II +gehjia 2 II dew (first digit) claw of a lion (cf. ||ga’m), "claws" of a
+gejia kv pout (the lips in jest), point; also to exhibit flehmen (e.g. as an eland)
(cf. Igum-lgum). 6h n ba +gej^a ke dzum he is pouting his lip, pointing
with his lip.
+g1i loo 3 II -te 3 II %^tcitsoi^\?ii[i(Jrochomeriadebilis). It is eaten by porcupines but
is poisonous to man.
+gba 3 n ash; any abrasive, e.g. soap.
+gole (n) 3 I blind.
fg o ’la -sa +go*LV H throtde. eh ri ba |Cia +gO’n ’|nym he grabs and throttles
my throat.
+g6h*6 1 II -te/+goh’a -te 4 ii maggot (c u -k u -te ).
+ g o o Igyni 3 11 +goo |gym-te/+goo |gyma-te 3 ii a species of sedge
(Cyperus margaritaceus Vahi) (cf. |gu m). The aromatic root and base of the stem are
used as stoppers for ostrich eggshell water containers.
4g00 xolo 3 n -te 3 II lone male gemsbok (Oryx gazella) (cf. ||ahe).
I g b o k a tshuu to ig u u 135

^gbd ka tshuu be piled together, packed close together (coll.) (cf. ’+nQO, galo,
llga’ie, Hn^a, I’oa); than! 4 g o o -ig b d |ua Paa, thani n ka fg b o fi
!’aa the things are packed close together. |ali n ba +go6 ki tshxaa-te
xabeka !um llgau kU ba !naa qaM the wildebeest piles up its dung but the
eland goes straight along shitting. +gbo ka ||’uma place in a pile. ||kx^ae ka
than! s1 +gbo ka ||’uma ka S1I + ’ua gather the things together and pack
them in one place.
+gbhO kv tshuu (coll.) +gbhO kv I’a a (distr.) be spread out (cf. lofn-lG^n
tg o ’U [+g6’u][+gu’u] 1 II -te 4 II fox (Vulpes chama).
4gua 2 e/u I dim: ka-+guu-be (sg.) egg (gen.) (not the empty shell) (cf. +UU).
tgu’a 3 e II (sg. and pi.) a species of plant {Asclepiadaceae Pentarrhinum insipidum E. Mey.\
The leaves and skins of the fruit are eaten (after removal of the seeds).
4gU’a 3 I +gu’n-t6 2 I dim: 4gu’u G aa 3 II (sg.) escape hole of a springhare
(cf. kulu. Pul).
+gube 3 I +gum-sa/+gum-sana/+gum-te 2 I dim: +guu-ba +gubu (sg.)
O ’ani (sg.) bag, handbag (cf. !qum).
+guhi 1 II +guha-te 4 II infertile, sterile, e.g. unhatched ostrich eggs; old egg, rotten
+guM (ka) pleasant scent (e.g. of a flower).
+gu1l 1 II +gu1u-te 4 II stump.
^g'uhli 1 II -te 4 II be dwarflike, eh n bl ^guhli he is a dwarf.
4guhMi > [+ g u h li]l II 4guh’)u-te 4 II the smell of fire or soot. |’aa |i ^
ba |num the smell of fire smells,
tgiim 2 II +guma-t0 2 n a child with one or both parentsdead, orphan (cf. |qu). eh
n ka tgum ke ^a she is without a father, eh n ka +gum ke §a tu
|num be [tu+nu(m)be] qae she is without both her father and mother, i.e. she is an
+gum kv agree. +gum kbo hullo! +g'um kv |nan (sg.)/|naa(pl.) nod the head in
agreement (cf. I’ani).
+gum-+gum kv greet.
iguma kv fold in the broken fore and hindquarters of a buck to facilitate carrying it.
tguhm ||hUU sound made by a sharpened object, e.g. a spear tip, when it sticks into the sand
in an upright position (cf. O h b o ).
tguhi 3 II -te 3 II knot (n.) (gen.) (cf. ’+nyli |nan).
4guni kv tie a slipknot (vb.). ’||nahn 4gurii kan tie a loop (cf. qa'ni,
tgu’nl kv interrupt, obstruct, stop up (e.g. an egg), block the way, close (pL). eh te’e n
ba ^gu’nl kan |a +aa this one is interrupting my talking.
+guhu 2 I -te 2 I a dried up skin.
+guu -sa +guv L squeeze, wring out by squeezing (cf. IkX’ali, ||guu). n n ba
+gun +ue lit. I squeeze my mouth, n n ba +gun s a ’a lit. I squeeze my face,
i.e. I am drinking by squeezing pulp moisture.
136 + g u u -+ g u u to +xuu

+guu-+guu 2 I -to 2 I the mound of sand on to which the dzau is thrown in the ||’abi
+gu’u -sa +gu’V/+gu’JVH dose (up), shut (sg.), also "head o ff' or block the path of a
fleeing animal, patch (c f. +gu’ni (pi)). +gu’l +XUU lit. close the needle , i.e. put the
needle into its holder. t g u ’V ’|nym choke (tr.).


^xaa (kV) 1. mind out, move out of the way (tr.). ^xaa kan out of my way! mind out!
2. open out (e.g. the blade of a spear by beating the metal flat).
+xal-+xal (n) be fertilized (of eggs), also to contain an embryo (cf. |ua -|ua).
+xal -sa +xaJV H scrape wood, whittle, pare, carve (cf. ||nau, ||nam, ||xaa,
+xala 3 I +xan-te 2 i dim : +xalu-ba (sg.) +xalu O ’anI (pi.) burnt veld.
||ahe 4^a1a bum off the veld.
•fxala -sa +xaLV M initiation dance for the female initiate. Women dance this dance
when a girl first menstruates, bringing great fortune to all.
^ x a le to form fruit.
^ xall 1 n ^xa1u-te 4 11 a. speci&s o f tr^c (Rhus tenuinervis Engl.) (cf,l\kx'kf\).
The fruit is eaten and the root is used for indigestion and as an initiation medicine.
^xam have a stillbirth (humans and animals).
+x a m 1 II + x a m a -te 4 11 ’!n4ha 2 ll (coll. pi) dim: g + x a b i (sg.)g + x a b u -te
(pi.) I. Gtmsbok (Oryx gazella) (cf. l|ahe). 2. the curing dance. |’a a tl +xam lit.
dance the gemsbok, i.e. to be in trance in the curing dance. + x a m |e sbo lit. the
gemsbok's potent force i.e. the affliction to be expelled during trance (cf. ||kX’a a a a ).
fx a m ^ a b e 2 11 -te 2 II Homed adder (^m'5 cam^/w) (cf. Hqhui).
4 x a m i-|x a m l ooze, drip (of a liquid between the fingers).
+xanu kv thank (cf. d§a,tah ’a, ta’pa).
fxau ka (ka) bald (cf.nalu ka, noil, dthul). ah s a ’a h ka ka your
face is bald, i.e. you are bald.
+x 6 f-s^ -si (n) bad, ugly (sg.) (cf. +Xo6-Ja (pi.)), te +x6f(-sa) terribly, h n
qai te +x6T it is terribly nice.
4X0je 3 Ild im :+x 6 jU -b a (sg.) badness, ugliness, danger, bad behaviour.
+xo6-ja (ka) bad, ugly (pi.) (cf, +x6f-sa (sg.)).
+xua 3 II +xua-te/+xum-ka-te elephant (Loxodonta afncana).
^XUa -+xua (h) separate, of a liquid, e.g. oil and water (cf. g+qhu’a)
+XUbl 2 II (possessed)/ 1 n (alienated) +X U b a-te 2 II (possessed)/ 4 II (alienated)
radius and ulna, head of the ulna, elbow as a whole . ^XUbU XU |nan,
Inaa lit radius head(s), i.e. elbow(s) (cf. g+xubi, g+qhuli, g+qhuli |nan).
+XUU 1 2 -te 4 II needle, awl. +XUU ||naa needle case.
g+xa’a to +kx’uml 137


g i x a ’a 2 I -te 2 i a species of plant. The root is ground and used as a snuff for curing
purposes (it causes sneezing),
g ^ x a 'a - s a g + x a ’v H sneeze (out), snort,
g ^ x a b i 1 II g + x a b u - t e 4 II young g&msbok (Oryx gazella).
g^ X O 'e kv push something into the belt, socks, hat (e.g. a knife) (cf. glqhau).
g^XOO ylu -sa g^XOO yLV L push something into branches or grass (of a hut)
(cf. d tsh X O ’nl). eh l*ua -t© g ^ x b o I q ’a a his eyes are deep-set, i.e. small.
g>^xbo ylu kv+noun |u a force one's way into something (e.g. a bush),
g^xbp sound of a blade sliding with a flat trajectory into the sand, e.g. a spear blade sliding
into the sand (cf. g+qhO O, Ohbo, G g b h p ).
g ^ x u b l var. of fx u b l.
g+xu l 1 II g^XUa-tO 4 II 1. hunting dog (Lycaon pictus). 2. species of plant used for the
treatment of gonorrhoea.
g^xuMi tuu slip (cf. tshuli tuu, ^qyli, ||Gu1i tuu, ka tuu).
g+X U ’m > [g + x o ’m] g+X U ’B V H withdraw from social contact, hide away from people,
disappear, be anti-social. +num tuu +num b e ’|nan uh h g+xu’m |n s]
llqhua ba Ununu ku tuu the two of them, both he and his wife, have hidden
themselves away, not wanting to visit people.


^ k x ’a i 1 II 1. copper, copper beads or bracelet. 2. possessions, wealth (cf. |ye, ||’ai, !a e ).

3. vagina (euph).
+ k X ’a n 3 II -tU 4 II father's brother's child, mother's sister's child, younger brother or half
brother, younger sister or half sister. Avoidance category,
f k x ’a o ll’a n 2 I l - t e 2 II the "Makaukau''(i.e. southern IKung) of the Ghanzi area;
ik x 'a o to speak the language.
^ k x ’a o 3 I - t e 3 I 2. a friend's or joking partner's share or portion.’e e
•fk x ’a o lit. eat the joking partner's portion, i.e. to have sex with one's joking partner's
spouse, to exchange spouses.
+ k x ’a u >[+kx ao ] 2 II (possessed)/+ k x ’a u 3 I (alienated)+ k x ’a a 2 ii/ + k x ’a a
3 I (alienated) neck. Ilnaa ~ section holding the barb of a springhare hunting stick.
+kx’ul 1 2 +kx’ua-te 4 II PuffdiddtT (Bitis arietans arietans.)
+ k x ’ui s a ’a 3 II man's personal name, lit. puffadder face.
+ k x ’um 2 1 1 . sand, earth, the earth. ~ |nan clod (cf. g a ll, ||gai). 2. Sp. of plant, the
roots of which are roasted and then ground to produce a medicine rubbed into tatoos.
+kx’um1 s v mix (cf. huni).
138 g+kx’aa to +qahma

g+k x -

g + k x ’a a - s a g + k x ’a v L grind (cf. Iqo’a, xal). |au Hnaa |a g + k x ’a a - s a

2. II snuff.
g + k x ’am - s a (ka) k a g + k x ’aB V L trample something dry (cf. |ua k a ||xum).
g + k x ’an - s a g + k x ’a JV H slaughter, carve up meat (cf. k h a a ).
g + k x ’a n a 2 il- t e 2 ii tobacco, dagga (dialectal) (cf. |au llnaa).
g + k x ’o a to be in the new moon phase (cf. +n 6b a). Icjhan a D ~ the moon is new.
eh n ke g + k x ’o a he is mean,
g + k x ’o a (h) rotten (of meat or wood).
g + k x ’ulo > [g+kx’olo] g +k X ’ULV pull off pieces e.g. the legs of an insect (cf. +hube).
g + k x ’ua selfishness, eh h b a ’e e g + k x ’u a he eats without a thought of sharing.
n kan g + k x ’iJa k a ’a a - s a i do not share (my) food.
g+kx*ail tuu slip (cf. IIguII tuu,tsh ull tuu, +q4m +qyli, + q a b a ka).
g + k x ’um - s a g + k x ’uBV h be mean, stingy (cf. |4 a , ^h\ SI), eh n b a |4 a
’a a - s a |nan he is being stingy to me with the food, g + k x ’u b a |© |ue SI
tshuu S? ’e e be stingy with your possessions and sit and eat them!


+ q a a kV lie in wait.
+ q a b a ka, + q a b a k a tuu slip (cf. ||g u 11 tu u , g+kx*ull tuu, dtshull tuu,
+ q 4 m +qyll).
+q a h b a tuu fall with a thud (of a heavy object) (cf. +qbhp).
+q a h b a part of the honorific expression for the Black Kite and Yellowbilled Kite.
+ q a b e (n) soft, flexible, malleable (of metal) (cf. |’ua, ||oh’m, d tsh o ’m, toh ’m).
+ q a b 6 (n) thin edged.
f q a ’e khbe 3 II man's personal name.
+qa1 1 II + q a b a - t e 4 II species of bird.
4 qall k a (ka) reflective, shiny, polished (cf. !ali).
+ q a li-+ q a li 3 li -te 3 ii dry seed pods ready for splitting.
t q a lo 3 II warmth n b a |guh’e 4qalO I am spreading out in the (sun's) warmth.
Iguh’e Iq a lO Brubm Shrike. + q a l0 (n) (vb.) warm up, get hot (intr.) (of the sun
or earth) (c f.+ g a ’a , c a a , kubi). Il’an a n + q a lo n n b a kani ki sum
the sun is getting warm, I want shade, eh n + q a l0 tUU k a |*aa +U6 lit. he is
lying in the mouth of the fire, i.e. he is wanning himself at the fireside, n n b a tUU ke
4qalO I lie in the warmth.
+q am (kV) drink fi-om the ground (kneeling or as an ungulate).
+q 4 m Iq y ll slip (cf. ||g u II tu u , g + k x ’Qll tuu, tshCill tuu, + q a b a ka).
+q ah m a 2 II -t e 2 II cross-legged. + a n a +q ah m a lit. fold cross-legs, i.e. sit
cross-legged, a n k a b a + a n a Iq a h m a a n b a | a l e ||nue tshuu when
^qahma to Iquhm ||huu 139

you sit with cross-legs you lit. fold the tortoise sitting, i.e. you withdraw the legs as a
tortoise does.
^qah m a 2 II - t e 2 II Yellowbilled Kite (Milvus migrans parasitus). Like the Black Kite, it
is referred to with the honorific tsahU kU tso h b a (cf. ^qahu kU •
4c|an var. of
4qan (ka) smooth of objects, including the texture of food such as Grewia Retinervis
(gGqhllU ), Ledebouria sp. (IqhOba), Liliaceae sp. (!nami), Dipcadi marlothii Engl.
(nam )(cf. nali); (kV) of a person (met.) eh h ke + q a n he is smooth
(cf. kaha). s a ’a n k a +q4n lit. to be smooth-faced, i.e. L be bald. 2. have bad
luck (cf. 11x00 \ge\). n a s a a + ’e s a ’a +q § n lit. I went with a smooth face,
i.e. I went with bad luck.
+ q a ’n >[+qan] 3 I -t e 3 I a species of plant {Hermannia aethiopica). The leaves or root
are chewed raw for diarrhoea.
4 q a n a t s ’e e clang, ratde, noise of shaking about (as pieces of metal).
4 q a o kV crush, squash between the fingers, dent (cf. t ’k x ’am , ||xum, + G a ’m,
Onuu). |lia + q a o k v (sg.)/ lau + q a o k v (pi.) grasp and squash, toho t a ’a
ah h + q a o k a fll this tin is dented.
4 q a o tsh oe 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) ts h o a -te 2 II/ 3 I (alienated)
inner part of the upper thigh.
4qau slap down, q ai 4q^u ka 4^ ab i slap down on to.
4qahu kU 4 q a h b a 3 II -te 3 II Black kite {Milvus migrans.migrans)(cf. tsuhu
ku tso h b a, dzau ku tsah b a).
4qa*U k v be careful, conserve, do gently (cf. Iqau, q a o -q a o , |nu*l).
4qoh ’bu burst, pop.
tq o lo 2 II - t e 2 II canine, protniberant tusks of a warthog.
+qolu 3 II - t e 3 II visceral peritoneum.
4qbm k v hold down firmly (cf. Ian).
4q0hm ll’um a - s a 4qohni ||’UBV H stick upright into a soft substance (e.g. a spear
into sand).
4 q 6 6 kV draw out liquid, drink from a hollow tree or cup.
4qbhp/ 4qbho ||huu fall with a thud (of a small object) (cf. 4qah ba).
4que 1 II 4 q u n i-k a -te 2 II dim: 4 q u u -b a ^quu (sg.) 0 ’ani/4quu-ni
(pi.) 1. Cape cobra mvea). 2. hosepipe.
4que *n§n 2 II 4que ’n § n a -te 2 II l. species of plant {CarallwnalugardUN.E.
Br.) (cf. Igoe 4niju). 2. Swallowtailed bee-eater {Merops hirundineus), so-called
because of the green colour it shares with the plant.
4qylU 3 II -t e 3 II traditional or modem sandal (c f.4 G § ’ba).
4qum-4qunfl disperse or go off in numbers.
4quni k v hold down, fix firmly by pushing into the sand, steady. k a ||’um a push
into the sand upright.
4qUhm ||hUU sound made when an obect falls vertically, point first into the sand (as a spear).
140 ■fcaa to + o a ’6

+G [NG+]

^ c a a k v pull down, bend over (tr.). n n b a + o a a k e +qhun n n k a ||xau kf

|xai Ihend the Bosia Albitrunca over when I make a snare.+ o a a k a tShUU be
hunched up, stooped (cf. Icjli).
i c f a +G9V (ka) M provoke (cf. |a1i, llxal). n n k a + o a a or n n b a ^ c ^ a
I irritate you.
+ G fta -te 2 n Pleiades.
^Gaha k a lower the head (cf. XO’IO). eh n lo a h a k a tsh o a o a n he is nodding
off to sleep.
^G§ha +h ai [+hii] 3 II -t e 3 II AnHion (AduU sldige) (Neuroptera neuroptera
Myrmeleontidae Myrmelon quinquemaculatus) (cf. !ulu |e !gue).
+G 9h ’a-tl7n f k v + G § h * a -tl7 -ta -s a peer into (for), look about for. n b a
+ G § h a -tf ke t a a k e ||nae tsh o e I am peering into the hut for the person.
^ G fb a 3 I + G § b a / iG 9 m -te / -sa 3 i wall of the stomach. Turn |e ^GQba rina
lit. it is an eland's stomach wall, i.e it is not a fat eland.
^GQ'ba 2 II -t e 2 11 old, worn, used thing, traditional sandal (cf. ^qylu). *||nahO |a
^G §’b a worn out shoes.
^Gabl tUU sound of falling flat (of a heavy, longish object, e.g. a piece of fresh meat).
^GabO k v pile up.
f c a b o (ka) flat, broad in size.
+G§I 1 n ^ G § b a -te 4 II Blackchested prinia {Prinia subflava) (cf. +§h f-4§h T ,
+G§hi, +o y h K - +cyhT), +yhT-+iJhO.
^GQhl var. of +G §i.
^Gall q a e 3 II -te 3 II a species of plant (Commelina L. sp.). The leaves are edible.
+GSII k v bind, wind round, tie together, wrap up, e.g. in a blanket; also roll a cigarette.
^o4hll 1 II tofth lu-te 4 n a species of thombush, Bladethom, Tsw. Mhahu (Acacia
Fleckii Schinz), The gum and caterpillar are edible.
^ G a’m - s a (k a )/ ^ c a ’d - s a ( k a )k a + G a ’BV L squash, crush, dent (c f.+qao ).
n ri k a + G a ’m |il it has been flattened, eh n b a k a + G a ’m a toho he is
flattening the tin. eh |a lau k a ^ G a ’m t h a a - s a his crushing the thing
+G ah ’m kV/tV hold under the arm.
^GQhma 2 II (possessed)/ iGQhm a 3 I (alienated) -t e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (al.)
wing (n.).
^Gana 2 I -te 2 I Armoured ground cricket (Acanthoproctus Diademata).
^Gani turn round to look, be shifty-eyed, look out of the side of the eyes (cf. t s ’an, mali,
gali). fi n b a ^Ganl |nee I turn to look and see her. eh n ke +ca n i he is
shifty-eyed, fc a n l k a llha k v I’ua - t e move one’s eyes back and forth.
+ G a ’no 2 I -t e 2 I dermis (of the skin).
|G § n l k v var. of^Gftll.
4 G fn a -4 G § n a k v 4 G § n a -4 G § n a -sa whisper maliciously about.
+G§hnu I’uu var.of+oyhnu |’uu.
+ G a ’o - s a (ka) ka + c a ’B V L squash.
+G 0 ’e to tq h a la 141

^G6*e kV scrape off or scrape away loose, soft surface sand (cf. Hguhjia).
|GQ10 2 II |0 9 n - S ^ |G Q l0 - t e 2 II BushvM lizard (Heliobolus lugubris)
(cf. IgQhu-ka +nym).
+GOlU b e e 3. II haze from clouds or dust.
^GOna be inseparable from one's spouse (cf. ||G§a).
+GUa hiss (of air or a snake), blow (of a light breeze), squirt (of a thin stream of water)
(cf, d tsh o ’la).
+GUa 2 II the material of a pan’s surface.
^GUha 2 II (sg. and pi.) salt lick.
+GyhK-+GyhT) var. of+ahi-+j^hT, +uhT-+yhT,+oai.
+GUli 1 II ^GUlU-te 4 n species of grasshopper.
+GUI1 tsh o e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) +GUll t s h o a -te 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I
(alienated) groin (cf. Ilgubi tshoe).
+GU1I > [+ G o li]i II caked sand (cf. x o ’bo, x a ’m ||no’Ia ka). t a a te q ^ a n
+oyli s a a k a t a ’a this person made (i.e. went) tracks here some time ago in the
wet sand.
^ciim be stuck, slow up, dig in (e.g. a lorry, horse or person in heavy sand). ^Gum
k x ’a b a dig in when rushing off, e.g. as a lion or the wheels of a lorry.
+G U n l whistle (vb.). n n b a +0unl k a ||’ubl + a l I whistle to stop the steenbok.
+GU’nl 3 II mealie meal (+qh ua dialect) (cf. + q h a u -te , Iq c a -Ie , ph all-tsh e).
+Gyhnu I’UU kV choke on food (cf. ’l|n§u). - k v (tr.).
4cyp ||hUU sound of a person jumping down and landing on the feet (cf. |cyp).


t q h a a so lo k v tarn glide (as a bird).

iq h a a 2 I +q h a m -t8 2 I poisoned arrow (cf. ||x66, gllqhaa).
4 q h a ’a > [4 q h a a ] kv hammer flat. 4c]ha’a k a ’fn ^ n a loo ||q h aa hammer out
the cutting edge (lit. tooth) of the spear.
+ q h a b a 3 I - t e 3 I dim: 4<lhabu O a a , 4c]h abu-te O ’ani a species of plant
(Asclepiadaceae Fockea sp.). The tuber is eaten for moisture.
tq h a e [+qhee] 2 II +qham 2 II d im :+ q h a u -b a (sg.) species of bush, Silver
Terminalia, Tsw. Mogonono {Terminalia sericea Burch. Ex D.C.). The gum is eaten. The
bark fibre is used to make cord; the root is heated its bark pounded to produce a glue; the
dry seed pod may be used as a “pipe” for tobacco.
4qhal >[+qhii] 1 II <fqh&ba-te 4 II domestic d o g.+q h ai |nuhjia lit. dog’s
nostril, i.e. a dirty elbow.
t q h a l - s a tq h a JV H squash between the nails, e.g. a louse.
+q h a ’Jj Onyu 3 II + q h a ’JI Onyu - t e 4 II lit. louse squasher, i.e. praying mantis.
tq h a la 2 II (possessed) / Iq h a la 3 I (alienated) + q h a n -te 2 II (possessed) /
+ q h a n -te 3 I (alienated) leg as a whole, thigh, strand of beads. H gajia ta
4q h ala k a + ’ua k a ostrich eggshell beads (necklace) of one strand, ^ qh ala
142 Iq h a la to iqh'ue

^nuu hind paw, hind foot, hind leg.

t q h a la “S a +qh aLV L lead (sg.), drag something non-living e.g. a dead animal or dead
tree (cf. +nuha (pL), Haha).
^qh ale kV split, crack (e.g. pods, with the teeth or by striking).
4qh ale kV break off or take off dry pieces, e.g. twigs from a branch or dry meat from a bqne.
4q h ale |nye 3 I lit. lead the night, i.e. the Evening Star,
f q h a ’le (n) chipped, flaked, have a blemished surface (cf. q ’a li- q ’all, ||g q 16).
^qhall kV strip off dry twigs.
+q h a1 i-b a 3 n a pan west of Lone Tree.
■fqhama 2 I truffle (Terfezia sp. pfeileri). It is baked for eating,
tq h a n juv +n u m a-te drag the feet.
+q h a n -te / + q h a n a -te 2 u II (possessed)/ + q h a n -te 3 I (alienated) scrotum, seed
pods, fmit (e.g. of ^qhau Combretum collinum Fresen.?). ~ ’Inya testicles. ~ IkX’al
vas deferens. ~ ’Inyi71-sa seeds from pods,
4qh an a creep, crawl, ^qh an a ylu creep in.
4q h an a ^ua 2 n ^qh an a >flin -s a 2 II the track of something that has been dragged.
4qhau 1 n -te 4 II a type of tree (Combretum collinum Fresen.? ssp. Gazense (
Bak. F.). The gum is eaten. The fruit (+q h an -te) is boiled and the concoction drunk or
applied to tatoos as a treatment for illness caused by eating honey with larvae in it.
+ q h a u -te 4 ii mealie meal (named after the thick gum of Combretum collinum Fresen.?)
(c f.+GU’ni, Iqga-Ie, ph ali-tsh e).
‘t q h ee 3 II -tU 4 II wife's father’s father, wife’s mother’s father, husband's father's
father, husband's mother’s father, male and female grandchildren of grandfather,
grandfather, father's sister's husband, mother's brother, wife’s brother’s children, ’a a
fq h e e k a lit. eat the +qhee, i.e. have sex with one’s +qhee.
f qhoa kV open the legs, raise the leg (e.g. as a dog urinating) (cf. Ian).
4 q h 6 ’bu scorch (of living skin) (cf. ||nau).
+q h o ’b u - s e 3 I / - s a 2 I - s e - t e 3 I / - s a - t e 2 I blister.
+q h o ’li 1 II -t e 4 II dust,
tq h b n a kV straighten (cf. laa).
4qhua 2 II south, n n ^qhua *+nahn ta |n I have come from the south, fq h u a
O ’anI southem groups of K o o.
+qhue 2 II -t e 2 n larger branch (of a tree) (cf, nau, g|k x’abu, g |k x ’a a -k u ).
+qhue Iqhan 2 ii +qh um -te/+qh ue Iqh aa 2 II a small hollow stick used
ritually by women to protect various crops from birds (e.g. Grewia flava berries). The
user blows through the tube onto a bush, uttering an incantation. The stick is given to
female initiates by senior women.
Iq h u e 3 II Iq h u m -te 3 n dim: fq h u u -b a (sg.) wind, spec, the northeast wind in
the rainy season, eh h ||’a a ke ^ q^^e lit. he has no wind, i.e. he has no strength,
tqh ue Ia !um §a/qae lit. wind's male or female eland, i.e. the bull or female
grazing downwind to warn the herd (also used with gemsbok, springbok, kudu,
wildebeest, hartebeest). t a a |e ^qhue a person's spirit (al.) (cf. Ilqho’a , f a n ) ,
tq h u e |a t a a § a lit. wind's man, i.e. a hunter who understands and reads the wind
+qhu1 to g lq h u u -b a 143

when hunting.
+qhul - s a +q h u jv H slap (cf. Igoba). Ixall n b a +qh u ja lit. booze slaps you.
i.e. overwhelms you.
Iqh ui k a |pao take between the fingers (thumb and index), take a pinch of something.
+qhull 1 II +qh u lu -te 4 II linkshaft of an arrow.
+qhuli 1 II +qh ulu-te l II mrcv/onn (Coleoptera Polyphaga Elateridae).
4qhum +qhUBV H peg, "stitch", together (e.g pieces of skin). +qhum ||kx’a e peg and
tqhun 3 I +qhQ m -te 4 i dim: g+qhCiu-ba (sg.), g+qhuu O ’ani (pi.)
1. Shepherd’s Tree, Tsw. motlope {Boscia albitrunca (Burch.) Gilg. et Benedict var.
Albitrunca ). The fruit is eaten; the root has general medicinal value; the bark adds toxicity
to arrow poison. The diminutive is a metaphor for the Brown Hyena because its foliage
resembles this hyena's shaggy coat. 2. coffee.
+qhun clap (the hands).
+qhuu 1 II -t e 4 II small python (cf. |uma). |qh uu'] Iqhaa \i nna the python
is the water's (thing).
^qhuu I’UU 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) - t e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated)


g fq h a a k v sever, cut through (cf. Iqhum, lao).

g fq h a a si the sound of waves on water, lap (of water), slosh about (a large volume of
g^qham 1 II g ^ q h a a -te 4 II a species of plant with a very large bulb. It is a taboo food
except for elders who eat it baked,
g +q h e e 2 II (possessed) / g +q h e e 3 I (alienated) -te >[g+qh3nte] 2 II (possessed)
g +q h e e 3 li milk.
g+qh oo ylu - s a g+qh oo yLV L push into (e.g. ash, sand) (cf. O q h oo ylu,
Ikx’olo, ||ahn). g+qh oo sound of a blade sliding with a flat trajectory into the sand,
e.g. a spear blade sliding into the sand (cf. g +xbp , O h oo, OgQhp).
g+qhu ’a separate (intr.) of a liquid, e.g. oil and water (cf. + x u a -+ X U a ).
g+qhui (ka) yellow (Munsell 7-10), Naples yellow, yellow ochre, very light blue-grey, light
g+qhull 1 II g + q h u la -te 4 ii ulna, head of ulna (c f.+xubu XU |nan).
g+qhull |nan 2 ii g +q h u la -te |n aa elbow, g+qhull xbo ||naho funny bone,
g+qhum l II g +q h u m a-te 4 II darkness, a glowing fire without flames,
g +q h u u -b a 2 II g+q h u u -te O ’anI 2 II of{BosciaAlbitrunca).
2. metaphor for the Brown Hyena because the fohage of the top branches of the small tree
resemble this hyena’s shaggy coat.
144 +q *aa to fh u be


^ q 'a a neutral form of f q ’au

I q ’au - s a + q ’a v L ^ q ’a a (neutral form) lie horizontal (intr.), lay horizontal (tr.) (pL)
(cf. 'Inaha (sg.)). ’Inahna thani lay down the things horizontal.
4q*aa k a 3 II moist sand below the surface, mud.
4q*al llxan 2 ii -te 2 ii the edible caterpillar of the Emperor Moth (Lepidoptera
Saturnidae Heniocha).
4q*bn1 si I be enveloped, drown, n h b a +q*bnl SI I k a I’a a |e t s 'k x ’a je i
am enveloped in the smoke's fire.


+haa 3 II ahead, ke + h a a ke first bom (cf. k x ’am te |e O q § a ). |nye |a

+ h a a |a ||b n a-te ka t a ’a here are night's first stars, eh n ||oe f h a a
b a Iq’un she is still going ahead making a noise.
4 h a a - s a 2 n (n.) ahead, the first.
+ h a a XOO |ua large in extent. !um tym n + h a a XOO |ua an eland skin is large,
i h a b a qho’lo be loose, swinging.
^ h ab e x a la S li 3 II name of a locality 25 km. west of Lokalane.
^habl - s a +h aBV M be raised up, be on top (intr.), raise (tr.) (pi.) (cf. IhUU (pi.),
Igam). tym h |h a b i the skin is on top. |h a b l ki ^qhil set a dog on.
fh a b i feed (intr.) of animals (cf. IhUU (pi.)), f habi m ala kV tarn the back and forth
movement of a grazing antelope (c f.’a a k a m ala). ||ui n k a b a +h ab i ih
n b a lahle when the leopard feeds it climbs up.
^hale kV |ua brush past, pass by right in front of (rude behaviour) (cf. !hOO, tsohle)
|a ka b a 4^ale kan s i b a |ua are you passing by right in front of me?
+ h a n -+ h a n -s e 3 ii - t e 3 II Desert cisticola (Cm/co/a
(cf. +h um -+h um -se).
^han see llq aa taa).
+hani be on top (intr.) (cf. +habl).
+h al [+hli] 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) + h a b a -t e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I
(alienated) posterior aspect of an anatomical part. ~ tsh oe superior nuchal line and the
area below it , nape, the four sticks at the back of the snare for the Redcrested korhaan
(met.) (cf. Iq’ ll-s a , lhan-ka). +nuu - instep, Ikx’a a - - back of the hand, n n
b a |un +hli tsh o e |n aa lit. I hold the back of my head to you, i.e. I turn my back
on you. lulu |e h e -s e k a m ala k a |nan k a m ala k a ^hai Forktailed
Drongo turn your head, turn the back of your head around (when fire is being made this is
said to the Forktailed Drongo, who gave fire to man).
+h e e -+ h e e make the sound of the [+] click (cf. + ’e e - + ’e e ); talk about something
(cf. In^T-lijii).
^hube - s a +hUBV L L cut off pieces, chop up (e.g. meat) (pi.), pull off, remove parts
+hube to tn ^ h a tsah bu 145

(e.g. insect legs from the body) (cf. Iqhum (sg.), g +k X ’6lo)
ih u b e - S a +hUBV L L split up, cross a path, cut across, met. for drunk (pi.) (cf.
Iqhum (sg.), Inahle). 2. be crossed over, squint (of the eyes). +hum a ||qhae be
crossed over one another, d a o -t e Uh n ^^um a ||qhae |n the roads crossed one
another, n n b a !naa +hum tarn lit. I am walking crossing myself, i.e. I am
criss-crossing my own tracks.
+h u m -+h u m -se variant of + h a n -+ h a n -s e .
4huu ku tsh o e 2 ii ^hurna ku t s h o a -te 2 ii top. n |huu ku tsh o e lit. my
top, i.e. the top of my head.


^ n a’a 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) -t e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) ulna and

+nu-a k v be out of reach of, lose out on. th a a n +n u’a kan |Tl the thing is out of
my reach, n |kx’a a n b a +nu’a k a loo |a ||’a 6 - s a my arm cannot reach
the knife to take it. h n +nu*a k a |l + ’an it is beyond the reach of your thinking.
+n y’lu-ku 3 II -t e 3 II WiidcucumbQT(CucurbitaceaeCucumisafricanusLinn.f.
-form ). The fruits are eaten.


+ n a a k v look into for something (cf. |n aa kV).

jn ^ a - s a +n§v M stalk (sighted), steal up on, eavesdrop (cf. HaM, iQba,
t’k x ’a a ka). ■fnaa s1i - s a walk carefully, move gingerly (as a sick person)
(cf. O xuu). ah ri b a Inaa 4 n § a s1i b a h b a Iqham a you are walking
very slowly, because you are ill. Inaa k a + n a a s1l walk with great care.
^ n §a bil 3 II the trickster, a joker, a deceiver (cf. |g 9 b e -te ). ^n ^a bil eh t a ’b e
ke sit ko lkx*00 +n aa bli, that’s the one (who) is a liar.
^naha twitch, jerk, make involuntary movements of the limbs (also of a dying antelope),
eh n b a O a n 4n aha he sleeps and (his limbs) jerks. O a je n k a b a |’a a
eh n b a 4n ah a eh n b a ||q ’6lo k e Iq’an when an animal dies it twitches,
its heart gives its last beats.
+ n a h a -+n a h a (kV) swirl around (as a liquid in a container), shake around, sway about as a
drunk person (c f.+n b h a-+n b h a, llq’o b u -llq ’obu, llnohbu). ah n k a b a
+ n a h a -+ n a h a ke birl eh |e t s ’k x ’o a n s a a ||all te +x6T -si if you
shake a beer (can) around its bubbles become terribly many.
+ n a b a - s e 3 II man’s personal name.
^n§hbl 2 II - t e 2 II stand, clump of small trees or bushes.
fn ^ h a tsahbu (kV) snatch. |n § h a ku tsah bu ||’a d grab, e.g. a spear and hold
in readiness.
146 + n a i to +nQ O

+naT [+ne:] i I 4 n a?i (emphatic) dim:Tlq4m O ’ani (pi.) we (dual), n’n + n a f

q a jia -te / n ’n q a jia - t e +naT i and Q a jia -t e the two of us.
+nahi (ka) yellow (Munseil C 8-10), chrome yellow, cadmium yellow, gold coloured
(cf. g+qhui).
+n a le 3 I +nan 2 I a species of grass {Panicum Kalaharense Mez.). The seeds are
pounded to a flour; the stems are used as straws.
+n4l© l§ 0 -se/ +n 4 la l§ 0 - s e 3 II - t e 3 II Pale Chanting Goshawk (Me//era;c
+n ahle stagger about.
+nahli SV - s a stir up the coals of a fire to get it burning (cf. tyhla-tyhla).
+nam i 2 II + n a m a “te 2 II transverse process of lumbar vertebrae.
+n§m Inahl© 3 ii -te 3 ii species of swallow (cf. l|au ta +n ale).
+n§hm g + k x ’an i-ka/ +n§hm + g a ’l i - k ^ +n§hm + o a n a -n a ii -te 2 ii a
species of plant, Tsw. Seganne (?) (Cephalocroton mollis Klotsch). The dry seeds are
edible; the root is a general medicine but is used particularly for coughs. It is boiled with the
root of Pollicia Campestris Solland (SU’ U dzum ).
+nan l II + n a n a -te 4 ii flint (cf. jnule, !qou).
+ n a ’n come out, blow, burst (cf. d z a ’u ).+q h u e h b a + n a ’n be ’|nym ||all the
wind is blowing strongly because its throat is large. Iqhaa n ’au b a +na*n ||hUU
lit. the rain over there comes out stand, i.e. the rain is patchy over there.
+ n a ’n - s a + n a ’i l (der. nom.) + n a ’JV H puncture, also to blind ( cf. !hua). eh
|nan ki guhm m a + n a ’n |li his head has a hole, being punctured.
+ n a ’jia (ka) dthydmcd Boscia albitrunca bcmcs (cf. Hqhole, |no’be, |’6o).
+n§hnl 3 II herd of gcmsbok (Oryx gazella) (c f.’Inah’a ).
+ n i ’jia 2 II -t e 2 ii seeds of Bauhinia Macrantha (|an) that have been spoilt in the pods,
e.g. by being stung (cf. g k x ’ulu).
4n ao kV put off doing something. +n ao ki |xai put off (inspecting) the snare
(cf. ’Ilnahpa).
+nahO kV catch something thrown.
In g h p sound of a suddenly halting movement, suddenly stamping or grasping forward, n a
n +n§hp yn |qhan kf qhan I stamped my leg forward violently.
+nau 1 II tar, pitch (from water resevoirs) (cf. kahio).
+nau - s a +n aBV H take out (pi.) (cf. ’+n a la (sg.)).
+ n 6 h a -+n o h a variant of +n ah a-^ n ah a.
+n o b a be in darkness (of the new moon) (cf. g + k x ’oa). Iqhan a n +n o b a the moon
is dark, i.e it is new moon.
+nolo k v hangup.+n 6lo ka tshuu (sg.)/l’aa(pl.) be hanging up. +nolo ka
tsh oa qho’lo hang loose, as a tooth.
+nQO 2 I +nQD-te 2 I the ritual mixture kept in a tortoise shell and used in curing
dances. The ingredients are Camelthom root (||aa Ikx’ai), the root of Scrophulariaceae
Aptosimum (Ugole IkX’ai), certain aromatic herbs (d tsh a a ) and hedgehog or goat fat.
eh n b a k x ’a h a ke kf ||n ah i-si |a +noo lit. she causes him to drink the
tortoise shell's +noo, i.e. she makes him inhale the smoke of the (smouldering) +D00.
+nQho to +nuu 147

+riQhO 2 II (possessed)/ +ri9hO 3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/ +riQhO-te 3 I

(alienated) ovary, womb, met. for semen (cf. ||nal).
+n u a 3 I + n u m -sa 2 I dim. +n u u -b a +nuu O ’ani knobkieme, club
(cf. Igah’bl).
+n u a llguu 2 II name given to a noisy lorry or machine.
+nua dzum 2 ii +nua d zu m a -te 2 ii problem, mistake (cf. lube), ah n ba
’ah n a -y o u are causing a problem/making a mistake, eh n k a +n u a dZUm he
is a problem.
+n ua cool down (e.g. hot water or the sun) (cf. |u’m). H’an a h ' - the sun has cooled
+nClha 2 II (possessed)/+nuha 3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/ +DU ha-te 3 I
(alienated) 1. ear. 2. lobe of the liver. 3. auricle of the heart. 4. notch in a fire stick.
+nClha ’In^hO the cavity between the mandible, ear and skull. |q’an +nuha
auricle of the heart. +nuha tahn a lobe of the ear.
+nyha - s a +nyhv M pull, drag, lead (cf. tq h ala). +nyhe +g o Ie lead a blind
person. +nyha si-!upu lit. lead a water container, i.e. carry one.
+nm travel at night.
+nyje 3 I +nym 2 i dim: +n y ju -b a (sg.) +nyju O ’anI (pi.) i. mouse (gen.),
spec. Namaqua Gerbil or Short-tailed Gerbil {Desmodillus auricularis). 2. bicep muscle
(al.) IkX’OlO |e +nyje the lump of a tensed a muscle, e.g. the bicep, so called
because of its resemblance to the compact shape of a mouse.
+num ’u 4 I dim :+nurn |qam O ’ani you (dual.). +num koo k a ’a a lit. all of
(you) two, i.e. both of you. +num /^num BV L both. X tUU +nuBV Y both X
and Y. t a a tUU +nube + a b e both the Bushman and the Kgalagadi. te ka
+num twice.
+num kV/+nunri-+num k v make up a pair with, accompany in a twosome, n H b a
+num k a I am pairing up with you.
4num k v lay out a skin for making a hunting bag by spreading the fore and hindquarters
(cf. Ilxau).
+nym 2 i + n y m a -te 2 ii (marginal pi.) dim: +nyju ba/+nyu O a a (sg.)
+nyju O ’ani (pi.) Morama nuts i.e. nuts of ’||n§hn {Bauhinia Tylosema esculenta.).
The tuber is chewed for moisture.
4nuh’m a 2 I -t e 2 I ritual face marks of soot and fat.
4nun 2 II +n y n a -te 2 II l. adult navel (cf. gobo). 2. weight on the feathered toy
(’ahna). !’uT +nyn inside comer of the eye.
+nuu k v chase off a storm because of threatening lightning strikes by waving a burning branch
and throwing it into the sky or by rubbing armpit sweat on oneself and saying SUl
sa a -te .
+nuu 2 II (possessed)/+nuu 3 I (alienated) +n u m a-te 2 II (possessed)/
+n u m a-te 3 I (alienated) foot, spoor, track, also hoof of an ungulate, (cf. ||q’6lO,
+ua). ~ !ye sole of the foot, +x am - gemsbok spoor, ~ O a a - t u toes, ~ +h ai
instep, - t s h o e arch of the foot. +num a ||qhaa t s h o a - t e |a ||q u n -sa the
cleft between the hooves, |kx’a a ~ front hoof, paw, foreleg.
148 ’+naha to +'aa


’+n ah a i ii be poor or destitute, to lack (n. or vb.) (cf. |qu ). n k a ’+n a h a ka

thani I am destitute, n h ’+n a h a fli I am destitute.
H n ah e 3 i ’+n ah n -te > [ ’+ri3nte] 2 I dim: ’+nahu O a a (sg.) ’+nahu
O ’ani/’+ n a h a -n i (pi.) large skin bag made of two Steenbok skins, sack, modem
rucksack (cf. lao, |hao).
^ n ^ la - s a ’+n §LV H l. take out (sg.) (c f.+nau (pi.)). 2. come out, emerge (pi.)
(cf. lua (sg.). 3. take off an article of clothing (not a hat). *+n§LV +nuu take a spoor,
follow a track, also raise the head (e.g. of a lion looking). ’+n ali loali remove pins
and needles (by massage), n h b a tam s a a ||0hb0 ’+ n a la I am going to go
and jump up and go out, i.e. I am up and off!
’+ n a ]a -k a see ’Unuhm ’+ n ala ka.
’+nahm 3 i (sg. and pi.) omasum (al.). (cf. b ai bill, Inahba ||hoa P ua-te).
’+nahm sVka - s a *+nahm SV/ k v avoid objects, e.g. bushes by walking round them,
conceal oneself behind an object (c f.’Ilnahle). ’+nahBV L tam (sg.)/taa (pi.)
hide oneself behind.
’+nahn t a - s a ’+nahn tv H leave, leave alone, come from (i.e leave from), ’^^ahn
tan [tsn ] leave me alone! |a a h ’a ’+nahn ta I?i where have you come from?
*+nahn tU +g a m leave then to grow.
’+n 4n a 2 ii -t e 2 ii pot. O q ^ a t e ’e n k a ’+ n § n a -te lit. this infant is pots,
i.e. it has dark colouring of the skin in the lumbar region.
’+nau (kf) right side, s a a ki ’+nau go right.
*+n66 close (adj.).’+n o6 k a tshuu seated close together (cf. ^ g o o , ||g a ’le, ||naa,
galo, !’oa).
’+n 50 kv draw up liquid, drink from a hollow tree or a cup (cf. + q o 6 ).
’+nyll Inan 2 ii ’+nyll |n aa 2 ii 1. thyroid cartilage. 2. knot (gen).
’+nuhm a tf (intr.) tv(tr.) be close together (cf. Uga’le, l|n4a,galo, I’oa). eh a
[ja] ’+nuhm a tan [tsn ] he is close up to me. +naT h ’+nuhm a t\ +naT
llqhae !’a a l?i we are seated close to one another, eh n ’+nClhma tl tshuii he
is seated close. tShuU ’+n'uhma tan sit next to me.
’+nuhn - s a ’+n uhjv M transfer or syphon water.
*+nu’m I’e e (ka) round shaped, tubular (e.g. a branch, rod), as opposed to flat-shaped
(cf. ’Ina’6 I’ee). Also applied to a tall lanky person.


+*a + ’V H and, together with (c f.’ahn). th aa + ’an [=|=’3n] th aa lit. thing and
thing each thing, everything.
+ ’aa/+*aa - s a f ’a v > H shoot and strike the target (sg.) (cf. l|num (pi.)), sting,
flick with a stick or piece of grass. + ’a a ^§hna lit. shoot i.e. flick the ’ahna toy!
+ ’a a k v 1. shoot at. 2. affect (in the sense of a medicine’s power to influence behaviour),
sb o te t a a n b a + ’a a ke t a a ke the medicine with which a person affects a
+’aa to +’au 149

(i.e. another) person. + ’aV ka kx’ua flick something off.

t ’aa 2 I -te 4 II rib . |xan + ’aa floating rib.
+ ’a b a (n) short (sg.) (cf. k a + ’a o (pi.)), n n b a ’ah n a 4 ’a b a - s a lit. I am
making shortness, i.e. shortening (it).
4 ’a b a tsh o e 2 ll (possessed)/+ ’a b a 3 I + ’a b a t s h o a -t e 2 II (possessed)/
+ ’a b a (ts h o a )-te 3 I inner part of the upper thigh. ~ [e O a je adductor longus
& brevis,
+* a b e -le 3 ii -t e 3 ii owls with 'ear' tufts (cf. + ’a b e tau, |Cihm,
I’a a - l ’a a - s e ).
t ’a b e tau 3 ii -t e 3 II owls with 'ear' tufts (cf. ^ ’a b e -le , |uhm,
!’a a - !’a a - s e ).
+ ’a b u - + ’abu twitch (intr.), e.g. the ears or the legs of a dying tortoise (cf. +naha).
||nue n b a |’a a + ’a b u - + ’abu the leopard tortoise is dying twitching.
+ ’ali [+ ’8li] k a k x ’uv k v tam(sg.)/taa(pl.) flick off from (with the finger).
+*all k a ||x6be spring (as a cricket).
t ’alo die down, blow gently (of the wind) (cf. !nae). ^qhije ri + ’alO |n the wind has
died down.
+ ’am !UU + ’am tV carry on the head.
+*an - s V s a + ’an [+ ’3n] (der. nom.) l II + ’an SV l. think, guess. 2. want, wish.
3. remember, eh n + ’abl + ’an lit. he has thought, i.e. he is clever, ah n k a b a
+ ’an sa n [+ ’3n ssn] if you wish it. n n ||qhua b a + ’an sa n s a a te i
do not want/wish to go. +naT n b a + ’e lit. we two are thinking with him,
i.e. we two have a complaint about him.
+ ’an kv [+ ’3n] think about (cf. Inoho). eh n lah’u b a + ’an ke t a a he thinks
about the person in this way.
+ ’a n [+ ’3n] l II +’ana-te 4 II thought, being (inal. or al.). soo ® a ta I’aa pi
ka kuma ka eh |e +qhue eh Hqho’a eh |i + ’an [+’3n] eh a ri
[jan] s a a the spirit, breath and thoughts of a shaman who is in trance have gone.
+ ’an [+ ’3n] 3 II + ’an a [+ ’ana] 2 I dim: + ’an O a a / b a (sg.) k a - + ’a lu -b a
2 I + ’alu G an i 3 I (pi.) tapering part of an object, penis. ~ ’!nya lit. hard part of
the penis, i.e. glans of penis. |nan lit. penishead, i.e. glans of penis, ah + ’an h
+ g a b a your penis is smegma (offensive), ah + ’an n k ’a a ta/la yourforeskin
is drawn back (offensive). The diminutive plural +*alu O ’ani is used humorously to
refer to tinned sausages, (nau + ’an |au lit. the tail of the tapering part of a pan, i.e.
the end of a pan. !’uT + ’an |au lit. the tail of the tapering part of the eye, i.e. the
outside corner of the eye.
t ’anu k v toss up (e.g. as a tsamma melon in the melon dance).
+ ’anu + ’a b e 3 II man's personal name,
f a o (ka) short (pi.) (cf. t ’a b a (sg.)).
t ’au - s a + ’aB V H l. have, take (possession of). 2. love. 3. breed, gumi |a
+ ’a u - s a cattle breeding, eh n + ’au l?i she is pregnant (euph.).+ ’aBV fua kV
Iq’ii- s a grab hold of someone at the back, i.e. restrain (cf. !gae). !UU + ’au carry
something on one's head.
150 + ’au sit to + ’um a

+ ’ftU sti - s a + ’aB V sTi lit. have-come i.e. bring.

+ ’au kU very, very much, especially. + ’au kU k a n ’n [ksn’h] especially me. h n
+ ’au kU q ai it is very nice.
+ ’au (n) equivalent (in size or quantity), sufficient (c f .+ ’Uli-te). ah n + ’au |li you
are equivalent/the same in size, n |e !naa n + ’au my money is sufficient.’a a - 3 a
ta + ’au 111 k a sufficient food.
+ ’a u - + ’au k v measure, compare
+ ’au ll be exhausted, tired (cf. |hUU).
+ ’66 early, already, a while ago. O a n + ’66 early.
+ ’6 6 - + ’66 make the sound of the [+] click; talk about something ( c f .+ h e e - + h e e ).
+ ’li kV kick.
+ ’ 6 lO 2 II “ t6 2 II bicep, upper arm muscle (cf IkX’OlO, O a j 6 , ||GUftl).
+•60 (n) be clustered, packed together, dense (cf © n a’a, ||al). ’O n a a ri + ’ 6 o |Tl
the trees are dense. Uh n + ’ 6 o ||*Ubl guhm you (pi.) are packed together, make a
+ ’ 6 o - s a 2 II thicket.
+ ’u a k v be at one with, n n + ’ua ki |ali n a ||abi |ali tym Iqhaa s a a k a
tShoa la a I am at one with the wildebeest; I burnt the wildebeest skin and the rain
started to fall.
+ ’u a -S 6 3 II female personal name.
+ ’ua + ’UV one. + ’U W only, alone, exclusively. !naa + ’U6 ’6 only money, exclusively
money, +n ai |a a n k a + ’ua our (dual) names are one, i.e. the same, te ka
+ ’ua once, ah n k a k a + ’ua k a s a a lit. you can alone can go, i.e. if you go
alone. + a a |a + ’ua lit. word of one, i.e. synonym; also + a a + ’U a . kun
|au n k a + ’u a even if its name is the same. + ’UV Sll one X at a time, t a a +U 6
s1l one person at a time. 6 h n ke + ’U6 lao |ll he is the (only) one remaining.
+ ’u a kV run after, follow tracks while running, catch up with.
+ ’U6 k v lift the edge of something, e.g. a blanket, and peep under it (cf ahbl).
+ ’Ull-te 2 II coevals, people identical in size, habits, understanding (cf +*ao, Inaa,
+ a m a k x ’am). +num n + ’u ll-te you (dual) are the same age/size.
+ ’um tsh 0 6 2 II + ’um a t s h o a -te 2 11 palm of the hand.
+ ’um 2 I l + ’um a 2 11 1. core, dense part. 2 . the great vessels of the thorax and abdomen
(aorta, pulmonary vessels, superior and inferior vena cava), n + ’um my bicep
(cf Ikx’olo). |ny6 tsh 0 6 + ’um Milky Way. t a a tsh 0 6 + ’um a person’s great
blood vessels. Ikx’a I + ’um the woody part of a root.+qh a6 tsh 0 6 + ’um the
woody part of the root of Terminalia sericea Burch.
+*um a-+*um a 3 11 -t e 3 11 Puff BoWiLycoperdaceaeBroomeiaelUpsospora)
(cf Iqhobo-lqhobo). The powder is rubbed on the eyebrows to prevent antelope from
noticing the hunter, n n ka b a ’ahiu |u6 + ’u m a -+ ’um a n b a ’ahiu |un
I’lja -t 6 !kx’a b a - t e when I administer the puff ball I am treating the bloodvessels of
my eyes.
+ ’um a k v kiss (cf ||’ub6, qam).
+ ’lin-ta 151

+*un-ta 2 II -t o 2 II L a species of grass {Eragrostis trichophora Coss. Dur,?).

2. sieving mat made from the grass used to sieve roasted seeds from ash. 3. spider web.
152 pall to ban taa

pall 1 II palu-te/pulu-te 4 ii goat (<Tsw.).

pall SI 2 II - t e 2 II police (<Eng./Afr./Tsw.).
pas poo te 3 n -te 3 II passport (<Eng./Afr.)
p am p a kv puinp(vb.) (e.g. water from a borehole) (<Eng.).
p a m p a ra 3 n -t e 3 II pumper, i.e. borehole - (<Eng.).
pam pirl 3 e/u II paper (cAfr.).
p e a -tl 3 II woman’s personal name.
p e re 3 II - t e 3 II flour (<Nharo<Nama?).
pli SI 3 II - t e 3 II horse (<Tsw.).
pin Sli 3 II -te 3 II pill (<Eng./Afr.n’sw.).
pbm pa kv var. of p am pa.
p il trble 3 II petrol (cf. sia)(<A fr./E n g.).
pula 3 n -t e 3 II Pula (the local currency) (<Tsw.).
p u lasi 3 n -t e 3 n farm (<Afr.).

BV H being, being like, because (cf. !um,t§a). eh n ba’a he being (like) you, i.e. he is
like you. ah h ba Inaa be qoje lit. you walkbeing (like) an ostrich, i.e. you walk
like an ostrich, ah sa ’a R bf +UU your face (is) being (like) an ostrich egg, i.e. you
are bald. Iqhan tiM ki ih n ka ’ghba |’ee ma paa this moon is red like
fire, eh n ba (na) be saa Inaa he must be going. |q I h ba na b^i
llnaa the lion must be close,
b ^ba diminutive suffix (cf. Oaa).
baa ki 3 n -te 3 n jacket, coat (<Aft.).
ban taa 3 n -te 3 n beit(<Afr.).
baa sil 3 n -to 3 II bus (<Tsw.<Eng./Afr.).
baa ta 3 II -te 3 II tub, bath(tub) (<Afr.).
baba tshee an honorific form of address; an exclamation said to a storm to encourage heavy
rain (cf. Inuhiu, Igoo-lgoojabe ||ntju ba).
baba kv pray to. fuu n ba baba ke lulu |ehe-se be q§a n |ua |’aa
|nuu tUU people pray to the Forktailed Drongo because long ago it gave fire to people
bal blit 3 II -te 3 II 1. bible, 2. omasum (from the layering of the contents which
resemble the pages of a bible) (<Tsw. <Eng./Afr.) (cf. *+nahm, Inahba ||hoa
bals kopo 3 n -te 3 II movie, biscope (cf. |g§u, |gija,’|nbha) (<Eng./Afr.).
bala 3 I ban-sa 2 I patterns (e.g. on the face of a Gemsbok, or the stripes of a zebra),
bahle 3 e I bahn 2 u I dim: bahlu-ba/bah1e Oaa (sg.) bahlu O ’anI (pi.)
anowshaft, reed, sorghum (<Tsw.).
ban taa 3 n -te 3 n belt (n.) (<Afr).
basa to p’kx’ali 153

b a s a kV dye (vb.), colour a skin (red) with ||n a’mi {Elephantorrhiza near elephantina
(Burch. Skeels) (< Tsw.).
b e vocative formative (cf. w ee), bolo ||x ao b e hey Bolo ||xao!
b e e te 3 II - t e 3 II bed (<Afr./Eng.).
ben tele 3 n - t e 3 ll shop (<Tsw.<Afr.).
bilki 3 n -te 3 II week (<Afr./Eng.).
bihl verb used in the compound O h a a bihl ’Inaha throw down and shatter,
blhl s a bolo 3 ii the benevolent creator of all things,
biri 3 n -te 3 II 1. non-traditional beer. 2. a can, bottle of beer,
bokose 3 II -te 3 n box (<Eng.).
bolo-bolo 3 II -te 3 II l,CaTdeTbec(HymenopteraMegachilidaeAnthidiwn).2.SpGcics
of Leafcutter bee (Hymenoptera Megachilidae Megachile). 3. Species of bee {Hymenoptera
Eriades ?) (cf. lam ta bolo-bolo) 4. anthophorid {Hymenoptera Apocrita
Anthophoridae Amegilla).
bolo ||xao 3 II man's personal name,
boo tjuu 3 II woman's personal name,
boro 2 1/ boro/ bbo-rb 3 II borehole (<Afr.).
briki 3 n - t e 3 II brake (n.) (<Eng.).
b rik a brake (vb. intr.) (<Eng.).
b u a th a a -nt 3 II man's personal name (<Tsw.).
buru 2 I - t e 2 I Afrikaner (<Afr.), also to speak Afrikaans.
b u u -k ii/ b u u -k a 3 II - t e 3 II book (<Afr.A'sw./Eng ).
buruko (> ruukb) 3 I - t e 4 II trousers (<Afr.).


ph alitsh e/phaletje 3 e II mealie meal (maize meal) (<Tsw.).

p h a p h a le/ p h ap ale /p h e p h e 3 II -t e 3 II sheath on a hunting bag for the spear tip.
p h a a s p bte v a r o fp a s pbo te (<Eng.).
phaipi/phal phii 3 ii - t e 3 ii hosepipe (<Eng.) (cf.+qu e).

p ’k x ’

p’kX*a11 the sound of rapid evacuation of the bowels, p’kx’all kX’un ^qbho ||’uma
rush out remove it (and) place with a thud.
154 t v to t a h ’a

tv var. of kV transitivizing grammatical particle,

tvv, tan [tsn] 5 this, taa tee this person, thaa tan this thing.
tV ’V this, te’e >[’Ie’e]. Pronoun+tV’V some/others (cf. s1i ta’a). uh tu’u n ba |ua
ke !goa uh tu’u n ba [ua ke |nue some pass during the afternoon, others
pass at night.
tV’V-sa there, h ta’n-sa [ts’n -sa] (class 5) it is over there.
tV’VV,tan’h [tsn’h] > [ ’n3n’h] (class 5) this.
tVV’VV this.
tV’V > tv be on the point of, have the intention to. Uh n tU’U saa they intend going.
n ta’n [ts’n] saa I am on the point of going.
tV’V BV’V that, h n ll’aa ta’h ban’h [ta’rfi’h] lit. there is no that (thing)(cl. 5), i.e.
there is no such thing, eh n ||’aa ta’be’e lit. there is no that one (cl. 3), i.e. there is
no such one.
ta’aBV kV that, see ke n ta’a be ke soap is what that is (there).
tV(’VV)-ja kV there, that (proximate).
tV’VV-sa kV there, that (remote).
tV(’V)...kV relative clause pronoun.
t a locative pronoun. Inun-sa tU tUU fi b a Inum ta ka the areas where Bushmen
ta tv var. o fk a .
taa 3 I tUU 4 II 1. person (spec, a Bushman), a proper person (cf. q'uhm). 2. kin (pi.),
n lu tuu my people, i.e. kin. eh n ke taa be n + ’abe Iq’an + ’u tuu he
is a proper person because he has a heart for people, taa |a !hun ta §a 2 II -tU 2
II Oldman, taa |a !hun ta qae 2 II -tU 2 II old woman,
taa 4^ 2 II ||xaa 2 II (pi.) man, husband (al,). Also used to refer to any person in a
deliberately obscure way.
taa aa-be-se /taa aa-be-te 3 II -tU 4 II whatsisname, whatshername,
taa 4a-be-te var. of taa 4a-b e-se
taa qae 2 II j^a 2 II (pi.) woman, wife (al.). taa qae ||’ae 3 II whatshername
(sg.). taa be-se-tU ||’ae uh 4 II whatshername (pi.),
taa -sa tav H hear, understand, taste, feel, smell. |num taV lit. smell feel, i.e. smell
(vb. tr.).
tah a ka v ar.o fd ah a ka.
taha kV be overcome by, be baffled by, be perplexed by (tr.) (cf. kaha). eh |au n ba
taha kan his name overcomes me, i.e. I cannot remember his name,
tah’a kv thank (cf. +xana, d a a , +a ’pa).
tah’a khoe 3 II woman's personal name.
tah’a -sa tah’v H welcome after an absence (cf. d a a , ta’jia). taa n ka ba
!’an-ti ba |6lo s1 ka ba +am tuu h ba tah’e[te’e] when a person
stays out a long time and then returns home, the people welcome him.
t a ’a to tan a 155

t a ’a (k a )> [k a ’na] here, this here (i.e. emphatic), n Inule k a n t a ’a this is my

territory. In§l k a t a ’a n k a s § a this hartebeest here is fat!
t a a - s a taBV H l. intend, want to 2. resemble (cf. BV, !um, InaBV). t a a q a e
t a ’a |f ||nae ahn tam a t a ’a |f this woman’s singing resembles this one's,
n n b a tarn s a a !naa I want to go. ta b e t e ’e like this one (cl. 3).
t|lh ’a 2 II -t e 2 II young of, infant, weakling, fledgling of Ostrich, Korie Bustard,
Vulture, Black Korhaan, Spotted Dikkop (cf. ’In§na). These birds are taboo food
because the fledglings appear to be "weak”, eh n b a |x a a t§ h ’a he (i.e. the
infant) is playing at being inert. O q a a , eh n k a ta h ’a the child, he is still a
ta B V H so that, n n b a tsohu ta m a |g a a t a ’a xaii (ka t s 6 h u -s a ) i
am hurrying so that this work should end (quickly),
ta b a a h a 3 U -te 3 II sp. of bird (Lokalane dialect),
tafu le 3 II - t e 3 II table (<Afr.).
tai (h) far. t a i- s a l II distance.
tahi [tlhi ] l II ta h b a -te 4 II pad (e.g. of a lion or dog), ball of the human foot, thickened
part of the hand near the thumb, the edge of the human palm, rear part of ahoof(al.).
+ ’um tsh oe fl tahl lit. the palm's pad, i.e. the edgeandbase of the palm,tahl
q a e rear large pad. ta h b a -te O ’anI the smaller pads.
t4 la UhU 3 II - t e 3 II inflorescence of the Camelthom tree (Ac^jda
tali 1 II ta lu -te 4 II lightning (cf. |nule). tali t s ’e e the sound of a lightning strike,
tali 1 II ta lu -te 4 II clotted blood.
tahli k v tarn (sg.)/taa (pi.) give up the chase (e.g. as a lion, or hunter). |ai n b a
tahli kl tarn si b a t s ’an [ts’sn ] the lion gives up the chase and then comes
tfthll (n) blunt (cf. tsh abi lii).
tarn say it, mean, n h lah’u b a tarn lit. I say it, i.e. I say so. H h b a tam t e ’a a
I say that, that's what I say.
tarn 2 II t a a 2 II self (inal.). eh tarn n ||’a a he himself is not present, i.e. he is not
here in person. Uhi k a tam help yourself,
tarn ku tuiu ku 3 I -te 2 I T>Wmg'Rtti\^(ColeopteraDytiscidaeDytiscus) (cf. qam
ku quiu ku, labl-li).
tahm 3 e/u I (sg. and pi.) dim: tahlU -ba (sg.) tahiu O ’anI (pi.) tsamma plant or
melon {Cucurbitaceae Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumura Naked) (cf. Ixala), The melon
and seeds are eaten.
tahm tsh oe 2 II tah a t s h o a -te 2 II in front of, the space in front of, the vicinity of;
genitals (offensive) (cf. ||nam s a ’a). ||ao ka llxoba tahm tsh o e a chopper
to squash your front i.e.penis! I§ja |e tahm tsh o e the vicinity of Lx)ne Tree,
tamu 2 I -t e 2 I reservoir (<Afr.) (cf. dam),
ta n a -te 3 II man's personal name.
tan a - s a taLV H i. talk, speak (gen.), spec, to speak K o o (cf. man, mani).
2. scold. 3. have an argument, grumble, tan a + ’a discuss with, argue with, tali
156 t a n a |h a o to t u a

s e e speak the truth, n n ||qhua b a tan a lit. I am not talking, i.e. I am not saying
ta n a |hao 3 II man's personal name.
tahn a 2 II -t e 2 II posterior axillary fold, ^nuha tah n a lobe of the ear.
t a ’p a kv thank (cf. d a a , tah ’a, +xanu).
ta o k v love, want (< Nharo) (cf. |nam, tsah a).
ta h ’o k v calm, console, pacify, scold (cf. Igae, |ala, |nehe).
tau ll’a e 3 II woman’s personal name,
tahu 1 II -t e 4 II mat (skin) (cf. |gua, s a ’bi).
tahu 2 II -te 2 II foetus (al).
t a ’u (ka) bitter (taste or feelings), sharp tasting (e.g alcohol) or smelling (e.g. flatulence or
belching of a lion), n |q ’an n k a t a ’U my heart is bitter, i.e. I feel bitter,
te adverbial formative, te qaT nicely, te ka +*ua once, te ’a a there,
te plural suffix.
te complementizer formative (cf. ne). eh h ||hua b a k an e k a s a a te he does not
want you to go.
t e ’a a there, that, n n b a tarn t e ’a a I say that, that's what I say. n h b a s a a
t e ’a a I am going there.
t e ’e -Ja / te ’e - s a there (invariant demonstrative).
te * e [te ’e] say.
ten a k v annoy (<Tsw.).
tii/tii 3 u II tea (<Afr./Eng.).
tira ta 3 e II wire (<Afr.).
toh ba kua 3 II woman's personal name.
toh’e 3 n I the liquid obtained from ||4n [Cucurbitaceae Acanthosicyos naudinianus (Send.)
C. Jeffrey).
tQhIO 3 II - t e 3 II erythema, heatmarks (cf. !g§h’m). eh t1 b a ||a b e tQhIO she is
burnt with erythema. Uh ti ||ao fli ke tghlo they have been burnt with erythema.
tOh’ni (ka) soft (yielding, soft in texture, as fresh meat) (c f.|’u a ,d t s h 6 ’m ,||6 h ’m).
ton tit/ton kit 3 ll - t e 3 II l. donkey (<Tsw.<Afr./Eng.). 2. tractor,
to o -lo o (Ixae) 3 ii - t e 3 ii earth god (cf ’Inbha, ’||nuha tarn, uhbu-ku,
kuu je e ).
too t je e 3 II -t e 3 II torch (<Eng.).
toho 2 I - t e 2 I tin (<Nama/Nharo<German).
tbho (bl) bedark. Iqhaa n b’l tbho the clouds are dark (cf d t’k x ’ai).
tQhO-tl 3 II -t e 3 II Goldenbreasted bunting (Emberiza capensis).
to ro Qkbo 3 II -te 3 II jail (<Afr.).
traQ k a a 3 ii -t e 3 ii tin trunk (<Eng.) (cf kaa).
tr a a ta 3 n -te 3 ii wire(<Afr.).
tre k e re 3 il -t e 3 II tractor (<Afr.) (cf trek ta r a , |ali O a a ).
trek t a r a 3 ll - t e 3 ll tractor (<Eng.) (cf. trek e re).
tU plural formative.
tu a busy (i.e. be engaged in), n tUa Inaa the lion is busy moving about. ||um n
tuhl to d ^ h b a -d ^ h b a 157

tua *aa the springbok are busy grazing, ah ka tua Oan when you are busy
tuhi (ka) variant of duhi.
tyhla kV spread or flatten ash to promote burning, smoothe (e.g. sand),
tyh la-ty h ia kV repeated action of flattening, spreading.
tyhle - s a tyhLV L wash. Also used to describe the scent marking behaviour of animals that
scent mark with urine or paste,
turn kV swallow.
tu’m -til’m have contractions, tighten of a sphincter, eh n ba tu’m -tu ’rn ke ||qham
he squeezes out his urine, eh n b a tU’m -tU’m k e iGUa she squeezes out the
semen (referring to vaginal contractions), eh n ba tU’m -tU ’m k a dtsham he
squeezes in a fait (i.e. prevents it from escaping),
tumu 2 II -t© 2 II bridle, bit and reins (<Tsw.<Afr.).
tym 2 n II ty m a -te 2/4 n II l. skin, thin bark (cf. gule, tsh abi). 2. wrinkled.
3. covering, cocoon, shell, ©h s a ’a n k a tym his face is wrinkled. ||a a tym
(sand) cocoon of the diamphidiae simplex larva. |ln ah i-sf tym Serrated tortoise shell,
tyhna 2 II -t e 2 II Golden-orb Garden Spider {Argyope sp.), gule tsh o e |a tym
the membrane below the external bark,
tup k a (k a ) raise and lower the head (as a lion). n k a b a k a tUp k a ih n
|* a m a ’|niia when a lion raises and lowers its head it is (being) aggressive.
tUU lie down (sg.) (intr.) (cf. ^Cj’au (pi.) (intr.)). Also acts as a copulative in certain
compound constructions, e.g. Iguh’a tUU lit. lie spread, i.e. be spread out. Euphemism
for the first menstruation (cf. H’upa).
tUU 4 II people, kin (al.). n |u tUU my people, i.e. kin. tUU ||qyu modern Bushmen. tUU
|a |§a lit. people’s women, i.e. women. tUU |a ||xaa lit. people's men, i.e. men.
tUhU tS ’e e the sound of banging, thumping reverberation, q a l tuhu t s ’e e kV to bang,
tuhu s e 3 II man’s personal name.

d§a kv thank, praise (cf. tah’a, t§’jia, +xanu).

d§a 2 II -te 2 II striped polccdii (Ictonyx striatus) (cf. naa qail).
daha-ka 3 II -to 3 II Kgalagadi domestic melon (cultivar of
dah ’a >[dah a] 3 I the parts of an animal that are eaten after the kill (i.e. liver, heart,
abomasum, kidney, rumen, bowels); except for the abomasum, they are cooked in the
dahbl Sll 1 II dahbl sil-tu 4 II species of small flying ant {Termitidae Amitermes sp.)
(cf. Inapa).
d§hbe glqhOO 3 II -t© 3 II Mudwasp {Hymenoptera Eumenidae).
dahbu (ka) be slack, loose.
d a h b a -d § h b a var. of d ah b u -dah bu (cf. o b ’ma).
158 d a h b u - d § h b u to d u ’m - d u ’m

d^h bu-d§h bu k v slacken (e.g. abow)(cf. d ^ h b a -d a h b a ),

d§hli 1 II d 4 h lu -te 4 II cartilage (al.) (cf. Hn'y’ml); also frosted
seeds that are soft.’!nbo |u d ah lu -te cartilages of the ankle joint,
dam 2 I e d a m a -te 2 I u dam, reser\'0 ir (<Afr. <Eng.) (cf. tamu).
dam 1 II d a a 2 II satisfaction from eating, adequate nourishment (inal). isf d a a n
ll’a a lit. our satisfaction is not, i.e. we are hungry,
dahm dahli sii var. of dah bi si
d § n a 2 n/u II plants with woody tissue i.e. bushes, trees (gen.) (cf. jaa).
d a h n -te 2 II d a h n -te -tu 2/3 II bat (gen.) {Chiroptera),
d a o 1 II -te 4 II road, way. d ao kOO k a ’S lit. all way, i.e. always, d a o tii
ki/dao tfi today, ki d a o ti a h ’a k'l when? d ao tii k'l now.
d a o - s a 3 II man's personal name,
de emphatic 1st. pers. sg. particle, n’n de Me!?
d e e -k o / d e i]-g 6 / d 6 6 -k 6 / d aa-k 6 2 e i i -t e 2u ii thumb piano (<T sw .).
di first person sg. consecutive formative. !6o-!oo te O a je n dl ’e e knock the piece of
meat (i.e. to remove the ash) and I shall eat. eh n b a ’ahn n di k x ’a i he makes
me and I laugh i.e. he makes me laugh,
di h ak a bbl 3 II -te 3 II handcuff (<Tsw./Afr.).
dll zill 3 II u diesel (<Eng./Afr.).
d o a 2 n II -te 2 n II lower lip (cf. dzum).
d o b a race, move or turn very fast (e.g. a scrub hare), roll over and over (cf. !noba).
d o le 3 I -t e 3 I charred grass, grass blackened after fire. (cf.dUU du ’bu).
dolo 2 II -te 2 II a hollow, empty object. |uhm ih n b a !num k a dglo the owl
lies in a hollow. ’G n a je n k a dQlO the tree is hollow, phai phii n k a dQlo
the pipe is hollow, noo lii h k a dOlO the lorry is empty,
d o ’m a twitch the mouth (as a hare), suppress a smile,
doni k v twist (as in softening a skin), wring (cf. |numi, Ikx’ali).
d o o -k a 2 II -te 2 II kudu (Jragelaphus strepsiceros).
doh’o quench the thirst, drink to satisfaction, n a n k x ’ah e Iqhaa S\ doh’o |li
I drank water and have quenched my thirst,
dop/dop ka ||huu (sg.)/’||nuha (pi.) (ka) stott of a springbok, eh n k a dop ka
IjhUU it is slotting,
dram u/dram u/drom o 3 e l l -t e 3 u ll drum (<Eng./Afr.).
d ya tshuu scatter (of people or animals), go separate ways, part company (cf. ’Inuhi).
duba 2 II -t e 2 II path of a hare.
dyhba 3 I (alienated) (marginal) -t e 2 II (possessed) anus (cf. d y h b a -te dZUm).
duh’e 3 e I -te 3 u II dim :duh’u -b a (sg.) dUh’U O ’ani (pi.) white ostrich plume.
dubi-dlibi k v / sv tarn (sg.)/taa (pi.) roll in the sand, as an animal.
duhbi k v poke the eye (cf. ’||nuhm).
due la a k v owe, be in debt to (<Tsw.) (cf. |ehe).
duhi (ka) shaved or shorn off (hair), also bald, amputated (limb), smooth (stripped of bark)
(cf. |xum (tr.), tuhl).
dU’m -dU’m 3 II -te 3 II any substance soft to chew, chewy.
dyml to th ala 159

dym l (kV) twist, coil (e.g. a kudu’s homs), entwine (without being rolled together), crossed
over (as extended legs), screw (tr.) (sg.) (cf. ||nu’m (pi.), |q’um, d o n i,+a le).
eh n dgmi k a fii it is coiled, dumi k a + g a li k a k x ’u a twist and twist off
dUU du’bu 3 II - t e 3 II charred grass, grass blackened after fire (cf. d o ’le).


txall kV squeeze out loose compacted faecal matter from the bowels of an antelope with a
downward milking movement (cf. txolu, tshxalI, t ’kX’Ula); also to unravel the
bowels, txali k a +n am a tsh x a a ka |oha squeeze out die shit from the
txobu + a n a -te 2 II Orion's belt, lit. regularly space the walking stick, referring to the
regularly spaced impression of a walking stick in the sand which resembles the spacing of
die three stars.
txom - s a tXOBV H lit. space regularly, i.e. thread (e.g. beads). tXOma ||g 4 p a kf
|xal thread (ostrich eggshell) beads on the (sansevieria) cord.
tXOlO var. of tholo.
txolu kV squeeze out by pulling (e.g. faeces from an intestine) (cf. t ’k x ’ula, txali).
txona 2 II txua -te 2 II bowels with wet green coloured faecal matter (cf. dtxona,
d tx o ’a ).
txua -t e pi. of txona.


d tx a a kv split (cf. d tsh ale, dtxala).

d tx a la var. of d tx a a
d tx o ’a 3 n l -t e 3 u l dim: d tx o ’u O a a (sg.) d tx o ’u G ’ani (pi.) stretch marks on
breasts or thighs.
dtXO'a 2 II (marginal sg.) -t© 2 II bowels with wetgreen coloured shit (cf. tXOna).
dtxoMu (ka) stench, stink (of rotten meat). |4 b a - t e ||kx’au ah h k a d tx o ’lu uh
n b a |num the scent of lion is rotten; they smell.
dtXO’Ia - s a dtXO’LV H strip off berries, leaves,
d txo’la kv var. of d tx o ’la.


th aa 5 II thanl/thaa-m 2 n il thing, th aa f a n th aa each thing,

th aa Inuu 2 II -te 2 II something. Also used to refer to an object in a deliberately obscure
th aa tshau 3 II honorific term of address for the eland.
thala k v beat out, flatten by beating (cf. thee), th ala k a ^ q h a a beat out the
160 t h a l a k a tuu to t ’a m - t ’a m

arrowhead, th ala k S +n am a + q h a a beat out (lit. beat take out) the arrowhead,
th ala ka tuu (sg.) th aia k a + q ’a a (pi.) lie flat on the back, t a a Ixae t e ’e eh
n b a thala k a tuu k a |’a a +iie this old (ht. big) man is lying flat on (his)
back at the fireside,
th ala kUU 3 II woman's personal name.
thall[th3li] In II th a lu -te 4 u II skin for carrying a child,
than a kuu var. of th ala kuu.
thee pe 3 II man's personal name,
thia/thaja q ai thia kv hammer flat, work metal,
thee kv beat out an arrowhead or spear blade, (cf. thala).
thii bii 3 n tuberculosis (<Eng.).
thoa 3 I whey (alienable) (< Tsw.).
thobolo 3 II “te 3 II gun (< T sw .).
tholo 1. descend, move down a slope (cf. gam-gale,txolo). 2. arrive, tholo kx’lia
fall down out of,
thua |6a woman's personal name.
thull tuu kv skim, graze, e.g. an arrow or spear(cf.qai tUU).
thua-te 4 u II pox, sores, Witkop (tinea capitis i.e. headscale) {trichophyton choenlenii
/(2VMj), leprosy (cf. |0h0, XU6). eh |nan ku thua-te his head has tinea capitis,
thulu be joyful, happy, in high spirits,
th'umpb 3 II -te 3 II hosepipe,
thulu (ka) smooth (adj.) (cf. +qan).
thuml-thumi run fast (cf. Ilnahm, tsohu).
thuu-ma-se 3 II man's personal name.


d th a a tuu jut out (as a lip).

d th a b a flutter (cf. d t’k x ’a b a ).
d th a b a 3 II man’s personal name.
dth abi 1 II d th a b u -te 4 II butterfly, moth (gen.).
d th an a (ka) lean (adj), emaciated (cf. d tx a b a ). eh Iqh aa |a s § a n ||’a a eh
Iqh aa n k a d th a n a it has no fat on its lower legs; its lower legs are lean,
dthul (ka) variant of (ka) duhi.
dthum k v fold, crumple, roll up (also a cigarette) (cf. I|ubu, Iqhom, 4^bu). n n Hqhua
b a kan e kl s a ’bi |a d th u m -k a -s a lit. I do not want the blanket’s folding,
i.e. I do not wajit the blanket to be folded.


t ’a a - t ’a a run on the balls of the feet (cf. t ’a m - t ’am ).

t ’a m - t ’am var. of t’a a - t ’a a .
t ’uni to d t ’k x ’a m 161

t ’unl k v pinch and twist (cf. O n u ’lu).

t’k x ’

t ’k x ’a a 2 II -te 2 II quadriceps femoris.

t ’k x ’a a k a (ka) stalk with reduced contact between foot and surface (of a feline). |ai k a
t’k x ’a a k a |ua k a t a ’a a lion passed here stalking on "tip toes",
t ’k x ’ai k v v a r.o ft’k x ’a la.
t ’k x ’a la k v cut open and flatten meat for grilling (cf.t’kX’aT).
t ’k x ’a l a - t ’k x ’a la k v pat flat (e.g. the sand) (cf. +a h n -+a h n ).
t ’k x ’am s v squash, squeeze (cf. ||x6be, + q a o , + G a ’m, d t’k x ’am d t s ’k x ’am).
t ’k x ’am s f 3 n man’s personal name.
t ’k x ’au t ’kX’aB V H/t*kx’au k v copulate with, have sex with.
t ’kX*bll-t’kX’bli k v re-start, e.g. a fire, an argument, an infection (cf. iGOh’la-lGOh’la).
t ’k x ’om a k v (ka) ooze (e.g. gum, latex, blood). iHQbe h b a k a t ’k x ’om a k a
q a a the frog oozes gum (i.e. latex), t ’k x ’om a ke t s ’k x ’o a to ooze bubbles,
t ’k x ’ula “ S a t ’kX’ULV M push out, squeeze compacted (i.e.+gee) faecal matter from
entrails with a pushing movement (cf. txali, tXOlU); squeeze off, pinch off (e.g. the
entrails of a catterpiliar before eating it). + k x ’um n t ’k x ’uli |n the sand is pushed
out, piled up. g|xuM a n t ’k x ’ula ’fn a n a + k x ’um the mouse has pushed out
sand (from its burrow), n h b a t ’k x ’uli +x am G a ’i SI b a q a ’bl ta lam
clearing out the gemsbok’s abomasum and turning it inside out (for cooking). t ’kX’Ula
’+n a la remove by pushing out.
t ’k x ’UU be heaped, piled together. t ’kX’UU k a tshUU lit. sit in a pile, i.e. lie in a pile
( c f.+ g b o ) .+ q h a b a - t e O ’ani ah h t ’k x ’uu k a tshuu the dog puppies are
in a pile.

d t’k x ’

d t’k x ’a a 2 I -te 2 I l. a species of plant. Sweethearts, Tsw.Moruphaphiri/Moshutlhaphiri

(Pupalia lappacea (L,) Juss.). 2. a burr. 3. a certain spider web used as a filter in a bone
tobacco pipe.
d t’k x ’a b a fluttering of the wings during hovering, or helplessly (cf. d th a b a ).
d t’k x ’a b a k v adhere, stick on to. d t’k x ’a b a k a +h a b l stick on top of.
d t’k x ’a b a k a tshuu be stuck on.
d t’k x ’a l 1 II dark (c f. + a ’Jia , tbh o). Ikx’o e n bl d t’k x ’a l the rain is dark, i.e.
thesky isdark withrain. |§ll n b f d t’kX ’a l the wildebeest are dark, i.e. numerous.
O a je ri k a d t’k x ’a i the meat is dark, i.e rotten.
d t’kX’a l (ba) blister, develop airbubbles through heat, e.g. a baked skin,
d t’k x ’am 3 e/u I/II a spcc\cs of itrmkeilsoptera termitidae),
d t’k x ’am var. of d t’k x ’^ .
162 t s a a to t s b h a - t i


t s ^ a territory marking of sexually mature animals, habitually urinate in a place (of people).
|ai n ka ba tsaa 'ih h ba Hqhaa |naa ’O n aa; |ali n ba qana
l|ai;!um h ba ||’ama ||qham-te; Ohan n ba +habe sani [ssni];+ai
[+ii] n ba qala s1 ba ||qhaa s1 ba Igu’n when the lion marks territory it
urinates on trees; the wildebeest digs a ||a i; the eland takes urine (onto its forehead); the
duiker places (up) a scent mark; the steenbok digs and urinates and buries it.
t s 4 a 2 II -t e 2 II scent mark. ’|nUU |a tS § a hyena’s latrine, i.e. its scent marking
tsaha kv love, like (cf. |nam).
tsaha 3 II woman's personal name.
tsaha froth, bubble (vb.) (e.g. beer, boiling water).
t s fh ’a >[tsaha] 2 II -te 2 I a sp&ci&s of bush.Tsw.SQToka. (Commiphora Afncana (A.
Rich) Engl sens lata.(=Commiphora pyracanthoides Engl?)), The root core is a source of
tsah a !bo 3 II a pan east of Kagcae.
tsahbi 1 e II tsah b u-te 4 u II fresh,wet bark, fibres in bark (cf. glkx’um).
ts9 b a / ts§ b a-ts§ b a (ka) var. o fsa b a .
tsahbu kv snatch, tsahbu ka H’ao lit. snatch take, i.e. snatch away (cf. g||kx’0bu,
tShx'ua, dtShXUl). tsahbu ka ’+n§la lit. snatch-take out, i.e. snatch out of.
tsahbu ka ’+nale ke + ’um tshoe lit. snatch it out of his palm, i.e. his hand.
4naha tsahbu ka ||’ao quickly snatch something away.
tsahl-tsahT 3 II -te 3 II a toy consisting of a feathertied to a thongwhich is bound to a
stick (cf. gllxa’I |uhm). Flicking it back and forth causes the feather to vibrate and
produce a humming noise. It is believed that this may cause diarrhoea and sore eyes,
tsali > s a ll 1 e II tsalu-te 4 u ii canvas, canvas sail (< Afr.).
tsaha !bo 3 II a pan east of Kagcae.
tsahm llnyli 3 II tsahm ||nyli-te'^ /tsahm ||nya-ln-te"swing (n.). |xae
tsahm llnyli to swing.
tS §’li kv split mohi Bauhinia Petersiana pods (cf. In^la).
tsfh ’Ii var.of tsa ’Il.
tsahna 2 II -te 2 II Ground squirrel {Xerus inauris) (cf. jxoo tsahna,
tsaho 2 II -te 2 II well (n.).
tsaho 1 II -te 4 II adductor tendons of the thigh.
tsfh o kv 1. scoop out very shallow water. 2. throw out food or water. tSQhO ka
’Inaha throw down (e.g. food) as an act of provocation,
tsahu ku tsohba var. oftsuhu ku tsohba.
tsahU-tSQha shake, wave about, flap, swing (e.g. the arm or arms when walking).
tsa h u -tsg h a k a jg'u’ma |’a a shake out fire, i.e. a match. ts|h u -tso h a kV
tarn flap itself about.
tSQha-tl 3 II man’s personal name.
tsohle to dZQhm 411 xaa 163

tsohle k v brush past (cf. Ihoo, +hal0).

tSOhU (-sa/-/)a) ((to)) quickly, suddenly, fast, s a a te tSOhU go quickly, eh h
ba tSOhU s a a he goes quickly,
tsohu-tsohu k v hurry, rush (tr.) (cf. |qhui).
tslihba-ts'uhba flap the wings when flying off.
tSUhn 1 II “ tU 4 II grassed area.
tSUhn SV smooth or polish rope, remove hairs from rope (to ensure the efficient sliding of a
noose), (cf. |noo).
tsyu dzum var. o fsu u dzum.
tsuhu ku tsohba/tsahu ku tsohba 3 II -te 3 11 var. of +qahu ku +qahba
honorific for Vulture and Black Kite.


dzaa>[zaa] kv iiitreat, be disrespectful (cf. |neh’e, ||’ai-||’a 1, Igyi, Inu’a, kx’ao

d z a a 3 II multitude, crowd. tUU n be d z a a the people were a multitude,
d z a ’a > [d ts’aa] k v hide, conceal, steal about, move in a stealthy manner, n b a d z a ’a
ke s a a lit. I hide from his face, i.e. I conceal myself from him. d z a 'a tshUU SI
laa k v sit in wait for, ambush
d z a ’a - d z a ’a k v tam (sg.)/taa (pi.) hide oneself away.
d z § b a -t a (n) emaciated, thin (through malnourishment).
d z § b a 1hl 3 II -t e 3 11 Cape glossy starling {Lamprotornis nitens).
dz4b i ta (tS ’an) turn round suddenly while moving e.g. when someone falls over a
branch, or when an ’ahna spins (cf. d zab i-d zab l).
dZ§bl-dZQbl turn round suddenly while moving e.g. when someone falls over a branch or
when an ’ahna spins (cf. d z^ b l ta).
dZQl (ki) 1 II hunger, eh h b a ’ ll dZQl lit. he eats hunger, i.e. he eats voraciously.
klili tii ki dzai |i lit. this year is hunger's, i.e. there is a drought.
dzaT tsee id. of the sound of squeaking.
dzahT fly(vb.).
dzala 3 II -te 3 II any seedless Cucurbit, i.e.tahm, tsamma melon (Cucurbitaceae
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumura Nakai), =fnu’lu-ku, wild cucumber (Cucurbitaceae
Cucumis africanus Linn.f. -form), ||an, Gemsbok cucumber (Cucurbitaceae
Acanthosicyosnaudinianus(Sond.)C.Jefferey).~\ S\ h b a ’a e [’e e ] d z a la we eat
seedless cucurbits,
dzam tingle, palpitate (e.g. from nicotine).
dzam-dzall k v tarn (sg.)/taa (pi.) turn oneself round to produce giddiness
(cf. Inabl-lnabi dzaha).
dz4hm +fl xaa 3 II -te 3 II l.L e a f chsLfcrbcctiQ (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae
Melonthinae). If it goes into the fire when rain is promising, the rain will disappear.
2. Christmas beetle (Coleoptera polyphaga Scarabaeidae Melolonthinae Schizonycha).
164 d z a n i to t s h a la

dzani 2 n -te 2 II a toy consisting of two feathers attached to a stick from which a weight
hangs. It is flicked (lit. shot + ’a a ) into the air and it spins (’m ala) as it falls (cf.’^hna).
dzani 2 II (possessed)/ dzani 3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/ d z a n i-te 3 I
(alienated) chin.
d z a ’ni > [dts’ani]3 II - t e 3 II a species of sedge (Cyperaceae sp )
(cf. ’Inah’n i-’Inah’nl). The bulb is eaten,
d z a ’nl 2 n II pips.
dz4nl k v tarn swing back and forth (cf. m ala).
d z fh ’nu 2 I -t e 2 I Fork-marked sand snake (Psaminoplus leightoni trisalis).
d z a o k v insult verbally, abuse ( c f.’|nah’o, g|xui, k a ’a ). t a a eh h ku ||’a a
d zao ke |kx’6 e + ’e +q h e e a person just abuses his friend or joking partner,
d z a o 3 II man’s personal name.
dzau 2 I -te 2 I a stick throwing game, the stick itself. + ’a a k a dzau ht. shoot the
stick, i.e. play the stick throwing game. This game is based on the technique for killing a
hare with a throv/n stick,
dzau 2 I -te 2 I Cape turtle dove {Streptopelia capicola) (cf. ||ale Hgau).
dzau k v bleed from the nose (cf. +un). n n b a dzau ke !naa I am bleeding from
the nose.
d z a ’U > [dts’au] blow (intr.) (e.g. the wind) (cf. ^ n a’PI).
dz^hu -dZQha var. of ts4h u -tsg h a .
dzihl SV boil, cook by boiling.
d z o a k v wag the tail, flick the tail (as a feline).
dzoh 'a 2 II -te 2 II ant (gen), Cocktail ant {Hymenoptera Formicidae Crematogaster)
(cf. Iq’am, Igohlo, Igah’a, Hgahla).
dzoh’la to make a sliding noise, as a foot sliding on the sand or the hand sliding on a flat
surface, ah +nuu n b a dzoh ’la your foot is making a sliding sound
dZUbU-dZUbU >[zubu-zubu] 3 II -te 3 II dry form of Igoh’bl (Digitariaeriantha
dzuhe 3 n/e I dZUha 2 n/u I dim :dzu h u -ba (sg.) dzuhu-m (pl.) natural hole,
hyena den (cf. !uni).
dZUi - s a dzuJV L scrape off the bitter skin from a tuber.
dzum 2 II d zu m a-te 2 II l. upper up (cf. doa). 2. bird's beak in the pi. 3. cuff of a
sleeve or pair of trousers, d y h b a -te dZUm anal sphincter.
dZU’m a 2 I -te 2 I SnouiQdharvGsttil&Trmxe(IsopteraTermitidaeTrinervitermes),aho
referred to with the met. ||ham termitarium.
dZUU > [ZUU] 1 II -t e 4 n scraper (for removing hair from skins).


tShabI 111 3 II -te 3 II an object with a blunt cutting edge, e.g. a knife, axe, spear, arrow
tip (cf. t^hli). ||ao h ke tShabI 11 1 the axe is blunt,
tsh a e ni 3 ii -t e 3 li chain (<Eng.) (cf. Inanu |oh a).
tsh a la kV/tV mb with water or fat, massage (cf. txali), also id. for to do well
t s h a n a to d t s h a le 165

(cf. Igah’f). ah n ba tShala you are doing well,

tshana 3 e/u n pipe for tobacco (cf. Ixuu, ahli).
tshana |ua 3 II woman’s personal name.
t s h a o (n) l. be flat and treeless. 2. be wide. !nau s a ’a h t s h a o the surface of a pan is
flat and treeless.
tshao-sa 2 II flat, treeless area. Inau s a ’a n tshao a pan is a treeless area.
t s h a o - s a rina it's is a treeless area,
tshau 3 II man's personal name.
tshee part of the expression baba tshee an honorific expression addressed to a distant
storm (cf. Inuhlu, !abe l|nuu-ba).
tshee thana 3 II woman's personal name,
tshll pi I 3 II -te 3 II iron, metal (<Tsw .) (cf. lanu).
tshoa ingressive formative, i.e. about to, in the process of, still (cf. XOO).
tshoa-tshoa begin, start,
tshoa 3 II brand (n.) (for livestock),
tshoa kV to brand (vb.).
tsh o a ’a a (te) > t e ’a a like that, ’ahn te (tsh oa) ’a a do it like that!
tsh oe 2 II t s h o a -te 2 II inside, interior, middle. +nllha ~ auditory canal,
ts h o e -ts h o e -te 3 ii var. of tsh o o -tsh o lo .
ts h o la t S ’e e the sound of rustling, rubbing together (e.g. leaves, clothing, a pencil writing
on paper),
tsh oh m flower (vb.).
tsh o n i kV sniff, snuffle, take snuff.
tshoni 3 II -t© 4 II Chacma baboon {Papio ursinus) (<Tsw.).
tsh o o -tsh b lo 3 II - t e 3 II small itchy sore occurring on the hands, elbows, backside.
tShOO exclamation of pain when one is burnt,
tshopha kV roll a cigarette ( c f .+ a m ,’||naha).
tshuli tuu slip, skid (cf. g+xu’li tuu, +qam +quli, fuli tuu, ||GUli tuu, +qaba
ka tuu).
tshun gama 3 II chewing gum (<Eng.).
tshuu 1. sit (gen.) (sg.) (cf, I’a a (pi.)). 2. lie (of wind direction). Also acts as a copulative in
certain compound constructions, e.g. d tsh x b ll tShUU be loosened (of a snare);
kuh’m tshuu be curled up. !ohm tshuu (be) kneeling down, d u a tshUU be
scattered (of people).


dtshaa dtshav H secrete a substance (as a polecat), break wind, fart.

dtshaa 2 n/u I a mixture of aromatic herbs.
dtshaa qaa 3 II dtsham qam 3 II a species of plant
Dyer). The tuber is a taboo food unless fed ritually by an elder,
dtshale -sa dtshaLV L split, crack, shred, open up (cf.glkx’ale, gGqhaa,
166 d ts h a m to tsh x b m

Oqhaa, glxaa). |nyl h ba qala dtshana kulu the springhare digs and
opens up its escape hole.
dtsham 2 II -te 2 II flatulence, bad smell, pungent secretion (e.g. of polecat, badger,
certain ants), ah dtsham-te h ba |num your farts sm ell.+Gahli [a qaa n
ba ’ahna dtsham thegumof+Gahli 5cmz.) causes flatulence.
Igalo-se dtsham Iqhuu |e sbo nna the secretion of the Honey Badger is the
medicine (i.e. treatment) for the Wolf Spider ('s bite).
dtShan l II dtshana-te 4 II l. gland, spec, sub-mandibular salivary gland.
2. pancreas.
dtshau-dtshpha var. of tshau-tshoha.
dtsho’la hiss (as a snake), - |naV hiss at (cf.+GUa).
dtsho’m > [dtsoh’m] (ka) light (in weight), soft (e.g. sand), weak (lacking strength)
(cf. ||6h*m, I’ua). eh Iq’an n ka dtsho’m lit. her heart is light, i.e. she is
upset (and crying).
dtShQhU kV 1. bash into. 2. punch, hit (by hand), 3. kick (with the foot) (cf. ||k x ’um).
d tsh o u k a tuu sit down suddenly (cf. q a i tuu, d t s h x o ’n tshuu).
d tsh u m - s a d tS h U B V H blow with the mouth, d tsh u m a |’a a blow on the fire.
dtshum +nau blow clear (e.g. a tube), blow out of. dtshum |gu’ma |’aa blow
out the fire.
dtshun tshuu turn suddenly, slip and rapidly regain balance (cf. Hgole, Hgolo).
dtshup snatch away (intr.) (cf. g||kx’glu, ||hup, G||qhobu, Inulu).


tshxaa 2 II -te >[tshxante] 2 II l. faeces, dung, shit. 2. piles of dung (distributive

pi.). 3. pith (e.g. of ||uli {Kalanchoe paniculata Harv. (cf. qoho-q’obe)) or gOqhoo
{Grewia retinervis Burret))\ also the smouldering pith from a firestick. 4. mesophyll of
|xai (Sansevieria Aethiopica Thunb). ||qaa tshxaa -te frosted, the effect of frost
e.g. on leaves,
tshxaa violently (<|Gwi).
tshxaa kua 3 ll man’s personal name,
tshxaa ah’a 3 II man’s personal name.
tshxall kV smooth (vb.) (by removing excess fibre), e.g. by drawing sinew through the
teeth. As a var. of txall means to unravel the bowels,
tshxam kV tarn (sg.)/taa(pl.) be tightly caught in a snare,
tshxau -sa tShxaBV H thrash, beat, lash, whip (cf. tshxau kV).
tshxau kV variant of tshxaBV.
tshxobu ylu slosh into (cf. loabu ylu).
tShXOle -sa tShXOLV L L syphon into a container (cf. oqhom). 2. teach, n n ba
tshxole O gQ O I am transferring water from a hollow tree (to a container). SOO ^a
n ba tshxon te SOO the shaman lit. syphons medicine into me, i.e.teaches me
tshxom kv wring moisture out (cf.dtshxo’la, tshxuu, |go o, |q’um, dtshxo’li,
ts h x u a k a ||’a o to t s ’a a 167

Ikx’all, ts’kx’all, dts’kx’ani).

tshxua ka ||’a5 -sa tshxua ka H’aBVL snatch (cf. dtshxul, tsahbu,
tshXUlU kV split, splay the end of a piece of sinew or Sansevieria chord,
tshxulu var. of tshxuu.
tshxum -sa tshxuBV m pluck, rip off hair (cf. ||Ga’u, oyhm). eh s a ’a n ba
sll tshxum eh n ka ba +gam lit. his face will be plucked when he grows up,
i.e. he will be bald when he grows up.
tshxuu kV squeeze moisture for drinking, squeeze with a milking motion (e.g. from the pulp
of 11an (Cucurbitaceae Acanthosicyos naudianus (Sond.) C. Jeffrey)) (cf. tShXUlU).


dtshxa’a to experience stinging or burning pain, be sensitive or tender (as the skin or eyes)
(intr.). n I’ua -te h ba dtshxa’a my eyes are smarting e.g. from smoke,
dtshxa’a kV to cause a stinging pain (cf. Igb’o).
dtshxaT be in a fork (cf. Oqohba). dtshxaT tshuu (intr.) (sg.) / !’aa(intr.) (pL) be
in a fork. dtShxaT ||’uma (tr.) (sg.)/ ~ llqhua (tr.) (pi.) place in a fork,
dtshxa’m kV tie by drawing closed (e.g. a pouch, noose, loop, zip), tighten.
dtshXO’la -sa dtshxo’lu l (den nom.) dtshXO’LV L wring moisture out with a
milking movement, spec, liquid of pounded ||an {Cucurbitaceae Acanthosicyos
naudinianus (Sand.) C. Jeffrey.) from a "sponge" made from !noh’n-Sl grass (Aristida
meridiomlis Henrard),
dtshxo’la kV slurp (e.g. when eating the tuber of Asclepiadaceae Kinepetalum Schlecht
(’Inyla) or juicy meat), sip avoiding dregs, scum, sediment (cf. sam, XObi ka).
dtshxb’la stuff the mouth and slurp, sam ka dtshxo’la sip slurping,
dtshxoll kv tarn (sg.)/taa (pi.) dtshxoll tshuu-sa/dtshx6o tshuu-sa (nom.)
undo, loosen the noose, pull out (of a snare) (cf. Oqhall).
dtshxo’n -sa dtshXO’JV H blow the nose (spec, with fingers),
dtshxo’n - (dtshxb’n) SV (ka) slip out of, slide along (e.g, the trigger of a snare along
the cord, the slider along the guy of a tent). +a* [fli] ©h a[Ja]n ka dsthXO’n S\
|xal, eh a Hqahje tarn the steenbok pulled out of the snare;it gotitself away,
dtshxo’n tshuu (sg.)/ I’aa (pi.) sit down suddenly (cf. dtshghu ka tuu, qal tuu).
dtshxo’nI stick something into (branches, a bush), spec, into one's hair (cf. g^XOO ylu).
dtshxoo var.of dtshxoli.
dtshxui ll’ao -sa dtshxui ||’aBVL snatch (cf. tshxua, tsahbu, g||kx’obu).


ts’aa kv ts’aa ka-sa (nom.) hide away, conceal, steal.

tS’aa 3/2 n theft, thieving.’e e / ’aa ts’aa to steal, eh |e ts’aa his thieving.
168 t s ’a a - t e to t s ’k x ’an i

ts’aa |e Oq^a illegitimate child, ts’aa 2 II -tU 4 II Slender Mongoose

(Herpestes (Galerella) sanguines) (cf.tS’a a -t e ).
ts’aa-te 3 II thief. Slender Mongoose {Herpestes (Galerella) sanguines) (cf. lOQhli,
ts’aa §a).
ts’a a -ts’aa kv knot (vb.) (cf. +guni).
tS’aba dense, thick (as a cloud of insects), closed up (as the trachea and larynx), eh ’|nym
tshoe n tS’aba lit. his throat is closed up, i.e. he has a husky voice. Inah’Ja ta
ah n ts’aba these stinkbugs are dense,
ts’an [ts’sn] kv taste (vb.).
ts’an [ts’sn] -sa ts’aLV L return, turn (cf. mail, gali,+Gani).
ts’ee/ts’11>[s’ee] [se’e] formative in onomatopoetic expressions. Igulu - the sound of a
monar being pounded, tuhu - the sound of bashing, reverberation. I§h0 ~ banging
about of heavy objects. +qana ~ clanging of pieces of metal, tshola ~ rustling of
leaves, clothing, the sound of a pencil writing on paper. g|xa*la/g|xa*ll ~ rattling
(e.g. of matches in a box). |nana ~ jangle, jingle (e.g. of money). ||kx*lllu ~ the
sound of arrows in a quiver, tall - the sound of a lightning strike.dzai the sound of
squeaking. ||qIo ~ the sound of a light thud, glqhobo - the sound of bursting,
kbhp ~ sensation of a pounding headache. ||hOO sound of panting. UhlU - the
sound of galloping animals, kllhlu - the sound of thumping. ||h0lu - the sound of
something loose fitting. ||qIo - the sound made by a hollow object falling. lylU/lQbU ~
the sound of thick textured material, gllxbo ~ the sound of walking on dry vegetation.
Iq’ilbu/!hulu ~ the sound of an unfertilised egg when shaken, gkx’au % xbp
gkx’bp gllxbo ~ the crackling sound of walking on dry vegetation.
tS’OO make a noise (cf. |q*"un). *aa tS’OO graze noisily, ripping off grass.
tS’OO 2 II -te fat on the rear part of the stomach of small carnivores such as Wildcat,
Black-backed Jackal, Bat-eaied Fox, Badger, Aardwolf etc. (cf. |hum).
tS’OO I*6a 3 n-te 3 n bottle (< Nharo, Nama?).
tS’Ull-tS’Uli (§a) 3 II -te 3 II M m coSunbird (NectariniaMariquensis).

t s ’k x ’

ts’kx’aa (ka) soaking wet (cf. ts’kx’anO.

ts*kx’aje 3 I dim: ts’kx’aju-ba/ts*kx’aje G aa (sg.) smoke (al.); the sight of
falling rain.
ts’kx’all kv wring out by twisting (cf. dts’kx’ani).
ts’kx’am SV squeeze out (something wet).
ts’kx’an-ts’kx’an be tight fitting e.g. clothing, a bracelet (cf. dts’kx’ani).
ts’kx’ani (h) be wet (intr.) (cf. Iqyu (tr.), Iqhaa); rain heavily, ah jkx’aa n
ts’kx’ani ke Iqhaa lit. your hand is wet with water, i.e. your hand is favourable for
creating rain, referring to the ritual burning of a skin or human hair clippings in order to
make rain.
ts’kx’ani energetic, active (cf. qho’lo). te ts’kx’ani energetically, eh s a ’a n
t s ’k x ’o a to d t s ’k x ’bm 169

tS’kX’ani his face is animated,

ts’kx'oa 3 I dim: ts’kx’6u-ba (sg.) froth, bubble, discharge of conjunctivitis, milky
sap (e.g. of ka !guu-be Asclepiadaceae Fergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov, ^^l^au
Combretwn collinum Fresen? (cf. Iqhaa)).


dts’kx’al +abe 3 II woman’s personal name.

dts’kx’ala (ka) 3 ii smell of burning veld. |’aa ||kx’au n ka dts’kx’ala
xabeka ||nae |a |’aa ||kx*au n ba |num a (veld) fire’s smell is ~ but a
village fire's smell smells.
dtS’kX’ani l. compacted, tight. 2. kV (tr.) twist, wring out, tighten (cf. ts’kx’alt,
dts^kx’au-dts'kx’au rain lightly, to "spit" with rain (cf. glxa’ll, Igau -Igau).
dtS’kX’Ola squirt (out), spray (cf. +GUa).
dts’kx’bm (ka) feel unwell, feel enervated (cf. ’In^nl).
170 kv to kbo

kv/ tv L be (copulative) (cf. nna).

kv H locative particle, verbal (transitivizing) particle.
kVV the one(s) which. tUU kUU n !ao \\\ it is people who are left. |aO Unaa kaa n
xali |fi it is the tobacco that is finished. Ikx’aje kee n ba Igan [Igsn] the
antbear is the one that uses it.
ka 1 passive formative. 2. potential formative. 3. conditional formative. 4. adverbial formative
te ka +num twice, n n ba kane kf !gai ka I’ua te i want the mortar to
be hard, ah n ka ba ’ahn n di ba qaja you can do it, and I'll kill you i.e.
you do it and I’ll kill you. eh n ka ba |naa he is visible,
ka- diminutive prefix with certain nouns.
ka-kUU be quiet. ||qhua ka-kUU k1 lit. do not be quiet to us, i.e. don’t ignore us, said
when receiving no response to one's greeting from people in a hut. ||qhua ka-kUU
kan [ksn] s a ’a lit. don't be silent to may face, i.e. don't ignore me.
ka-kuu-se 3 ll -te 4 ii a mute, ka-kuu-se |e taa a mute,
ka Igae 3 e II Kagcae, a pan 11 km. east of Lone Tree,
kaa 3 e I kam-te 2 u I dim: kau Oaa/kaa G aa (sg.) kau 0 ’ani(pl.)
metal box, trunk.
kaha (kV) 3 II slyness, dishonesty, cunning, stealth (of e.g. felines, jackals) (cf. qaha).
ah n ke kaha you are cunning,
ka’a tv insult (cf. dzao,g|xui).
ka’a -se 3 I insults, abuse,
kaba-ta grow (intr.) (pi.) (cf. kai (sg.)).
kai grow (intr.) (sg.) (cf. kaba-ta (pi.)),
ka’i ll’ae 3 II woman's personal name.
kala go round, circle as vultures (cf. +ale, ||gahma-||g§hma, Ina’m).
kahla-kahla (kV) the sound made when drinking from a bottle,
kail 2 I -te 2 II a species of bird,
kall-kall 2 ii -te 3 ii atlas and axis vertebrae (al.).
kahio 3 II -te 3 II a compound produced by chewing a species of ant's eggs found on the
lahia tree {Ochna pulchra Hook.), and used as a sealant,
kam-te 3 II man's personal name,
kam paa 3 II -te 3 II camp (n.) (<Eng.).
kam paa (kV) camp (at) (vb.) (<Eng.).
kan-tf 3 II -te 3 II a species of spider,
kane/kani kv want.
kehn being. |a ah’ao ba ’ahn si kehn quT |fi what are you doing being so
kohla erect the dorsal crest of hair (of a springbok),
kohle-kohle kv exert, force, do with haste,
koo ka’a all, every.
kOO a vocative formative. +gum kOO hullo there! |naa kOO just look!
koo-fi to kuu 171

k o o - f il 3 II -te 3 II coffee (<Afr./Eng.) (cf. +qhun).

kOO pi/kOO pi 3 e II - t e 3 u II cup, mug (<Afr.).
k o n -k o n 2 I ^ te 2 I a species of tick (cf. ||kX’Ui).
k o p a r a sii 3 II - t e 3 II co-operative (<Afr.).
k b p e le e 3 ii - t e 3 II button (<Afr.) (cf. kuu p ele).
kohp ts’ee sensation of a pounding headache, n |nan n ba kohp ts’eo my head is
pounding (with pain).
ku indeed, p* ku ke eh what indeed is it? eh ku n |Tl xabeka 6h n llqhua ba
sfi he is present but he does not com e.+’an [=|=’3n] kU ka ’a a -sa and if it is
indeed food, e h ’e k e e ku e n ba ’ahn he is the one who can do it.
kua kv praise, make an incantation to. n n ba kua k e !ulu | e h e - s e s1 G a h e
ka I’aa I am making an incantation to the Forktailed Drongo and beg it for fire,
kua praise with thanks,
kua formative used with proper names.
kua (ka) broken, defective, damaged, disabled (cf. InQi, s'ye). bolo ||xao h ke
taa |a kua be ||’aa ke |nan g|qhoa-te Bolo ||xao is a defective person
because he has no head hair. !ua-ma eh n ka kua te +qhala !u a-m a is
disabled with a leg.
kue kv do in a huiry. kue ka Inaa-te si saa ba H’arna hurry to fetch the
containers and get them, eh saa kue ke Inaa she walks quickly,
kue !naa 3 II woman's personal name,
kubi (ka) be hot, warm (e.g. sand, food, water).
kuLV L although, whatever, kun ke eh no matter what, kun ka ’a a -sa ta
ah’a ka whatever food. Pi n ba nan-n§n kan [ksn] kun ke Iqhee
I "chew” on it even though it is raw. ah kula ba te’e even if you say... ah n
kula ’au ’ahn even if you do it like this,
kuli 1 n kulu-te 4 II year (<Nharo, Nama?).
kuhli 1 II kuhlu-te 4 il pollen.
kuhli kv call to or locate someone while hunting, by calling hOO.
kulu 2 I -te 2 I escape hole (of e.g. springhare, antbear) (c f. +gu’a, I’uT).
kuhiu ts’ee the sound of thumping (e.g. the heart).
k'uhm kv touch (e.g. to draw attention).
kuhm-kuhm heaviness of loping. ||nahm kuhm-k'uhm lope with heavy gait (as a lion
or eland).
kuh’m tshuu sleep or lie curled up (cf, Hgobe tshuu).
kuma /kuma-kuma 2 II l, curing dance and/or the particular chant associated with it.
2. halo around the moon caused by the performance of the dance. |xaa kuma to
perform/dance the curing dance,
kun I 2 e II -te 2 u II wheeled transport (lorry, waggon) (<Nharo/Nama) (cf. noll).
kup var.ofkbhp.
kuse marker of respect, n aa kuse lit. my respected father, i.e. sir.
kuu exclamation of surprise (uttered in falsetto by males and high pitch by females usually with
the hand in front of the mouth).
172 k u u - k u u to g a h ’6

kUU-kUU 3 II -t e 3 II chicken, fowl, hen (<Tsw.).

kuu pele 3 ii -t e 3 ii button (<Afr.) (cf. kbpe lee).
kUU 1 II -te 4 II sheep (< Nharo, Nama).
kuu + e e 3 e ll sky god, heaven, sky (cf. uhbu-ku, too lo o ,’||nuha t a m ,’|nbha
kuu (ka) be silent,
kuu 1 /ka k u u -sa 2 (nom.) silence.

g a a 2 I -te 2 I duck (gen.) (<Nharo, Nanna).

g a h a be perplexed, be in ignorance (intr.) g a h a k v (tr.) (cf.taha). n n g a h a [Q ga]
I don’t know! n h g a h a ke |au I am in ignorance of its name, ah h g a h a
k a la h le -sa you can’t ride, ah n g a h a ke ’|nya lit. you are ignorant of
sex, i.e. you are celibate,
g a b a walk pigeon toed, walk in an unusual way. |gui k h o e -te n + ’au -ku ba
g a b a particularly the |gui Bushmen are pigeon toed, eh h b a !n aa g a b a he
walks pigeon toed.
gaba 3 II a pigeon toed person, eh n te gaba he is pigeon toed,
gale ka curled up. gale ka tshoa Oan sleep curled up.
g^hle - s a g^hLV M open, open up, unravel (flexible or soft textured things), unwind,
undo (gen.), (cf. l|6’a). g§hle k x ’uv kv tam push off, thmst off (cf. ollqhae).
gali 1 II g a lu -te 4 II clod (cf. ||gai, + k x ’um |nan).
gall k v turn, return (tr.) (cf. mail, t s ’an). gall ke t a a + a a |nee lit. return a
person's words to him, i.e. answer a person,
g a ll-s e 3 ii -te 3 n Banded Mongoose (Mungos mungo).
galo kv l. knead into a lump, clench (as the fist), roll into a ball (as a sleeping pangolin),
(cf. lum). 2. close up, sit close together (galo ka tshuu) (c f. +go6). n n ba
galo kan [kx’aa 1 ba dtshohu ka lit. I roll up my hand and punch you, i.e. I
clench my fist and punch you.
galo-galo kV roll into a ball.
g a ’lU (|naV) frown (at), eh n b a g a ’iu ke s a ’a lit. he is glaring his face, i.e. he is
g a m -g a le run down, roll down, run along (intr.) (cf. tholo). h n b a g a m -g a le
kX’ua ke laho it is running down the slope,
g a ’mi [g s’mi] (ka) (pleasant) scent of dtsh aa. d tsh a a h b a |num k a g a ’ml
dtshaa smells g a ’mi.
g a h ’m kv hold between the arm and the chest (var. of g a h ’O).
g a n a 2 I -te 2 I GvtatSpanov/ (Passer motitensis).
gani kv roll (tr.) (e.g. a drum, a lorry wheel).
g a h ’6 - s a gah*BV L g a h ’m - k a - s a (nom. variant) hold or fold in the arms, carry
against the chest.
gao to g u lu ku u g u ’u 173

g a o - s a gaBV l dig out gum.

g a h ’n - s a g a h ’JV H wake (tr.).
goho 1 n II g o h a -n ^ -te 2 u II pus.
goh b a 3 II hot part of the day, daytime.
goh b a ||qhua !naa 3 II - t e 3 II a constellation of four stars that appears during all
seasons in the West at dusk (2 small, 2 large).
gQhba k v (k a )/ k a g g h b a -g g h b a k v shake out, beat (e.g. a blanket or skin)
(cf. lahi). eh n b a gg h ba ke |kx ’a a - t e (|nee) he "washes his hands" of
g ob o 2 II -t e 2 II umbilical chord, child's navel, infant’s penis, joking term for a friend's
penis, (cf. +nyn).
g o b o -g o b o the sound of people talking at a distance, murmur, speak softly
(cf. GUm-GUm). iih n b a ta n a g o b o -g o b o they are speaking softly,
gohle k v look after, gohle k a thani tuu s1i ||qhua t s ’a a k a look after the
things so people don't steal them,
golo drink or eat an inadequate amount to slake one's thirst or still one's hunger, k x ’a h e
!qhaa s1 b a golo drink water and not slake one's thirst, n +u e n b a goIO
my mouth is dry. goIO k a tUU lie on one's side as when hungry (cf. g lx a a ).
golo hands and knees. IhUU golO ||hUU be on hands and knees (cf. In ^l, 4ohlO).
goh ’lo (ka) strong smell of urine or rotting meat,
goh ’m 2 II -t e 2 II cultivated beans.
goh’ni bury in the sand to prevent dehydration (intr.). ah n k a b a g o h ’ni ah n b a
q a la ylu when one buries oneself in the sand one burrows,
g rel d a r a 3 II -t e 3 II grader (<Eng.).
g u b l-si 2 II -t e 2 II fetlock, pastem joint, calcaneum of an ungulate (cf. g y n -te ,
gue +n§hu 2 II - t e 2/3 II a species of plant (Oxygonum sp.). The leaves are chewed to
clean the teeth and to relieve irritated gums,
gue k x ’a i 3 II man's personal name.
gye 3 I g y a 2 I d im :g y u -b a (sg.) gyu-m (pi.) l. cocoon of the Emperor Moth
(Lepidoptera Saturnidae Heniocha) or Lappet moth (Lepidoptera Lasiocampidae). 2. leg
rattle made from the cocoons of these moths,
gut k v raise, lift (tr.), get up (intr.). |a a gul ka lit. did you get up, i.e. how are you?
gu’T loop (as a caterpillar) (vb.). loaha n b a !naa g u ’T the caterpillar moves looping,
gule 3 e I gun 2 u I dim: g u lu -b a/ O aa (sg.) gulu 0 ’ani (pi.) 1. thick, dry bark.
2. bark or wooden spoon for turning food in the ash. 3. species of cockroach found under
loose bark (Blattodea Blaberidae).
gyle (ka) be irritated, of one's eyes,
guhll |ua 3 II man's personal name.
gulu 2 II (possessed) 3 I (alienated) -t e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) ankle as a
whole, fetlock (cf. gyn -te).
gulu kuu gu’u 3 II -t e 3 II owl (without tufts) (onomatopoeic of the call)
(cf. |uhm, IIgulu k a |uhm -se). its calling signifies that eland have passed by and
174 gum to gkhuli

hunters follow it.

gum kV eat dry food.
guhm 1 II gu h m a-te 4 li space, gap, hole,
gu h m -sa 3 II man's personal name.
gumi 3 e/u II (sg. and pL) dim: g u u -b a 3 I (sg.) guu-ni 2 I (pi.) head of cattle, cattle
(gen.). ~ q a e cow. ~ 4 ^ bull, ox.
g y n -te 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) ankle joint, fetlock, calcaneum of ungulates
(cf. gulu, ’ln bo,gubl-si).
gu ’nl tshoo but (cf. x a b e -k a ).
guhnu 2 e I -t e 2 u I Bracket fungus (Polyporaceae). It is used astinder for a flint lighter,
gllhnu-guhnu clot; rot, of vegetable matter
guu (n) stupid, worthless (cf. |4m, sunu).
guu-guu 3 II -te 3 n h&afcuner btt (Mymenoptera megachilidae Maxillosa).
guu-guu q a e 3 II -tU 3 II h&sScuiicr bee (HymenopteraApocritamegachilidae
gUU ka k a ’a 3 II -te 3 II Whitecrowned shrike {Eurocephalus anguitimens).


k h a a kV carve meat (cf. g + k x ’an), a mortar, a piece of wood,

k h a a -ni 3 II man's personal name.
kh ala (kV) separate, divide, differentiate, divide, part, dismande, disperse (tr.); be different,
distinct (intr.) (cf. !u’a), k h ala ’||nuha Iqhn lit. separate (intr.) stand walk, i.e.
walk abreast.
khan i II k h a n a -te 4 ii dim: k a -k h a n O a a (sg.) k h a n a -te 0 ’ani (pi.)
first and second cervical vertebrae (cf. kali-kali). khan q a e atlas (first cervical
vertebra), khan 4 ^ axis (second cervical vertebra),
khan s e la 3 II -t e 3 II council (<Tsw./Eng.).
khee n i 3 II curry (<Afr.).
khoba parched, n ’|num ah n khoba my throat is parched,
khoe formative used in personal names (<lGwi/Nharo), e.g. + a ’e khoe, !a a khoe,
khube 3 II 1. cool part of the morning, morning. 2. tomorrow, ke khube kOO k a ’a
each day, each morning.
khU’bU >[khubu] sweat, perspire (vb.). khu’bu 3 II perspiration, sweat, steam,
khuma/khuma khube 3 II day after tomorrow.


gkhola - s a gkhOLV M remove from the fire (e.g. a pot), remove baking foods from the
ash (e.g. Cucumis Kalahariensis (’Hn^rn), Aff. Rehmannii-Cucurbitaceae (O n §e),
springhare (|nyl) (cf. Hqhola, Iguh’m, ’+n ala, +nau).
gkhuli itch (vb.) (cf. sya).
k x ’a a d a b e to kx’ua 175


k x ’a a dab© 3 II -t e 3 II a species of plant {Cadaba aphylla). The root is used to

increase fertility in cows when it is buried or scattered in the kraal,
k x 'a a k x ’a a 2 II (nom.) l.cry(vb.), rumble, of one's stomach. 2. call (n.), cry, sound
(n) (nom) (ai.). eh |a k x ’a a nna that is its call, k x ’a a loy’T, ||no’li k a
kx’a a sob. k x ’a a ka tarn lit. cry for oneself, i.e. to feel desperate and deserted,
k x ’ah a - s a k x ’a h v H drink (gen.) (cf. sam , q6m).1s1 n b a k x ’ahl d z §l ht.
we are drinking hunger, i.e. we have a great thirst,
k x ’a h a - k x ’ah a kv var. of k x ’a h a .
k x ’a b a l. get up (sg.) (cf. ||x 6b e (pi,)). 2. get excited. |a a k x ’a b a lit. have you got
up? are you? n ’O n a h a !’a o n b a (||ao) k x ’a b a my whole body gets
(hot) and excited (as when a hunter nears his prey).
kX’a e Inaa 3 II man's personal name,
k x ’a e ||nau 3 II man's personal name.
kX’a e khbe 3 II man's personal name,
k x ’ai - s a k x ’aJV H laugh at, also mock,
k x ’a je 3 I laughter (der. nom. of kX’ai).
k x ’am first, te k x ’am te before. |ue |nan n di k x ’am ’ee pass it to me so i eat
first, n h ba k x ’am ’ee Oaje ||’an k x ’ah e til I am first eating meat, later
drinking tea. laa kX’am first wait! wait a moment! kX ’am te |e Oq^a
firstborn child.
k x ’a o - k x ’a o produce a crackling, crunching sound e.g. when walking on dry vegetation,
gravel (cf. x a ’be, xau ylu). d a n a n b a k x ’a o - k x ’a o m a n ||ua |?i the
vegetation is crackling because it is dry.
k x ’a o 3 II pre dawn, k x ’a o 4 ^ early pre-dawn, k x ’a o q a e later pre-dawn,
k x ’a o miT [mT:] |nv illtreat, be disrespectful, joke with (cf. d z a a , ||’a l-||’al,
Ineh’e, !nu’a,!gyi, ||’a e - | | ’a e , k x ’a o - k x ’ao).
k x ’a o - k x ’a o k v tarn var. of k x ’a o m n.
k x ’au (cf. Ilcbp, gllxbp) the sound made when someone walks through bushes because the
way is lost. eh n ba k x ’au ka Iqh1l he is "stumbling" through the bushes, i.e.
he is walking through rough vegetation, "bundu bashing", as a blind person or a hunter
returning empty handed after dark,
k x ’oo kX’6 o - s a 2 II shall, the future, future particle (three days and more remote)
(cf. ah, sa a ). eh n b a k x ’do sii he shall come. k x ’6 o - s a |u kulu-te
future years.
k x ’o o -k x ’bo guhba 2 II -te 2 II a mythical evil creature that kills people,
k x ’ua - s a k x ’uv H l.lower, remove, getdown, descend (sg.), arrive. 2. collapse
(cf. *ln§hn (pi.)), k x ’u a go on! get away! kX’ua ’+n 4 n a s a ’a remove the lid of
thepot. tym a n k x ’ua the skin has peeled off. kX’UV |q’an lit. depress ± e heart,
i.e. annoy, k x ’ui !hOO take off a hat. kX’UV tym skin (vb.), i.e. remove a skin,
k x ’ua I’a a make fire (gen.). O q a a n I’a a k x ’u a ke q a e s a ’a lit. the
child has died (and) come down from its mother's face, i.e. the child has been miscarried.
176 kx’ubu to k’a a - t a

eh ||ohn k x ’ua |ll lit. her spine has descended, i.e. she has miscarried. kX’Ul
sum lit. remove the shade, i.e. get out of the light,
k x ’ubu snap off. k x ’ubu ’+ n a la uproot a tree.
k x ’UU khoe 3 II man’s personal name.


g k x ’a a - la 3 ii -t e 2/3 II the spikey dried inflorescence of Harpagophytum procumbens

(llcaba xaa).
gkx’aml/gkx’aml-kaygkx’ama-ga 2 ii gkx’aml-ka-te 2 ii Pied Babbler
(Turdoides bicolor).
g k x ’au t s ’e e the crackling sound of walking on dry vegetation (cf. g k x ’bp, xb p,
g k x ’au (ka) l. spikey, scratchy, rough. 2. dirty 3. tough, e.g. meat, a person failing to
shoot anything.
g k x ’au - g k x ’au gende rattling sound made for example by pills in a container,
g k x ’b p t s ’e e the crackling sound of walking on dry vegetation (c f.g k x ’au , xbp).
g k x ’u a - g k x ’u a 2 ll - t e 2 II SPCCIQS of grasshopper (Orthoptera Caelifera Acridae).
g k X ’UlU 3 II -t e 3 II inedible berry (spoilt by frost or insects).

k ’a a -ta / k ’a a - la pull back the foreskin (cf. Hq’ua). ah +’an n k ’a a - t a lit. your
penis is out of its foreskin (offensive).
qaa to qal 177

q aa can be. |a q aa ke eh what can you be? i.e. what sort of person are you? |e eh
q aa fla what could it be? o a ’i |a s a a s1i q a a fla the greater omentum here
is what it is.
q aa kv open the mouth, gape (cf. khala kV +ue).
q a a 2 n I gum, latex produced by the frog species Ingbe. The gum of Acacia luederitzii.
Acacia erioloba, Acacia nebrownii and Acacia ataxacantha is taboo and will lead to
weakness unless fed ritually by an elder. The gum of Acacia fleckii. Acacia mellifera and
Terminalia sericea is nutritious,
q a a long ago.
q a h a 3 II cleverness, slyness, dishonesty, cunning, stealth (cf. k a h a ). e h n k e q a h a
k a he is being dishonest with you.
q 4 h a - s a q a h v L l.beaggressivetoward, attack, provoke a fight, go after (cf. Ilaa .
s a a ) . t a a a a t a ’a n t s h o a q a h a this man is getting aggressive towards you.
n n x b o q a h a sli I have come to fight you. 2. put up (of game), give scent to (in
order to cause the animal to run off), n a q a h e G h a n s l g |k x ’a a k e 1 s a a
lloh’a I put up the duiker and chased it and it blew,
q a ’bi [q ’abi] kv/tv/lv turn inside out (e.g. an intestine to remove the contents). ’||nuhm
q a ’bl ll + x a m +qhuu |’UU poke the gemsbok anus inside out.
q a e 3 II -tu 4 II l. biological mother. 2. female (cf. ||g§l). 3. When suffixed to plant
names it signifies a broader-leaved more substantial variety ; with certain other objects it
signifies more substantial size, weight. It is used with the proper name of a person's child
as a respectful form of address e . g . |u a q a e lit. mother of +li |ua. k x ’a o ~
later pre-dawn. Iq h a a g lq h o a ~ dark, heavy raincloud. +nUU |nan big toe.
I’a a - lower firestick. ||kX’an - rumen.’||nahu ~ height of the rainy season, lae
~ height of the hot dry season. ||g a a height of the cold dry season. tS ’OO |’6 a ~
a wide shaped bottle. ||4 b a ~ Devil's Thorn. ||qhaa ~ molar tooth. !ao ~ hip bone.
All these compounds are 2 II.
q a e !gahO 3 II -tu 4 II mother’s sister, father’s brother's wife, step mother, great grand
mother (avoidance category).
q4© 3 n II gravy (cf s a a ).
qah© 3 II dusk ( c f |nye O aa-tu ). n a h qahe sli i came at dusk,
qahe-qahe 3 ll shade for the eyes, n n ba Mnahe q ah e-q ah e lit. I lay down
shade, i.e. I shade my eyes,
qai kv knock o ff e.g. ash from grilled meat ( c f lOO-lOO).
qal ka ’|nua 3 II man’s personal name,
qai khoe 3 II man’s personal name.
qal - s a qenv H kill, destroy, qaji H’abi to play the stick game, q aje Iq’an lit. to
kill the heart, i.e. to worry, q a jia [’a a to strike a light,
qai forceful downward movement. ~ ||qhua tsh xaa put down violently. ~ ||’um stamp.
~ kx’ua I’a a strike a flint or light. ~ ULV |nan sharply lower the head. ~ tUU
throw oneself down, sit down suddenly, fall with a crash, qai tUU kV/tV skim, graze
178 q ai ti !huu to q a p a + a b e

e.g. an arrow or a spear. ~ d tsh a le shatter, smash to pieces, split (as the scalp with a
headwound). ~ |gubO smash open bones. ~ llq’a le mash, q a i tuhu t s ’6 6 hit
with a bang, q ai tl IhllU shake up and down, shake into, bounce up and down.
~ k x ’u a beat off (e.g. to remove a skin by beating). ~ ^ n a ’n smash open. ~ th ia
work metal. ~ Ig a ’O knock into (e.g. a peg into the sand). ||’a o spring a snare
(sg.). ^
q a i tl IhUU 3 II man's personal name.
qaT (n) beautiful, pretty, nice (sg.) (cf. q a jia (pi.)).|g a a te qaT work well!
q 4 l- s e 3 II man's personal name,
q a i (n) painful, - s a 2 II pain.
q ai hil ritual exclamation shouted duringtrance to expel||kx’a a aa.
q a ’ i - s a q a ’JV H 1. defecate, shit (gen.) (cf. ||ala ), also used of a tree's production of
gum. 2. give binh (vulgar), lay an egg. n n b a q ^ ’ i k x ’un I g ^ lit. I shit (and)
bring myself bad luck, said by a hunter has not cleared his bowels before going on a hunt,
q a je 3 ll (nom.) beauty (sg. and pi.).
q a la - s a q aLV L l. dig (gen.). 2. spec, dig a hole (cf. ||gallO). qai a UlU burrow
(cf. goh’n i).
q ah ia (ka) upleasant smell associated with =(=am =fale (Caralluma knobelii (Phill.) Phill.\
gllkx’aJia a a (Asclepiadaceae Duvalia polita N.E. Br. subsp.), Ina’i Hga’u ku
(Asclepiadaceae Caralluma lugardae N.E. Br.).
q a le ’||nfhn (ka ) 3 II -tu /-te 4 II Litle Banded Goshawk {Accipiter badius).
qam qaBV H suckle, kiss (c f.+ ’u m a, ||’ube).
qam |ya kan [ksn] 3 ll - t e 3 il last-born child.
qam ku quiu ku 3 I - t e 3 I {Coleoptera Dytisddae Dytiscus) (cf. tam
ku tulu ku).
q^m 3 II near past or future, yesterday, also in the sense of previous, last. q§m
k x ’a m -te the time before, qam ll kuli last year. q§m fl ’l|nahu last rainy
qahna 2 II -t e 2 II roll of stomach fat round the navel, paunch,
q a ’na 2/3 u II salt, salty.
q a ’nl kv tie a slipknot. q a ’Hl kf |xai |nan tsh oe tie a slipknot on thenoose of the
q|hn-ta 3 II -te 3 II o f ^\dii\i{Ornithogalum longibracteatumJacq.-form).Th<t
leaves and tuber are eaten,
qajia (ka) beautiful, pretty, nice (pi.) (cf. qaT (sg.)),
qajia-sa (ka) 2 il beauty (pi.),
qajia ^abe 3 II man's personal name.
q a jia 2 II anger, sharpness of a knife, n kan [Qksn] q a p a I am angry. s f’Jia
q a jia (InaV) be angry (towards),
q a p a - t e 3 II man's personal name.
q a ’p a q a a (ka) 3 II - t e 3 II long horn beetle, lit. gum shitter (Coleoptera Polyphaga
Cerambycidae Olenecamptus).
q a jia + a b e 3 II man's personal name.
qao to qiile 179

qao gently, calmly, qao ka s a a move slowly, eh n llqhua qao ka ba Inum

he does not stay in a settled way, i.e. he is nomadic, constantly on the move,
q ao -q a o kv do gently, calmly,
qau (ka) tingle (cf. GQle).
q a ’U (ka) sour, brackish, salty tasting,
qohbo intr, form of qohm .
qbhbo (ka) kv reduce in size, extent, numbers, ka qohbO ka |’a a reduce the fire
(i.e. the flames, heat). |’a a t a ’a a h n ka qbhbo ka \\\ this is a reduced fire,
i.e. it is small. |qhaa |’ui ke ||nae ka qbhbo ke build a small hut; keep it
qbh’ba spin, whirl (as the ’ahna) (cf. ’mala),
qoe 3 e I Okwa river.
qola - s a qoLV M grill dry objects on or in the hot sand of a fire (e.g. seeds, dry skin)
(cf. ||ao, llnalu).
qole kv regurgitate,
qom (ka) sip (something cool) (cf. sam).
qbhm qohBV L qohbo (intr.) pour out in spurts, come out in spurts, e.g. water from an
ostrich egg. Iqhaa n ba qohbo the water is coming out in spurts,
qo’nl 3 I -te 3 I dim: q o ’lu-ba (sg.) qo’lu O ’anI (pi.) pattern (also of a snake's
skin), engraving.
qo’ni (-q o ’ni) kv re-kindle an old fire (cf. iGOh’ni, iGoh’la-lGOh’Ia). O ’a a qo’ni
ka I’a a lit. bum rekindle, i.e. re-kindle the fire,
qoo I’UU 2 II -te 2 II broken ostrich egg.
qOO 1 II (sg. and pi.) fairweather cumulus.
qoo IxabI 1 II (sg. and pi.) a variety of cumulus cloud that produces rain without
accompanying thunder and Hghtning.
qbho q’bbe 3 II -te 3 II pith (of a tree) (cf. tshxaa).
q o ’o k v forget.
qliVq'u1-qlii be relaxed, calm, inactive (cf q ao -qao, ||6 o ,+ a ’u). lih n quT ba
I’a a they are sitdng relaxed. |a ah’ao ba ’ahn s1 kshn quT 111 what’s up
with you being so relaxed?
qui 1 II q ua-te 4 II Yellowbilled Hombill (r<9c/:Mj/7flv/r6)5/m).
qyhi l II quha-te 4 II Wattled starling {Creatophora cinerea).
quje >[qo je] 3 I qum 2 I dim: quu-ba (sg.) quu-nf (pi.) Ostrich (Struthio
camelus). qum |u !qhana-te lit. ostriches' moons, i.e. the breeding and laying
season of the ostrich from about July to September, qujo |e |q h ue lit. the ostrich's
wind, i.e. the tornadoes of early summer (glqho’le). quJe |a |aa sp. of plant
(cf ka If he), so called because in folklore the ostrich used it to make fire,
quje ’|nym |kx’a a [q 6 je ’[nym |kx’a a ] 2 II quje/qum ’|numa |kx’a a -te
2 II Thread snake (Leptotyphlops sp.), lit. ostrich throat hand,
quje q aa Iqhum ke 2 II lit. the ostrich long ago cut across it, the name of an area
southwest of Lokalane.
qule 3 II -te 3 II a species of plant (Ledebouria sp.). The leaves and tuber are eaten.
180 qyll-qyll to Ga’n

qyll-qyll kv/qyli kv tickle.

qum -sa quBV H/qum kv suck out (and swallow) (cf. H’ube, g q o ). qum ka
+nau suck out.
qum be overcast, sli a n qCim/Sli qum |n here it is overcast.
qum +nali 1 II -te 1 II cloud cover.
quhm -sa quhBV L shake something out of a container.
quhm kv/ tv ((kV)) truly, the very, proper, genuine, successful. |gaa Sa’a qUhm
nna it is truly the workplace, ah +*ua’a quhm nna truly you alone. Iqhaa
quhm ke nna be h ||qhua ka qa’u it is true water being not brackish, taa
n ke qOhm te the person is successful, ah n llqhua ke taa ke quhm te
ah n ke taa Juha ah h ke taa |e ’||nahe you are not a proper person,
you are a worthless person, you are a worthless person, i.e. you are mean, unrestrained,
your heart is not right, ku tuu ku quhm ku to true people, ke taa ke quhm
ke to a true person,
qu’m “Sa qu’BV H decorate,
qu’m 1 II a decoration (e.g. a tatoo).
qu’m SV crunch, crush (by chewing) (cf. XO’m).
quma/quba/qoma/qoba it is said, "they” say. n n ba quma sa a they
(non-specific) say I will go, it is said I’ll go. eh h quma XOO s1i he's said to be
coming, i.e. he is said to be on his way, they say he is on his way.

G [NO]

Gaa (kV) warmup (c f. + g a ’a ). ||’a n eh a [ja] h o a a the sun has warmed up. o a a
ke Iqhaa warm up the water!
oaha -sa oahv L beg.
G ^ b a -te 2 II heatwaves.
Gahe 3 I - t e 3 I a species of plant. The ground seeds are used to make ritual face marks
during initiation.
G a la -G a la kv ta m wave one's limbs about (as an infant).
G a la - G a la var. of G ^ ’la.
G § ’la (ka) 2 II - t e 2 II {Diptera BrachyceraBombyliidae) (oi. QdL\B.-Qik\di,
f g a l l k a |§ll |nan).
G a le - s a G§LV L play with, flirt with (also G ale + ’V).
G a ’le > [q ’ale] G a ’L V L peel with the teeth (cf. ||Gyle, +gaM e).
G a ’lo - G a ’ lo > [q ’a l o - q ’alo] evacuate the bowels rapidly (cf. c a ’n, p ’kX ’ali). h n
GaM O-Ga’IO I evacuate the bowels rapidly.
G §m ta G §le 3 II rolling over and over, *ahle ~ to roll over and over.
GahnI kv beg (cf. oaha). n h ba Inaa oahnl ku tuu Iqh'il I am going
around begging from people.
Gan 3 I hot sand of a fire (cf. GOni ). |’a a |e Gan hot sand of a fire.
G a ’n ( k a ) > [ q ’an] evacuate the bowels rapidly (cf. G a’lo -G a ’lo , p ’k x ’all). n h
G o le to q h a u - k u 181

k a G a’n I evacuate the bowels rapidly,

GQle (ka) having the sensation of pins and needles, tingling, setting one's teeth on edge,
irritation (e.g. of the gums) (cf. qau ). lo ali ih n b a k a GOle pins and needles ||q h a a - t e n k a GOle my teeth are on edge.
GQlO 2 II -t e 2 II breast of a bird (cf. Ilguu).
GQIo 2 II -te 2 II 1. muscles of the tongue. 2. pharynx.
GO’nl 3 e n hot sand (not of a fire) (cf. Gan).
GQm (ka) crouch by "digging in" (as a feline readying itself to pounce).
Go’m a tv slacken, loosen, undo (cf. gah le, Oqhali, kh ala, dah bu-dah bu ).
GQO kV suck e.g.through a straw, or as an antelope drinking, or suck blood from a cut
(cf.qum, ll’ube, tsh xble, Haha); also smoke tobacco (cf. Il’ube) goo ke Iqhaa
kl +UU suck water from the egg (with a straw). GQO ka +nau suck out.
Gym kV hurt (tr.) (cf. q | l (intr.)).
Gyhm GyhBV m puii out grass or hair, pluck, (cf. Hq’al, tshxum). Gyhm
ll’a m a ||kx’a a pull the grass out.
GUhm ll’a m a 3 II woman’s personal name.
GUm-GUm murmur, talk in hushed tones, talk to oneself, the sound of people speaking at a
distance, buzz as a trapped insect (cf. g o b o -g o b o , ||nQbO).


q h a a + ’ul l n q h a a + ’u a -t e / + ’u m a -te 4 II Caracal {Felis caracal).

q h a a -q h a a 3 II tar in a pipe.
q h ab a 3 II -te 3 II a species of plant {Commicarpus pentandrus (Burch,)Miern).
q h a b e -q h a b e flash (of light), shimmer (of reflected light or heatwaves). ||’an ||g ae n
b a q h a b e -q h a b e the sunlight is flashing,
q h ae ’e exclamation of surprise; gosh!
q hala - s a qhaLV L spit out, expectorate, cough up (cf. Iqhaa).
qhalo la a 2 II -te 2 II o f p\ant {Monechma divaricatumorSida hoyfneri)
(cf. ’jnbha |q h a n ). qhalo la a a a (Monechma divaricatum). qhalo la a
q a e {Sida hoyfneri (?)). Both roots produce intoxication in a dog but the a a species
has a stronger effect. The root is also used to treat lung infection,
qhalo la a kV intoxicate (tr.) (as one would stimulate a dog with medicine during the hunt),
administer medicine, treat, cure ( c f.’ahiu |ua, |’00).
qhalo la a 3 II man's personal name,
qhalu la a var. of qhalo laa.
qhan l II a violently troublesome person, eh h kf qhan eh n b a ||xai ku tUU he
is a trouble maker, he bothers people,
qhana 2 e II -t e 2 u II dagga (marijuana) 5-a//va). A h o Hybantheus
DensifoUus (kliU + e e |a qhan a, lit. God's tobacco) the leaves of which are smoked,
qhani SV break bones at the joints (||Gghle, qhole).
qhau-ku almost.
182 qho’ba to q’up

qhb’b a ripple as water on a pan, bubble as boiling water (cf. IkX'aba, *ln§ba).
qhoh'e > [qoh’e] wait for (cf. |ah ’nx
qhola - s a qhoLV H vomit.
qhole k v break off a bone at a joint (cf. ||GOhle, qhani).
qh o’lo 1. be loose, restless, active, energetic, pulse, wobble, shake, move about (as boiling,
flowing, rippling water) (cf. G q h alo, ||h6lu, qhO'ba). 2. recover from a illness
(recover one’s energy), get better, te q h o ’ lo energetically, y la q h o’lo flap about, be
q h o ta a 3 n -t e 3 II traditional court (<Kg.).
qhule 3 I dim: q h ulu-ba (sg.) qhulu O ’ani (sg.) thong, riem, amulet
(cf. glkx’ala).
qhUU 1 II -t0 4 II the pile of loose earth used by Antbear, Aardwolf, Springhare, Polecat,
mice to partially seal the burrow.

Gqh [NGqh]

G q h alo (b a) loose-fitting (cf. ||hoIo, d a h b u , q h o ’lo). o q h a lo ylu tshuu be

Gqhom kv syphon (cf. tshxble).


q*aa upend, q ’a a f n am a than I up-end and take out the things,

q ’a b i ti/li (n) inside out (var. of q a ’bl). th aa tan h q ’a b i li fil the thing is
inside out. ah n q ’ab i ta tarn you are (go) head over heels, n n q ’ab I kan
|e ham pe lit. I am inside out my shirt, i.e. my shirt is inside out. n |e ham pe n
q’abI ta fli my shirt is inside out. q ’a b i kV I’uT fold back one’s eyelid
(cf. q ’ani).
q ’a b i 1 II q ’ab U -te 4 II Nightjar (gen.) (CapWmM/^Mj).
q ’all sprain, q ’all tshuu be sprained, q ’all ||’UBV gulu sprain the ankle,
q ’a ll- q ’ali be chipped, be peeled off (cf, ||GOle).
q ’ani k v tarn arch e.g. the back, fold back one’s eyelid (cf. q ’abi).
q ’a o 1 n -t e 4 II skinless (offensive), referring to the penis or small labiae (cf. x a a ,
I’a le -I’ale , llq’un). ah ti q ’a o lit. you are skinless, i.e. your foreskin is drawn
q*6be 3 I -t e 3 I pulpy wood fibre (produced by termites)(cf. qoho q ’Obe).
q ’up the sound of a root snapping, q ’up ||’a o grab and "snap".
fbko-li to fulae 183

fb k o -lii n / fb k o -lb / fb k o -le 3 n nothing at all (<Afr.). «h n Igubi fbko-li

eh n llqhua Igube eh lit. he knows nothing, he does not know what, i.e. he
knows nothing,
fbo kbo-li var. of fbko-li.
fUlU/fUlU 3 II flu (< Eng.), g ^ x a ’e fulu sneeze from flu.
fulae 3 II -te 3 n aircraft (<Eng.) (cf. Iguh’u).
184 s a to s^bu-SQbu

sa/sa plural noun suffix,

sa nominalising formative.
sa verbal formative, llh sa saa te their having gone there, sa ka Inoli sf
...having got spoilt.
saa kali 3 II lone mature male blue wildebeest roMrmw^) (cf. haha kail),
saa -sa l.go(gen). 2. shall (future). Iqhaa saa n sll the rain is coming, saa
kV go to someone to pick a fight,
saa faa re/ri 3 II comercial hunting safari (<Eng.).
saa 3 n gravy, soup (al.) (cf. q4©)-
sa a -sa 3 II -te 3 II z. sptcits of (Pelargonium dololmiticimKnuth. or Plexipus
adenostochyus). The root is crushed with Igo’be (Oxygonum alatwn Burch.-form) and the
mixture is rubbed into tatoos to bring luck in snaring animals or for the hunt.
S§a 2 n II (al.) -te 2 II (inal.) 1. fat, marrow. 2. fat (attributive). 3. vagina (euph).
4. petrol, oil. eh ri s§a she is fat. Iqhuje s§a honey,
s a ’a -sa sa ’V H l. wear, put on (blanket, shirt, jacket).2. euph. for menstruate, taa
te’e n sa ’a fli lit. this person is "clad", i.e. is menstruating,
sa ’a - s a 2 ii clothing.
sa*a 2 n I (sg. and pi.) seed.
sa*a 2 n n (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) -nf/-te 2 n II (possessed)/ 3 I(alienated)
face, forehead (inal.), surface. !uhm hill, dune, taa ~ a person's grave. |gaa ~
workplace. |qhan ~ shinbone. g||xuu |nan ~ kneecap. !00 ~ blade of a knife.
||ao ~ cutting edge of an axe. ||nam higher part of the stomach, solar plexus, genitals
(euph.).+kx’um mound of sand. ||gu*a lit. piss face, i.e. eland. ’Inum
forehead. |qhan ~ be over-sexed. ah ~ n O kX ’um you are lucky, ah n
tS ’kX'anI you speak with animation, energetically, ah ~ n ig o e you speak in a
calm, reserved, demure, manner, ah you are unlucky,+gu*V ~ to squeeze
moisture from the pulp of a tuber into the mouth. OnyB V misunderstand, lau
surface of a pan. +UU ~ lit. face of the empty ostrich egg, i.e. the place on the point of the
egg where the hole has been drilled. + g u a contents of an egg. ’+n §n a surface of
a pot. + g u a s a ’a ah n ke ln§a lit. the contents of the egg is bloody, i.e. the egg
is fertilised, contains an embryo. SOO s a ’a -m the strongest medicines. OGQO eh
h ke s a ’a the hollow tree is full (of water). !ula eh h k e s a ’a Acacia
luederitzii tree is full (of water), s a ’a g||qha1-si first portion, fu^t helping. O a a
n b a |nahm ke q a e s a ’a lit. the child is playing in its mother’s face, i.e. the
child is moving in the womb.
S§ba(-S§ba) kV (ka) > [tsaba] shake (e.g. something off one's hand or leg), flick the
index finger against the middle finger to indicate the proximity of a stalked animal or a near
miss of a shot, ka saba ka kx’un shake it off
sa’bi 1 II sa’a-te 4 n blanket, pelt, kaross.
sabU-SQbU kV eat something undercooked (cf nan-n§n).
s ^ l - s a l to Sl1 185

s § l - s 4 l > [ts ’a i- t s ’ai] be dispersed, spread out (e.g. of game or trees) (cf. |ij4l ka,
|c a a ). ||um n S § t-S Q f k a tu a ’a a the springbok are walking about spread out
grazing, eh |nan n s§i-sai ka tuu lit. his head is lying spread about, i.e. his
hair is awry,
saa lee 3 II -te 3 II saddle (<Afr.).
S^IU-tO 2 II secretion of the anal gland (e.g. of the polecat). ~ ||naa anal gland.
sam II’ae 3 II woman's personal name.
sam-sam kv flick the tail (as a lion).
sam kv sip something hot (cf. kx’aha, qom).
sami [ssmi] spin (e.g. a top or the ’’helicopter" toy (’ahna) (cf. ’mala).
sanf >[Sini] 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) -te 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated)
pre-orbital gland, the substance exuded from the preorbital glands of a duiker, wildebeest,
hartebeest etc. Ohan sani lit. duiker's pre-orbital gland, i.e. the black stripes in
Covolvulaceae bulusiana Schinz. (Igala).
s^no (kV) play (with) (cf. |nahm).
s§nu var. of sano.
sao kV fondle a child,
sao |ua 3 II woman's personal name,
sater taxa 3 II Saturday (<Afr.).
sau kv set a dog onto.
sau laa fall, of the first rains. Iqhaa n ba sau laa the first rains are falling,
sau-ku-te >[SlT“ kU-te]/[ sin-ku-te] 2 I maggots found in the skull of hartebeest and
SQU 1 n II altocumulus cloud or any whispy cloud that is unlikely to bring rain (cf. |Gau).
8 6 noun suffix.
see 3 e/u n (sg. and pi.) dim: sau Oaa (sg.) 2 II soap (< Nharo?).
see |GUi 3 II woman's personal name.
see 1 II truth, ki see truly, please, n n ba Gaha ki see I beg you please, tali
see speak the truth!
sela xaa/sala xaa 3 ii -te 3 ii iron snare (<Afr.) (cf. Inanu).
so loo moo 3 II man's personal name (<Solomon).
s1l paa tee laa/ s1l paa tela 3 ii hospital (<Tsw.).
SI noun suffix.
SI SV H verbal transitivizing particle.
s1 sentence connector, and (cf.1).1 ’aba Sli s1 saa we load up and go.
si-lupu 2 II -te 2 II plastic water container (<Kg.).
SlI formative used in consecutive constructions with a. |’aa ah n +ga’e [+ge’e ] eh
si I a ||nau the fire heated it and it shrivelled,n a ’||nuhbe Oaje Oaa a h
n Sl i a paa I stabbed the animal and it died.
s1i 2 II -te 2 II generic locative, side, place (inal.), impersonal "it", until, ka Sli + ’ua
on one side, ka s1i there, here. Uh s1i ta’a these (e.g. people) here, te’e Sli h
ka loo 4A this one here is a spear. s1l n ka ||a’U here it is cold, this place is cold.
s11 ta’a... s11 ta’a on the one hand, on the other, some...others. tUU sH ta’a n
186 sil to su l s a a te

ba *al[ii] qhaa + ’ui uh s1i ta’a n Hqhua ba ’al[ii] some people eat
Caracal others do not eat it. s1i ta’S take it out, this (piece, part) here, fi n
llqhua ba |naa s\\ ta ’au nee ka I do not see this (lit. here) in this way. n
n llqhua ba jnaa s’li I do not see this, eh s1i-te koo ka’a ta’a h ba
qai ka lit. his every parts which are painful, i.e. everywhere where he has pain. Sli
ta h qai ka nna this here is a nice place. s1i n jjnaa it is close, ka’a Sli
to your side.
s1l -sa sav H come to, come up to (cf.sTi). ©h n ba san [ssn] he is coming up to
me, i.e. is close to me. eh |a sn kan sa his coming to me. san thaa find the
thing (cf. InanI). sav +n o u n +te ’e tell, lit. come to + Noun + saying (cf. !ube).
n a n saa jqhuu te’e I told the whiteman. san te’e say to me.
Sli come, arrive. S?l jua next (cf. lahle). Iqhan tf n ba S]\ |ua kl next month.
s1l tshoan tshbo 3 II -te 3 II photograph, picture (<Tsw.).
si mau SU 2 II -te 2 II small goods trader (<Afr.).
sf’i -sa Sl’JV H 1. bite. 2. sharp. 3. speak a Khoisan language. s1’je !kXo6 to lie.
h n sf’l |Ti it is sharp (a blade), sl’pa qapa to be angiy. s1’/ia !x6pa +aa
to speak the !x66 language, sf’i ’+nala/tshuu be short (cf. + ’aba). si’i-sa
sharpness (of a blade), taa I’ua -te h SI ’ j ke the person is sharp eyed,
sf’l-sa 2 II -te 2 II 1. snake (gen.) (lit. biter). 2. any animal that can kill a person,
sikwele 3 e II -te 3 u II school (modem) (<Tsw. <Afr.) (cf. jjnu’m-se).
sipitl f(U)lae 3 II -te 3 II (high flying) passenger jet aircraft (<Eng. Spitfire).
Slhn pi. future formative (cf. ahn (sg.)). Uh sihn sli you (pi.) shall come.
SltuIU/SltTilO 3 e II -te 4 u II stool, chair (<Afr.).
solo +qhaa solo kv tarn glide, as a bird,
son taxa 3 II Sunday (<Tsw./Kg.<Afr.).
SOO kv the ritual feeding e.g. of an initiate or to prevent illness. The person feeding the initiate
waves the food in a circle above his own head while repeating the retroflex noisy click [!!]
and then passes it backwards under his opposite arm to the person being fed. fi h ba
’ae [’ee] Ohan man [msn] +qhee qaa h sbo kan [ksn] te n s1
||nae ba ’ae [’ee] I eat duiker because long ago my uncle ritually fed me and I then
eat it.
SOO 3 e II medicine, certain potent forces (e.g. those removed during curing). 4 ^ medicine
man. ~ ||gai medicine woman. ~ O ’ani spirits (cf. ’jnoha). taa jjqham-te
SOO !xae nna lit. a person's urine is medicine, i.e. a person’s urine is potent
medicine (i.e. to be used against him/her).
SOO I’ua 3 II>[sbo I’ba] sbo |’un-sa 3 II medicine man, doctor.
SOO poo 3 II te 3 II soup (<Afr.).
sya -sa syv H itchy (intr.), scratch (tr.) (cf, gkhuli). syn tarn to scratch myself.
n n ba sya it is itchy. Also applied to an infected throat,
sya 2 I -te 2 I a species of plant {Pancratium sp.). It is regarded as poisonous.
SUbU-SUbU kv tidy, arrange, put in order, distribute a load.
sye (ke) 3 I bald (cf. 4xau ka, nalu ka, noli, dthul, kua).
sul saa te an exclamation said to threatening lightning to move away.
syl to s u ’u 187

syl 1 e II sya-t© 4 u II wart, also the facial warts of a warthog; growths onthe leaves of
plants. If these leaves are eaten by animals coughing results.
SuT (-SuT) kV flay, skin with the thumb (by separating the skin from the tela camosis)
(cf. Ilnaho, Hqhum, !a’a).
SUkUlT/SUkUli/SUkuli 3 u n sugar (< Tsw. <A fr.).
sy ll walk, of an eland or cow. lum n b a sy ll b e g ||x u la - t e |n a a n b a t e ’e
la la la the eland s u ll 's because its knees go la !a !a (this refers to the clicking
sound produced by the knee joints).
su m 1 n II shade, shadow.
sy n i flow (of water) (cf. Inoni).
sunu (ri/kl) silly, naughty, impetuous, eh n sunu/eh k\ sunu he is naughty, eh h
b a I ’a n s f sunu +*u ri she thinks impetuously only.
syu speak Tswana (cf. ^abe).
SU’U dzum 2 II - t e 3 II a spedcs of plant (PollichiacampestrisSoland). The fiov/evsaic^
eaten. The flowers and root are a general medicine. The root is boiled with that of
Cephalocroton mollis Klotsch (+n ah m g + k x ’a n i- k a ) and the potion is used for the
treatment of coughs. The leaves are chewed to clean the teeth and to relieve irritated gums.
su’u 1 II -n a 2 II Redcrested Korhaan (£wpo^i<9r/5 rw/?cmra).
188 x aa -la to xo'lo ka

xaa-1^xaa-ta about to, on the point of. Uh n ba xaa-ta Sll they are about to
xaa 3 II -te 3 II skinless (offensive) referring to the penis or small labiae (cf. q’ao,
!’ale-!’a1e, Hq’un). si te xaa s1 te q'ao ...and they are skinless and they are
xaa kV pass between,
xabeka but (<Nama?).
xa'be make a muted noise, "rattle" of a box of matches (cf. 4q^na ts’ee, tshola
ts’ee, kx’ao-kx’ao). |’aa n ba xa’be the matches are ’’rattling". ||ua n
ba xa*be the springbok are making a sound (of grazing),
xabu kv eat wet food (cf, ’aa, gum),
xal kv grind (in the hand or on a rock) (cf. gfkx’aa, Iq’oa).
xala 3 n -te 3 ii bile (<Tsw.) (cf. +gao).
xala S ll 3 II -te 3 II bottle ( < T s w . <Afr.).
xala 3 I -te 2/3 I spade (<Afr.).
xali (kV) end, finish, wear out, complete (|oho, ||kx’ala). Iqhan |a xall-sa
month's end.
xall-xall kv dislocate the lower jaw sideways (cf. xani).
xam |GOla-ka (4a) 2 II -te (4a-tu) 4 II a species of plant (fiup/wrWaceae
Pterococcus africanus (Sond.) Paxt K. Hqffm.).
xa’m/xo’m ||n6 ’la-ka 3 ll dry sand (cf. xo’bo, +Ggli).
xani SV dislocate, e.g. the lower jaw sideways (cf. xali-xall ). Also to break the spine,
e.g of a tortoise by inserting a stick into its anus, or by spearing an antelope. xanI SV
lao-te dislocate the pelvis.
xa’6 -sa xa*BV H cause a burning sting, irritation or inflammation (from certain plants or
caterpillar hairs),
xaro 3 II -te 3 II spade (<Afr.).
xau kv 1. respect, show avoidance behaviour towards one’s +kx’an, O aa Igaho,
Iqhee, qae Igaho, jkx’oe *|nan), be reserved, defer to. 2. be embarrassed,
ashamed, shy (cf. ’Inoh’la).
xau(-se) 3 I kin avoidance, respect (n,), shyness, shame,
xau kua 3 II man'personal name,
xau-xau kv defer to.
xau the scraping sound made when a person walks through branches or bushes, eh n ba
xau ylU he goes in (scraping) through the branches,
xobi kv stuff the mouth with food (cf. ||GQm). XObI ka dtshXOla stuff the mouth
and slurp (e.g. when eating the tuber of Asclepiadaceae Kinepetalum Schlecht. (’Inyla)).
xo’bo 3 II dry sand (cf. xa’m ||no’la ka,+GQl1).
x o ’lo k a hang, lower the head (cf. + G a h a ). n n x o ’lo k a t s h o a k x a a I am
hanging my head about to cry. lum n XO’IO k a tSh oa |’a a the eland is hanging
its head about to die.
xb’m to xue 189

xo’m sv crunch, crush (cf. qu’m, xo’m-xo’m),

x6*m-x6 ’m sv variant of xo’m,
XOO about to, in the process (ingressive) (cf. tshoa).
xbp tS’ee the sound of the crackling noise of walking on dry vegetation (cf. gkx’au,
gkx’bp, gllxbo).
xoromante/xoromante 3 II government (<Tsw. <Afr.).
xua walk briskly . Inaa xua walk briskly,
xue 3 II -te 3 II sore, pox, tinnea capitis, leprosy (cf. thua).
190 ha to hu’u

ha exclamation of surprise.
haha ka Sll (ka) sway, stagger, move about unevenly as a drunk person, taa te’e n
ba ka haha ka sn this person is swaying about (cf. !nai-lnal).
haha kail 3 n variant of saa kali.
h^ha 2 I cotyledons (of an antelope womb). In§l Oaa |a h§ha the cotyledons of the
hartebeest foetus,
haklll isn’t it so? not so? (<Tsw.).
ham tl (ka) have, make a dimple, n n ba ka ham tl I make a dimple.
ham huna ka-te 2 I twins (joint reference only).
hampe 3 II -te 3 II shirt (<Tsw . <Afr.).
hgba kv var. of hgm.
hglo stand on dptoe.
hpm -sa (ka) ka hQBV L shake, shake the head (side to side or nod)
(cf. ||n9 nH|n§nl). ka hQbe kx’un shake it down,
hgm-hgm kv varofhgm.
hQlo stand on tip-toe.
hOO exclamation of surprise, exclamation to call attention,
hbs phal pi 3 II -te 3 ii hosepipe (cf. thiimpb).
hull kv cast off a skin (as a snake), change into another creature. 6h h ba hull k'l \^\
he turns into a lion.
hUU tv poke out (e.g the contents of an intestine) (cf. qa’bl).’||nuhm hUU tan [tsn]
poke it out!
hyhm-hyhm kv shake (cf. hgm. hgba).
huni SV mix in, stir in (?<Nharo <Nama) (cf. +kX*Uml).
hu’u be huddled together. hU’U ka tShUU be seated huddled together (collective). hU’U ka
||hUU |l) be huddled up wrapped up in a blanket (cf. Inah’6 , igoo).
laa 9 a to luu ka |a a nee 191

laa ^ a +qhua dialect variant of taa ia m a n .

labu bedT/labu beri Tuesday (<Tsw./Kg.).
labu raru Wednesday (<Tsw./Kg.).
labu hne Thursday (<Tsw./Kg.),
labu thaanu Friday (<Kg.).
laa qae dialect variant of ta a q ae 'woman'.
lam pi var.ofn am pi.
le var. of plural suffix -te.
lee keree var. of n e k e r e .
luu ka laa nee 3 11 Lokalane borehole (<Tsw./Kg.).
192 m §a ll’a e to ’m e’me

m§a ll’ae 3 II -tU 4 II dim: ka-m^a li’ae o a a (sg.) the wife of the eanh god
mala kV ((ka)) tam/taa graze around in a small area. Hum n ba !huu ka mala
kll taa the springbok (pi) are grazing in a small area, ’aa ka mala eat grazing
about in a small area,
mall kV 1. turn around, return (cf. tS’an, gall). 2. answer, retort,
mala-mala kv |nan var.of mall-mall kv |nan.
mali-mali kv |nan sway the head as a snake (cf.mala-mala).
man speak Kgalagadi. eh h ba man ke +abe he is speaking Kgalagadi. eh h ba
man ke taa te’e he is reporting this person,
m ^ n -k a [m ai]-ka] 3 II man's personal name.
m§nl -sa speak a non-Khoisan language (but not Kg.) (cf. sfM).
man taxa 3 II Monday (<Tsw.<Afr.).
mail lUU 2 II -te mule (<Eng.).
majia >[rn i :a] 2 II -te 2 II kin, members of a band nexus (inal.) (cf. glkx’um).
maxatO 2 II -te 2/4 II a species of plant {Rhynchosia sp.) (< Kg.). The root is chewed
and applied to sores,
meo do 3 II man's personal name,
mil thini 3 II -te 3 II meeting (<Eng.).
molo |ua 3 II woman's personal name,
moo-moo-se 3 ii -te 3 ll a mute.
mu-|naa-na 2 ii -te 2 ii earring.


’mala l. sheet lightning and thunder (vb.), also flash of lightning (cf. IgOO). 2. The spinning
action of the toy ’ahna (cf. qoh’ba),
’me’me 2/3 li -te 2/3 ll mosquito.
n to n e e 193

n indicative formative.
n Noun class 5 harmonic pronoun; inanimate 3rd. person singular pronoun, it.
naa qall 3 II -te 4 II Striped polecat (Ictonyx striatius) (< Kg.) (cf. daa).
naa kbo 3 ii -te 3 ii time (<Kg./rsw.).
naa leave the genitals exposed, eh h naa ||hUU she has her genitals uncovered,
naa |ua 3 II man's personal name.
naBV > BV H L appear, seem to be. 2. be like. 3. think+sentence. |qhUU n ba nama
!’a e |li the whiteman seems to get a fright, t a a t e ’e eh n b a (n a )b e t e ’e this
person resembles this one. |a a n b a n a m a s a a te the women are thinking of
going, eh n b a (n a )b e s a a !n a a he seems to be going off.
n a h ’la 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) - t e 2 II (possessed)/ 3 I (alienated) spleen.
Regarded as a taboo meat for males. ||x a a n ka b a ’aa n a h ’la uh n ba
g|xu Jia l^ a Ix a m a if men eat the spleen they are insulting the senior
women('s genitals) (because of the perceived similarity in shape to the vagina), n n a h ’la
n k a b a k x ’a a ah n b a lube k an [ksn] ki |a i bi n ||n a a when my
spleen cries out it tells me of the proximity of a lion.
n§II (ka) smooth, soft (of hair) (c f. +q an ).
nalu ka (ka) l. straight (e.g. a road, tree). 2. bald (cf. noli, +xau ka,dthUl).
ah sa ’a h ka nalu ka lit. your face is straight, i.e. you are bald,
nam l II naa-te 4 II a species of plant {Dipcadi marlothii Engl). The tuber is baked but
if eaten by the hunter the meat of the prey will be bitter and smoothe textured (+qan).
n a lue Ohan ||guII tshoe |u naa-te bu n ba ka dt’kx’aba kan
[k§n]|kx’aa-te I grasped the duiker's groin’s Dipcadi marlothii (so-called) because
they stick to my hands. This refers to the "sticky" texture of the hair in this anatomical area
of the duiker. The bulb is also ground to a paste which is used when shaving the forehead,
nam-nam-se 3 II a pan near +ii I’uT (Maitloaphuduhudu).
nam tsii 3 II female personal name.
nama 2 I -te/ni 2 I Nama (person), also to speak Nama (cf. |qae).
nama lal khbe 2 ii -te 2 ii rags, tatters (cf. gl|kx’all, Hgfha).
nam-pa 3 ii nam-pi-te 3 ii lamp (< Afr. < Eng.) (cf. lam-pi).
namunu/namunl/namani 3 e/u ii orange (<Tsw. <Afr.).
nahni tv beckon.
nah’ni-ka 2 n/u ll -te 2 u ii flame (inal.) (n.). nah’ni-ka ah n ||naa lit. the
flames are spilling, i.e. the fire is sparking.
n § n -n § n l. eat something undercooked (cf. S § b U -S § b U ). 2. the twitching movements
of insect feelers,
nahro 2 I -te 2 I Nharo Bushman (cf. IXOU).
nau 2 n II -te 2 n II side branch, smaller leaf-bearing branch (cf. +qhue,
glkx’aa-ku, g|kx’abu).
ne var. of complementizer formative te.
nee like this, be this way. thaa n nee te’a a ;th a a n lah’u nee the thing is like
194 n e k e r e to ’nn

this. |a n glkx’um ah’ao nee lit. how are your kin, i.e. who are your kin?
h n llqhua nee te’aa that's not the way it is.
nekere/nee ke ree 3 e II -te 3 u II sweet (n.) (< Tsw. < Afr.)
(cf. le e k e r e e ).
nt variant of noun plural suffix te.
nn^ lla identificative copulative formative, be. n’n nna it is me.
noil (ka) l.smoothe, 2. bald (cf. nalu ka, + x a u ka, dthui).
noo III > [n o li] l e II -te 4 u II lorry (< Afr. < Eng.),
n 5 I, n’n (emphatic) dim: n |q a m (sg.) first person singular pronoun, I.
h 5 II, h’h (emphatic) dim: h |q a m (sg.) Class 5 pronoun, it.


’n§m Iqhaa 2 ii -te 2 ii saliva.

*n^n 2 n II *n4na(-te) 2 n/u II gall bladder.
’n§n 3 I a species of plant, Tsw. Sebete (Cassia italica (mill.) Lam. ex F.W. Andr. ssp.
arachoides (burch.) Brenan). Used as an initiation medicine. The root is mixed with the root
ofHermannia (\\gk‘k ) md Rhus tenuinervis (^xal I) and chewed. The saliva is then
rubbed on the stomach and head.
’n§hn-’nihn-te 2 n ii gums.
’rin (-Ja) over there (cf. Ina’m, t a ’m - S ^ - ja ) . ’nn fua grab it over there.
a to eh 195

a past tense formative, eh a [ ja ] sTi te lae ’In^hO-t© he came at the end of winter,
§ a 3 II -tu 4 II 1. biological father. 2. male (in the pi. ||x a a ). 3. when suffixed to plant
names signifies growth with taller stalks and smaller leaves and when suffixed to certain
other nouns signifies smaller, thinner, lighter objects. 4. term of respect used with first
person singular pronoun or suffixed to the personal name of the addressee's eldest child.
~ IgahO (see IgahO); t a a ~ man; IlkX’a n omasum; kX ’a o ~ early pre-dawn;
I’a a fire drill; tq h aa g lq h o a ~ cirrus cloud, light whispy cloud; lOO ~ spear,
’||nahU the onset of the rainy season. !a e the onset of the cold dry season, winter.
Ilg a a theonsetofthehotdry season, part of summer, t s ’o o |o a ~ a narrow
shaped botde. ||a b a a long thin thorn, s b o medicine man, traditional healer.
Ilq h aa ^ a tu incisors and canines. All these compounds are 2 II.
a h 2 I ah^a (emphatic) dim: a h |q 4 b a ( ^ a ), ah ^ ^ a (sg.) second person
singular, you (sg).
ah [a ] 2 II a h ’a' (emphatic)dim: a h |q a b a (’a ) (sg.) Class 2 harmonic pronoun,
he, she, it.
a h ’a 3 II where? which? how? ke a h ’a where? |ee a h ’a where is he? |ee k a
a h ’a fi1 where can he be? |an [[sn] + ’a a ke ||ua te a h ’a k e which
springbok should I shoot at? k a a h ’a o ’a h n -s a lit. by which (way) doing it. i.e.
how? th a a + ’an th a a tan a h ’a kan [ t h a a + ’sn th a a tsn a ’a ksn] lit.
thing and which thing, i.e. whatever thing,
ahbi tv lift the edge of something, e.g. a blanket, and peepunder it (cf. + ’ue).
ahli 2 1 -t e 2 I pipe for tobacco (cf. tsh an a, !xuu).
ahn future tense formative (sg.), shall (cf. sihn (pi.)), n ri b a ahn [m :ahn] *ahn I
will do it.
ah Class 2 harmonic pronoun.
§hl SV refuse to give (cf. |§a, g+kX*um).

e can, could, ah e ’ahn you can do it. n e ||qhua ’ahn I can not do it, I will never do
it! eh e[je] ’ahn he can do it. h 6 ka ke taa it could be a person, ah e
|nan kU tu’u you can see from these ones.
[e] 3 II eh’e (emphatic) dim: eh |q§ba(’e), eh |q§m O aa (sg.) l. third
person singular and Class 3 harmonic pronoun, he, she, it (animate). 2. With the question
particle |V it translates who? what? |an [|3n] h ba ’ahle eh what am I doing?
|u n ba [|uma] kane ke eh what do you (pi.) want?
196 1 to yhm

I consecutive sentence marker (cf. s1).

"ih Q] 1 l1 h ’T we pL emphatic dim:1h Iqaba Oaa(’T ) 1h |qam O ’ani(’T) (pL)
first person plural pronoun, we (pi.) (cf. 1st,+nai).1h ||ae we three, p kOO ka’a
nna is it all of us?
Ih [j] 1 n class 1 harmonic pronoun.
isf 1 I Isf’T(emphatic) first person plural pronoun, we (pL), var. of ih dim. ISI
ni(’T),1s? |q§m O’anI (’T).

o h o [ p :] form clouds. Iln a n n k a b a k x ’a a I q h a a n ||q h u a b a o h o when the

cicada calls, the clouds do not form.
Q h b a p e e ( k a ) descriptive of firey redness. Iq h a n t i ’ i ih n k a Q h b a I’e e m a
I’a a this moon, it is fiery red like fire.
QP t s ’e e sound made by the frog IriQ be (probably Breviceps sp.).

u h [u ] 4 I u h ’u (emphatic) dim; u h | q a a - n i - ( ’0 ), Oh Iq a m 0 ’a n i ( ’u ) ( p l .)
second person plural, you (pL). Uh I ja e ’U you three. Uh + n u m s a a you two go!
Uh [U]4 II u h ’u (emphatic) dim: Uh | q § a -n i(’U)/Uh |q 4 m 0 ’a n l(’U)(sg.) third
person plural and Class 4 harmonic pronoun, they. Uh ||a e ’U the three of them.
U h a I c a n i k a u h a k v I’u a - t e move ones eyes back and forward (cf. ||k x ’a li).
u h b u - k u 3 e II - t e 2 u II earth god (cf. ’||n u h a ta r n , ’ |n o h a t a a ,
t o o - l o o !x a e ) .
y h b u ’+ n a l a make a sudden move.
Uhe 3 II apan north of Lehututu.
Uhl kv Uhl 1 (der. nom) help (< Nharo, Nama?).
UhlU t s ’e e the sound of galloping animals.
ylu -sa ULV L enter, go into, put in, plant (sg.) (cf. Ig a ’O (pi.)). +e’e ka UlU force,
do hastily. yLV s a ’a lit. put in the face, i.e. lower the head. |ai'ih ri ka ba
!naa ih n ba uW s a ’a when the lion walks it lowers its head (lit. face), ylu
|nan bow the head,
yla qho’lo be loose,
yhm kv push, push over (cf. ||ahm).
watje to ’ee 197

w a t Je 3 e II - t e 3 u II watch (n.) (< Eng.),

w e e variant of be, vocative formative.

’VV this, d ao ’ii this road. |qhUU *aa this white person.
’a a be alone, distinct, separate, unlike, h tan [t3n ]*aa \]\ n tan [tsn ]’a a 111 lit. this
one is alone, this one is alone, i.e. this one is distinct and this one is distinct (these are
distinct things).
’aa glqhai 3 II man's personal name.
’aa -sa ’av >[M: ’e: ’a: ’QU] L (gen.). 2. food in nom. 2 II. 3. euphemism for
sexual intercouse.’aa kV feed, give food to. ’ee !hua to yawn.’ae [’e:] taa
have intercourse with a person, ’ee +kX ’a o engage in spouse exchange.
’aa |hum tl 3 II meat left over from the kill of a carnivore, n a n IXOt \%\
xabeka n a n ’ae [’ee] ’aa Ihum ti |§i |e I picked up a lion but ate
leftovers, the lion's that is.
’ah gosh! (cf. ’ahu).
’aba sfi pack up (cf. ||x6be). ’aba sii si saa let’s pack up and go.
’aJOO exclamation of agreement, "oh yes!".
’at dthabi [’iidthabi] 3 II male personal name.
’ahlu (nom.) ’ahLV L 1. do. 2. pick the berries of Orbeopsis Knobelii (+am +ale), or
the pods of Bauhinia Petersiana (|an) 3. have sexual intercourse with (euph.). ’ahle
lube lit. do a mistake, i.e. to make a mistake, ’ahn te (tshoa) ’aa do it like this,
’ahlu |ua -sa ’ahlu |uv H make, repair, fix, attend to an affliction or sore, heal or cure
(as in a trance dance), to doctor a hunter to bring luck (cf. qhalO laa, |’00). taa te
ba Iqhama ke eh n ba lao ke tarn ka +kx’um. eh n ba ’ahlu
|ue tarn a person who is ill cuts himself (ritually) with ^kx’um (i.e. he rubs ^kx’um
into the cuts). He treats himself.
’am baa eh 3 II honorific term of address for the lion.
’ahn conjunction for coordinated nouns or noun phrases (cf. + ’a ). ||um ’ahn |alu-te
’ahn springbok and wildebeest.
’§ h a -’^ha kV ’Inym dear one’s throat.
’^hna 2 e II - t e 2 u II a toy consisting of two feathers attached to a stick from which a
weight is suspended. It is flicked up and spins as it descends (cf. dzani). + ’aa
’ahna lit. to shoot the ’ahna, i.e. to flick it into the air. ’§hna +nun lit. the ’ahna's
navel, i.e. the weight.
*au >[au] 3 this way. ’au S}\ come this way. ’a u -Ja lit. this way there, i.e. over there.
ah ’au lit. you this way, i.e. come this way! ke ’aU over this way.
’ahu var. of ’ah gosh!
’e e \\] yes (cf. ’Ii, e eh, »aJbo).
198 ’e eh to ’uhm

’« eh [ee] yes (cf. ’ee, ’il, ’ajbo).

’il yes (cf. ’ee).
T r ’T'T'[M:T:] no.
*yhm 1 II a locality 15 km. southwest of Lokalane.

aardwolf to although 201

aardwolf |ahi
abandon lalu I’a e
abcess fuu
abdomen llnam; ||q’abe
abomasum O a’i
about to tshoa; xbo; xaa-la
abrasive (n.) 4gba
absent |6lo; llqal
abstain glkx’ao
abuse dzao; ’Inaho; g|xul; ka’a; ka’a -se
accelerate llnahm kx’aba
accident Ig'ua
accompany !gaa ; 4num ( - in a twosome)
accuse ’llnaha
accustomed Iqum a
achilles tendon ’Indo; ||§ h a glkx’um
active qho’lo
adhere dt’kx’aba; Ihuu
administer |n Q O , k x ’a h a kV ; q h a lu - la a ( medic
adultery ’llnuhm ’+nala-ka; ’ee +kx’ao
affect + ’a a kV (of medicine)
affected !au (become - with sickness or itching)
afraid ’Inuhi; Ilya; Ina’m; xao; tao
Afrikaner buru
afternoon !goa
again llqhao; llx a le
agree +gum
aggressive ||aa, q§ha; ’||naha; saa kv
aggression ’|nua
ahead ^haa
aim llqhaa
alcohol !xali
algae In'ya
alive Inua (sg.), Inujia (pi.)
all koo ka’a
almost qh au kii; ||n a a -||n a a
alone ’a a ; + ’u V ’V
already +’ee
although kULV
202 always to arch

always dao koo k a ’a

amazed llqhull
ambush laa; dza’a tshuu sf laa
amniotic fluid Iqhaa; Iqhaa
among Oqhaa
amount ’llnaha
amputate duhl; |xum
amulet g lk x ’a l a (of medicines) (met.); qh ul6
anal canal 4qhuu I’uu
anal gland s|lu-te llnaa
anal sphincter dyhba-te dzum
ancestors Ixam-te O ’ani
and +’a; ’ahn; ndi (and then I)
and then llnal
anger qapa; Inoll sv Iq’an
angry si’jia qajia
animals Oaje O ’ani
animated (sa’a n) ts’kx’ani
ankle gulu; gyn-te
ankle joint gulu; gyn-te; ’!nbo
annoy |ali; ||xa1; tena; kx’uv Iq’an
another llqhaV; ||qhae (one another)
answer igaba; mall; ||qua (in the negative)
ant dzbh’a (gen.), spec, cocktail; Inapa, dahbi-sii, Igb’bl
(flying); |q a ’m (sp. o f ) ; Igah’a (sp. black edible); Hg^hla
(sp. eaten by earth god); igQhlO (sugar)
antbear Ikx’aje
antheap llgai
ante-cubital fossa I’unI tshbe
anthophorids bolo-bblo
antidote Igae
ant-lion lulu |e Igue, |c§ha jhal
anus dyhba; dyhba-te dzum; |au (euph.)
aorta tshbe +’um; +’um; Ikx’olo
appear to be naBV
Apple-leaf Inuu
apprehensive Inahle
approach ’+'nuhma; I’ba (-I’ba)
apron lohba llnaa (large); !guu (woman's front); ||gabi (woman's
arch (of foot) 4nuu tshbe
area to axillary fold 203

area |haa xbo |ua (large); ||n§a xbo |ua (small); Inule
argue lnabe;tana +’v
argument Inabe; Inua
arm IkX’aa; IlkX’oa (lower); IlnahO (upper)
amipit *||nybl tshoe
aromatic dtshaa (herbs)
around llg^hma-llgihma; Ina’m
aroused IgaJO (sexually)
arrange 'llnahd; subu-subu
arrive tholo; kx*ua-sa
arrow gllqhaa (bone tip); Iq’ull (projectile); ||x6n (projectile);
f qhaa (with poison)
arrow head tqhaa |nan
arrow shaft bahle
artery lbh6,+*um, tshbe +*um (blood vessels of thorax and
ash +gba; >^gba |a liihm s a ’a (-heap)
ashamed xau
ask Ohai
ask for |uh1; caha; ||gaa
aspirate saliva IcyhQ I’uu
assuage !nalO (-hunger)
assassin bug llnyle |e kx’oo-kx'oo guhba
at |naa; |’aa +u e ( - the fireside)
attack ||a a ; q a h a
attend Il’Ule (listen to); ’ahiu |u a (to an affliction)
attract |n a a - s i
auditory canal ^ n iih a ts h b e ; ^n u h a *|nym
aunt q a e Igaho; ||ham
auricles |q ’a n |n ii h a (-ofheart)
avoid Inft’rn; x a u - s e , l k x ’6 6 , x a u (-kin ), ’||n ah le, ’+n ah m
await I5h 'la
awake k x ’a b a (sg.), ||x 6 b e (pi.); f e e
awful ’l|n«a
awl |x u u
awn Iq’a o
awry llg ^ m a -te ; s 9 l- s § l
axe llao
axillary fold ta h n a (posterior - )
204 baboon to bean

baboon tshonl
bachelor ’Inal; lG|ht-si; ||’ubl ’Inal
back (adv.) ’InQho; +am
back flesh Ixoma
back of +hal; Ikx’aa +hal (- the hand); Iq’iJ-sa
backside •Iniiho
backwards |q*il-sa, lhan-ka
badly ^x6T-sa
badness +x6Je
bad +X 0 T-SI (sg.), +X 06 -Ja (pi.); +x6T-sa; g+kx’6a
baffle taha, gaha
bag Igtibe; Iqum;’^nahe; Iqhum |kx’aa (deep and nairow -);
luma (hunting - ); lad ’^nahe (large - )
bake qola; ||ao
bald ^xau;sa’a 4qdn; s a ’a n bi iuu; duhi;nalu; noli
(id.); kua (jocular)
ball tahl (of foot or band); ^n'uu ||guu (of foot)
band nexus ma/ia; glkx’um (members of)
bang qal tuhu ts’ee
banging tuhu ts’ee; Ihuu
bangle |hua tshoe
bark (n.) gule (dry); tsahbl (wet)
bark (vb.) ’Inoh’u
base ’In^ho
bash llq’um; dtshghu
bash about l^ho ts’ee
bash into I’um; dtshghu
Bastard umbrella thorn lula
bat d4hn-te
bat-eared fox Il’il
bathtub baa-ta
be kV; tV; |Tl; fla; nna; nee; ||qhoa kv, ||’aa (n otto-);
|fl t ’e (-w ith ); see also the verbs sit, stand, lie.
be (like) BV
bead +kx’ai (copper - ); liihni ( - decorations on the head); ||g§pa
(ostrich eggshell): Ikx’am (glass or plastic -);
Ixua (- headband)
beak dziim
bean goh’m
beard to better 205

beard |num
beat (vb.) !ahi; gghba; gghba-gghba; tshxau;
!au ka Iga’a (- down e.g. grass); thala, thee (- flat);
+ahO -+ahO (- of the heart)
beautiful q aT (sg.);q a/ia (pi.)
beauty qaje
because BV
beckon n§hnl
bed beete
bee Iqhuje (sp.); bolo-bolo (Carder, Leafcutter); lam ta bolo
bOlO (sp. Carder or Leafcutter); gUU guU;lQhO-t1 ||qai
beefy ca'Ma
beer birl
beeswax gllqhai
beetle |g§h l-Sl (gen. and spec. Dung); |cahn-S1 (dialect for Dung);
IIgoIo xbm (Jewel); ||nahi-si ||guu (Skin); llnahl-si
iGfEma (Skin); ||nahi-si ||GQh*a (Skin); qa’jia qaa
(Long horn); Ig^lG (Darkling); |§a tshxaa
(Scarabacidae Pachylomera); ^gala ta +xai (Ground); qam
ku quiu ku, tarn ku tulu ku (sp. Diving); dzam |il
xaa (Leafchafer, Christmas); lOO-lOO, Ohan |q’an, +al
Iq’an (’Toktokkie"); labi-lf (sp. water); ||aa |i |g§hl-si
(arrow poison -); Ina’i-lna’I (sp.)
before kx’am; qam kx’am-te
beg |uhi; oaha; ||gaa; cahni
begin tshoa-tshoa
behave badly Inoli sv + subj. Iq’an; IqhaBV Iq’an; +xoje
behind Iq’ii-sa
being BV
belch llgaha
belly ||nam sa ’a (higher part); Ihuma (lower part)
below Iga’a
belt ban taa
bend Iga’n; Iqhom; 4abu; g||x6’bu.
bend over (intr.) 4bhe; Iga’a
bend over (tr.) 4caa
bent lln'uh’pa tshuu;!qhum
berate llxuu; Inabe
berry iGOla k a a (fleshy part of a -); gkX ’UlU (inedible-); iGOh’la
(- of Grewia retinervis)
better qho’lo (get-); Igu’m (get - of a sore)
206 between to bird

between Oqhaa; Oqhaa-te; !’ao (the space - things)

bewitch gl|xai
bible b al bin
bicep + ’um; Ikx’olo
big lxav(sg.), IxaBV (pi); ||all
bile + g a o ; x a la
bind +Gall; ’||n ah a; +am
bird Iguh’u (gen); ||qhaa ka tsama (sp. oO; llgunu (sp. of);
!oo +nu1 (sp. of): lu’je ||g a b a - te (sp. of); kali (sp. of);
qyhi (Wattled Starling); g k x ’ami, g k x ’am i k a ,
g k x ’a m a -g a (Pied Babbler); Hale !n§a (Tit Babbler);
llkx’ube tahm (Pied Barbet); Inohlo (Pririt Batis and
Threestreaked Tschagra);+q o e ’nan (Swallow-Tailed Bee Eater);
lubi if !al (Red-eyed Bulbul); tQhO-tl (Golden Breasted
Bunting); Inuu (Korrie Bustard); +han-«fhan-Se,
+h u m -+h u m -se (Desert Cisticola); !g a h m -sa loo, Igahm
’Inaha loo (Black Cuckoo); ||a1 (Diederik Cuckoo); |qhblu
k a (Great spotted Cuckoo); ||n bh a-la, ’Inaa (Black or Pied
Crow); luu ku !huu (Spotted Dikkop); k a ||ale ||gau,
dZ§U (Cape Turtle Dove); ||oba (Namaqua Dove);
Iq’a m l-lq ’ami, |q’u n i-|q ’u n l-se, |q’u m -|q ’u m -se
(Scalyfeathered Finch); lolii (Red-Headed Finch, Lesser Masked
Weaver); ||x6na, ||b a - ||b a -s e (Red-Billed Francolin); !ulu
|e h e -s e (Forktailed Drongo); g a a (sp. of duck); !aha kU
(Bateleur Eagle); +n ale !a o -s e (Pale Chanting Goshawk);
q a le i|nahn, k a q ale ’||nahn (Little Banded Goshawk);
gllqhule (Crowned Guinea Fowl); Iguu |hUU (Little
Sparrowhawk); ||ahla |n -se (African Hoopoe);
||q’UU-||q’UU“Se (Scimitar Billed Hoopoe); !abe (Grey
Hornbill); qui (Yellow Billed Hornbill); 4 ^ah b a,
tsuhu ku tsbhba, dzau ku tsahba (Black Kite);
^qahlTia (Yellow Billed Kite); ||a b a (Black Korhaan); SIJ’U
(Red-Crested Korhaan); q ’ab i (sp. of night jar); lam a (sp. of
lark); quje (Ostrich); gulu kUU g u ’u (Owl); + ’a b e -le ,
=f’abe tau (Owl with tufts); !’aa-raa-se, fuhm (Owl
without tufts); |aho, Iqaho (Bam O w l); ’||nuhm, Hgulu ka
fuhm-se (Giant Eagle Owl); !nbl0-ka (Pearl Spotted Owl);
llnae (Crowned Plover); =fahi-+ahT, +Gai, +uhi-+uhT,
+GUhT-+GUhT (Black Chested Prinia); +gale, lobo (quail
(gen.)); Inu’a (sp. small raptor); |gani-se (Kalahari Robin);
llcala xam (Lilac Breasted Roller); ’||nbhba (Purple Roller);
birth to blunt 207

IgahU (Secretary Bird); !au ||gae (Crimson Breasted Shrike);

gana (Greater Sparrow); dz§ba 1hi (Cape Glossy Starling);
llno’be (Stork (gen.)); ||au ta +nale, +n§m, +n^m
Inahle (sp. of swallow); Hqhuu ka Ig^ma-ka
(Groundscraper Thrush); ||*al-||*al-S6 (Ashy Grey Tit); Igu©
(Cape Vulture); llau (Whitebacked Vulture); |§hm, |ahm lOO
xbo, |ahm loo Ibo, |bhO loo xbo (Violet Eared Waxbill);
lao +nul, Igahm lull, +ga’a -te ka I’aa, |^hm lull
(Shaft or Pin-Tailed Whydah); | x a ll - |x a li- s e (Woodpecker);
gUU ka ka’a (Whitecrowned shrike); Iguh’e «fqal0 (Brubru
shrike); t s ’uM-tS’uM (Marico Sunbird)
birth ’Inal-sa; gl|kx’6u-sa; gllkx’oe Oaa (give-)
bit tumu (for a horse)
bite Sl’ l
bitter Igam; Hnam; q a ’u; +qan ; +qan ; t a ’u (feel -)
black + a ’Jia
black person +abe
Blackthorn llqhaa
bladder llqham ||naa
blade loo s a ’a ; l 6 o ’|n§n ( of knife); loo § a ||qhaa (of spear)
Bladethom ^ 0 9 hll
blanket s a ’bi; Ixal; Inohbu (skin - )
bleed ||naa; d z |u , ||alf, fu n (of the nose)
blemishes lOQil (skin)
blind (adj.) tgoie
blind (vb.) +na’n
blink ’|nyhn; ’|n ^ m a
blister (n.) +q h o ’b u -se
blister (vb.) d t ’k x ’a i
block + g u ’ni
blood In §a (al.); In|im (inal.); ta ll (clotted)
blood vessels ts h b e + ’um (great - of the thorax and abdomen); Ib h o , + ’um
(other veins and arteries)
blow d z a ’u; dtsh u m +n au ; d tsh u m |u’m(cooi); In a e ;+ * a lo ;
+Gua (gently); + n a ’n; d z a ’U (strongly); d t s h x b ’n (the nose);
dtshu m (with the mouth)
blow away (tr.) dtsh u m ’Inahna; Igblo
blow out dShlJm Igu’m (extinguish)
blown llqho’a (of an antelope)
blue Igfhi; +a ’jia
blunt ta h lj;tsh a b i iii
208 body to botanical species

body ’G n a h a (inal.)
boil (n.) +UU
boil (vb.) ||aO; dzihj; ’|no6 (- away)
bone +aa
book bUU-kU
booze Ixali
border Inule |a Iq h u m -k a-sa (- of aterritory)
bore llkx’um (ahole); glxu’ni (out)
bom ’Inal; gllkx’ou; +am sli (id.);|nae Inule (id.);
+ h a a ,k x ’a m -te |e O q § a (first-)
borrow Igoa
botanical species |a a (plants with corms, bulbs andtubers); d^n a (trees, shrubs
and bushes); |nuja (sp. of); + a b e ||nam (sp. of.); G ah e (sp.
of); Igu’u (sp. of); ||qahnl {Acacia ataxacantha D.C.); +G ah li
{Acacia Fleckii Schinz ); |la a , t a la UhU {Acacia erioloba E. Mey.
X Haematoxylon willd); ||n a h a {Acacia hebeclada D .C .sp .
hebeclada ); lula {Acacia luederitzii Engl. var. luederitzii); ||q h a a
{Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. ssp. detinens (Burch) Brenan)\
lo a ’li {Acacia nebrownii Burn. Davy) \Qh\\-sh {Albuca
amboense)] O n a h a {Alectra orobanchoides Benth ); ||g61u {Aloe
zebrina Bak.)\ Igoho {Anthephora pubescens Nees-form); !x6li
{Antizoma angustifolia ( Burch.) Miers. ex. Harv.)\ g ||k x ’a j i a
{Asclepiadaceae Duvalia polita N.E. Br. var. Polita)\ ^ q h aba
{Asclepiadaceae Fockea sp.)\ + g u ’a {Asclepiadaceae Pentarrhinum
insipidum E. Mey.); k a !g u u -b e (Asclepidaceae Pergularia
daemia (Forssk.) Chiov var. Daemia)\ ||an {Asclepiadaceae
Raphionacme burkeii N. E. Br.); Mnyla {Asclepiadaceae Tenaris
sp.Schlecht.); glqhum a a {Asclepiadaceae sp.); ||k x ’a a a a
(Aristida conjesta Roem. & Schult. subsp. Congesta); Ina’i Hga’U
ku {Asclepiadaceae Caralluma lugardue N.E. Br.); glqhum
{Asclepiadaceae Ceropegia multiflora subsp. tentaculata); Iq’am a
(/irwr/i/flL. 5p.); Inoh’n -si {Aristida meridionalis Henrard);
^bha {Babiana hypogea Burch, var hypogea); |an {Bauhinia
petersiana subsp. macrantha); ’||n§hn, +nym {Bauhinia Tylosema
esculentum); +qhun, g+qhUU-ba {Boscia albitrunca (Burch.)
Gilg. et Benedict var. Albitrunca); |n a ’m a {Brachystelma arnotii
d tsh a a q a a {Brachystelma cupulatumR. A. Dyer);
qhknei {Cannabis sativa);^que ’nan, igoe +nuu
{Caralluma lugardii N.E. Br.); ’n§n {Cassia italica (mill.) Lam ex
Fillv. Andr subsp. arachoides (Burch.) Brenan); iGan-loan
{Catophractes Alexandri D. Don); +n fh m 4 g a ’n i-k a
botanical species 209

{Cephalocroton mollis klotsch)\ + a b e + g a ’a

(Chenopodiutn); +qh au (Combretum collinum Fresen ssp.
Gazense (Swynn, Sc Bak. F) Okafor)\ G|qhbo m aa (Ledebouria
5p.); ^Gali q a e (Com m elinaL.sp.);\qf\kn (Commelina
Livingstonii C.B, Cl.)\ Ona© {Coccinia off.
rehmanii-curcurbitaceae)\ q h ab a {Commicarpus pentandrus
(Burch.) Heimerl)\ ||aa |aa {Commiphora africana (A. Rich)
Engl.); {Commiphora Africana sens lata(C . pyracanthoides
Engl ?))\ iGU’a {Compositae helichrysum sp.)\ [gala
{Convolvulaceae bolusiana Schinz . subsp. bolusiana)\ 0 g b 5
la a {Convolvulaciae pomoea)', |nue {Crinum foetidum Verdoorn);
Igam {Crotalariadamanensis Engl.?), g G k X ’OO,
||xan-||xan, ||x ai-||x ai {Crotalaria spartoides d .c .)\ ||an,
|nylO {Cucurbitaceae Acanthosicyos naudinianus (Sond.) C.
); tahm {Cucurbitaceae Citrullus Lanatus (Thunb.)
Matsumura & Nakai ); |qhU’IU-kU {Cucurbitaceae Corallocarpus
bainesii (Hook.f.) A. Meeuse.); +n u’lu-ku {Cucurbitaceae
Cucumis africanus Linn.f.-form)', 1|n§m, \\g6hj\Si {Cucurbitaceae
Cucumis Kalahariensis A. Meeuse); \t\Q\nn] ta SUbU-SUbU,
!’a a - ! ’a a - s e {Cucurbitaceae Momordica balsamina L.)\ ||an
{Cucurbitaceae Naudinianus (Sond.) C. Jeffrey);
’Inah’ni-’lnah’nl, dza’nl {Cyperaceae s p .);^ q o o Igym
{Cyperus margaritaceus Vahi); loh’bl {Digitaria eriantha Steud,?);
lao-se ||nam {DiospyroslydoidesDesf.sp.);\^h\} !|in
{Dipcadi sp. nov?); igaha ku, Igohmi kuu {Dipcadi glaucum
(Ker. Gawler) Bak.); ’l|nua {Dipcadi longifolium (Lindl.) Bak?);
nam {Dipcadi marlothii Engl.); ||gau {Ehretia rigida (Thunb.)
Druce); ||na’mi {Elephantorrhiza near elephantina (Burch.)
Skeels); !q’b b u -!q ’bbu taha {Eragrostis lehmanniana (Nees)
var, chaunantha (Pilg.) de Winter); + ’un-ta {Eragrostis
trichophoraCoss. etDur.?);xkrc\ [obla-ka (aa)
{Euphorbiaeceae Pterococcus africanus (Sond.) Paxt & K. Hoffm.);
Igali {Ferraria glutinosa (Bak.) Rendle); ’|nahm |nule {Grewia
avellana Hiern); ||naa, ||naa (|naa) {Grewia flava D .C .); !am
!ali {Grewia flavescens Juss. var.flavescens ); gOqhijU {Grewia
retinervis Burret); \\Ghib3. Xaa, {Harpagophytum
procumbens D. C.); ||gaa {Hermannia); ||naha {Hermannia
tomentosa (Turcz) Schinz. ex Engl.); |Iae + ’an {Hoffmanseggia
Burchellii (DC) Benth. ex Oliv. subsp. Burchellii); +ai +qhan
{Jatrophasp.inEuphorbiaceae); Inupa, ||uli {Kalanchoe
paniculata Harv.); |nuhu |’UU {Kyllinga alata Nees); !um-ta
210 both to bow

|ganl-|gan1 (Labitatae Leucas martinicensis (Jacq.) R.Br.)\

Iqhoba, qule, lohba tf Hgabl, Iq’alo (Ledebouria sp.);
|nuja-te {UUaceae sp.y, Oq§a |hua {Uliaceae sp.?);
MnahU l§n (LiUaceae Dipcadi sp. nov. ); 1|nya {Liliaceae
Dipcadi longifolium (Lindl.) Bak.?)\ InUU {Lonchocarpus nelsii
(Schinz.) Heering &, Grimme subsp. nelsii); ||n6’l1, g||kx’a a
(haustoriumof Loranthus sp.)\ + ’u m a -+ u m a (Lycoperdaceae
Broomeia ellipsospord); Iqhbbo-lqhobo {Lycoperdaceae
Tulostoma lacticeps.); Igym (Mariscus chersinus N.E.Br.);
d a h a ka (domestic melon); !n§a |e ’O n a je (Melhania
acuminata Mast. var. acuminata); InQli (Menispermaceae Antizoma
angustifolia (Burch.) Miers ex Harv.); ||Gal0 (Neorautanenia
amboensis Schinz); \kh\ek,j !noo qllli {Ochna pulchra Hook.);
Hull |xai (Otoptera burchellii D C .); +am + a le (Orbeopsis
knobelii); qahn-ta (prnithogalum longibracteatum Jacq.-form);
gU6 (Oxygonum sp.); \gu^be (Oxygonum alatum
Burch.-form ); sya {Pancratium sp.); !G§e kl {Pancratium
tenuifolium Hochst. ex A. R ich ); + n a le {Panicum kalaharense
Mez.); Ilnue |a ||kx’aa {Panicum maximum Jacq.); +gu’a
{PentarrhinuminsipidumE. Mey.); dzum {Pollichia
Campestris Soland); guhnu {Polyporaceae); lo'ya s a ’a
{Protasparagus suaveolens (Burch.) Oberm.); dt’kx’aa {Pupalia
lappacea (L.) Juss); +xali, ||kx’an {Rhus tenuinervis Engl.);
maxato {Rhynchosiasp.);\xa\, |n^hm I’all-si
{Sansevieria aethiopica Thunb.); |§ll l^hma {Schmidtia
pappophoroides Steud); llgble {Scrophulariaceae Aptosimum
Burch.); IkX’abe {Securidaca longipedunculata); lUU lohbe,
||naa 4^ {Sida chrysantha); InubI 1hl {Solanum coccineum
7ac(7.); 1|n§n qae {TaiinumarnotiiHookf.?);'\ri6hii |qhan
{Tephrosia sp.); ^qh am a {Terfezia sp. pfeileri); ^qhao
{Terminalia sericea Burch. Ex D C .); ||q 4 b a (Jribulus terrestis L.);
+an guu {Thymelaceae Gnidiapolycephala (C.A. Mey) Gilg.);
Ilqaa +han taa {Urginea ? sp. nov,); |n§hn {Vigna
unguiculata subsp. unguiculata); + g a ’a tl (Walleria nutans kirk)',
la I (Ziziphus mucronata Willd subsp. mucronata)
both ^nuiD; + n a l
bother |all; ||xal
bottle t s ’oo | 6 a , x a la si I
bottom !han (of a hole)
bounce (tr.) lhUU(-!hilU)
bow |habe (hunting), Iguma (musical)
bow to brother-in-law 211

bow (vb.) Ig a’a ; ylu |nan (the head)

bowels |6 h a ; llkx’an; ||nam s a ’a ; txo n a; d tx o ’a ; Iguh’u
(caecum); |oha « a (large); |oh a q a e (small);
Iqhuu I’UU (anus)
Bowstring hemp |xal
box b o k o se
boy t a a Inau O a a , O q § a |a t a a Q a
brackish qa’u
brain iG^a
brake (n.) briki
brake (vb.) b rik a
branch n§U; 4qhue; 4^11 (broken - still on tree); ||gym a (dry);
g |k x ’a a -k u , g |k x ’abu (high leaf bearing); ’O n a h a (main);
Ikx’a a (with leaves)
brand (n.) tsh b a
brand (vb.) tsh b a k v
break ll’a la (sg.), Il’ali s i (pi.); !qhum; !gal; xa n i ( - the spine);
|n§n (something resistant to -ing); |’a a ; |n § 0 ( - a branch when
still green)
break a bone at the joint IlGQhle; qhole
break in half Igal, Iqhum, ll’a la
break off 4 qhale
break open O q h a a , d tsh ale, glkx’ale , g lx a a , ||k x’um
break open bones Igiibe
break wind dtshaa
breast g+qhee; GQlO (of a bird)
breastbone Igul; Igui jnan
breathe llqhb’a
breed i ’au
breeze (vb.) Inae; f ’alo ; Iq h u e ’jnym n |’ul; ^ c o a
bridge IjkX’unu (of the nose)
bridle tumu
bring 4 ’au s1i
bring to bay
bring up llym (a child)
briskly Ihoo; xiia
bristle (vb.) •Ijnbh’o
broad llguu n kh ala (shoulders); 4 o a b o
broken k iia ; ll’a la
brother O x a a (elder halO; +kX ’an (younger full or half)
brother-in-law I'oa (husband's elder or younger brother); ’jn^ha (wife's elder
212 brown to Bushman

or younger brother)
brown lahjia
brow ridge I’alo
brow stripe !’uT I’alO; I’alO; !han tshbe (point between the brows)
brush (vb.) Iq’lje (the hair)
brush off |nua; |nua-|nua
brush past +hale; tsohle; !hOO; Ikx’aa (- rough, hard objects); [n^bu,
|na’m (- soft objects)
bubble (n.) ts’kx’oa
bubble (vb.) tsaha; Ikx’aba; ’Inaba; qhb'ba (boiling water)
buffalo Iqhal
Buffalo grass llnue |a ||kx’aa
Buffalo thorn lai
bug Inuu-lnuu +qhan-te {Hemiptera cicadellidae)
build Iqhaa
bulb |nan; |aa; Igall ||kx’an (matuic - o f Ferraria glutinosa)
bulging muscle lloum
bull guml §a
bulldozer llnybu
bullet Iq’ull
bullfrog ’llnahm
bullroarer gllxa’I |uhm
bump I’um; l§hd ts’ee
bunched llqyu
bum llnaha; qo’nl; O ’aa (tr. $g.), O ’ale (tr. pi.); ||ao (heated)
bum (intr.) o ’al; dtshxa’a
bumt llao
bumt veld 4xala
burr dt’kx’aa
burrow (n.) dzuhe; ||nae; 4ue
burrow (vb.) qala ylu; goh’ni
burst dtshup; Inu’lu; glqhbbU; iQhO (into flames); IhUlU (out);
ll’all ’^n^la (through); +na’n (open)
bury Igola; goh’ni; qala ylu
bus baa sil
bush (n.) llxau (coii.);d9na (gen.); ’Onaa; Inyl (small-); I'uhm
(- with heavy sand); ||xau (- without heavy sand)
Bush Katydid Oqho5 OGQml
Bushman Igul khbe-te (|Gwi); taa llqye (modem); taa (traditional);
Ix6pa-te O ’anI ( K 66 group); ’||nahe (Lala); +kx’ao
ll’an (Makaukau); |qae, nama (Kama); Ixuu-te (Nharo);
^goe O ’anI (DCOO group: Northerners); ^qhua O ’anI
Bushwillow to buzz 213

(!X 66 group: Southerners); lama O ’anI (!Xo 6 group:

Westerners); Iqohju O ’ani (!X 66 groups around Ohe)
Bushwillow iqhau
busy tua (in the process of doing something)
but gu'nl tshbo, xabeka
butt llq’um; dtshQhu, lau
butterfly dthabl (gen.)
buttocks lye
button kuu-pe lee
buy + 6 h 6 ;+ o h 6 ka ||’ao (sg.) ; +oh o ka |hao (pi.)
buzz GUm-GUm (of a trapped insect)
214 caecum to cat

caecum Iguh’u; |oha

cache llxao
calcaneum ’!nbo
calcrete lq§u
calf g u u -b a
calf(n.) gllx a’n, lloiim (of leg)
calf muscle +am -ka-te
call (n.) kx’a a
call (vb.) Ig a’I; +ll; I’al; k x ’a a (of animal or bird); Ino’a (the attention
of); kuhll (while hunting)
calm (adj.) + g e e ; s a ’a ri + g e e ; ||bo; quT; + a ’u
calm (vb.) Igae, ta h ’o, |ala
calmly quT; q a d - q a d ; ||bo; q a o
camp kam paa
can e; q a a (can be)
canabis qhana; g^kx’ana
Candle acacia llnaha
canine Iqolo; llqhaa 9a
Canopus llxona
canvas tsa li
Camelthom ||aa; t§la uhu
cap Ihbo
(Tape fox + g b ’u
car toho Oaa
caracal qhaa + ’ul
careful |nu*l; I q ’au; q a o - q a o ; Iqau; I’uT; ||bo
care for I’uT; II’a e ; Inu’l
carnivore Igyha
carry gllkx’6 0 , ’Inal, |cam (a child on the hip or back); g a h ’O
(against the chest); Hgalo (on a stick over the shoulder); Ian (on
the shoulder); ||haa (with a strap over one shoulder); llga’o (the
tail up); Ilg^hO (with a strap across the body); |*au (with straps
over the shoulders); !UU + ’am (on one's head);+ny ha (a liquid
cartilage llny’ml; d§hll
carve fxal; llnau; khaa; g^kx’an
cast off hull (skin)
cat Oqou
cataract to clang 215

cataraa Iqoll
catch |ua (sg.), |hao (pi. coll.), lau (pi. distr.); Ogah’a,
llgui-llgul, llguu-llguu, |bho (in cupped hands);+naho
(something thrown); f ’ua kV (up with)
caterpillar |bhd-|bho, iGQha (gen.); Iguu (sp.of); fq ’al ||xan
(Emperor moth)
cat's cradle ruu
cattle gumi; gumi §a (bull); gumi qae (cow)
caught tshxam (in a snare)
celibate gaha ke ’|nya
chain Inanu |6ha-te; |xaba-te O ’anI
chair situlu
chameleon llgyhu
change hull (into another creature)
charcoal |kx*65 (cold); I’aa |nan (glowing)
charge *||naha (bring a -)
chase glkx’aa; |’aa (away); llnuu kv, ||xum (off)
cheap ln«m h I’ul
cheat kaha; qaha
cheek Inybi
cheeky +gee; ||’al-||’al
cheetah Iqahu
chest Icama; ||guu; g o Io
chew llkx’am (gen.); |hum (moist substances); gOkx’ai, xb’m,
xb’m-xb’m (dry substances)
chewing gum tshun gama
chewy du’m-dii’m
chicken kuu-kuu
chief Ixaa 9a
child O q |a (al.); O aa (inal.); qam |ya kan (last bom)
chin dzani
chip (vb.) Oqhala
chipped Iqha’Ie; ||0Qle; q’all-q’alt
chisel llkx’um ^nau
choke ’||n§u;+G§hnu |’uu; +gu*v ’|nym
chop ||§a (sg.), ||a6 (pi.); +h'ube (up); Iqhala; Oqhala (off
cicada llnan
circle laho (be in a -); Mnahi (ceremonial circle)
circle (vb.) +a1e; ||g§hma-||g§hma; !4 i; Inah’o; !na’m; kala
circuitous +a m -ta m
clang 4qana ts’ee
216 clap to coat

clap ^qhtin
clatter + q a n a ts*ee
claw (n.) llg a ’m; 4 geh e (dewclaw)
clean (adj.) llqalu; llqal; ||q al-||q al
clean t'yhle; Igu’1
clear (vb.) ’Inchm; ||xal; ’ 9 ha - ’ah a ( - the throat)
clearing InaiTi; ’Inahl
cleave ’llnuhm g lx a a
cleft llqhaa tsh oe (in animal hoof)
clench Itim; g a lo
clever fa n
cleverness q ah a; k a h a
click (vb.) |h e e - |h e e ; O n b o -O n b o ; ||h e e -||h e « ;
llnaa -||n a a ;
climb lahle
clitoris 4 g a ’a |nan
clod i k x ’tim |nan; ||gai; gall
close to (adj.) Ilga’Ie; ||n§a; ’^n'uhma; ^ g o d ; ^ g o o - ^ g o o : g^lo;
’ 4 no 6 ; !’ 6 a ; O n a ’a , + ’ 6 o, ||a 1 (stand or sit - )
close (vb.) + g u ’u (sg.), t g ii’ni (pi.); O q ’um, glqhau (- mouth); |ahll
( - a burrow); |guu ( - a hole)
closed up ts’aba
clot g'uhnu-guhnu
clotted blood tall
cloth (n.) ||g $ h a ; Ixal; gllkx’all; nam a lal kh be
clothing sa * a -sa
cloud Iqhaa glqhua (gen.); Ikx’b e ||nan s a ; Iqhaa glqhua
q a e (cumulus); SQU, lean (altocumulus); q o5 (fairweather
cumulus); q oo IxabI (type of cumulus); Iqhaa glqhua 9 a
cloud cover qiiin In a ll
cloud over oho
club tnua; Igah’bl
clump ||al tShbe; |nan (of trees); ||am |nan (of camelthom trees);
^ n fh b l (bushes, small trees)
cluster ||al tShbe; I|al0 (together)
clustered t ’oo; O n a ’a ; ||al
clutter ’lln jm a (words)
coal |kx’b d ; | ’a a |nan (ofaw oodfiie)
coat b aa-k i
cobra to constellations 217

cobra loh’o; +q u e
coccyx |au I’am
cocoon iGQha lln aa; tym; gye; ||a a ||n aa (of poison larva)
cockroach gule (sp.)
coeval I n a a ;+ a m a k x ’a m ;+ ’u ll- t e ;+ ’a 5
coffee k oo -fii; +qhun
coil |a le
cold (n.) lla'U; ||q § a , O h an 9 a (flu and cold)
collapse Ontiu; kx*ua
collar bone +ul
collect ll’a e ; Iqhae (gather); ro o Inoo
collect together jjnalo
collide rum iQhd t s ’e e
colour (n.) |hua tsh o e
colour (vb.) b a s a (a skin)
columella Inuhjia k a |o n a
come s1 i, s1i
come across !nani
come apart ll’ai
come behind llaha s1l; lau s1l; lh an -ka sll
come from ’+n a h n -ta
come off ’In^hn
come out ’+ n ila (sg.), lua (pl.);l|’all ’+n flla ( - the other side);
t n a ’n; d z a ’u
come right through (qhblu in^la; G||qhbbu; Iqhblu
Commiphora rhus +x all, llkx’an
Common commiphora ts ^ h ’a
community luhm; iGOma (botanical)
compact (adj.) d t s ’k x ’ani
compact (vb.) (urn; g alo
compare + > a 6 -fa o
comparable + ’a o (size, quantity)
complain llqhull; llqua
complete (vb.) xall
conceal Igah ’o (sg.), Igah ’nl (pi.); d z a ’a (stealth); Inbo; t s ’a a ;
condensation lahll
confuse llqahn
conjunctivitis t s ’k x ’o a
conserve Inu’ l; q a o - q a o ; !q au; !’uT, + q a ’u
console Igae; ta h ’o; |a la
constellations go h b a ||qhua In aa; ||qhujia |a ||x a a ; Hqhujia |a
218 constipated to crackle

|4 a ; ^ G s a - t e ;+ a l q a e ;4 a l 4 a ;t x 6 b u H n a - t e
constipated Igu’nl, Igu’ll, Igu’n (ftom grewia retinervis); |o 6 ’la(from
contain Il’om a
container Pule; Inaa; lln aa; si lupu (plastic); Hqbho (for spare
arrowheads, glue); ||xan (poison)
contemporary !n a a ;+ a m a k x ’a m ;+ ’u li- t e ;+ ’a o
contraction llq’blO; tu’m -tu ’m ( - of a sphincter)
converge Iqab a
cook dzihi (by boiling); q o la (by baking dry food); ||ao (by baking
or roasting moist food); !nai (by roasting on a stick)
cooked llao
cool |u’m; +n'ua (- of the sun or a fire); IkX’O ba; Igoa ( - down of
the late afternoon)
co-operative k o p a ra sil
copper f k x ’al
copulate t ’k x ’au; ’a a (euph.)
cord |xal
core +’um
cork (n.) Inuhpa
corm |nan; |a a
com cricket ic a n a
cornea Iqoll
comer I f 1; +nyn (inside - of the eye); + ’an |au (outside - of the eye)
corpse I’a a ; llkx'uu
corral llam a
corrugation ’Infbl; llg fb l
cotyledons h fh a (of antelope womb)
cough (vb.) *|nyhn; Iqhaa; q h ala (up)
could e
council khan s e la
country Inule; Iniiu
court q h o taa
cousin + k x ’an (father's brother’s child); 0 a a Igaho (father's sister’s
child, mother's brother's child)
cover Inoo; Igo'la; !na"m (with branches); g||xau
covering tym
cow glimi q a e
crack (n.) OGQO (in a container)
crack (vb.) glkx’ale ; dtsh ale; g O q h a a ; glx a a ; ||’ali si
crackle k x ’a o - k x ’a o
cradle to curl 219

cradle (vb.) lloba

crafty k ah a; iq ^ n ; q a h a
cramp (n.) Icall; GQle
cramp (vb.) O ’bo; Inalo; ||ya
crash Ingbu t'uu
crawl ^qh an a; g ii’T (as a caterpillar)
crazy Ism
creator blhl s a bolo
creep ^qhana; 4& ni-^ani (away from)
cricket | c f hm iQhle; |c a n a (Armoured ground - )
crimson lah jia
crisscross g lx a ’n (of tracks)
criticize ||x u u ; In abe
crooked Iqhum; 4 a b u
crossed domi (sg.), Ilnii’m (pi.); doni; Iq’um ( as legs)
cross-eyed !’u a - t e n ^ u p a ||q h ae f it f u l
cross-legged f a n a fa h m a
crossways Ig ale Iqhum (place - )
cross over fh u b e ; Ig ale Iqhum; fu l, Hq’u/ta ( - teeth); O q ’am
O q ’all ( - teeth or branches)
crouch llgbbe; ||um; ||xum; com (ready to spring)
crouched jjxum k a tshuu; H gobe tsh uu; lg §o k a tshuu;
llggho k a tshuu
crow Mn|a (gen.)
crowd dzaa
crumble Inunl
crumple llubu; dthum; Iqhbm; fa b u
crunch q u’m; x b ’m; x b ’m -x b ’m; g O k x ’al; k x ’a o - k x ’ao ;
xau ylu
crush q u’m; + q a o ; t ’k x ’am ; ||xum; + o a ’m; Oniiu; x b ’m;
x b ’m -x b ’m
cry k x ’a a ; g lk x ’a a ; |g § o ; jn a’nl; ||q a o
cultivate llq h ala
cumulus Iqhaa glqhua q a e ; qbd Ixabi; s § u (alto); qbd
cunning f q 9 n, q ah a, k a h a
cup (n.) k b o -p i
cup (vb,) llgul-llgul; llgiiu-llguu
cure (vb.) ’ahiu |ua (as in dancing); |’0 0 (with medication); qhalo la a
(treat dogs)
curt (ed) dgm l (sg.), Ilnii’m (pi.); ||xum; g a le ; Hgbbe; kuh’m
220 curry to cut

curry khee rii

curse (vb.) |xul (death)
custom |n9ha
cut lao; In^hU d tsh ale (and split); Igube (holes in a skin for
pegging); |xum (off(tr.)); dthul (cutoff (intr.)); Ihua. Ihuu,
+ n a ’n (open); t'k x 'a la (open a piece of meat to flatten);
^hub6 (meat into pieces); In^le, lahle (meat into strips);
g + q h a a , Iqhum, lao (through); lqhum(sg.), +hube (pi.)
dagga to den 221

qhana; g+kx’ana
daily ll’ana-te koo ka ’aa
damaged kua; sye; Irq I
dative formative |naa
dam (n.) dam , tamu
damp Ilna’iTi; llna’u
dance (n.) kuma, kuma-kuma, ’Inahl (met.) (curing -); ’Inahl
(- circle)
dance (vb.) |xaa;|xaa |nee sb o ;4xala (of first menstruation)
danger +x6je
dark d t’k x ’al; tbho
darkness g+qhiim ; +n bba; g + k x ’o a
daughter-in-law O a a ’|nan
dawn ’Inb1a-sa, kx’ao (pre-dawn); kx’ao §a (early pre-dawn);
kx’ao qae (later pre-dawn)
dawn (vb.) ’Inbla
day ll’an; khuma, khum a khube ( - after tomorrow); khube
(cool part of the morning); gbh ba (hot part of the morning); q^m
k x ’a m -te (- before); gbh ba k a Ig o a -lg o a (whole -)
daytime gbh ba
death I’a a ; taa |i ||kx’uu
death spasm I’aa llkx’a e ; llq’blo (of heart)
decorate qu’m; qo’nl
decoradon (n.) ^nuh’ma (ritual - of the face)
decorticate Ingho
deep ram (sg.), I’aa (pi.); |ob’na
deeply Iqhblu ylu
deep set g+xbo +q’aa
defecate qa’I; H^la (diarrhoea); Igu’hl (dry faecal droppings, constipation)
defective kua
defer xau, x a u -x a u
deflation area Ig ^ o -b a
dehydrate fn a’J^a (of Boscia albUrunca berries); |nO’be, |’00 (of
Grevia flava DC. berries and meat); llqhole (of Grewia retinervis or
Ziziphus mucronata berries)
delay |o1o
delicious Okx’um
deliciousness Okx’obe
den +U6; dZUhe (of a hyena)
222 dense to disappoint

dense Ona’a ; ||al; ts’aba; + ’6o (bush); +unu (shade); +gee

dent fqao; ^Ga^m
deny llqua
depth I’am -sa (sg.), I’a a - s a (pi.)
depress +Gaa; Iga’a
deprivation llahba; dz^l
dermis +oa’no
descend tholo, gam-gale, txolo ( - a slope); ||n§a (of vultures on a
kill); kx’ua
desire (vb.) |noo; llgb’o
destitute ’+naha; |ou
destroy qai
develop Ictim
deviate llhabe
dtv/ luhli
dew claw +gehe
dewlap llgahe
diaphragm llnya
diarrhoea ||a1a -sa; ||§n
die I’aa; ’|no6 (euph.)
die down !nae; + ’alo (of the wind)
diesel dll zill
difference khala-sa
differentiate khala
different khala; ’aa
difficult rua
dig q a la (gen,); Igahle (a ditch or burrow); g a o (out gum);
IlgahO (shovel); +GUm (- in)
digging stick llqhaa
dilute Iqyu
diminutive -ba, Oaa (sg.), O ’anI (pi.); |q§a (for pronouns)
dimple ham-ti
dip lohbe; Iqahm solo
direct (vb.) I’ilje (put on the right track); |’Ul-|’Ul (a steenbok into a snare)
dirt llq’ajia
dirty llq’a a ; Ohbd
disabled kua, Ingl; sye
disagree lnabe;||’ue (of food)
disappear g+xu’m
disappoint llqhull
disarthric to draw together 223

disarthric ’|n§n Iqhum k a fit

disaster Igua; Igbo
discard llxuu (sg ), ||n§l SI (pi.);||’a e - | | ’a e
discharge (n.) t s ’k x ’o a
discuss ta n a +*a
dish Inaa
dish up llahl; llnaa
dishonest k ah a; q ah a; 4q§n
dislike ’llnahm
dismantle !u’a
dismiss paa
disobey ll’a H I ’a i
disperse kh ala; +qum -+qu m (in numbers)
dispersed (be) Ica a ; |n§i ka; s a i-s § 1
displace x a li-x a lt xani (- the lower jaw sideways)
dispute ’|n u a ; Inabe
disrespectful !nu'a; ||’a i-|r a l; Igyi; d z a a ; jneh’e ; k x ’a o miT
dissatisfaction llq h u li-k a -sa
dissatisfied llqhuli
dissolve Icyli (by sucking in the mouth); ||ao ||kx^ae
distance t § i'S a
distinct ’a a
distribute Igbo; !uu; ^ui
distribute a load su b u -su b u
ditch 1nym
divide kh ala; Igbo; luu; fu i
divide out fui
divine (vb.) ||n§e loye
Diving Beetle tam ku tulu ku;qam ku quiu ku
dizziness Inabl-lnabI dzaha; Hg^o; dzam-dzall
do •ahlu; qao-qao (gently)
doctor sbo I’ua; sbo 9a
dog ^qhal (domestic); g^XUl (hunting)
donkey ton til
doorway ^tie
down (n.) InahU I’ae (vegetable -)
downwind iqhue I’am
drag tqhala (sg.), +nyhu (pi ); H^ha; +qhan |uv
+n'um a-te, ||n§hlo (the feet)
dragon fly 4 ca h a ^hai
draw together ’llnaha
224 dream to dye

dream (vb.) Oo5 ||nya; Oan ||nya

dregs Inahna
dress (n.) Ixal
dress (vb.) 1*00, ’ahlu fua (a wound)
drill (n.) glxani
drill (n.) I’a a 9 a (fire-)
drill (vb.) llkx’tim
drink kx’aha, kx’aha-kx’aha; sam (hotliquid); qbm (cold
liquid); ^qam (kneeling); Ocyml (from an ostrich egg or water
tree); kX’ahV ||kx’an, +guu ||kx’an (from the contents of the
rumen);+gUV +U 6,+gU V s a ’a (from the pulp of a tuber);
doh ’o (one's fill); golo (insufficiently); +Cj66
drip |un; llqall; ^fiha ||huu; fxam l-|xam 1
drive Iqhut; tsohu -tsohu
drive off I'aa; glkx’aa
drive (vb.) ||9 ha; ||nahbu (at speed)
drought llqaa
drown I q ’bnt S I I
drowsy Ingn
drum dramu
drunk (vb.) Inahle, Iqhum (sg.), +hub6 (pi.); |*aa (die);
dry (vb.) (tr.) I’bo- | ’bo; Ilya; |n|im; Ikx’obi (a stick by poking it into the
hot sand); Igll’m (up of sore)
dry out Ilya; O*bo; Inalo; ^napa (Boscia Albitrunca berries);
Ino’be, I’bo {Grewiaflava berries or meat); jjqhole (Grewia
retinervis orZiziphus mucromta berries)
dry cold season lae
dry llqaa (area); igam (tree or bush)
duck (n.) gaa
duck (vb.) llgobe, ln§’m (to evade); tup (up and down)
duiker Ohan; Ohan |e ||a’n (mature female); Ohan |i ||ahl
(mature male)
dune I'uhm s a ’a ; Inau 4huu ku tshoe
dung tshxaa
dusk qahe; |nye Oaa-tu
dust (n.) 4qh6’li
dust off |nua; |n'ua-|n'ua
dwarf +galt
dwarflike tguhli
dye (vb.) basa
each to ensnared 225

each t a a + ’e t a a (person); th aa + ’an th a a (thing)

ear In u h a
early © an I ’e e
earring mu |n aa na
earth I k x ’um
east +% i
easy I'ua
eat ’a a (gen.): gum (dry food): xab u (wet food):
S^bU-SQbU, nQH-n^n (something undercooked): 9 0 I0
eavesdrop +n §a
echpse (vb.) !noo
edge llqhaa Inau ||h aa (of apan);
||g § h a -||g a h a (on -); GQle (on - , of the teeth); s a ’a (of
axe); ||q h aa (- of spear)
egg 4 g u a (gen.); q o 5 |’UU (broken ostrich- ) ; +UU (empty
ostrich -); 1|n4mi (white of); 4 g§h e, la a xoo
(fresh -);+gu h i (rotten -)
eland !um; llgu’a s a ' a ; O a a (herdof);’|nan (lone female)
elbow g^xubi; g^qhuH; ^xubu-xu |nan; Puni tsh de
(ante-cubital fossa); I’um (bent); g^qhuli |nan (head of ulna)
elephant +xQ a
Elephant-root llna’ml
emaciated d z § b a -t a ; dth an a
embarrassed xau
embryo 4 x a H x a l ; I’u a - I ’ua
emerge •+n 4 la (sg.), lua (pL); Glqhum (- of the adult insect from the
empty Glqhuu; dQlo
encircle l|i; ||g§h m a-||g§h m a
end (n.) x a li-s a ; |a u , glqhuu ( - section of a springhaie hunting stick);
Mn§hO ( - of a rope); + ’an |au (tapering - )
end (vb.) xali
energetic t s ’kx’ani; q hb’lo
enervated ’!n|ini; d t s ’k x ’bm
engraving q o ’nl
enlarge Hall; llnyT
enough + ’a o
ensnared tshxam
226 entangle to exchange

entangle Ilnu’m; oqhbo; ’||nahnl-ti

enter ylu (sg.), Iga’o (pi.)
entrance fu«
entwined see twisted
enveloped I q ’bnl s'H
equal (-ly) +•1111-^; O q h a a -te ; I’a o
equivalent i ’au
erect (vb.) kbhia ( - dorsal crest of white hair of a springbok); Igajo (of
error lu b e ;4 n u a dzum
erythema Igoh'm; tQhio
escape 'friftla (sg.), lua (pi.); Ilqahn, d tsh x b ’ll, dtshxbo
( - from a snare)
especially I ’au ku
evacuate c a ’lo - c a ’lo, c a ’n, p ’k x ’all ( - the bowels rapidly)
evade In4’ni; glkx’ao ; ’Intihl; ||y a ; ’fn ah m
evaporate •fneo
even kuLV
every koo k a ’a
everything th a a + ’an th aa; thani koo k a ’a
excavate llg^ho; q a la
excel Igah ’l
excited k x ’a b a
exert Igaha
exhausted 4 ’au If; |huu; lluh’a ; Iq’an h b a k x ’b a ; ’In^ni
expect loh’la
expectorate q h ala; Iqhaa
explain Kibe kv ki jn^ha
exploit (vb.) ig a a
expose n a a (the genitals)
explore I’oo Inoo
extinguish Igu’m; dtshijm Igu’m
eye I’ill; +nyn (inside comer of the -); I’uT + ’an |au (outside
comer of the - )
eyebrow I’alO; lhan tsh o e (point between the -s )
eyelash glqhubl-si
eyelid I’tlT tym; I’uT fu e (lower)
exchange (vb.) ^oh5
face to femur 227

face (n.) sa*a

face (vb.) I’b a - r b a
facing Vo Sl ku llqhae (one another); s a ’a -n t h ||k x 'a e fil
(face to face)
faeces tsh x a a
fail gllkx’o b e (to do); Iqhaa (to find)
fall (vb.) Iqhuu; H'ala, !gai, !hai tf (sg.), ||'a1i (pi.); ||holu k x ’ua,
||go1o k x ’ua, tholo k x ’ua, ||xulu ( -out and down); sa u
la a (of first rain); !aa (of rain); k x ’u a Iqh aba, Iqh aba
tshuu (gently); 4qbhp ||huu (of a small heavy object); ||hobU
tshUU (of a flat object); ||n§h’p a tShUU (on the back);+Gabi
(flat); ’ln§hn (off); iQba, |hala k a tshuu (into a sitting
position); ||qQlO
fallopian tube llnal |nan
far Xi\; llq a ijo lo (away)
fart (n.) dtsham
fart (vb,) d tsh a a
fascia Igaba
fast (adv.) tsohu
fat (n.) s § a , ’||n § h a , q ah n a (- on the stomach); t s ’oo, |hum (on
rear of stomach of small carnivores); +U’ i, IlgQhm, |xan tsh b e
(onthe waist);+qolu, ||nah’m -||n ah ’m (peritoneum)
fat (vb.) *||n§ha; s a a
father § a ; § a Igaho ( -'s brother);+kx’an ( - ’s brother’s child);
q a e Igaho ( - 's brother's wife); ||ham ( -'s elder sister;
-'s mother; -’s younger sister) G a a IgahO ( -‘s sister’s child);
4qh ee ( -’s sister’s husband)
father-in-law In a h a
fault (vb.) llxuG; Inabe
fear (vb.) Mnuhi; ||y a ; !n§’m; xau
feather g lq h u a; dUh’e (white ostrich plume)
feed so o ; ’a a ; ^habl; Ihiiu
feel (vb.) ||am -||am ; t § a (sense)
feign lahl
feU o||C|h6ba (a fleeing animal by tripping with a stick); ^9^11
+ fh a
felt Inahu I’a e
female 11991; q a e
femur llq aa
228 fence to flash

fence (n. or vb.) gllxau

fertilised + x a 1 -+ x a l, |u a - |u a (of an egg)
fetlock g u b l-si; |h u a ; gulu
few I’iil
fibre (of plant) tsah bl; |nahna; ’O n a h a jn fth m |’a ll-s i
( - of Sanseviera aethiopica Thunb. after decortication); |n§hn
{of Sanseviera aethiopica otVigmTribola)', glkx’um, Ig aba
(of Sanseviera aethiopica orLedebouria sp.)
fibrous tissue +yiu
field llqhala
fierce Iq’a n n +x 6T -si
fight glqhal
file (vb.) llnfhn
fill |ah o ; ’Inuhn; I’o la ; d o h ’o
fill in Igo’la
fillet (n.) II09I0
find InanI; ’Inga (out);lqhaa (not to - )
finger Ikx’a a |nan; jk x’a a Ic fn a ; lG $ b l-sa ; Ikx’al
finish |dho; xall; ||kx ’a la ; ||kx’a a ; |* a a -|’a a ( - off a wounded
fire I’a a ; Mnahl (ritual); g^qhtim (without flames)
firefly Igghlf, !n§h’li
firelight I’a a H g4e
fireside I’a a 4u e
firesticks I’a a q a e (base); j’a a § a (drill)
firewood I’a a ; I’a a lanu (extinguished);!^! (non-burning end)
first k x ’am ; k x ’a m - t e je O q ^ a (born); g ||q h a i-si
fit (intr.) ’jn aa
fizzy llohbu
fix ||§ 5 (together), ’ahlu |ua
fix up Icau; ’ahlu |'ua
flabby I’u a
flaked 4 q h a ’le
flame (n.) n §h ’n l-k a
flame (vb.) iQho
Flame acacia llqahni
flank (n.) llQhm; |xan tsh b e
flap ts^ h u -tSQ h a
flap about yla qhb’lo
flash ’m ala (of lightning); q h a b e -q h a b o (of light)
flat to folds 229

flat ic a b o
flatten llxum; llubu; iq a o ;+ G a * m ; Onuu k a ||xubo (a container
or tube); tyhla (a fire to promote burning); |na*m (as a herd does
to grass); + q h a ’a (by hammering); +ah n -+ah n ,
t ’k x ’a l a - t ’k x ’a la (by patting)
flatulence dtsham
flay la ’a (by cutting); llqhum (by beating); llnaho (with a sharp
object); syT (with the thumb); g + k x ’an (carve up)
flecked 1199a
fledgling t§h*a; In ^ n a
flehmen ^ g e jia k v dzum
flesh O a je ; O a a ; |bhbe ( breast - of a bird)
flex llga’o
flexible tq a b e ; |*ua; Hoh’m; d tsh b ’m; toh’m
flick |* a a ; + ’al1; ’4n§1l |^*11 (the tongue); s a m -s a m , d z o a
(the tail); S § b a (the fingers)
flick off f a l l k a k x ’ua; + ’a v ka k x ’ua
flicker llcaa k a Igu’m a, ||aha Igu’m a (on and off as a light)
flint Inule; ^nan
flirt G § le
flock gllqhule (of Guineafowl)
flour p e re
flow (vb.) InQni; synf
flower (n.) Glqhum
flower (vb.) tshQhm
flu Tulu; O h an § a
flutter dth aba; d tx a ’b a; ||uhbu (as a bird in a snare)
fly (n.) O o §i (Biting fly.); Inah’m (sp.of); Hggba (Blowfly);
g O k x ’6 6 (common); Hggba q a e (Resh fly); Hggba
(Flesh or Greenfly sp.); |§i I'l IhUll (Lousefly sp.); Ihuli
(Lousefly sp.); c a la - c a la (bee*); + g a ll k a |§li |nan
(bee-, horse-)
fly (vb.) dZ9hI
flying ant Inapa; d a h b i-sil
fly whisk glqhuu
fog Inghu k a |bho ku; ’Inoh’li
fold kh ala (down); ||ubu, dthum, (together);
Iqhum, + a b u (up, in half); +g u m a ( - together broken limbs of
ab u ck );+ab u (lengthways); g a h ’6 (in the am s); q ’a b i tV
I’UI ( - back the eyelid); g a h ’nri
folds ||g9m (of skin)
230 follow to full

follow loo; |6ho; Inu’u (a track, path); ’+n»LV +nuu (a spoor)

fondle sao (a child)
fontanelle |huu ku tshbe
foetus tahu
food ’aa -sa
foot fn iiu ; llq’olo; |u a ; |nuu ||guu, tahl (ball of)
footprint ^ua; Inaa I|nfh’l0 (make the - of an old creature)
for |naa
force (vb.) kbhle-kbhle; fe ’e ka ylu; gix’oo ylu (one's way into
something); g||kX’ObU
forcefully qai
forcann llnaho
forefathers Ixam-te O’ani
forehead sa ’a ;s a ’a ’Iniim; lhan (between the eyebrows)
foreleg Ikx’aa ^nuu
forelock Inali
forget qb’6
forgive |uv Il’um |nav
forgiveness Il’um
fork (n.) llqhaa tshoe, Igah’la
form clouds oho
fortune Igel
foul 1 |n«a
fowl kuu-kuu
fox ^go’U (Cape); II’al (Bat-eared)
fineckle Ilham
fresh Iga’m; ||qyv; !aa xoo ( - egg)
Friday labu thaanu
friend Ikx’be
fright (vb.) I’ae (get a)
frog iDQbe (Breviceps sp.)l ’Ijnahm (bullfrog)
front +haa; tahm tshbe, ||nam sa ’a (offensive)
frost (n.) llq^a: llqaa tshxan-te
frosted Igyo (berries or fruit)
froth (n.) ts’kx’oa
froth (vb.) tsaha: jjohbu
frown ga’Iu
fruit (n.) |nan; ^qhan-te; Inoo q'uH (of Ochna Pulchra); I’aa
I’aa-se (of Cucurbitaceae MomoreUca balsamim L.)
fruit (vb.) fxale
full I’ola; Igiihm; Oggo ke sa’a (water in a hollow tree)
funny bone to future 231

funny bone g+qhul1 xbo ||naho

furrow (vb.) lU’T
future kX*bo
232 gall to glow

gall (n.) gllkx’aa
gall bladder ’n |n
game (n.) Il’abI, dzau (of stick throwing)
game (n.) o aje O'ani (animals)
game track llq’olo
gap guhm; ||qhaa tshoe (between the teeth)
gape qaa; khala kv +tie
garden (n.) llqhala
gastrocnemius +am -ka-te
gather (vb.) ll’ae; Iqhae; I’oo Inoo
gecko +aT-+§T
gemsbok ^xam; ||fhe, 4goo xblo (lone male); |nuu ktima
(pregnant); g^xabi (young); 4ri9 hni, ’jnaha (herd of)
generous Igbo; Iqhaa
genet ln§la
genitals llcyli; llnam s a ’a;tahm tshbe (offensive)
gently q ao ; qao -q ad ; 4qa’u; !qau;
genuine quhm
gerbil +nyje
get Iqhaa (n o tto -); llqahn (-aw ay); kx’ua (sg.), ’In|ihn (pi.)
( - down); gul; kx’aba (sg.), ||x6be (pi.) ( - up)
ghost llkx’uu; ’|nbha
giddiness Inabl-lnabi dzaha; ||g§o; dzam-dzali
gift Iqhaa -se; |kx’aa-te; +kx’a 5 ; |gbo-se
giraffe llqhuu
girl taa Iga’n |ee; O q |a |a taa qae; Oq§a Iga’n |ee
give Iqhaa; I'ua |naa (sg.), Ia5 |naa (pi.); Inahie (an
omen); qa’i (birth); kx’ao mi'T (fail to); ||x6a la, ^xaa
( way);+l'i kV |au ( - a name); lUU, +ul, |gbo; tahll
(- up the chase)
giver Igoo; Iqhaa
give up tahll (a chase)
glabella lhan tshbe
gland dtshan; sani (pre-orbital)
glans 4’an |nan; ’Inya; +’an ’Inya
glare ga’Iu
glide ■tqhaa solo (as a bird)
globe I’tii
glow lloaa (e.g. of a lion's eyes)
glow-worm to grasshopper 233

glow-worm Igyhll
glue kahlo; ^nau; ^ qh ae
gnat Inuu -Inuu
gnaw glkx’u’le (meat off a bone)
go s a a ; tua (- about); + h a a (- ahead); |ua ( - by); +am , lao
(- home); ylu (- in (sg.)), Iga’o (- in (pi.)); +qu m -+qu m
(- in numbers); ||*ae ( - out hunting or gathering or for firewood
and returning on the same day); Iqhae (- out hunting or gathering
and sleeping out); | x a a , d z a m -d z a ll (- round and round
causing giddiness); Inu’u (- straight to a destination); s a V (- up
to); qftha (- after); Iqab a (- in the tracks, spoor)
god b1hl s a bblo (creator); ’|noha ta*m a; 1|nuha tarn;
*||nbha tarn; kuu ^fee; to o -lb o (Ixae); uhbu-ku;
m 4a ll’a e (wife of earth -)
gonorrhoea |un1-ni
gold +nahi, g+qhui (colour)
goodbye ||am !ao
gosh q h a e -’e
gossip (vb.) O g a le
gouge llkx'um
government xbro m onte
grab |ua. gllkx’abu ( - at); ^n^ha ku tsah bu ||’a d
(- grab e.g. a spear, and hold in readiness)
grader luu k a Ikx’a a - t e , grbi d a r a (road - )
grandchild g +q h e e (male and female - of grandfather); ||ham (male and
female - of grandmother)
grandfather I q h e e ; 9 a Igaho (great -)
grandmother Ilham; q a e tgaho (great - )
grapple lad
grasp I'ua, ll’am (sg.), |h a5 (pL); o||qhao (- around with the legs
or toes); jjqhabe ( - between); !au (-repeatedly); ||um
(- round); InahO ( - with the knees); Onyhm ( - with the
thighs); +G ah ’m ( - under the arm); ||’am ( - a handful)
grass llkx’a a (gen.); d o ’le, duu du’bu (charred); |§ll l^hma
{Schmidtia pappophoroides Steud.y, Si {Aristida
meridionalis Henrard)\ (sp.), joh’m a (sp.);
\^oWb\{DigitariaerianthaSteud)\ ||nue |a ||k x 'a a (Panicwn
Maximum Jacq.)
grasshopper +GUII (sp.); g k x ’u a - g k x ’u a {sp, Orthoptera caelifera
Acridae), O q h o o OGQml (Bush Katydid);
234 grassland to gums

||uu -||uu, ||um-||um (Elegant - )

grassland llyhe; tsuhn
grave taa s a ’a
gravy qfte; saa
graze thUll tUU, qal tuu (of an anow or spear)
grazed l«U
great grandfather 9a Igaho
great grandmother qae Igaho
green lg«hl
greet +g'um-+g'um
grey g+qhul; Inupa (light - )
grey-haircd Glqhapa
grieve Iq’ah n ’Hn^a
griU (vb.) I’af; qola; ||ao; ||nalu
grimace Ikx’am kv+iie
grind xai; Iqo’a; g^kx’aa, xai ka qan n |’aa
( - to powder); gOka’JV llqhaa -te ( - the teeth)
groin 4 guII tshbe; ||gubi
groove (vb.) Infhu dtshale
ground squirrel g|xa’m-be; tsahna; |xbo tsahna
grow (intr.) iGum; kai, 4gam (sg.), kabata, ^garna (pi.);
4 gam-^gam (cause to - up)
grown llkx’an
grouped Inahio; ||kx’ae
growl In^hna; |go Io
grumble tana
grunt ’Ine’e
G-string llbho
guard Iqau (be on one's -)
guess fa n
group ||al tshbe
gulp llqabu-llqabu (as a carnivore)
gum qaa (gen.);+qhau-te (oi Combrernm colUnum); \guna.
(profusion of)
gun thbbolb; iula
gums ’n^hn-’nghn-te
habit to head over heels 235

habit jn^ha
hail (n.) ||g a a
hail (vb.) !no’a
hair glqh'ua, |q h u a ; |bho -|bho (- of caterpillar); glqhuu
(- of tail); |num (- of unsmoothed rope)
hairline g||q h b o-te
hairy |n§hO
halo kum a; kum a-klim a; ’Inahi (round the moon)
halt l§l
hammer flat I q h a ’a;
hamstring Ikx'au; ||§ha glkX’lim (-tendons)
hand |kX’a a ; sTI t a ’a ...s1i t a ’a (on the one - on the other - )
handcuffs dih aka bbl; jx a b a - t e O ’anI
hands and knees fbh lo ||huu; ||huu; Ihuu golo ||huu
handbag tgu b e ; Iqum
handle |kx*aa
hang x b ’IO, | c a h a (the head)
hanging |n b lo k a tshuu (sg. orco iL);+n blo k a I’a a (distr.)
hangup +nblO; lah o -lah o (meat to dry)
happy thulu; |q’an n O kx'um
haid rua; ’Inya (-part);|n an k a I’lia (-headed)
haie Inyu
harmony Il’ue (be out of - )
haitebeest In^i; Hga’a , ’InQhO (lone male)
hat Ihbo
hatch (vb.) In§ll
hate 'llnahm; |q*an tsh b e ||’a a ; |q*an |p a a
haunch ’|nam a
haustorium g||kX 'aa {oi Lx>ranthus)
have + ’au; \\\ + ’e; Iq h a a , ||’a a , |qu (not to - )
Hay grass lnoh*n-SI
haze fco lu b e e
he eh(’e); ah (cl. 2)
head |nan; +U6 (- of a sore)
headache (vb.) Iqhabe |nan (have a - )
headband Ixua
headman Ixaa § a
head over heels q 'ab i
236 headwoman to holder

headwoman Ixaa qae

headscale thua-te
heal *ahlu |ua
healthy Inyl
heap luhm |nan; ||ahb1
heaped together t’kx’uu; fgb5
hear U a
heart Iq’an
heartsac Iq’an ||n aa
heartwood ’O n a je ’In'ua tsh b e
heat (vb.) ||ao; + g a ’a ; c a a ; O ’ai; Iq’obi; Iq o b u -lq ’ob u ( - a stick
for removing thin bark); I’a i ( - a stick for removing thick bark)
heat marks IgSh’m; tghlo
heatwaves G § b a -te
heaven kuu ^ e e
heaviness llnau; k'uhm-k'uhm (of loping); ||yhb1 (of a tread)
heaving tqh'ul ( - stomach)
heavy llnau; gllkx’o b e ( too - to lift); ’||nybu (- object)
hedgehog |x a a n a a (animate form); ||ona (star form)
heel Iggba ku
help uhl
helping O a je s a ’a g||qhal-s'i (first - of meat)
hen kuu-kuu
held (n.) O a a , luh’a (ofEland); ’Inah’a ,+ ri9 h n l (ofGemsbok)
herd (vb.) ll’a ®
here t a ’a
hide Igah ’o; +am 1-+am 1; + a m -+ a n i: Inbo; d z a ’a ; g + x u ’m;
t s ’a a ; d z a ’a - d z a ’a ( - away); ’+nahBV tarn ( - behind)
high-pitched llguu tsh be n |’ul (voice)
hill luhm; liihm s a ’a
hind leg 4q h ala ^nuu
hip lao (as a whole); ||b’o (abductor muscle); Hganu |nan (iliac
crest); !ao |nan (- bone); Iqohbi tsh b e (joint)
hiss d tsh o ’la; (of air or a snake)
hit llkx’um; dtshgh u; Igoba (with a flat object)
hold I'ua (sg.), |hao (pi. coll.), lau (pi. distr.); Onyhm (between
the thighs); 4qbin, Ian (down); g a h ’O (in the arms); Ian,
Ian k a H’um a (sg.), Ian k a ||hiia (pi.)(steady); f c a h ’m
(under the aim); ||’6m (water); inah’O , ||qhabe (onto with the
holder llnaa
hole to husband 237

hole dzuhe, fu e (burrow); kulu, I’uT (escape-); II&1

( - for scent marking); OgQO ( - in a tree); luni (man made);
dzuhe (natural); gilhm (opening)
hollow Mna’6 |’« e ; ’+n u’m |’e e ;O g g o ( - tree); dglo
hollow (vb.) llkx’um
honey Iqhuje
honey badger Ig a lo -s e
honorific address Igoo-lgbo, lab e ||n uu-ba (for thunder to bring rain); tsuhu
ku tso b a ; fq a h u ku fq a h b a (for the Vulture and Black
Kite); k'uSB (for a person); ’am b a a eh (for the lion); th a a
tshau (for the eland); ||ahf (for the duiker); 119^6 (for the
gemsbok); ||g a ’a , ’InQhO (for the springbok and hartebeest)
hoof llqule; Hga’m; +n iiu ; tahi (rear part of antelope hoof)
hooked ’llnaha
horn ||a e : Hqall I|naa (- yellow tips of the homs of a mature kudu
horse pi I SI
horsefly 4 gall k a |«1l
hosepipe +q'ue
hospital sii p a a te e la a
hot O ’ai; ||ao; ktibi; ^qalo ; ^ g a ’a ; c a a ; ||g a a ( - diy
season); gbh ba ( - part of the day); ||qabu ( - weather without
hover |x a a
how ah ’au ’a h n -s a ; a h ’a
how are you? |a a 4 e e ; |a a k x ’a b a ; |a a gul k a
huddle hu’u
hug Inahu; cHqhao
hullo ^giim kbo
humerus llkx’o a
hump tg illllx a u (shoulder -)
hunched lg§o; Iqhum; ||g§ho
hunger d Z Q l; lla h b a ; ts h tiu f f ^ g a o
hunt (n.) Iqahl
hunt (vb.) Iqahe; gjkx’a a ; |’a a ; ||ntiu (chase); InQho ( - springhare)
hunt and gather (vb.) ll’a e ; Iqhae; I’o o Inoo
hunting dog g+xOl
hurry (vb. tr.) t s o h u -ts o h u ; Iqhul; kue
hurt oym
husband ’|nan, t a a « a (sg.), ||x a a (pi.); O x a a Igaho
( -'s brother's child); I’o a ( -'s elder or younger brother); ^qh ee
238 hut to hyoidbone

( -'s father’s father -’s mother's father); O x a a *|nan

( -’s younger sister); O a a *|nan ( -’s elder sister)
hut IlnaO; llgym a (abandoned)
hyena (brown) *|nuu; glqhall; g^qhuu-ba
hyena (spotted) llgahu
hyoidbone ’^nyll |a ^ a a
I to inside out 239

I n’n; n; n de
ice llqga
if 111
ignite ||a o -||a d
ignore ka-kuu kv s a ’a
ignorant taha; gaha
ilium llganu
illegitimate p ab a |e O q § a , t s ’a a |e O q a a (-child)
illness |uni-ni
illtreat Inehe; !gui; Inu’a ; d z a a ; k x ’a o miT; ||’a i- ||’al
illuminate ||Gaa
imagine Inbho
imitate |nui
immature ||n an i-ka
impale Inoho (springhare)
impatient Iq’an n |’ui
impetuous Iq’an n +x6T-si; sunu
inactive +a ’u
incantation kua
incapacity ||§ m -te
incise !aO; ||q’u1i, ||q’Uli k a ’4n ala (-andremove)
incisor llqhaa a a
increase |aho; ||ali
indebted |ehe
indeed ku
indigestion ||nam n ba Inaa; ||qo’e
infant OqQ U -ba; t^ h a ; ’ln§na; |0UnU ( - still too young for the
mother to fall pregnant)
inflame X a’O
inflorescence Glqhbm; Iq’ao (of stickgrass); tftia UhU (of Camel Thorn tree)
initiate ||nu’m; ||nae-||nae
initiation school ||nu’Tn-se
inject ’llnuhm
innaixls |oha; ||kx’an; ||nam s a ’a; Iguh’u
inseparable +GOna, ||Gaa (- fromone's spouse)
insert 1190 (with fixing); glqhau (without fixing); glqhau ’Inaha
(- into the socks, hat or belt)
inside tsh oe; !han
inside out q ’abi
240 inspect to itch

inspect •ln«a (a snare)

issue (n.) + ’aa Ixaa (serious - )
instep ^nuu ih a l
instruct ||nae-||nae; goxale (id.)
insult (n.) ka’a -se
insult (vb.) Igyl; dzao; ka’a ; g|xul; ’In^l (by lifting the leg to show off
the anus); ’|nah’o; H’aH I’ali Inehe, dzaa; Inu’a; kx’ao
intend t W ; ln§BV
intercourse (sexual) t’kx’au; ©an kv +kx’an |a sa’a -te (illicit)
interior tshbe; lhan (of a container)
interrupt + g u ’ni
intoxicated Iqhum (sg.), 4hube (pi.); Inahle
introduce oneself Iquma-lqiima
investigate ’Inea; !n§a
invoke ||a a (- rain)
iron lanu; tshi'i pi'i
iiritate llxai; kx’uvlq’an; |a1l; +ofa; xa’6 (the skin);
Igb’O (cause an irritation or stinging sensation)
irritated g'ule
isolate ts’aa
it «h, a h , 1h (animate third person (sg.)); h (inanimate)
itch (vb.) gkhuli
jackal to jut 241

!a o -s e
jacket b a a -k i
jail (n.) ’Inal
jam (vb.) Ou*u; Inahn H’lim (sg); Inahn ||qhua (pi.)
jangle Inana t s ’e e
jaw +ae
jawbone llqhaa |a e
jaw muscle Igum
jealous Inama
jerk fnaha; Inii’lu ’^nala ( - loose in anger); g||kx’dbu
’^n§la ( - loose); dtshup, ||hup, cUqhobu
jingle Inana ts’ee
join llkx’ae; glqhau (sg.), glqhalu (pi.); II9 0 ; Inani ( - up with
joint llkx’a e - s a ; I’liT; iG^na (-o fto es); ||naa I’uT ( - o f
springhare hunting stick)
joke (vb.) Inahm; s«no; ||’a e -||’ae; ll’al-||’al
joker |gftb®-te; ^n«a bil
joking relative Ikx’oe
jowel Igao (of gemsbok)
joyful thulu
juice Iqhaa
jump IldhbO; |oabU, tshxbbu (into a sloshy substance); ||qap (op
suddenly ); ’Inyhl (up and run away)
jump up and rush off lalu (sg.), lalu ka (pi.)
just Il’aa
just now ’Inehe
jut dthaa (of a lip)
242 Kalahari sand raisin to kudu

Kalahari sand raisin gOqh'uu

kaross sa*b1
keep ll’oma
kick | ’i1;dtshQha kvjnuu, ||kx’um
kidney Inoh’pa
kiU qal; ’||nuhm (sg.), ’||nuhm kv (pi.) ( - animal by stabbing)
killer Sl*l-Sa (of humans)
kin glkxlim; majia-to; t'uu (people); Ikx’al, Icfna (root)
kind (n.) Inuha
kindling I’aa 0*an1
kiss ll'tibe; qam; 4’unia
knead lum; galo
knee gllxuu |nan
kneecap Ixull; gllxuu |nan sa ’a; ’Inyhbl
kneel iQhm tshuu
knife loo
knobkieme 4nua; jgah’bi
knock qal; Ibo-loo; !hUU -Ihiiu (- into the ground)
knot (nO +nyll |nan; +gunf; +ull; ts’aa-ts’aa; g||kx’aa (in
knot (vb.) 1|naha, ^guni
know Iguma
knuckle iG fn a; jkx’aa I’uT; !c§bi-sa; Ikx’al
kraal tiama
kudu d b o -k a
labia to leopard 243

labia Igana
labour Igo’la (obsmicted)
lachrimal sac I’tiT Ikx’al
lack ’^naha;|QU; ||’aa; Iqhaa
lame ll’ala
language ia a
lanky ’lna’6 I’eS; ’+nu’m |’ee
lap (vb.) ^qam; ||q’abu-||q’abu
lard (vb.) Icahm
large ^haa xbo |ua; Ixav
larva llaa (of Diamphidiae simplex)
laiynx InQhm
lash (vb.) tshxau
last (adj.) qam
late (adj.) |blo
later ll’an; kx’bo
latex qaa
laugh kx’al
laughter kx’aje
lay ’Inaha (sg.), tq’aa; +q’au (horizontal)(pi); llnfth’pa
ll’tima (on the back); Icaha ’Inaha, Hguhu ka ’Inaha
(on the stomach); |num (out a skin); q§’1 (an egg)
lazy lyha; thaa ka ||’aa
lead ||9ha; +qhala (sg.), +nyha (pi.)
leaf Igana
leafless gllxa’m |’ee
leak llqall; lln^a; +§ha fun
lean (vb.)(tr.) |bho; Igaa; ’Inahn jkx’aa kv sa’a ( - across and take
lean (adj.) dthana; Iqhaa
leap Ijohbo ka ||xube
leave ’+nahn (- alone); !ao (- behind); ||xao (- an infant at home)
left (n.) Igahm
leftovers ’a a -sa ’!n§ho(food)
leg +qhala; jqhan (lower); lao
leg rattles gye
lend Igoa
learn Iqhbo
leopard llul
244 leprosy to little

leprosy th u a -te ; |bho; xue

lessen rtii
level fcabo
lick lou’i; glkx’uM (-fo odo ff)
lie (n.) Ikx’oo
lie (vb.) tuu (sg.) (intr.); ’Inaha (sg.), +q *aa (pi.) ( - horizontal);
+ q a a (- in wait); Iguh’a ( - on a mat); lln^h’ji a tshuu
( -on one's back); g lx a a t u u ,+ a la k a tiiu, g lx a a
(- on one's side); iG^ha tUU (- on one's stomach); ^gabO
k a tshuu (- curled up); golo k a tuu (- on one's side when
hungry); !’o a -I’o a (- face to face); th ala k a tUU (- flat on
one’s back); tshUU (of the wind)
lie (vb.) lahl; s1’Je Ikx’oo (tell a -)
lift up gul; ^qhba (as a dog raises its leg to urinate); Ian (onto the
shoulder, or as a dog raises its leg to urinate); + ’ue, ahbl (the edge
of something)
ligament glkx’um
light (n.) llg§e
light (vb.) O ’a a ; O ’ale; I|naha (- a fire in a trench); qo’ni, Icoh’ni
<re- a fire); iGOh’la-lGOh’la ( re- a fire by stoking)
light (adj.) I’Ga; llbh’m; d tsh b ’m; tbh’m
light up llcaa; Mnbla
lightning (n.) llnaa; tali; |nule
lightning strike (vb.) ’m ala
like (vb.) + ’an s i; tsa h a ; |nam
like lUBV, ln§BV
like that tsh b a ’a a . l a h ’u
like this nee
limit (vb.) I’tiK-l’ul)
limp ’Inghlo; ’Inuma
line (n.) Iq’a m a (- of separation of the white belly hair from the redder hair
of the skin of certain antelope)
line (vb.) Iguh’a, Iguh’T (a nest)
linkshaft tqhull (of an arrow)
lion \i\
Up d o a (lower); dzum (upper)
liquid Iq h a a ; +uhMi ( - in dry wood); toh ’e (- obtained from
Cucwrbitaceae Acanthosicyos naudinianus (Sond.) C. Jeffrey)
listen llq’ble; ||’ule
hstless ’ln|ni
litde (adj.) I’ui
little by little to lower 245

little by little I’til-s a

live (vb.)(intr.) Inum (sg.), Inujia (pi.)
liver Ilnam; llnam © a a (caudate lobe o f -): llnam +nuha (lobe
of the-)
lizard 4 G9 I0 (Bushveld lizard); ||c4 h n l-k a (sp. of); ||nul (sp. of);
lg§hU k a ^nym (juvenile Bushveld lizard); Igolo (Speckled
striped skink)
load Inaho, llg a’o ( - a bullet)
load up llga’o
lobe 4nuha tahna
locative particle ta
lonely for 4ao
long l*am (sg.), I’a a (pi.); gjx b ’o (of teedi); |c b ’n a (very - )
long ago q^a; 4ee
long for fa o
long time |6lo
look after ll’a e ; gdhle
look at (intr.) tee
look at (tr.) !n§a; |ya
look for ||h a la ;|h a a ( - spoors, signs)
look about for ^ G fh ’a
look out for I’oo !noo (- food); l§ a (- game); !x aa ( - veldfood, water,
look into |n a a ; ^ n aa;
loop (vb.) 4ahlo
loose I’ua; Qla qho’lo; d fh b u ; ||holu; oqhalo; ^ h a b a
qho’lo, In o lo k a tsh o a q h d’lo (hang - as a tooth)
loosen g«h le (gen.), O qhall; dtshxbll; d tsh x b ’n; cb 'm a
lope lln^hm
lony kun l;n bo 111
lose Inoha
lose out tn u ’a
louse O n go (large); g||k x ’ 6 nl (small)
lousefly ■hull; I9 I |i Ih'ull
louse scratcher |nau
lot (n.) ||al 1- s a
love t sa h a ; + ’au ; |nam; f a n s i; ta o
lover I’a l
low Iga’a
low-pitched llguu tshbe n ||all (voice)
lower k x ’ua (sg.), ’Infthn (pi.); + o a h a ; x b ’lo; yLV s a ’a
246 luck to lung

the head); qa1 yLV |nan ( - the head sharply);

luck „.i«a (awful): iq o a lg w n ||n9a; Ig ^ n kx’oa |i1;
Igbo; 11x00 (lg«T); s a ’a n (bad); IgeT n
OkxMm, sa*a n ©kx’um (good); ||x6o (be out o f - )
lumbar transverse process ^am l; ||ohn 'In^ho
lump fkx’tim |nan; ||gal
lung llu’Jia
mad to mean 247

mad \im
maggots + g 6 h ’6 ; sa u - k u - te
magical power gllxal
make ’ahiu |lia; q al tl Ihuu ( - aclatteringnoise); lU’T
(- a furrow); *ahl6 lube (- a mistake); +a ll |’UU ( - a net);
Iq’un ( - a noise); llxau k\ |x al ( asnare); ll’ubl guhm
(- a space); lao (an incision); ||nu’m (- cord); k x ’u a |’a a
(- fire); g O x a le (- fire with fitesticks); Ono5 -Onbo (- lip
noises or the O click); InaT-lnaT ( - the ! click); |he© -|h eS
(- the I click); ^heo -+ h e e ( - the 4 click); ||hee -||h ee (- the
II click); I’Ola (- mess); |q’dlO ( - a small hole); ||a a (- rain)
malfunction ll’aa
male «a
malleable iqabe; |’ua, ||oh’m; dtshb’m; toh’m
malnourished 'Inoni
man taa «a (sg.), ||xaa (pi.)
mandible iae;||qh aa ^ae
mane lall
manner lah’u
many Hall, Ixav (sg.), IxaBV (pi.)
marijuana qhana
mark (n.) lln^hle
mark (vb.) tsaa (scent-)
marriage Inajia
mairow s§a
marry ’ahna ’|najia
mash qal llq’ale
massage 4umi; Iqaa; tshala; txall
master (n.) 11’^
mastoid process fnuha ’!n§ho |a ^aa
mat Igua; tahu; +iia; s a ’bl (skin); jgah’a (of branches)
matter laho; lube
mature (n.) llkx’an; llkx’an qae; Ohan |e ||a’n (-female duiker);
Ohan |i ||ahl (-male duiker); ||aha, |g§h’a -k a (-male
mature (vb.) Mnah’nl
maturity ||aha-sa; =fgam-^gam (bring to - (ritual))
mealiemeal phall-tshe; +GU’nl; +qhau-te; Iqgale,
mean (vb.) g'^kx’um, §hl; |§a
248 mean to mistreat

mean (vb.) tam

meander +aml-+aml; +am-+am
measure fa o -fa o
meat Oaje; 0 a a ; Oaa -te (pieces of - )
mediastinum llkx’an IlGObU ku (contents o f - )
medicine sbo; dtshaa (aromatic mixture); ||kx’aa ( - to be expelled
during a dance); ||q*6e -se ( > used for purging the liver); +n§o
( - to assist a man in trance)
medicine man sbo §a
medicine woman sbo IlgQl
meeting ’InaJ; mit th'ml
melon tahm; Ixala; daha -ka (domestic)
membrane llnbhbe; ||nbho I’ube
men llxaa, t'uu |a ||xaa
menstruation |xaa;|m l sbo;lgaba ki Iqhan; |xaa fil; tuu
(sg.)(intr.), iq ’aa (pl.)(intT.)(euph.); lohba (euph.); lOhO
(euph.); s a ’a (euph.); |nal Iqhan (euph.)
merely Il’aa
mesophyll tshxaa
mess (vb.) I’ona llq’ajia
metacaipal iGftna; iGQbl-sa; Ikx’al
metal lanu;kaa (-box)
metatarsal iG^na, lG9bl-sa; Ikx’al; Iqhan
middle I’ao; tshbe
midge Inuu-lnuu (sp.)
midnight |nye ||ohn; |nye tshbe Ixaa; |nye Ixae; |nye tshbe
midst I’ao
milk g+qhee
milky way |nye tshbe 4’um; |nye ||dhn
millepede llnyle
mind out! 4xaa
miscarry kx’ua kv qae s a ’a ; ||ohn kx’ua |ii; ||kx’an |’ua
misfortune Ig'ua; Igbo; llahi ke Igiia (cause )
mispronounce ’lln^ma
miss +ao (lonely for)
miss llqahn (sg.), ||qahn si (pi.) (- a shot)
miss out on Iqhaa
mist Inghu ka |bho ku; ’Inoh’li
mistake laho; lube; ^nua dzum
mistreat |nehe;lgyi; Inu’a ; dzaa; kx’ao miT; ||’al-||’ai
mistrust to move 249

mistrust ll’a e
misunderstand Ongm
mite Iqhaa k a ||n6’m a (velvet-)
mix loahm ( - fat into meat); ||nyhbu-||nyhbu, ||nyhbu-si
( - liquids by shaking); ’||n 9 m a-SI ( - one's words by speaking
too fast); ’llnuhm q a ’bl; hunt; t k x ’umi
mock (vb.) k x ’a l
modem llqyv
moistuie Iq h M , |uhli; g lx a ’n; +uh ’li ( indiywood)
molar llqhaa q a e
moment ’Inehe; xbo
Monday man ta x a
money ln§a
more llqhao
mongoose g a li- s e (banded); jcQhli, t s ’a a - t e (slender); Hn^hbe
month Iqhan
moon Iqhan; Iqhan O a a ||g § e (crescent); Iqhan Hg^e (full);
Ixale !ao, !xai, !xai lao ( -less night); Iqhan |a
g + k x ’a a ||g§e, Iqhan a ri g 4 k x ’o a (new)
moonlight Iqhan Hg^e
morama nuts +nym
morning khube
morsel Iq ^ a b a
mortar Igal
mosquito Iqomi; ’m e’me
moth dthabi; gy e |i dthabi
mother q a e ; ^qhee ( -'s brother); O a a Igaho ( -'s brother's child);
llqham ( -'s brother's wife, -'s mother); q a e Igaho
( -'s sister);+kx’an ( -'s sister's child); § a IgahO (-'s sister's
husband); q a e Igaho ( step - )
mother-in-law O a a ’|nan
moult llq’a l (sg.), Ilea’u (pi.)
mound 4 g u u - + g u u ;+ k x ’um s a ’a
mouse +nyje (gen.); glxu’1 (sp.)
mouth +ue
move lhal tl (sg.), IlnQa (pl.)( - across the heavens); InyhU
( - aside); ||x 6 a la, | x a a ( - away); tholo, g a m -g a le
( - down a slope); |a a (- o ff); InQm, ( - out of the way
o f); ||x 6a la ( - over); Inal-lnal (unevenly); uha ( - one's
eyes back and forth); UhbU ’+ n § la (suddenly)
250 move about to mythical man

move about 4naha; +naha-+naha, ||q’6bu-||q’6bu, ||n6hbu;

||nbhbu-||nbhbu; Inah’m ( - carrying fire); |aa ( - ofO (intr.);
Inyha (-o ffx tr.)
movie bals kopo; Icftu |gya; *|nbha
much 4 ’au ku
mucous 1|nyhn
mud Iq ’aa ka; |gqI1 (caked); HgobO (deep)
mug kob p'l
mule mau luu
multitude dzaa
mumble I’uu Il’ubBV ’Insn
munch gOkx’al
murmur gbbo-gobo; Hngbo; cum-Gum
muscle oaje, ||GUm (gen.); 4’6lo (bicep); 4’aba tshbe (adductor
/onjus) ; ’|nama (bicepsfemoris); \yuma. (erector spinae);
IkX’au (hamstring); !a’a (vastus lateralis a.od tensorfascia lata);
Igum (masseter); Iq’bna (pectoral); t’kx’aa (quadriceps
femorisY, Iglim (trapezius); ||6’0 (hip adductor)
mushroom Iqhbbo-lqhbbo, I ’uma-^’uma, iab e 4’an
must lum; ln|a
mute ka-kuu -se; moo -moo -se
mutton kuu Oaa
muzzle llkx’unu
mythical man Ig^be-tO; ^n^a bil (the trickster)
nail to nasal cavity 251

nail llga’m; Hqule

naked +gama
Nama Iqee; nama
name (n.) lau
name (vb.) +11; Iga’I; I’al
names (men's personal) llq^bl +nau, +a’e khoe, ||ye ts’kx’aje, t’kx’am-si,
Inaa -te, Inya-le, Ina’ma-sf, +4a-sa, iq a ’e khbe,
+ana-te, Igau ku-se,+’anu +abe, ||ae +nuha,
llgo’be-si, ||xa1 ||xao, ||xai ku t'uu, ||q’6e +abe,
llhal |xam, ||qhuu 4abe, ||qhuu-ka, ||nae-||nae,
llnbo +abe, llnunu, Il’upa |ua, qal ti lhuu,|aa-te,
I4m-ka, |an |ua, |guma-te, |xaa laa, |xa1e,
Iq’ae-se, |naa |ua, |nah’nl 4abe, |noo, |noo ka,
Inuhu sele, ’|num-te, lae-sa, lohna-si l§ho-ku,
lua -ma, lu’a |ua, Igaa ka tuu, Iqhae-ku, Inahm
4abe, +naba-se, lanu +abe, bolo ||xao, tana-te,
tana |hab, tuhu-se, dao-sa, thee-pe, thuu-ma-se,
dthaba, tshau, tsQha-ti, dzao, tshxaa ah’a,
tshxaa koa, Hg^hm, gue kx’al, guhll |ua,
guhm-sa, khaa-m, kx’ae ||nau, kx’uu khbe, qal
khbe, qil-se, qajia +abe, qajia-te, m^n-ka, ’I'l
dthabi, Inahl tana, |xan tshoe
(women's personal) llqhajia ||gae, nam tsi, thua |ua, see |cut,
laa-si, |aa ts’an ||’ae, |a1a |ua, |najia ||’ae,
Inaa -si I, laa khbe, laba ka-kuu, lama ’ee ka,
lahm-tl, luu |ua, IgeT |ua, lc|a |ua, Iqhum-ka,
glqhal |naa, Iny’a, Inum ||’ae, ’In^m, I’anl, +§a
ll’ama, +’ua-se, Iqhum ka, +il-ka, fil |ua, +gee
Inaho qae, ||ahnl ti, ||yl ’Inahl, ||xal-t‘i, ||q’6e khbe,
llnahe, ||n$l |ua, ’||naha-ti, ’||nahm |ua, ’||nahm-ka,
pee-tl, boo t/uu, bua thaa-ni, tah’a khbe, tau
ll’ae, tbhba kua, tsaha, tshee thana, tshana |ua,
dts’kx’al 4abe, ka’I ||’ae, kue lnaa,sao |ua,
|guI k1, cyhm ||’ama, ’Hn^ha-fi
nape +hil tshbe
narrow OqhU’U (-ly spaced)
nasal bone llkx’unu
nasal cavity Inuhjia inym; |nuhjia tshbe
252 naughty to nothing

naughty sunu; ll’al-ll’al

nausea llq’M
navel +nyn (adult); gob o (child)
navy +a*pa
near Ilga’Ie; ||n§a; I’ba; ’4nuhma
neaten loau
neck ik x ’ao; lall-te (- hair of certain animals)
necklace II9 W ® (eggshell beads); IkX’am (glass or plastic beads)
needle 4xuu; |xuu llnaa ( - case)
nephew O aa IgahO (brother's children); Oxaa IgahO (husband's
brother’s child); fqhOO (sister's children)
nest llnae
net I’uu
new llqyv
news Igfiho (bring - of)
next s1l |o a ;!a h le
next to Ilga’Ie; jjnaa; ’^nuhma
nice q a i (sg.), q a p a (pi.)
nicely ||am
niece Oxaa IgahO
night jnye; |nye !x ae (midnight); Ixai lao, Ixale lao, Ixaa
lao (moonless)
nightfall jnye O a a - t u ; q ah e
nipple g^qhee jnan
no *Ti' ’"m
nock |kX’an-Sl; (leather - on bow)
nod (vb.) ^gum kV jnan ( - the head); I’anI (- the head when walking);
nod (intr.) k a ’Ingbu k a
noise (n.) Iguhm
noise (vb.) Iq’un
noisey 4nua jjguu (-machine)
nomadic Inum jtia |qhi1; jjqhua q a o k a b a !num
noose |x a l |nan (tsh oe)
north +gee
nose jnuhpa; llkx’unu (bridge of the - )
nosebleed dZ9U
nostril Inuhjia llqal
not ||q h u a;||’a a (- to be)
nothing fb k o -li
notch to nyctophobia 253

notch (n.) |kx’an-si; |’aa I’uT ( - in the firestick); fnuha ( - in the

side of a firestick)
notch (vb.) Igube
notice In^a
nourished ’lln ih a
nourishment dftin
now ’Inehe te’e ;d a o til ki
nuchal +hl'l tshbe (superior - line)
number Ican-loan (large - of objects); dzaa (large - of people)
numerous Hall
nyctophobia Inuh’u
254 obstruct to over there

obstruct +gu’nl
obstructed labour Igo’ia
occipital bone +hii
oesophagus Ingm |kx’aa, ’|nym Oaa
offspring lln^nl ka; g||kx’6u-sa
often Hall; 4’au -ku
Okwa qoe (- river valley)
old !huu;||g'u’a ( - eland); taa |a Ihun ta 9a (-man);taa |a
Ihiin ta qae ( - woman);||gyma (-thing);||aha; Icfi
(wrinkled with age)
omasum ’^nahm; ||kx’an 9a; Inahba ||hoa I’iia -te; Inahba
Il’oba I’iiT; bal bill
omen |oye; Inaa-se; Inahle (givean -); ||nfe |cjje (seek
an -)
omentum O a’I |a sQa; ||nah’m-||nah’m
one +’ua; llqhae ( - another); +’ua ( be at - with); + ’UV s1l
( - at a time)
once +’ua, Ikx’aa |nan +’ua
only fu V 'V ; ll’aa (just)
ooze ^xaml-^xaml
open 99hle, ||6’a; ||q’al (a bottle or egg); ^ee, Hq’all, cHqhube
(the eyes); ^qhba, Ian (the legs); q a a , k h ala kV (the
mouth); ||qh'ua
opemng guhm; |tie
open up 99hle; d tsh a le ( - a sprfnghare hole)
orange namunu, |ahjia
orbit rtii llnaa (-ofth eeye)
Orion's Beit txobu +9na-te
orphan +gum
ostrich quje
other tV'V
other one Ina’m
ought iHQa; lUBV
out of reach 4nu*a
outside I'kn-ti
ovary llnal |nan
overcast qum; qum jnail
overcome taha
over there Ina’in-sa; ta’m-sa; ta’m-Ja; ’nn-Ja
over take to oxide

overtake |ua
oversexed Iqhan s a 'a ; *|nya
overturn lluhu; lluhu k a ||’um a
owe |ehe
owl gulu kuu gu’u ; i ’a b e tau; |uhm; I’a a - l ’a a - s e ;
Iq^ho; ’lln'yhm; ||gulu k a |uh m -se; Inblo-ka
ox g'umi 9 a
oxide Ilga'I (red)
256 pack to patella

pack Ig a’o (into); Inaho (load);’a b a s i i (up)

packed O q h b o ; + ’6o; G n a ’a , ||al; ’+nob, g a lo (- together)
pacify !gae; ta h ’o; |a la
pad tahi
pain q a i- s a ; d ts h x a ’a
painful qfi
pair (vb.) +num ka; +num-+num ka
palate Ina’Ia tshbe
palm + ’um tshoe;+’um tshbe |i' tahi (edgeof-)
palpitate dzam
pan Inau; !nau tshbe (centre); Inau s a ’a (surface); ^cua
(surface layer oO; lg§0-ba (incipient)
pan (names of) I4l Igut lg«8. l9Ja. Ilaa. maja, Ino’a, +bho xa I’oo,
fqhall ba, ||yl si, Hguh’m, ||xbT, Hqhanu kuu, Igal
ts’il, lhao, ’In^m, fbha, ||au-ba, |a l I’uT,
nam-nam-se, |aha Ibo, ts^ha Ibo
pancreas dtshan
pangolin llg u ’m
pant llhoo ts’ee, ||hblu
paper pampirl
paraesthesia le a n
parcel out subu-subu
parched khoba
pare ^ga’le; ^xal; ||nau
parent 1190 ( - of married couple)
part (vb.) khala
I9 & (not to -)
participate in |§ a (notto-)
pass (vb.) Ilia; xaa (between); jna’m, Ikx’aa, In^bu (by); tsbhle,
4hale, Ihoo (right in front of)
pass the time llgaa
pass to |ua |naa (sg.), lau jnaa (pi.)
passport paspbote
pastern joint gubi-s'i
pat +ahn-+ahn, t’kx’ala-t’kx’ala
patch (vb.) tgu’u
patchy llqala (of shade); ^na’n jjhUU (of rain)
patella Ixuli; ’Inyhbi; g||xuu jnan sa ’a
path to pickup 257

path ^olo; duba

patient (vb.) Inani
patterned bala
patterns qo’nl; bala; I|n§hl0 (ceremonial - daubed on the face); Iga’na
(facial - on certain antelope)
paunch qahna
paw (n.) Ikx’aa (front); ^qhala jnuu (hind)
paw (vb.) ||g«ho; qala
pectoralis major Iq’bna
peel Oqhala; 4ga’lo; 'In^hn; ca’le; Hc^hle
Peeling-bark ochna lahia; Inoo quil
peel off k x ’iia; gllxo’bu
peer ^G^h’a ti; |n a a ki ( about)
peg (n.) |a b a
peg (vb.) llxau, ^num ( - out a skin); 4qhum, ^qhum ||kx’ae
(- pieces of skin together)
pelt sa*bi
pelvis !ao
penetrate *||nuhm ylu
penis fa n ; q’ao; gobo (child's); llnyle (met.); + ’an |nan,
4'an Inya (gians)
people iuu (Bushmen)
perhaps dao llqhal
pericardium Iq^an ||naa
period (woman's) |xaa,|ni1 sbo, !gaba kf Iqhanjxaa |ti,
tiiu (sg.)(intr.), +q’aa (pl.)(intr,), |nai Iqhan, lohba,
s a ’a |ti (alleuph.)
perplex taha; gaha
person taa (Bushman)
perspiration 1|nyma-te
perspire khu’bu
pesde |nu*m
phalanges Iqah’le
pharynx GQlO
philtrum Inuhjia ka ^ona |i dao
phlegm |Goe; ’llnghn
photograph s1l tshoan tshbo
pick berries dtxo’la; ll'all
pick one's way lloa’bu
pick the nose InQll
pick up Ixoa
258 picture to poison container

picture s1l tsh oan tsh bo

picce |q « a -b a
pigeon-toed gaba
pUe (n.) luhm |nan
pile (vb.) Iqhiiu; llahbl; + c a b a ( - up); Inu’u (be in a large pile)
pinch t ’u n l;0 n u ’lu ( - and twist); t’k x ’ula (-o ff);+q h U l (takea-)
pins and needles (n.) loan
pins and needles (vb.) OQle
pipe tsh an a; Ixuu
pips d z a ’nl
pitch (n.) 4nau, kahio
pitch (of voice) llguu tsh be h I’iil, ^ a a O a a n |’ul (high);
jjguu tsh b e n ||all (low)
pith t s h x a a ; qbho q ’b b e (of a tree)
place (n.) f u a ; s1l
place (vb.) ll’uma (sg.), Ilqhtia (pi.); Iln^hjia (- face up);
O q b h b a ylu, dtshxaT, O q b h b a tshuu (- in a fork);
+h abl ( - on top); Igam, Iguu (- up)
placid +g ®® (of personality)
plain (n.) llyhe
plait (vb.) dgml; donl; ||nu’m (- by twisting sansevieria fibre); f a l e
plane (vb.) Iqhaa
plant (n.) d§n a ( - with above ground growing pans or woody tissue)(gen,);
|a a (- with swollen underground organs)(gen.)
plant (vb.) ylu (sg.), Iga’o (pi.)
plastron Ileoh’a
plate lule; Inaa; ||n a a ; s i lupu
platform ’llnah’e
play |nahm; c§ le ; s^nu; !nybu-!nybu ( - a thumb piano or
musical bow)
pleasant (feeling) lqhbh’6
please see
pleiades + o a a -te
pluck off tshxum; llq’ai; ’4n ala; Hca’u; cyhm
plume duh’e (white ‘ of ostrich)
pod Icabi (- of certain trees); + q a li-+ q a lf (dry); ||§h l-||ah l
(- of camelthom tree); 4 q h a n -te (seed -)
point I’am ; Hqhaa; + a e (- of a tree, narrow - of a bow); tV'V (be
on the - of)
poison ||a a ; sb o
poison container llxan
poke to present 259

poke llkx’um (- a hole into); dyhbl ’||nuhm ( - in the eye); q a ’bl,

’llnuhm q a ’bl ( - inside out); ’llnuhm ylu, Ikx’ob) (- into
ash); ’llnuhm g lx a a (- open); huu, ’jjnuhm huu ( - out
intestine); ||kX’um -||kX’um ( - the fire)
polecat d 9 a ; n a a qall
police p a ll-si
pollen k'uhll
PoUux jnye lao tsh o e
polygamy ’ijnuhm-’+ n a la -k a
pool (vb.) jjnalo
poor ’fn a h a ; jgu
pop ^qoh ’bu; Igahm ylu (food into the mouth)
porcupine jn'uu
portent jeye
portion |q § a ba; +kX ’a o (joking partner or friend's - )
possession la e ; ^‘k x ’ai; lye; ll’ai
pot ’+n an a
potent sbo
potion |n uja-te
pouch phaphale
pound + a h a - + a h a ; dtshghu; ||kx’um; !’um; Iqhaa (in a
mortar); ^'ahm -4ahm , llq’a le (pulp); |noho (decorticate)
pounding kbhp s e ’e (headache)
pour jjn^a; Ijn^nl; ||n§1
pour in (tr.) Ig a’o (dry substance); jjn^a (sg.), I|n§nl (pi.) (wet substance)
pour out (intr.) jjqali
pout t g e p a ; Igum-lgum; ||uh’bu kV dzum
pounding Igulu t s ’e e
pouring with llgyhm
powdered I’a a
pox th u a-te ; xue
praise (vb.) kua; d a a ; ta h ’a; t a ’jia
pray baba
praying mantis + q h a ’ji Onyu
precisely Igahn’ri
precaution Iqau (take )
pregnant jqhiim; 4 ’au; ||nau; g||kx’6u; Icu’m; ’Inal
pre-orbital gland san l
prepare ’jjnahd; |n u m ( - a skin to make a hunting bag)
presence 111
present |fl
260 presentiment to pure

presentiment Inahle; ||qhala (have a -)

press llxbbe; ||am-||am
pretty qal (sg.), qajia (pi.)
prevent Igae, +§h’a ; Ig4 u (- water from slopping)
previous q^m
pride | a i (o f lions)
prize out Iguh’m
problem !aho; lube; 4n'ua dzum
process tshoa, XOO (be in the - of)
produce q § ’i
projectile Iq’uli
promiscuous I’ai
prostate gland ’Inyhm
protected lla’u (- side of a tree)
provoke 4caa; llxaj; ||aa, saa kv, qaha (-afigh t)
pubes |hum
pubic bone |hum |a ^aa
puddle Iqohjo
puffadder +kx’ul
puffball Iqhobo-lqhobo; + ’uma-+’uma; +ee-+ee
pug tahl
Pula pula; lkx’06; gjqhlja (currency of Botswana)
pull ||§ha; Iqhala; fnyha
pull apart llq’al (sg.), lloa’Q (pi.)
pull back llQha Iqhum, llq'al ta khala; ||q’ua; k’aa (-the
pull off lum; g^kx’olo; ^hube; txolu; dtxo’la; dtshxbo; llcyle;
Oqhala (-bark)
pull out ||§ha ’|n § 1a; Hca’u (grass); cyhm, tshxum, Hq’ai,
’+n4la (- grass and hair); dtshxbli tshuu, dtshxb’n-si
( - of a snare); llih a llq’ai
pulmonary vessels tshbe + ’um; + ’um; Ikx’olo
pulp (n.) Inahna; q’bbe
pulp (vb.) +ahm-+ahm; Hq’ale; Iqhaa
pulse (vb.) qhb’lo
pumper pampara
pump (vb.) pampa
pupa ||q’6 e - s e
punch llkx’um; dtshghu
puncture (vb.) +na’n
pure ’Onaha
pus to python 261

pus gbho
push yhm; g|xbo ylu, ( - into a bush to conceal); ^qohm ||’um
( - into the sand upright); dtShxb’nl ( - into the hair); t’kX’Ula
( -out): Ina’m, ||ahm (-over); ||ahn ka ylu, Ikx’olo,
Oqhbo ylu, g+qhbo ylu ( under); ’|nee (-out);
g^XO’e ( - something into a belt, socks or hat e.g. a knife)
push (compel) Iqhul, tsohu-tsohu
put Il’um a (sg.), Ilqhtia (pi.); Ig aa ( - against); ||a a , Iq h aa
( - around); ||goh ’b1 ( - between the legs); q a l ||qhua ( - down
violently); O q o h b a ylu, d tsh xaT ||’u m a, O q b h b a
tShUU ( - in a fork); |a ’a ( - aside, store); ||h aa (sg.), Iga’O
(pl.)( - in), su b u -su b u ( - in order); Iqahm sb lo , |6h b9
(into);^nao, ’lln ah jia (off); Iq h a a , I|a a (on a necklace);
luu (on the head); Iga’O, Hgii’u ( - on shoes); Igam; q^h a
( - up game); |h a b l, |h a n l Il’um a (sg.), Ihuu, ^hanl
Ilqhtia (pl.)( - up on)
Puzzle bush Ilg9u
python |uma; 4qhuu
262 quadriceps femoris to quiver

quadriceps femoris t’kx’aa

quantity ’llnaha; ||a1i
quaitzite Inule
queen bee or queen ant Igulu-bo
quench dOh’O (one's thirst)
quick (ly) tsohu
quiet kuu
quietly f a ’u, qui, qao -qa5
quill glqhae; gllxau
quiver (n.) lula; liqbho
race to relative 263

race (vb.) Inoba; doba

radius (bone) +na’a; +xubi; g+xubi; g+qhuli; g+qhuli |nan
rag llgah a; gllkx'ali; !xai; n am a !ai khbe
rain (n.) Ikx’be; jqhaa (met,); ||ai (persistent); Inuhiu; sa u
laa(first-); Ikx’o e Iqhaa
rain (vb.) !aa; baba tshee, !abe ||nuu-ba; |goo-|goo,
§a kuse, |nulu, baba tshee, labe ||nuu-ba
(incantations for); glxa’I), Igau -|gau
dts’kx’au-dts’kx’au (lightly)
rainbow llahia
rainy season *||nahu
raise +hanl; gul; Ian; +h abl (sg.), Ihuu (pi-); Hum (- a child);
^qh bba ( - the leg); Hga’o (- the tail up); |ij4l k a
( - the eyebrows); ahbl, + ’ue (the edge of e.g. a blanket)
randy ’|nya; Iqhan s a ’a
rash IGQII
rat iGUlu qae
ratde (vb.) tshbla ts’ee; xa’be; llkx’ulu ts’o e ; g|xa’la ts’ee;
4qana ts’ee
raw Iqhee; Iqhaa
ray ll'an +ga’a; ||qau
reach +nii’a; llgo’be si
rear Iq’il
recover qhb’Io
rectum 4qhuu I’uu
red |ahpa; llnohba; Qhba |’ee
Red hartebeest ln§i
red oxide llga’i
reduce I’iii; |’ui-|’iii; qohba
reed bahle
reflective !§11; +qali; +aba
refuse Ilya; xao; tao; §hi; |aa; Inu’u; g+kx’utn
regurgitate qgle, Iguu kx’ubi
reins tumu
reject glkx’ao; |na’ni; |neh’e , dzaa;
Inu’a; kx’ao mi'T
re-kindle iGOh’nl; q o ’ni; tebh’la-tobh’la (- a fire by stoking)
relative glkx’um; Ikx’ai; m a jia -te ; t'uu; loana; tuu; |qu (be
without a -)
264 relax to rhizome

relax quT; quT-quT; q a b -q a b ; |a*u

relieve Igam
remain lao
remember +*an si
remove llnam; Inyhu; kx’ua (sg.), ’Infthn (pi.); •+nila (sg.),
+nau (pi.); Ilq’ull (-acover); ||’uma ka Inyhu si
(- a pot from the fire); Hq’al (- a thorn); hUU (- contents of
an intestine); g |x a ’a (- droplets from); guh’m (- from the
ash); ll’um a ^am (- in the horizontal); llqhbla ( - Ledebouria
bulbs from the fire); |hUU ( - meat from a pot by hand); ’Inuhl
|nv tarn (- onself), gkhola (- food from the fire); O q hall
(- seeds from a pod); ||n§hlO (- with a stick); tXOlU, txali
(- faecal matter from bowels); llqhba ( - a cover)
repair ’ahiu I'ua
reply mall
report IgQho; man; ||qua
reprimand Igae; ta h ’o; |ala
request luhi; c a h a ; ||g a a
resemble !um; BV; t§BV; naBV; !n§BV; !um ||qhae ( - one another)
reserved xau; ’Inoh’la; |kx’6o; ||ya
reservoir tamu; dam
resistant In^n ( - to breaking)
respect (n.) xau-se
respect (vb.) xau; ’Inoh’la; |kx’6o; ||ya
respectfully I’u l-s a ta n a (ta lk -)
respond Inah’a (- to the cry of an infant); ||qua ( - negatively)
rest (vb.) Inani; ’||n ah jia
restart t ’k x ’b il-t’k x ’bli; looh’la-lo b h ’ia
restful 4 a ’u
restfully + a ’u - s a ; quT; q a o - q a o
resdess qhb’lo
restrain |ala; Igae; ta h ’o; 4 f h ’a; |nehe
restrict Iq’ue (the passage)
reticulum llkx’an fue
retort mall
retrace Iqaba
return mall; t s ’an, gall; f a m (- home)
revere (ritual) |x a a ; Ig ab a ki' Iqhan, |nal sb o
reverse llhuu ^am
rtiinarium iona
rhizome |nan
rib to rumen 265

rib t ’a a (costal); |xan + ’a a (floating)

rid lln^l (get-of)
ridge luhm s a ’a ; Inau ih uu ku tsh be; llg^m, 'In^bl,
Ilg9bl ( - on the homs of certain antelope)
riem glkx’a la ; qhule
right here Igahn’ri
right (side) +n«u
rigid llg^u; I’u a
rinse ||GQbU-||OQbU (the mouth)
rip Gllqhua; gllkx’alu
rip out oyhm; tshxum ; ||q’a1 (sg.), Iloa’u (pi.)
ripe ||ao
ripple (vb.) Ikx’a b a ; Nnaba; qhb’b a
rise (vb) k x ’a b a (sg.), ||x 6b e (pi.); '4n § la ( - o f the sun);
lahle k x ’a b a ( up)
ritual mixture +n §o
river Inau ’|nym
roast ||ao; qola; Inai ( - on a stick)
rod !anu; ’!na’b |’e e , ’+nu’m |’e e (-shaped)
roll dubi-dubi (inthe sand); galo, galo-galo, fum ( into a
ball); tsh opha, ’llnaha, ^ cali ( - a cigarette); d oba,
G^m ta G^le (- over and over) gam-gale ( - down); dthum,
llubu, Iqhum, ^ b u ( - up)
root glkx’abu ; !o§na, lo §b i>si, !G § b i-sa (fleshy,
adventitious): g|kx’an (tap); Ikx’ai (woody)
rot guhnu-gllhnu ( - of vegetable matter)
rotten g + k x ’o a ; d tx o ’lu; dt’k x ’a i (of meat)
rough gkx'ab
Rough leaved raisin lam lali
round p e e ; ’lna*d |*e e ;ln a h b a
rouse I’a e ; g a h ’n
mb tshala ( - a swelling with water or fat); \okW (- away
pins and needles); I’ble (- dirt off the skin); |guhm (- on);
Ogm (- with fat); |qaa (- with the hands); |nj^m kv
ru a - t e ( - the eyes); |nua -|n ua ( - mb the hands together);
Glqhujia ( off)
rubbish llq’a p a
rucksack ’fnahe
rumble k x ’a a ( - of one's stomach)
rumen llkx’an; llkx’an q a e ; |nahna (contents of the - )
266 rummage to rut

rummage ’ln«hm
run llnuu (Sg.), Ilg fb a (pi.); f u a ( - after); g a m -g a le
k x ’u a ( - down); ||nshm ( - fast); t ’a a - t ’a a ,
t’am-t’am ( - on the balls of the feet); ItlQba, dQba ( - very
nish (vb.) tSOhU -tSO h u ; IqhiiI
nish off lalU
rust llq’ajK l
rustle tshbla ts*ee
tut ts^ a
sack to scoop 267

sack ’^nahe; lad; |hao

sacrum |au;g|qhuu
sail (n.) tsali
saliva ’n4m Iqhaa
salivary gland dtshan
salt q a ’na
q a ’u
salt lick ic'uha
same + ’u a ; Igahn’n
San groups Igui k h b e -te (|Gwi); t a a Hqyo (modem); t a a (traditional);
Ix 6 jia -te O ’anI (1x66 group); ’||nahe (Laia); + k x ’a o
II’an (Makaukau); |qae, n am a (Nama); Ixuu-te (Naro);
I g e e O ’anI (!x66 group: Northerners); fq h u a O ’anI
(DCOO group: Southerners); lam a O ’anl (DCOO group:
Westerners); Iqohju O^anl (1X66 groups around Ohe)
sand + k x ’um; +GyI1 (caked); x a ’m ||no’la ka, x b ’b o (dry);
lg § o -b a (hard); G§n (hot - from fire); GQ’nl (hot);
+ q ’a a - k a (wet); |naha Inuhm (excavated); louma; luhm)
(area of soft - )
sandal ’llnahu; ^qulu; ^ o a ’b a
sandbathe +oho
Sandburr lloaba x a a ; g k x ’a a - l a
sap Iqh aa; ts 'k x 'o a {oi Asclepiadaceae Pergularia OTCombretum
sated ilkx’a a
satisfaction d§m
Saturday sa te rta x a
save ll’ae
say te’e; tarn
scapula ||g4e |a |a a
scar loo |ue
scarred lyi
scatter Inuhi, ||g § b a kh ala, dua tshuu
scent (n.) d t s h a a ; ||kx’a u ; + g u ’i (pleasant - of flowers); ||g a a
(of certain acacias); t'uhle (- mark)
scent (vb.) t§V llkx’au
school slkw ele; ||nii’m -s e
scold tan a 4'V; |a1a; igae ; tah'o
scoop llahl; ||naa; t s f ho
268 scorch to septum

scorch 4ga'a; caa; Iqho’bu; ||nau

scorpion ||ae (gen.); lama ka +ga’a (Sun scorpion)
scout Ixaa (for food): l^a (for game)
scrape (intr.) xa*be
scrape (vb.) ||nam, ||nau (- deposit from a container); dZUl (- bitter skin
from a tuber); |nau (a tuber for its pulp); igaMe (off bark);
+Ge’e, llguhpa (off); ||xaa, +xal (off hair)
scraper dzuu (for skins); loaml (for tubers)
scratch Inahu; g||kx*alu; ||qhua; sya (an itch)
scratcher Inull 1hl
scrotum +qhan-te
scum Ingba
seal +gu’u; Iguu.lah’ll (a burrow or hole to prevent escape)
sealant kahio
search ie e Iqhaa (in vain); |naa ki
search for kanl; I’OO Inoo; ||hala (in the sand); Ixaa (food); 19a
(game); |haa (spoor or signs)
season lae (cold dry); llg aa (hot dry); *||nahu(wet)
seated tshuu (sg.), I’aa (pi.); Oqhbo, ^g55 ka tshtiu, galo
ka tshuu (close together)
secrete dtshaa
secretion S§lU -te (of anal gland); sani (of sub-orbital gland); dtsham
(of ant, polecat, badger)
sedge + g o o |gym ;|nuhu |’u u ;|g y m
see |naa
seed s a ’a ;+ g a m (moist- ) ; + n a ’jia , g k x ’ulu (spoilt-s of
Bauhinia macrantha); + q h a n -te ’In ym -sa ( - from pods)
seedless d z a la ( - cucurbit)
seek l§ a (game); Ixaa (veldfood, water, work)
seems naBV
self tarn; ||qhae
sell ^oho ; |dho ka ||xuu (sg.), +ohd ka Hn^a (pi.)
semen IcOa
senior (person) IxaV; Half; t a a Ixae (sg.), tuu Ixabu (pi.)
send Igaa
sense (vb.) t«a
sensitive dtshxa’a
separate (adj.) >aa
separate (n.) OqhU’U (be narrowly -); jgah’la (be widely -)
separate (vb.) khala; !u’a
septum Ixua -|x u a ; |nuhjia k a +6 n a
serf to shear 269

serf laha
serval Oqou
servant laha
set ihabl ki fqhal ( a dog onto)
set (of stars and sun) kx’ua; lhal ti (sg.), ||n§a (pi)
set alight llaha; llnaha; qo'nl; ||ahnl; O'aa (sg.)> O^ale (pi.)
||a 6 -||^ 6 (- in the flames)
settle !num ka; !nalo ( - the stomach)
sever g^qhaa; Iqhum; !ao
sew |iia
sex (n.) t’kx’au-sa
sex (vb.) t’kx’a a ; ’ahiu (have ); ’aa +qhee ka; Iqhan s a ’a,
In y a (be oversexed)
sexual organ t g a ’a (of a woman); + ’an (of a man)
shade sum; 4unu, ||nau (dense); ||qa1a (patchy)
shadow sum
shaggy-haiied glqhabu
shake |ama; ts§hu-tsQha; qholo; 4naha>4naha,
llq^obu-llq’obu (about); ||am-||am (an egg to assess its
fi^eshness); hgm (a tree); ||nanf-||n§ni, ||abu kv |nan (the
head in negation); !huu -(Ihliu), Inabu, Inah’nl, llahbu,
+gani (-into); tsaba ka kx’ua (-o ff);
gQhba(-gQhba) (out a blanket or skin); tsfhu-tsgha ka
Igu'm (out a match); gOhm (out from a container):
||n§ni-||nani ( - the head sideways); 4qum kV |nan (the
head up and down); ||GQb1, ||nyhbu-||nyhbu, ||GObU-||GQbU,
IICQbi ( - water in a container); qal tl !hUU ( - up and down)
shall ah (sg ), sihn (pL); saa; kx’oo
shallow Pam-sa tuu
shanmn sb o ||g§i (female); sb o § a (male)
shame xau-se
share (n.) | k x ’a 5 (joking paitner's or friend's - )
share (vb.) lhao Igam ( aioad)
share out Igbo; luu; kh ala; ju l
sharing partner Ikx’oe
sharp Iqau; q a p a ; s i ’1; q a ’u ( - tasting)
sharpen ||ri9 hn s i ; thee
shatter O h a a b1hl,qal d tsh a le
shave |xum; duhl (be shaved, shorn); + g a ’le (off)
she eh(’e), a h(’a )
shear |xum; duhl; k u a , Ingl (be-ed off)
270 sheath to Silver terminalia

sheath phaphale
sheep kuu
sheet IlnalU ( - metal)
sheU tym; ||nahl-si turn, Igae (tortoise-)
shelter Igaa
Shepherd's tree 4qhun; g4qh'uu-ba
shifty-eycd icani
shimmer qhabe-qhabe
shin (bone) Iqhan sa’a
shiny l§li; 4qali; H ba; ||qa1u ( - clean)
shirk Inani
shirt hampe
shit (n.) tshxaa
shit (vb.) qa’I; ll^la (diairhoea); Igu’nl (dry faecal droppings)
shiver |ama; igoni; ig«na; Inabu; Inah’nl
shoe *||nahu
shoot +’aa (sg.), Ilnum (pi.); g||kx’bbu ylu (- through)
shorn off InQl; duht; |xum
short siM ’+n9la; s i’l tshtiu; I ’aba (sg.), 4’ao (pi.); jgali
(- person)
shoulder (blade) llg^ ®; (point between the -s)
shout Pae
shovel qala; Ugaho (- while kneeling)
show (vb.) llqhaa
shred dtshale; gOqhaa; g||kx’alu ka dtshale
shrew k|hulu
shudder |ama; Ig^m -te
shrivel llnau, tqho’bu (- through heat); Iq’bo
shuffle Oxuu
shut Igu’u, Igu’BV I’ua-t® (-eyes)
shut up! glqhaba oq’um ka ftie
shy xau
sick Iqhama
side |xan tshoe; Hqhaa fao; Inyl (enlarged-s); Oq’bbe
tShoe (of face); I’oa (this)
sieve (vb.) |ham-|ham
sieving mat f'un-ta
sign |oye; Inahle
silent kuu
sUly sunu
silver Inujia; ^qali
Silver terminalia +qhae
similarity to slaughter 271

similarity ||kx*ae - s a
sinew glkx’um (back); Igaba (neck)
sing llnae
singe llaha
sinus ’Inum
sip k x ’a h a ; d tsh x b ’la (avoiding dregs); qbm (cold liquid); sa m
(hot liquid)
sir 9 a k u se
sister 4kX’an (younger full or half - )
sister-in-law O a a ’|nan (husband's elder sis.): O x a a ’|nan
(husband's younger sis.) I !’o a ’|nan (wife's elder or younger
sit tshuu (sg.), !’aa (pi ); O q h o 5 , Ona’a , + ’60, ||ai,
galo, fgo5 (close together); 4^na 4q^)^rna, 4&l6 ||nue
tshliu (cross-legged); ||um tshuu, llxiJm ka tshuu (sg.),
llxum ka ||huu (pi.) (crouched); dtshxbn tshuu,
dtshghu ka tiiu, q ai tuu (down suddenly); !§ho (in a
circle): Igaa ka tshuu (leaning against);’l|nuhm tshuu (on
the haunches): Hgoho ka tshuu, !§0 (stooped or hunched);
Icyi, ^caa (with head lowered); Hgolo, Iqhabe (with legs
entwined); laa tShUU (with the legs straight out); |hala ka
tshuu (fall into a sitting position)
size ||al1-sa; ’llnaha
skid g ^ k x ’u’H tiiu; dtshull tuu; Iq ^ m ^qyll; ||cul1 tuu,
4 q a b a k a tuu
skim thu)1 tuu, q al tuu (of an arrow or spear)
skin (n.) tym (gen.): + o a ’no (dermis); ^gUDU (dried): ||ham (dark
discolouration of); Hg^nfl (- fold): thall (for carrying a baby);
pyja (ofbuib): 4 g a l (thick )
skin (vb.) la’a; llnaho; kx’ua tym; Hqhum (by beating); syT (with the
skink Igblo
skinless I’ale-I’ale; xaa; ||q’un
skulk +am-+am
skull |nan +aa; khan (base of)
sky kuu 4 e e
slack d§hbu
slacken d 9 h b a -d § h b a
slake doh’o; xa li k e ||’an
slap Igoba; +qhui
slaughter g + k x ’an
272 sleep to snake

sleep (n.) Gum

sleep (vb.) Oan; Gan Iqhblu ylu, Gan |*aa (deeply); ^ala (close
to a fire); gale (curled up); H’a e Gan ( - out); Gan-Gan
(rock to); Gan iGOlU tshuu (seated); ||hlia Gan (standing)
slide (vb.) dtShxb*m (a snare trigger or tent guy slider); dZO'la
slime Inya
slip g^kx’u’li tuu; tsh'uli tiiu; 4q9>in-4qyli; ||cul1 tuu;
4qaba ka tiiu; dtshxb’n ( - out of)
slip knot ’^nyli |nan
slit Ihiia; +na’n
slop g+qhaa
slope laho
slosh into Icabu; tshxobu; g^qhaa
slowly q a o (gently); |’Ul (a little)
sluip dtsh x b ’la; sa m ; Iqhulu; O cym f (from an ostrich egg or water
sly kaha; qaha; 4qan
small (n.) ’In§h0 (of the back)
small (adj.) |q’an-ta (pi.)
I’iil (sg.),
smart (vb.) dtshxa’a
smash qaf dtshale; Igube (bones); Ohaa b1hi ’Inaha
(to pieces)
smegma Igaba
smell (n.) llkx’au ; dts’kx’ala ( - burning veld); ga’ml ( aromatic
herbs); Igjha, g|kx’aa (offaeces or rotten meat);+g'uh’ll
(of fire); dtxo’lu (of rotten meat); |nu’a (of sexual organs);
lluh-l (of wet grass or rain); lah’nl, q^hla (unpleasant - of
certain kinds of plants, flesh and blood); goh’lo (strong - of urine
or rotting meat); Hg4a (of certain acacias)
smell (intr.) |num
smell (tr.) |num t9a;+bh5
smear Iguhm; Oho5 ( -ed with din)
smile (vb.) llq’ao; db’ma
smoke (vb.) Il’ube; ’aa; ||g'uM (out bees)
smooth (adj.) noli; duhl; |xum; n9ll; nalu; ^xau; 4q$n; thulu
smooth (vb.) tShxall; ||x a a ( - off); |n00 ( - rope); tyhia ( - the sand);
Undo ( - by scraping)
smoulder ln9hlo
snail Iqhan
snake sf’l-sa (gen.); +xam ^abe, Hqhlll (Homed adder);
||n%Jia (sp. of); dZQh’nu (sp. of Fork-marked sand-); ||an1
snap to sore 273

Ikx’ao (Bcx>msiang);quje ^nym jkx’aa (Thread-);

|uma (Python); loh’o (Cobra); +kx*ul (Puffadder)
snap ll’all-sf, kx’ubu (off); g||kx’abu (as a dog)
Snapdragon llgole
snare (n.) |xa1; |q’U6 (four sticks used toguide the animal into the snare);
s e la - x a a (iron -); Iq’an |u e (> trigger stick); f o n a
(twig for securing - cord); IqhUU -IqhUU (twig round which the -
cord is secured)
snare (vb.) I|xau
snared ’||naha
snatch Inu’lu; g llk x ’o b u ; dtshup, ||hup, G||qhbbu; Hqhuu;
tsahbu; dtshxul; tshxua
sneeze g+xa’a
sniff gllxa’Ia; tshoni; ibhd
snore iDQhna
snort g+xa’a
snuff (n.) |au llnaa |i lq’ua,|au ||naa |i xai, |au ||naa |a
g^kx’a a -sa
snuff (vb.) tshont
snuffle tshoni
so lah’u
soak taobe
soaking wet ts’kx’aa; ts’kx’ani
soap see;
sob llnu’a; kx’aa loy’T; ||n6 ’l1 ka kx’aa; ’|ln§be
sober Inua (sg.), Iniipa (pi.)
sod llkx’aa |nan; ’Inohm
soft I’ua (sg.), I’uja (pi.); toh’m(as undried meat); |qabe (of
metal); n^ll (of hair); du’m-du’m (to chew)
soften Iq’um; glxan (by pounding)
softly I’iil-sa; I’til-sa tana (talk -)
solar plexus Hq’abe; ||nam s a ’a
sole +nuu lye
something thaa Inuu
some..other tV ’V...tV’V
son-in-law Oaa ’|nan; 'InQha
song kuma
soon xaa la
sopping ts’kx’aa
sore (n.) |ohO; tshoo-tsholo; xue; thua-te
sore (vb.) q^l
274 sorghum to sour

sorghum bahl6
sort (n.) Inuha
sorry ||*um; n |q V n h 1|n§a
so that taBV
soul ’|nbha; ||kx’uu; sbo O ’ani; +qhue; !n a a -s e
sound (n.) kx’a a ; Hguhm (distant);Onuu -O n u u , Ohuu -Ohuu
(of the O click); !n§T-!naT (of the! or !! click); |hee-|hee
(of the I click); ||h e e - ||h e e , ||n aa-||n aa (ofthe|| click);
+ ’e e - + ’e e ,+ h e e - + h e e (of the + click); O ggp ylu,
Ohbo, g fq h bo , g^xbp, g||xbp (of a blade or pointed
object sliding into the sand with a flat trajectory); ||qIo t s ’6 0
(of a light thud); llq’bp (of an arrow or spear striking the target);
tuhu ts*ea (of banging); xau (of branches scraping);
glqhbbo (of bursting); la (of eland’s knee joints when walking);
||*ap (of falling down); I§h0 tS’eS (of heavy objects bumping
or bashing); ||nyhm (high pitched hum); |nana t s ’ee
(of jingling); tall tS’ee (of lightning strike); ||nyhm (low
pitched, humming); kX’aU, ||obp, g||xbp made by someone
walking through bushes);+q an a tS’Oe (of metal jangling);
Igulu t s ’ee (of mortar being pounded); gulu kQu gu*u
( - of an owl); q ’up (of pulling out and breaking off of the tap root);
p*kx’all (of rapid bowel evacuation); g jx a la tS’OO,
glxall t s ’e e , llkx’ulu t s ’ee (ofrattling); tshbla t s ’ee
(of rubbing or rusding); fqbho ||hUU (of a thud); +n§hp
(of sudden halting); UhlU tS’eo (of galloping animals); gkX’au
t s ’e e , xbp t s ’e e , gkx’bp t s ’e e , g||xbo t s ’ee
(of walking on dry vegetation); gjkx’ap (of grass being ripped off
by a grazing animal); fc u p ||hUU (of the thud made when one
jumps and lands on ones feet); lylu tS’e e , !abu tS’ee
(of thick textured material); Iq’ubu t s ’ee (of a fresh egg when
shaken); Ihulu tS’ee (of a non>fresh egg when shaken); ||hulu
t s ’ee (of something loose-titting); jqhbbu tshuu, jqhaba
tshuu, llhbbu tshuu, ||hbp tshuu (of a light falling
object); ^qbho ||huu, ^hbp ||huu, fq a h b a tuu, |a h p
tshuu (of a heavy falling object); +quhm ||hUU (of a sharp
object falling point first into sand); g |xaa tS’ee (of snapping);
!bhp t s ’ee (of thudding); glqhbp ’+n^la (of a trap being
sprung); g||kx’0bu (of a bullet hitting an animal); dzoh’la
(of sliding); k ah la-kah la (of drinking from a botde or gurgling);
ojqhao (of stumbling about into bushes); gp tS’e e (of a frog)
soup q^e; s a a
sour q a ’u
south to spoor 275

south 4qhua
space (n.) guhm; lhan (bounded -); ||yhe (open veld)
space (vb.) Il’UbI guhm (make )
spaced iGaa
sparking n §h’n i-k a
speak tan a; S l ’i (a language); m§n, mani (a non-Khoisan
language); ’||nuhm (fluently); g o b o -g o b o , Gom -Gom
(softly); tali s e e (the truth); s a ’a ri 4 9 ^ ^ (with reserve)
spear !oo § a ; Iq’uli
speculate Inbho
speed 1 |n § a ;+ q h u e 1nym (of the wind)
spell (n.) Igua
spend the day llgaa
spider kan-tl (sp. of); tyhna (Golden-orb Garden spider), |qhUU
Oaa (Social Spider); |qhUU (Wolf Spider)
spikey gkx’ao
spill lln^a; Iga’o; ||n4 ni; ||nai
spill out (tr.) lln^i SI; ||n §a llxuu
spin ’m ala (of the’ahna); sam i (ofth e’ahna or a top); Ibh’la
(cause to -)
spine ||ohn (thoracic vertebrae); ||xau (point between the shoulder
spinal cord iG^a
spinster (G^hl-si
spiral (vb.) dyml (sg.), Ilnu’m (pi.); doni; Iq’um; +ale
spirit ’|nbha; ||kx’uu; sbo O ’ant; Iqhue
spit llqQbl; qhala; g|xa’ll, |gau-|gau.
dts’kx’au-dts’kx’au ( of tain); ’Ingm,’Insm ’|nyll
( - pips)
spit at glxal; llqfbl
splash glxa’a; Ica’bu; g|xa’a ka +nau ( out)
splatter glxa’a; gjxa’a ka ^nau ( out)
splay tshxulu; dtshxal; Oqghba
spleen nah’la
split (vb.) Iqhale; tSh X U lU ; dtshala, In^hu (by cutting longways);
Igal, Iqhum (in half); dtxaa, glkx’ale (longways); In^o
(of a green branch); glxaa, gOqhaa (open); iDQla, tsfh ’H
(pods); +na’n (puncture); ^hubs ( - up)
spoil Inoll
spoon tgahm, gule (bark )
spoor (n.) +ua , + n llU (gen.); +'un-sa (distr. pi.); ||q’6lo (of antelope);
276 spoor to stamp

fnllU ’In^hO (original); ^cyII (in the wet sand)

spoor (vb.) |haa; + ’ua; I|n§h’l0 (make the - of an old creature); ||yhbl (with
a heavy tread)
sprain q’all
spray ’Inoh’li; llohbu; dts’kx’ola
spotted llgia
spouse ’|nan
spouse exchange ’llnuhm ’^n4la ka; ’ee ^kx’ad
spread Ikx’aa; Iguh’a; Iguh’T; t'yhia, t'yhla-tyhia, ^nahll
( - ash); iGaa, !o f n-lG%n, !n§la ka tiiu, s 4 l- s 4 l,
^gbho ( - out); +num, ||xau (a skin for preparation)
spring (vb.) llohbo k a ||x u b e ;q a l ||’a d (a snare)
springbok ||ua; ’InQhO, Hga’a (lone male)
springhare |nyi; |nyf 4iie (bunow)
sprinkle lln^a lqhuV;|qaba (ritual)
sprout llqobe
spurn Ina’nl; Igyl si; ||’al-||’al; |nehe; dzaa; Inii’a; kx’ao
m il
spurt qbhm
squash t’kx’am; fc a ’d; ||iibu; |qao; ||xum; 4oa’m; Onu’lu
lau ^qao, lau ka ||xum (by pressing);
(between the fingers);
lahia Oniiu (by trampling); fua Onuu (in the hand); Iqhilbe
(to extract moisture)
squat ’llnuhin tshiiu (sg.), ’||nuhm I’aa (pi.)
squeaking dzfT ts’ee (sound of)
squeeze tU’in-tU’ITl; Iqhilbe (by massaging); 'fguu, ||guu (in the hand
to extract moisture); 4guV+ue (into the mouth); |goo,
tshxbm, tshxuu, Iq’um (with a milking movement); lau ka
llxiim (as a python)
squeeze out txolu; txali; t’kx’ula; ts’kx’am
squint 4h'um
squirt dts’kx’ola; ^Gua; dtsho’la
stab ’llnuhm (sg.). llnuhm kv (pi.); g||kx’bbu ylu (through)
stagger Iqhuu; Ijahbu; Inabu; nah’ni; 4nah1e; aha ka s'li;
stale Igbo
stalk (n.) glkx’an; lanu; ||ull
stalk (vb.) +n«a (sighted); ||a’l (unsighted); t’kx’aa (as a feline); ||Qba
stamp qai Il’um (the foot); ^ahm-^ahm, Hq’ale, Iqhaa (with a
pesue);l’um, c||qhae ka kx’lia
stamper to Stickgrass 277

stamper Inu’m
stand (n.) I|al tsh oe, ||am |nan (- of Camelthom trees); I n jh b l
stand (tr.) ll'uma (sg.). Ilqhiia (pi.)
stand (vb.) (intr.) Ilhiiu (sg.), Iln yh a (pi.); ||huu +a m (back); o n a ’a ,
O q h b o , f ’OO, ||a1 (close together); laa tUU (inline); Iftl
(in the way); lahle (on); ||C|al6, ||n a’b a (on something wet);
hQlO (on tiptoe)
star Ilona (gen.)
star (names of) Ilqhujia |a j^ a (Sirius, Canopus and Achenar); g oh b a ||h6a
In a a .^ q h a le |nye (evening); *ln bla-sa |a |jona
(Venus); 4 c « a - t e (Pleiades); ||hupa ja |x a a (Alpha
Crusus, Beta Crusus, Gamma Crusus); |5hO lOO-XO
stare In^ma; Gjjqhbbu
start tsh o a -ts h o a ; lobh’la-lo b h ’la, t ’k x ’b ll-t’k x ’bll
(- something up again)
startle I’a e
starve ’In^nl; dz9ba-ta
stay Inum (live); lao (behind)
stay away jblo
steady (vb.) Ian; llhua
steal t s ’a a
steal about dza’a
stealth kaha; qaha
stealthy dza’a
steam khu’bu
steenbok +al; |g§ h ’a - k a (mature male)
steer Ijxaml; ||9ha
stench Ig ^ h a , gjkX’a a (of faeces or rotten meal); dtXO’IU (of rotten
stem lanu
stepfather a§ Igaho
stepmother qae Igaho
step lahla(-on); jjohbo (-over)
stemum teahma; ||guu ja Ijcoh’a
stick jjnaa (gen., also spec, initiation and springhare hunting - ) ; +ul
(anterior -s in a snare); Iq’ue ( -s at the entrance and exit of a snare);
laT (non-burning end of a -); jj’a b l ( - throwing game); 4qhua
(- used ritually ); Igoh’bi; +§ n (walking - )
stick (vb.) +Gum; +qohm H’iim a (- upright); d tsh x b ’nl, ’||nuhm
(- into)
Stickgrass Iq’ao; llkx’aa 9 a;lq’ama
278 slick to to striped

stick to dt’kx'aba; Ihuu

stiff O*bo; Inalo; ||ya; |’bo
still ||oa; tshoa
still biith fxam
sting (vb.) ’llnuhm (bee); xa*6 (caterpillar hairs); Igb’O (cause a stinging
sting (intr,) dtshxa’a
stingy g+kx’um; |§a; ahi sf; |yha
stink |g § h a , g jk x ’a a (of faeces or rotten meat); d tx o ’lu
(of rotten meat)
stinkbug Inah’Ja (sp. of); la ’e (sp. of); O h an k a Hgubl (sp. of)
stir Ixam ( - a soft substance); huni; f nahlI ( - up coals)
stirring stick lln^u
stitch (vb.) |ua; llxau, ^n'um (- out a skin); 'fqhum, ||kx’ae
(- pieces of skin together)
stodgy +ge®
stoke ||kx’um-||kx’um; lobh’la-lobh’la, looh’nl, qo’nl, O ’aa
( - afire)
stone |nul6 (gen.); Ic|§u (calcrete); ^nan (flint)
stomach |oha; llkxan; OaM; |oha |oha qae; ’^nahm;
ICQha, llguhu (be - down); Ihiima (external lower pan);
||nam s a ’a (external upper pait); ^C^ba (wall); ||q’6e
stool situ lu
stooped (adj.) IgQO, Iqhum; Hggho
stoop (vb.) iQba; Iga’a; |c a a ka tshuu
stop Ixum (suddenly); Igae; +9h’a
stopper Inuhjia
stop-up tgu’ni
store (vb.) lean-lean; |a’a
stot dgp (of Springbok)
straight(en) laa; nalu; |’lil; Iqhbna; ||gau -ku
strand Iqhala (of beads)
strap Ikx’aa
stress (vb.) llga’o (a bow or rope)
stretch ||9 ha; Ikx’am |ua tarn (oneself)
stretch mark dtxb’a
strike llk x ’um
strike a light In^hu, qal kx’iia |’a a ,k x ’ua |’a a , qajia |’aa
strip ^qhali; llciile (off bark); dtxo’la, ||’all (offbeiries)
striped Injiha-te; ||g§a
strong to swearing 279

strong I’Ua
stuck d t’k x ’a b a k a tshuu (on);GU’U (together);+Gum (be - fast)
stubborn |nan k a !’ua
stuff (vb.) IlGQm; xobi (- the mouth)
stumble ||*ala (sg.), ll’ali (pi.)
stump +gul1
stupid g u u ; sunu; |nan ke Iqhaa
sub-orbital gland san i
substantial !’ua
successful quhm
suck Il’Ube; qum; Icyll (- and dissolve); IqhUlU (slurp moisture
through a small puncture); ||9hO (-||9hO ) (out); GQO (through a
straw, - blood); tsh xb le (out water and transfer to a container);
OGyml (from an egg or water tree);
suckle qam
suddenly ||kx*ba; tsh oh o ; ||q’al ta; IlGa^bu; llqap
sufficient +*au
sugar sukuu
suit (vb.) ’|n aa
sulk !gum-!gum
sullen Indll-sv Iq’an
summer ||gaa; ’l|nahu
sun ll’an
Sunday son t a x a
Sun Scoipion lam a f g a ’a
sunlight 1199®; llqau
support ligm (a child); ’||nuhm tam ke IJnaa, ’||nuhm ||’ u b v
tarn (oneself on a stick)
supra-orbital ridge I’uT I’alo
suprasternal notch |q*an ^U6
suppress ||q’b m a -||q ’bm a, d b ’m a (- a smile)
surface sa*a
suricate lana; g|x a*m -ba; tsah n a; |xbo tsa n a
surpass lkx*aa
surprised HqhUli
surround lnah’6 ; Ina’m; lai
survive Iniipa
suspect II’a e
swallow turn; lobhli
sway aha
swear at gjxui; k a ’a ; d z a o ; ’jnah’o
swearing g|xuje
280 sweat to synonym

sweat (n. and vb.) khu*bu

sweep iDQhm; ||xa1
sweet (adj.) Idh’d; Iqhbh'o
sweet (n.) nekere
Sweethearts dt’kx'aa
swell lluh’bu
swelling lluh’bu-sa
swing (n.) tsahm llnyll
swing (vb.) |xae tsahm ||nyll; tSQhu-tsQha, dz9hu-dzQha(the
arms); dz^nl
swinging +haba qho’lo ( - loose)
swirl ^naha-fnaha, ^nbha-^nbha; ||q’6bu-||q’6bu
syphon ||*iibe; tshxole; cqhom
synonym 4aa |a + ’u a ;+ a a + ’ua
table to temporal 281

table tafule
taboo (n) l ^ a - s a ; ’Inula, d ts h a a q a a , quje, Inuu, su*u,
||n a h l-si, llno’m, ||a b a , ’Iniiu, ||u1, q h a a f u l (- foods)
taboo (vb.) I4a
tail |au ;g |q h u u (-hairs)
tail feather ^ g a ’a te k a I’a a (- of whydahs)
take ll’a o (sg.), |hao (p i.);’+n §LV +nuu (aspoor);’In^hn
(down); i ’au (have); |bho, O g a h ’a , ||gul-||gul,
llguu-llguu (in cupped hands); T ala (leave of): ||hObe (out
sand); Ihuu k a ll’aB V , +qh'u1 k a ||’a 5 ( - a pinch);
’+n ®1a (sg.),+n au (pl.)(off, out); k x ’ul Ihbo (off a hat);
g lk x ’olo (off insect legs); ||o a’6 (out a peg from a skin); |hilU
(out meat from a pot)
talk Iqhua, ta n a , S l ’1 (language); O ngm (at cross purposes);
m in , m^nl (a non-Khoisan language); HngbO, OUm-GUm,
g o b o -g o b o (to oneself)
talk about llnahe, + ’e e - + ’e e , +h ee - + h e e , ln§T-lp§T
tall I’am (sg.), I’a a (pi.): Icb’na (very -)
taiiq) |ehe -|ehe
tap !bo-!bo; Ibho
taper (n.) + ’an (-ingpart)
tar +nau; kahlo; q h a a -q h a a ( - in a tobacco pipe)
tassle |cy h b l-si
taste (vb.) t f a ; t s ’an
tastes (n.) ’||n §a (awful, tasteless): ’|na’m, (of e g- the ^>eiTy of
Grewia Flava)\ Igam (eg. the leaves of Loranthus or the seeds of
Silver Terminalia);teL'U (bitter, sharp); q a ’U (salty, sour)
tatoo (n.) Ixuma, qii’m; ||a a (met.)
tatoo (vb.) lao k a |x u m a-te ; |xale (cover the legs with-s)
tatters n am a lal khbe; gllk x ’ali; llg th a
taut llglu
tea til
teach Iqhbo; ||x a e -||x a e ; ||x a a - ||x a a ; tsh xb le; g O x a le (id.)
tear dtsh ale ; |ua d tsh a le (off)
tease ll’a l-ll’a l
tell lube; llnale
temple O q ’u be tsh b e
temporal |nan |a 4 a a ( - fossa); |nan |i guhm (infra - fossa); |nan
|e o a je (- muscle)
282 tender to thoracic

tender dtshxa’a
tenderize llkx’um
tendon glkx’um; Mnbo (Achilles); tsaho (adductor - of the thigh)
tendrils |aa
teimination *ln«ho (of a season)
termitarium Ilham
termite Igb’bi (sp. of): d t’k x ’am (sp. oO; d zu ’m a (sp. of); ||nai
(Harvester); ||gal ( - mound)
tenibly ^x6T-sa
territory Iniiu; IniJle; ’O n a a (id.)
territory mark Igan (gen.); ||a1 ( - of Wildebeest)
territory marking (vb.) ts§ a
testicles + q h a n -te ’Inya
tether ||«ha
thank t a ’jta; d ^ a ; ta h ’a ; 4^anu
that tV'V BV'V; t v v BV kV; tV ja kV; tV V V -sa kV; tV V V ja;
t a ’a B v k v
that side Ina’m a; t a ’m -s a ; t a ’m -ja, ’lin -ja
thatch (vb.) Inoo
theft t s ’a a
then llnai q a l-Ie (a n d -)
there t e ’a a ; |e ’e s a ; |’e § ; ja ’n -s a ; ’nn; ’a u -ja ; t w - s a ,
tV(’V V )-Ja, tV ’V V -sa kV, t e ’e -Ja , t e ’e - s a ; l§ 6 ,
g lx a a (that side); Ina’m (the other side)
they Uh(’ii)
thick junu; Iftbu, fylu-iyiu (-textured)
thicket | ’6 o - s a
thief t s ’a a - t e ; jcghll
thieve t s ’a a ; *ee t s ’a a
thigh fq h a )a ; ^ ’a b a tsh b e (adductor longus);’|nam a (adductor
magnus); Iq’a a (vastus lateralis and temporalis); f q a o tsh b e
(inner part of upper -); t ’k x ’a a (quadriceps femoris)
thin dZQl; 4 q a b e ( - edge)
thing th a a
think + ’a n - s i; Inbho
thirst Il’i n
this t w . t v v v , tV V ’VV, ’VV
this one I’o a k v
thong glkx’a la ; qhule
thorn g lq h a e ;g ||x a u ; Hq^ba
thoracic ||ohn (-vertebrae)
thornbush to tip 283

thombush (gen.) gllxau

thought (n.) fa n
thrash tshxau
thread (n.) glkx’um
thread (vb.) txom
threaten ’lln§ha; Ina’m ( - with a weapon)
three ||ae; Ikx’a a |n a a ||ae
threesome llae
three k a ||ae (- times)
throat •|nym
throttle tgo’la
throw Igahm (gen.); ||han( (a spear); Ig a h m -sa 'Inaha (down);
qa( tuu ( -oneselfdown): gllkx’bbu ylu ( - through); Igahm
ylu ( - e.g. food into the mouth)
throw out llxuu (sg.), Iln^t-si (pi.); Iln^nl; Unga; ts$h o; t s f h o
k a ’Inaha ( - as provocation)
thud fqbho llhuu; fqahba tuu; iqbhp; Ibhp ts*ee
(thudding sound)
thumb piano dee -kb
thunder (n.) Iguu -sa
thunder (vb.) !guu; ’mala; [nuhlu
Thursday labu hne
thymus gland Ingpa
thyroid cartilage ’+nyli |nan
tibia llq aa (of ungulate)
tick llkx’ul (sp. of); kon -kon (sp. oO
tickle qull-qyll
tidy (vb.) ’llnaho; su b u -su b u
tie ’llnaha (sg.), ’||nahnl (pi.); |gun1 (a loop); q a ’nl (a
slipknot); ||goh’bl (between the legs); +Gftll (bind round);
d ts h x a ’nri (by drawing together); Hgfhin (onto the body);
IlSha (tether)
tight (en) d t s ’k x ’ani; ||g§hm; Ikx’ani (by twisting); tu’m -tu ’m
( - a sphincter)
time n a a kbo
tin toho ( - can); k a a (- trunk)
tilt jb h e ; Ig aa
tinder loh’m a; llkx’a a
tinea capitis th u a-te ; xue
tingle dzam ; q a u ; cQle
tip ||n aa |nan (of a spnnghare hunting stick); lOO s a ’a (of
knife); |’am, s a ’a (of tail, tongue or tree)
284 tired to trap

tired |hUU, if; ||h ae (be - of doing something)

dssue +ylu (fibrous)
to kV; |naa; ta
toast (vb.) raf
tobacco |au ||naa; g^kx’ana
today *|nehe te’e
toe !o§na; !oabl-sa; +nuu Oaa-tu (pi.); +nuu |nart qae
toe joint lG§na; Icabi-sa, Ikx^ai
tomoiTow khube
tongue ’Iniin |q‘all (of a snake or lizard); GQlO (muscles of)
toodi llqhaa; Hqhaa qae (molar); ||qhaa §a (incisor, canine);
glxb’O, II90 (be long-ed)
top |nan; +huu ku tshoe; +hanl, +habl (sg.): Ihuu (pi.)
(be on - )
top Igall (toy)(met.)
torch (n.) too tjee
torch (vb.) llahni
tornado Igoh’le; quje |e fqhue
tortoise ||nue (Leopard); ||nahi-si' (Serrated)
toss up ^’anu
tough I’ua
touch kuhm; Hqale, ||na’ba (- something wet)
toy gllxa’i I'uhm, tsahT-ts§hT; ’|hna, dzani ("helicopter");
ll’abi (stick game)
towaids I’oa ( - the speaker)
trachea Igunu
track (n.) +n'uu; llq’olo, dgba (habitual- ) ; +qhana fu a (- o f
something dragged); +un-sa (distr pL); +0Ul1 Saa (make -s in
the wet sand)
track (vb.) |haa; i ’ua
tractor I4lt Oaa, ton til
trekere, trek tara
trade jo h o
trader Sil mau SU (small goods -)
transfer tshxble (-water)
tramp lahle (- on)
trample lahle Ontiu; lahle Iga’o; ||xiim; io a ’m; gikx ’am,
|ua ka llxum (- on something dry);
trap (n.) |xal (cord snare - ) ; |nanu, sela xaa (metal - )
trap (vb.) llxau
trance to turd 285

trance (vb.) |’a a ;lq h a b e s b o

trapezius lan-ti (tshbe)
travel tnilT ( - at night)
traveller Inaa Hg^l (female); Inaa 9 a (male); Inaa O ’ani (pi.)
tread (n.) Ilyhbl (heavy - )
tread (vb.) lahle
treat I’OO; *ahlu |ua (an illness); qhalo-laa (intoxicate)
tree d§na, ’Onaje (gen.); ||xau ( -d area without heavy sand);
liihm (-d area with heavy sand); llyhe ( -less area): Oggo
(water-storing); ||gym a (dry fallen - )
tremble lam a, ^ g in l; ^ g §n a; Inabu; Inah’ni; ||ahbu
trench Inym
trick ll’a e - l l ’a e , ||’a i- ||’a i
trickster 4 n $ a bii; |g § b e -t e
trigger ^ona; Iq’an 4'ue; iqhuu -Iqh'uu
trim (vb.) I’iil-I’ui
trip (vb.) cllqhoba; ^gahm ^gull
trouble (n.) |ali k a - s a , ||xai k a - s a
trouble (vb.) |ali; llxai
troublesome qhan
trousers buruko
true ’O n a h a
truffle fq h a m a
truly ki s e e ; q'uhm
Trumpet thorn lean-lean
trunk ’O n a h a (-oftree); k a a , tra g k a a (metal-)
truth see
truthful tall s e e
try Igaha
tsamma tahm
tub b a a ta
tube •|nym
tuber |nan; |a a ; |nylO (of Cucurbitaceae Acanthosicyos Naudianus
(Sond.) C. Jeffrey)’, ||g 0 h jia (of Cucumis kalahariensis A.Meeuse)
tuberculosis thil bil
tubular ’lna ’6 I’e e ; *+nu’m |’e e
Tuesday labu bedi
tuft glqhUU (of a tail); |nall (of hair)
Tumbleweed lum -ta Igan l-lgan l
tumour gllkx’a a
turd tsh x a a
286 turn to twosome

turn (intr.) Iq’ale; ts’an; man dgba. Ingba (very fast)

turn (tr.) mall; ts’an; gall; Iq’am; Ikx’anI (by twisting); q’abi
(inside out); ||habe (off from); |uv +hl I tshbe, H’upa (one's
back on); dzam dzall.inabl-lnabi dzaha (oneself round
and round); Ijnfthpa (over); ^can l (round); |x aa, jn'uml,
doni (round and round); Oq^ll (the head round); Ugole;
dtshun; llgblo (suddenly); dz«bl ta, dZ«bl-dZ9bl (round
turn Igam (take turns)
turquoise lg«hi
tusks tqolo
twice Intim, Ikx’aa |naa ^num
twin (n.) ham huna
twigs I’aa O’anI
twirl gOxale (an eggbeater or firestick)
twist(ed) donl; Ikx’ali; ’||nahu ||qhae; dyml (sg.), ||nu’m (pL);
jnumi (athong): Iq’um (by rolling together); dumi ka
fgall, ^gall ka kx’ua (off a bone); Ikx’am (the body or
twitch fnaha; ||q’bma-||q’bma; db’ma; Hq’blo
two +niim
twosome +niim k V (m a k e a -)
udder to uvula 287

udder glxa’je
ugly +x6T-sa, +x6T si (sg.), +xo6 ja (pi.);
Ugliness +x6Je
ulna |xub1, glqhull, ^xubu xu |nan, ^na’a
ultramarine +a’jia
umbilical chord gobo, +nyn
uncle 4c|h66 (father's brother and mother's sister's husband);
IgahO (mother’s brother and father's sister's husband)
unconscious Iq’an n kx’iia
unco-operative Ina’nl
underdone llqan
underpants llbhO (g-string)
understand t§a
undo gfhle; khala; GO’ma; oqhall (the noose of a snare)
unlike ’aa
unload ’In^hn
unlucky sa’a fq^n
unmarried ’Inua;’Inal (man); loahi-SI, +gao (woman)
unravel gihle
unsetded Inum |ua |qhil
until s1l
unwell dts’kx’bm
unwind (intr.) llxabi
unwind (tr.) g§hle
upend q’aa
upset Iq’an h ka dtsbh’m; Hqo’e ( stomach)
upside down lluhu
upwind Iqhue ’!n§ho
urinate llqhaa, 46h’ma, I’an-t'i ||huu, Hhiiu, hQlo (euph.)
urine Ilqham
use (n.)(vb.) Igaa
used to Iquma
useless lyha, ’llnahe
uterus llnal
uvula ’|ngn Oaa
288 vagina to voracious

vagina +ga*a,+ga’a ’|nym; saa,+kx*ai (euph.)

vas deferens iqhan-te Ikx’al
vein Ibho, Ikx’al, +’um
veld +xala (burnt)
velvet mite Iqhaa ka ||n6’ma
vena cava tshbe f ’iim, f ’um
Venus ’Inbla-sa |a ||5na
vertebra llqhaba; khan 9 a (axis); khan qae (atlas); kall-kall
(atlas and axis); fkx’au |a fa a (cervical); khan (first and
second cervical); ||xau, ||qhaba ( - prominens, thoracic vertebra);
^nam i (transverse process of lumbar - )
vertical ll’uma (sg.), Ilqhiia (pi.)
very + ’au ku; llall; quhm, ’Onaha (the -)
vicinity tahm tshoe, Ina’m
village llnae
Violet tree Ikx’abe
violently qhan, tshxaa
visceral peritoneum +q«lu
viscous Inalo
visit Ijnunu; ||C9a (as a married couple); |kx’ae
vocative be
voice llguu tshbe
vomit qhola
voracious ’li dz^f
wag to weak 289

wag (the tail) d zo a

waggon kuni; noli
wail Igqo; glkx’a a
waist llo’o
wait laa (- a moment); loh’la, |ah*n, qoh’e ( - for)
wake up f e e (intr.); g a h ’n (tr.)
walk Inaa (sg.), Iqhfl (pL); Inaa Iqhfl, tua ( - about); Oxuu
(as a sick person); Inaa IhOO, ||nQba (briskly); f n § a sll,
g||qhlim-s1 (in another's tracks); ||na’b a , llqale (on
something wet); g a b a (pigeon toed); syll (with clicking of
knees); lala k a tuu; g||qhum sV ||q h a e (in single file);
kh ala ’I|n'uha Iqhll (abreast); k'uhm-kuhm (with a heavy
warm (adj.) kubl; fq a lo ; c a a
warmly Iq a lo
wami (vb.) llqhaa (- oneself); |nua -|nua (the hands by rubbing them
wamith iqalo
want kani; I ’an-si
warm up ^ga’a; caa; iqalo; ktibl
wart syl
warthog llxou
wash t'yhle; !qyu; Iq’um (by rubbing)
wasp d§hbe glqhbo (M ud-)
waste (vb.) Inoli
watch (n.) watje
watch (vb.) Inaa ; ||ua, In^’m (- out for)
water Iqhaa
Water acacia lea’ll
water bag Iguu
water course !nau ’|nym
water-storing tree © 9Q0
wave cala-cala (the limbs about (as an infant)); tS§hU-tSQha
(- about)
Waxberry syu
way dao; ’au (this -); I’oa (towards the speaker)
way lah’U (manner)
we lh(1), 1s1; +naT (dual)
weak dtsho’m; iloh’m; |’ua
290 weakling to widow

weakling t« h ’a ; 'In^na
weakness ’IninI
weaned |guu n uu;||(im
wear s a ’a (a blanket, shirt or jacket); |q h a a , ||a a (a necklace or
hat);IUU (on the head); ||uit1 (onthewrist); Ig a ’O, ||gu’a
wear out xall
weave + a le , dQinl, doni, ||nii’m
web + ’u n -ta, d t’k x ’a a
Wednesday labu ra ro
week bilki
weight llnau
welcome ta h ’a
well (adj) ||am
well (n.) tsa h o
west lam a
wet (intr.) Iqhaa, t s ’k x ’ani, t s ’k x ’a a
wet (tr.) !qyu
what eh
what if? |ii
whatever k'uLV
whatyoumaycallit taa § a -b e -se
when ki d a o ti a h ’a ki
where? a h ’a , ta
whether IV
whey thoa
which a h ’a o
whip (n.) lln^m
whip (vb.) tshxau
whirl qbh ’b a
whirlwind 'llnbh’lo
whisker Iniim
whisper ^G9na-4G9na
whistle (vb.) icu n l
white lnujia; l^li (-ish); !n u l-sa ( ness)
White bauhinia |an
whittie i g a ’Ie, ^xai, !’a le - !’ale , ||’a le - ||’a le
Whiteman Iqhuu
who? eh
wide tsh ao , Igah ’la
widow (er) ’Inal, lG§hi-si, + g a o , ’In'ua
wife to wound 291

wife ’|nan;taa qae (sg.), |ia (p i.); +qhee ( -'s brother’s

children); *|n§ha ( -’s elder or younger brother); I’oa ( -'s elder
or younger sister); ^qhee ( -'s father's father or -’s mother’s
wildcat Oqou
Wildcucumber +gu’a, llgohpa, •||nsm
wildebeest (blue) Iq II; s a a kail, h ah a kali (lone mature male)
will k x ’bo, s a a , ahn
wind (n.) f qhUO (gen., and spec, the north-east wind in the rainy season);
g lx a ’u (cold south); Igoh’le (evening west); quje |e |q h u e ,
g lq h o le (tornado);+qhlje *|nym ( -'s intensity); Iqhaa
wind (vb.) |numl (by twisting), +g§l1 (- round)
windpipe Igunu
wing (n.) +G§hma
wink Inyhn; inam a, ’||nohbe
winnow Igblo
winter lae
wipe |n§nri (off); [nua (off the face); Ingli (the eyes)
wire tirata
wisdom Iqau
wish (vb.) + ’a n -si
with + ’a, ’ahn
withhold §h1, |§a, g^kx’um, |§a
witkop th u a -te
wobble qhb’lo, |am a
woman t a a q a e (sg.), |a a (pi.), tuu |a |§ a (pi.)
womb fnoho, llnai
wood ’In ya; |’a a lanu (- burnt at one end); |’a a (fire-); ’Inya
ta |ah/>a k a (heart-); ’O n a je (piece o f - ) ; + ’um (woody
part of the root)
Woolgrass Iggho
word +aa
work (n.) Ig a a
work (vb.) Ig a a ; qal thia, I'um ( - metal by beating)
workplace Ig a a s a ’a
worm loya; +qhull (Wire -)
worn out x a ll,+ G 9 b a (of objects); Iq’an n b a k x ’ua (of a person)
worry q a jv Iq’an
worthless guu, l^m, sunu, |yha, ’||nahe
wound (n.) |bho; thua
292 wrap to zigzag

wrap lnah’6 ka tam ( - yourself up in a blanket)

wrestle Ia5
wring Iq’um, doni, tshxbm, Ikx’all, ||guu, iguu, ts’kx’all,
wrinkle gllkx’ai kv |nuhjia ( - up one's nose)
wrinkled gllkx’ai, tym; Ic fl (with age); ’!n§ba-te
wrist |hua; Ikx’aa
writhe llnujia

xiphistemum llq'abe

yawn Ihua
year kull
yellow g+qhul; +n9hl; ||ga’u
yes ’11; ’60; ’ajbo, ’e eh
yesterday qam
yolk ||aa
you ah(’a) (sg.), uh(’u) (pi.); +num (dual)
young (n.) llqyv; Oaa; ’In^na; t^h’a
youth taa Iga’n |e (female); taa Inau (male)

ngzag lu b e