Sie sind auf Seite 1von 42

r)aykarN_segçb

r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 22 00 00 55
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b

r)aykarN_sklelaktamdankarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña 200 5

karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
sarRbeyaCn_rbs;KuNPaB
1
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
sarRbeyaCn_rbs;KuNPaB

r)aykarN_segçb

UNESCO Publishing
cMNgeCIgEdl)anykmkeRbI nigkarbgðaj karviPaK nigGnusasn_enAkñúgr)aykareN_enHminqøúHbBa©aMgGMBITsSn³rbs;GgÁkar
smÖarenAkñúgkare)aHBum<enHminsMedAeTAelIkar yUeNsáÚeT. r)aykarN_enHCakare)aHBum<ÉkraCmYyGnuBaØat[e)aHBum<edayGgÁkar
beBa©jmtiNamYyrbsGgÁkaryUeNsáÚTak; yUeNsáÚCMnYsmux[shKmn_GnþrCati. r)aykarN_enHCasmTi§plénkic©RbwgERbgrYm
TgnwgsßanPaBRsbc,ab;énRbeTsNamYy nigkics© hkarrbs;RkumkargareFVrI )aykarN_ nigmnusSCaeRcIn nigTIPañ k;gar sßab½n
TwkdI TIRkug b¤tMbn;NamYy b¤énsiT§iGMNac nigrdæaPi)alCaeRcInRbeTs. TsSn³ nigmtiEdl)ansMEdgecjenAkñgú r)aykarN_enH
rbs;xøÜnb¤Tak;TgnwgkakMNt;RBMEdnb¤RBMRbTl; CakarTTYlxusRtUvTUeTArbs;naykGgÁkaryUeNsáÚ.
rbs;RbeTsNamYyeLIy.

bBaað TakT; gnwgTinñn½y


Tinñn½yRtwmRtUv fµITan;eBlevla nigsmRsbTaMgTinñn½yKuNvis½y viTüasßansßitirbs;GgÁkaryUeNsáÚkMBugRbwgERbgRbmUlTinñn½y[)an
nigbrivis½ysuT§EtmantémøsRmab;eRbIR)as;kñúgkartamdankarrIkceRmI elOnCagmunehIykat;bnßykaryWtya:vry³eBlBIrqñaMdUcbc©úb,nñ.
nQaneTAseRmceKaledAGb;rs M Rmab;TaMgGs;Kañ . Tinnñ y
½ TaMgenH kareCaKC½yelIkic©karenHKWGaRs½yelIrdæaPi)alrbs;RbeTsTaMgGs;
mansar³sMxan;sRmab;tak;EtgeKalneya)ayedaysMGagelI kñúgkarBRgwgsmtßPaBRbmUl nigviPaKTinñn½y edaymanCMnYyBI
Psþútagc,as;las;nigsRmab;vaytémøkarGnuvtþCak;Esþg. Tinñn½y viTüasßansßti ri bs;GgÁkaryUeNsáÚ nigPñak;garepSgeTot. viTüasßan
Edl)anEbgEcktamRbePTc,as;las;GacCYykMNt;rkkEnøgEdl sßitirbs;GgÁkaryUeNsáÚkMBugBüayambegIátkmµviFICMnYyedIm,IBRgwg
manvismPaBFMCageKbg¥s; nigGacCYysRmYldl;kareFVEI pnkar nig smtßPaBviPaKsißti eRBaH KuNPaBénTinñn½yEdlykmkeRbIedIm,I
vaytémøTaMgenAfñak;Cati nigshKmn_. e)aHBum<pSaybgðajGMBIKuNPaBTinñn½yBIRbeTsEdlpþl;[.
r)aykarN_enHBwgEp¥keRcInelITnñn½yRbmUltamviFIrdæ)alEdlpþl; KYrkt;sMKal;pgEdrfa r)aykarN_enHeRbITinñn½ymkBIRbPBCaeRcIn
edayrdæaPi)alerogral;qñaMeTA[viTüasßansßitirbs;GgÁkaryUeNsáÚ dUcCa GegátRKYsar nig karRsavRCavCaeRcIneTot. ehtudUecñH
(UIS). Tinñn½ykñúgqñaMsikSa 2001¼2002 CaTinñn½yfµIbMputTTYl r)aykarN_enHmanTinñn½yCaeRcInykmkviPaK nigGaceFVIEpnTImYy
)anBIRbPBenH. Tinñn½yTaMgenaHsißitenAkñúgcegáamTinñn½yEdlman sRmab;bgðajGMBIbMErbMrYleKalneya)ayenARbeTsCaeRcIn nigGMBI
KuNPaB cgRkgtamviFIEdlGaceRbobeFobsißitikñúgcMeNamRbeTs PaBeCOnelOnQaneTAseRmceKaledAGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;;Kña.
PaKeRcIn edayeRbIviFIcat;cMNat;fñak;Gb;rMtamniyamsþg;daGnþrCati
(ISCE). karyWtya:vkñúgkarRbmUlTinñn½yrbs;rdæaPi)al nigkar
beBa©j[eRbIR)as;edayviTüasßansßitirbs;GgÁkaryUeNsáÚsRmab;
bBa©Úlkñúgr)aykarN_enH nigr)aykarN_epSgeTot.

ÉksaredImCaPasaGg;eKøs r)aykarN_sklelaktamdankarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
e)aHBum<enAqñaM2004 edayGgÁkarshRbCaCati qñaM2005 CaPasaExµrEckCUneday\tKitéfø
TTYlbnÞúkkarGb;rM viTüasaRsþ nigvb,Fm’ ÉksarCaPasaExµr
(UNESCO) e)aHBum<enAqñaM2005 edaykariyal½yGgÁkaryUeNsáÚenAkm<úCa
7, Place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP
rcnaRkahVikeday Sylvaine Baeyens tamGasydæanxageRkam ³
P.O. BOX 29, GKarelx 38 mhavifIsemþcsuFars
RkahVikeday Id-Prod sgþat;C½yCMnH x½NÐdUneBj PñMeBj
e)aHBum<eday Graphoprint, Paris TUrs½BÞ ³ 855-23426726¼217244
©UNESCO 2003
TUrsar ³ 855-23426163¼217022
www.unesco.org www.un.org.kh/unesco
e)aHBum<enARbeTs)araMg

RKbR; Kgeday ³ epÞogpÞat; nig sRmYlGtßbTeday ³


elak eGECn ekøm:g; elak exov viC¢annÞ
GñktMNagGgÁkar UNESCO RbcaMenAkm<úCa e)aHBmu e< day ³
elakbNiÐt semÖaFEsnPun RbesIrsirI eragBum< \RnIÞmas
GñkÉkeTskmµviFIGb;rM UNESCO
bkERbGtbß TCaPasaExµreday ³ karbkERbCaPasaExµreFVIeLIgeRkambnÞúk
elak Qin nit rbs;kariyal½yGgÁkaryUeNsáÚenAPñMeBj.
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
etIBiPBelakkMBugQrenAkEnøgNa enAelIeKaledA
TaMgR)aMmYyrbs;karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña?
eKaledA 1 KaMBar nigGb;rMkumartUc ³ dMeNIrQaneTABRgIk«kas eKaledA 2 sklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa ³ cMnYnkumarenAeRkAsalaman
cUleronmankaryWtya:v. edaysarehtuplenaH eTIbkumarmkBIRKYsar karFøak;cuHeRcIn KWFøak;cuHBI 106/6 lannak; enAqñaM 1998 mkRtwm
RkIRkCYbkarlM)akminsUvman«kascUleronkñúgkmµviFIKaMBar nigGb;rM 103/5 lannak;enAqñaM 2001. edaysarBiPBelak)anQaneTAseRmc
kumartUc. kumartUcmñak;enAGaRBicsab;saharaGacman«kascUleron eKaledAenHkñúgry³eBlbu:nµanTsvtSr_enH kumarCaeRcIn)ancUlsala
kñúgsalametyü)anEt 0/3 qñaM b:ueNÑaH. cMENkkumarenAGaemrikLaTIn b:uEnþdMeNIrQaneTAseRmceKaledAsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSaenAmun b¤
nigkarIb‘Íunman«kascUleron)an 1/6 qñaM ehIykumarenAGaemrikxageCIg RtwmqñaM 2015 mankaryWtya:gNas;. ebIdMeNIrd¾yWtenHenAEtbnþ
nigGWur:ubxaglic Gacman«kascUleronenAmetyüsala)an 2/3 qñaM. pleFobsisScuHeQµaHcUleronBitnwgekIndl; 85° enAqñaM 2005 ehIy
enARbeTskMBugGPivDÆCaeRcIn buKÁlikrbs;kmµviFIKaMBar nigGb;rMkumartUc 87°enAqñaM 2015. kñúgeKaledAenH kareroncb;bzmsikSaKWCabBaðacMbg
mansmtßPaBtictYc. EdlRtUvedaHRsayCacaM)ac; dUcCa bBaðasisScuHeQµaHcUleroneRkayGayu
Rsbc,ab; ehIybBaðasisSGacbnþeronrhUtcb;fñak;TI 5 mancMnYntic
¬ticCag 75° enARbeTs 30 kñúgcMeNamRbeTs 91 EdlmanTinñn½yeRbI
eKaledA 3 karGb;rMyuvv½y nigmnusScas; ³ enARbeTskMBugGPivDÆ )an¦ ehIysisSRtYtfñak;k¾CabBaðaFMEdlRtUvedaHRsaybnÞan;pgEdr.
mYycMnYnEdl)anvaytémøelIkkmµviFIGPivDÆbMNinCIvitminsUvRbwgERbg
edIm,IelIkkMBs;smtßPaB nigCMnajdl;yuvv½y nigmnusScas;eT. dMeNIr
QaneTAseRmceKaledAenHenATUTaMgBiPBelakCYbRbTHnwgkarlM)akeRcI eKaledA 4 Gkçrkmµ ³ enAqñaM 2002 manmnusScas;RbmaN 800
n kñúgkarvaytémø. lannak;Ca GnkçrCn1 70° rs;enARbeTscMnYn 9 enAGaRBicsahara nig
GasIuxagekIt nigxagt,Úg CaBiess\NÐa cin bg;køaEds nig)a:KIsßan.
eKaledA 5 eynD½r ³ eTaHCaRbeTsCaeRcInenACMuvijBiPBelak)an
BuHBarQaneTAseRmcsmPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxenAbzmsikSa nig eKaledA 6 KNu PaB ³ RbeTsEdlsißtenAq¶ayBIkarseRmceKaledA
mFümsikSakñúgry³eBlCaeRcInTsvtSr_knøgmkenHk¾eday k¾Kmøat 1 dl; 5 suT§EtCaRbeTsEdlBi)aknwgseRmceKaledATI 6 Nas;.
eynD½renAEtFMdEdl dUcCaenARbeTsGara:b; GaRhViksahara nigGasIuxag sUc©nakrN_CaeRcIn)ancg¥úlbgðajGMBIB½t’mansIþBIKuNPaB. karcMNay
t,Úg nigxaglic. enATUTaMgsklelak kalBIqñaM 2001 mankumarI rbs;rdæelIvis½yGb;rMbgðajGMBIRbPaKénplTunCatisrubenARbeTsGñk
RbmaN 57° min)ancUleronenAsalabzmsikSa ehIyCag60°enArdæ manEdl)anseRmceKaledAGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñarYcehIyx<s;Cag
Gara:b; nigGasIu xagt,Úg nigxaglic. karcUleronrbs;sisSRsImancMnYn RbPaKénplTunCatisrubrbs;RbeTsGñkRkEdlRtUvkarBRgIk nigEklMG
ticCagekµgRbusya:geRcInenAbzmsikSa ¬snÞsSn_smPaBeynD½rKit RbB½n§Gb;rMEdlmanFnFanticCacaM)ac;. kñúgb:unµanTsvtSr_cugeRkayenH
CatYelxxageRkam 0/97¦ enARbeTscMnYn 71 kñúgcMeNamRbeTs 175. karcMNayelIvis½yGb;rMmankarekIneLIgeRcIn CaBiessenARbeTskMBug
vismPaBeynD½r KitCatYelxkan;EtrIkFMenAmFümsiikSa nig]tþmsikSa. GPivDÆn_CaeRcIn dUcCaRbeTsenAGasIuxagekIt nig)a:sIuhVik RbeTsenA
kñúgcMeNamRbeTs kMBugGPivDÆcMnYn 83 Edlman Tinñn½yGacykmkeRbI GaemrikLaTIn nigkarIb‘Íun. pleFobsisS nigRKUenAEtx<s;enARbeTsCa
kar)anmanRbeTs cMnYnBak;kNþal)anQaneTAseRmcsmPaBeynD½r eRcInenAGaRBic sab;sahara: ¬enAtamtMbn; 44³1¦ nigenAGasIuxagt,Úg
KitCatYelxenAbzmsikSa ehIyRbeTsticCag 1 PaK 5 )anseRmc nigxaglic ¬40³1¦. enARbeTsEdlmanR)ak;cMNUlTab RKUbeRgonmin
smPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxenAmFümsikSa ehIyRbeTsEt 4 b:ueNÑaH)an Tan;mansþg;daCMnajedIm,IcUlbeRgoneT ehIyRKUPaKeRcInminTan;yl;
seRmcsmPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxenA]tþmsikSa. GnkçrCnBiPBelak c,as;GMBIkmµviFIsikSaEdlRtUvbeRgonpg. karqøgraldalénemeraK
Cit 2 PaK 3 ¬64°¦ CaRsIþ. eGds_ nigCMgWeGds_kMBugman\Ti§BlelIkarpþl;karGb;rMRbkbeday
KuNPaB nigelIvtþmanrbs;RKU. Tinñn½y)anBIkareFVIetsþtamRbeTs nig
4> viTüasßansßiti UNESCO )an)a:n;sµaneLIgvijGMBIcMnYnGnkçrCnedayeRbITinñn½yfIµcug CaGnþrCatibgðajfa sisSTTYl)anlT§plexSayeRcInenAtMbn;kMBug
eRkay. GRtasµanbc©úb,nñRbEhlticCag 862 lannak;kñúgqñaM 2000 kñúgr)aykarN_ GPivDÆTabbMput.
sklelaktamdankarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña 2003¼4. kareRbITinñn½yfIµbNþalmkBI
ktþaeRcInya:g dUcCa Tinñn½y)anmkBICMerOn nigGegátfIµrbs;bNþaRbeTsCaeRcIn. ]> CMerOn
qñaM 2000 rbs;cinpþl;Tinñn½ydl;viTüasßansRmab;KNnacMnYnGnkçrCnmnusScas;enA
RbeTsenH Edl)anfycuHCag 50 lannak;.
1
snÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña ¬EDI¦
snÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña ¬EDI¦ vas;GMBITMhM RbeTscMnYn 41 ¬1 PaK 3 énRbeTsTaMgenHmansnÞsSn_Edl
eCaKC½yrbs;RbeTsEdl)anseRmceKaledA 4 kñúgcMeNam GacKNna)an¦ RbeTsPaKeRcInenAGaemrikxageCIg nigGWur:ubxag
eKaledATaMg 6 rbs;karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaKW sklkmµGb;rM lic GWur:ubkNþal nigGWur:ubxagekIt)anseRmceKaledA b¤CitQaneTA
bzmsikSa smPaBeynD½rKitCatYelx Gkçrkmµ nigKuNPaB. seRmceKaledAGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaehIy.
RbeTsCaeRcIn KitTaMgRbeTsRkIRkbMputmYycMnYn)anseRmc
eKaledAGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñakñúgcenøaHqñaM 1998 nig 2001. RbeTs51 mantémøsnÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;
eCaKC½yenHbgðajfa PaBRkIRkminEmnCa]bsKÁd¾FMraraMgdl;kar KñacenøaHBI 0/80 nig 0/94.2 Bak;kNþalénRbeTsTaMgenH PaKeRcIn
QaneTAseRmckarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaeT. müa:geTot karbraC½y enAGaemrikLaTIn KuNPaBGb;rMsißtenAq¶ayBIeKaledAepSg²eTot.
d¾FMkñúgvis½yGb;rM)anrIkFMenARbeTsGaRhViksab;sahara rdæGara:b;
nigGasIuxagt,Úg nigxaglic. RbeTscMnYn 35 sißtenAq¶ayBIkarseRmceKaledAkarGb;rM
sRmab;TaMgGs;KñaEdlmantémøsnÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆkarGb;rM
sRmab;TaMgGs;KñaeRkam 0/80. RbeTscMnYn 22 enAGaRhiVksab;
sahara. bIRbeTseTotenAGasIuxagt,ÚgEdlmanRbCaCneRcInKW
bg;køaEds \NÐa nig)a:KIsßank¾sißtenAkñúgRkumenHEdr.
2> témøsnÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaGacmancenøaHBI 0 - 1.
kalNatémørMkilCit 1 mann½yfa RbeTsenaHCitQanseRmceKaledArbs;xøÜn
ehIykarGb;rMk¾seRmckan;EteRcInEdr.

KuNPaBl¥RbesIr ³
katBVkic©cMeBaHmux ³ karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kñaminnwg kMNt;niymn½yKuNPaB ³ eKalkarN_BIrEdlGacykmkeRbIedIm,IkMNt;
minGacseRmc)aneT ebIminelIkkMBs;KuNPaB[l¥RbesIr. niymn½yKuNPaBkñúgvis½yGb;rM. eKalkarN_TImYykMNt;niymn½yGMBI
enARbeTsCaeRcInelIBiPBelak KmøatrvagsisSEdl)an karGPivDÆBuTi§rbs;GñksikSa Edlniymn½yenHCabMNgrbs;RbB½nGb;rM
eroncb;BIsala nigGñkEdlcb;ehIymanCMnajeRbIkar)an TaMgGs;. ehtudUecñH eCaKC½yEdlRbB½n§Gb;rMTTYl)anKWCasUc©nakrN_mYy
manTMhMFMeFgNas;. eKalneya)ayEdlmanbMNgCRmuj cg¥úlbgðajGMBIKuNPaBrbs;RbB½n§Gb;rMTaMgenaH. eKalkarN_TIBIrsgát;F¶n;
[mankarcuHeQµaHcUleronrhUtdl; 100° RtUvEtFana[ elItYnaTIrbs;Gb;rMkñúgkarelIkkMBs;témøKuNFm’ nig\riyabfTTYlxusRtUv
manlkçxNÐsikSa nig»kassikSasmrmü. bTBiesaFn rbs;Blrdæ nigpþl;cMNIGahardl;karGPivDÆn_smtßPaBécñRbDit nigsµartI
_l¥²GMBIlkçxNÐenHGacykBIRbeTsEdl)anGnuvtþ nig TTYlxusRtUv. edIm,IseRmceKalbMNgenHnwgCYbkarlM)akkñúgkarvaytémø
bMeBjkatBVkic©TaMgBIenH)aneCaKC½y. nigkñúgkareRbobeFobrvagRbeTsmYyeTARbeTsmYy.

sarRbeyaCn_)anBIkarGb;rM ³ karGb;rMl¥RbesIrrYmcMENkdl; qñaMcUleronkñúgsala ³ KuNPaBx<s;kñúgkarGb;rMnwgCYy[sisS


karbegIánR)ak;cMNUl nigCYyelIkkMBs;kMeNInesdækic© ehIy eronenAsalakan;EtyUr Gayux½ycUleronkñúgsalakan;EtEvg
CYy[mnusSmñak;²kan;EtmansmtßPaBkñúgkarseRmccitþ[ eTaHCa»kasxusKñaBItMbn;mYyeTAtMbn;k¾eday. KitCamFüm
)anRtwmRtUv dUcCa karseRmccitþGMBIkarmankUn nigbBaða sRmab;RbeTsTaMgGs; sisSGaceron)anry³eBl 9>2 qñaM eron
sMxan;²Tak;TgnwgsuxumalPaBpÞal;xøÜn. ]TahrN_ karGb;rMl¥ enAbzmsikSa nigmFümsikSa. sisSmñak;enAGaRBicsab;sa
nwgCYykat;bnßyPaBeRKaHfñak;edaykarqøgemeraKeGds_. kar hararMBwgfa)aneronBI 5 eTA 6 qñaMticCagkumarenAtMbn;GWur:ub
RsavRCavCaeRcInbgðajfa manBuT§i nigCMnajTTYl)anBIkar xaglic nigGaemrik. RbCaCnEdl)ancUleronenAsala)anyUr
Gb;rMmUldæanmansarRbeyaCn_bMputsRmab;yuvv½ykarBar eRcInqñaM rMBwgfanwgeronenAsala)an 5 qñaM dUckumarenARbeTs
xøÜnBIkarqøgemeraKeGds_. sarRbeyaCn_enHBitCamanTMnak; enAcMNat;fñak;)attarag.
TMngCamYykMritGb;rM EdlmnusSmñak;²)an eron.

2
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
BinÞúetsþ ³ etsþGMBIeCaKC½yGnþrCatibgðajfa FnFan ³ enARbeTsEdlmanR)ak;cMNUlTab karbegáInkarcMNaysRmab;esovePAsikSa kat;
sßanPaBesdækic© sgÁmkic©man\Ti§BlxøaMgelI bnßycMnYnsisSkñúgfñak; elIkkMBs;smtßPaBRKU nigbMBak;brikçasala[kan;EtRbesIrnwgCYydl;
lT§plsikSaenAsala. dUecñH TaMgeKalneya karseRmceCaKC½yrbs;sisSkñúgkareronsURt. b:uEnþenARbeTsGñkman karbegIáncMNayEbbenH
)ayGb;rM nigeKalneya)ayesdækic©RtUvEt minsUvmanTMnak;TMngnwglT§plsikSarbs;sisSeT. karelIkkMBs;KuNPaBk¾GacseRmceCaKC½y
edaHRsaybBaðavismPaBesdækic© sgÁmkic©kñúg edaycMNayTabmFüm)anEdr ehIyRbeTsRkIRkk¾Gacman smtßPaBeFVI)anEdr. enAkEnøgEdl
cMeNamsisSanusisS[)anCamunsin. manGRtaRtYtfñak;x<s; karbegIánKuNPaBTamTarnUvkarcMNayhirBaØvtßúpÞal;xøÜnmYycMENk eRBaHGac
kat;bnßyry³eBleronyUrenAsala edaysarkareronRtYtfñak;.

karGb;rMEbbdak;bBa©ÚlKñaRKb;RkummuxsBaØaTaMgGs; ³ RKb; karsRmbsRmYl ³ TMnak;TMngrvagnaykdæan nignaykdæanTTYl


kMENTRmg;TaMgGs;EdlminBicarNa ykcitþTukdak; nigqøúHbBa©aMg bnÞúkkmµviFIKaMBar nigGb;rMkumartUc Gkçrkmµ nigsuxPaB nwgCYy
GMBIRkumCnRkIRk nigCYbkarlM)akEtgTTYlbraC½y. viFIsaRsþ elIkkMBs;KuNPaB. elIsenHeTot eKalneya)ayeqøIytbnwg
Gb;rMsRmab;GñkpÞúkemeraKeGds_ RkumEdlRtUvkarCMnYybnÞan; tRmUvkareynD½rkñúgvis½Gb;rM nigkMENTRmg;EdleqøIytbeTAnwg
CnBikar nigkumarBlkmµRtUvTTYl)ankarKaMRT[ kan;EteRcIn. tRmUvkareynD½renAkñúgsgÁmk¾CYyelIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rMpgEdr.

xøwmsarnaMmuxGtßbT
skmµPaBeron[kan;EtRbesIr ³ PsþútagCa ry³eBleron ³ eBlevlabeRgonKWCaktþaCYy Pasa ³ CMerIsPasasRmab;beRgonsisSenA
eRcInpþl;karENnaMGMBIRbsiT§PaBrbs;sala. seRmceCaKC½ykñúgkarsikSa dUcCary³eBl salamansar³sMxan;bMput. karbeRgonsisS
PsþúgtagTaMgenaHeRcInsgát;F¶n;elIskmµPaB beRgonEdl)anRBmeRBogCaTUeTABI850-1000 nUvPasaTImYyrbs;sisSnwgCYysisS[eron)an
eron nigbeRgond¾skmµrbs;sisS nigRKU dUcCa ema:gkñúgmYyqñaM RbeTsxøHmin)anpþl;RKb;ema:g l¥RbesIrnUvmuxviC¢aepSg² ehIyCYykat;bnßy
etIRKU nigsisSTMnak;TMngKñaya:gdUcemþcenAkñúg eT. BinÞúetsþ)anbgðajya:gc,as;fa ry³eBl GRtaRtYtfñak; nige)aHbg;ecalsala.
fñak;eron ehIyRKU nigsisSeRbIR)as;smÖareron eron nigbeRgonenAkñúgfñak;man\Ti§Bldl;kar smÖareron nigbeRgon ³ KuNPaB nigFnFan
nigbeRgonmanRbsiTP§ aBb:Nu aÑ . eKalneya)ay eronmuxviC¢aKNitviTüa viTüasaRsþ nigPasa.
sRmab;elIkkMBs;skmµPaBeron nigbeRgon[ rUbv½nþénsmÖareron nigbeRgonBitCaman\Ti§Bl
kan;Etl¥RbesIrRtUvsgát;F¶n;elI ³ muxviC¢asMxan;² ³ GkçrkmµCaktþacaM)ac; xøaMgkøaelIkarbeRgonrbs;RKU. kgVHesovePA
sRmab;eronmuxvC¢aepSg[BUEk ehIyGkçrkmµCa sisSekIteLIgedaysarRbB½n§Eckcayminl¥
RKbU eRgon ³ edIm,IseRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzm CMnajcaM)ac;edIm,IseRmceCaKC½yelIkareron GnuvtþxuseKalkarN_ nigGMeBIBukrlYy.
sikSaEtmYymuxTamTar[manRKUbeRgonkan;Et sURtyUrGEgVg. eronGanRtUvcat;TuCaGaTiPaB brikçasala ³ edIm,IseRmcsklkmµGb;rM
eRcIn nigkan;EtmansmtßPaB. RbeTsEdl sRmab;elIkkMBs;KNu PaBGb;rmM lU dæan Biess
)anseRmclT§plsikSax<s;BitCa)anvinieyaK sRmab;sisSmkBIRKYsarRkIRkCYbkarlM)ak. bzmsikSa RbeTsCaeRcInRtUvkartubEtgbnÞúb;
eRcInkñúgkarbNþúHbNþalRKU. b:uEnþ enARbeTsCa eron[l¥ nigsagsg;bnÞb;eronbEnßm. Twks¥at
eRcIn kñúgb:unµanBIrTsvtSr_cugeRkayenH R)ak;Ex Kruekaslü ³ viFIbeRgonCaeRcInRtUv)aneRbI Gnam½y nig»kascUleronsRmab;CnBikarKW
RKU)anFøak;cuHebIeRbobeFobnwgmuxrbrGaCIB CaTUeTA b:uEnþminseRmcbMNg nigtRmUvcitþ mansar³sMxan;minGacxVH)an.
epSg ehIyR)ak;ExKWTabminGacRTRTg;CIvPaB[ sisSeT. viFITaMgenaHeRcInminTn;Pøn; ehIyRtUv kardwknaM ³ rdæ)alkNþalrbs;rdæaPi)alRtUv
)ansmrmü. ehtudUcenH enARbeTsCaeRcIn [sisSTenÞjcaMmat; ehIyeFVI[sisSGskmµ. EtRbugeRbob nigeRtomxøÜnedIm,Ipþl;esrIPaBkñúg
karbNþúHbNþaRKURtUvBicarNaeLIgvij RtUvBRgwg GñkRsavRCavGb;rMCaeRcInnak;)anEsVgrkkar karcUleronrbs;sisS dUecñHRtUvmanFnFan
karbNþúHbNþal nigbMb:nRKUenAtamsala KaMRT[eRbIviFIbeRgonRbkbedayrcnasm<½n§ RKb;RKan; ehIytYnaTI nigkarTTYlxusRtUvenA
ehIybnßykarbNþúHbNþalRKUtamEbbcas; c,as;las;- RtUvmankarENnaMpÞal;rbs;RKU RKb; f ñ a k; d w k naM T aM g Gs; R tU v Etc,as; l as; .
ry³eBlyUrenAtamsßab½nbNþúHbNþalRKU. karENnaM[sisSGnuvtþ nig[sisSeroneday RKUbeRgon nignayksalaGacman\Ti§BlxøaMg
xøÜnÉg kñúgbriyakasbeRgonsisSemRtI. elIKuNPaBrbs;salaeron.
3
enARbeTsCaeRcInEdlkMBugBüayamFanapþl;siTi§TTYlkarGb;rMdl;kumarRKb;²rUb karykcitþTukdak;
xøaMgelIkarBRgIk»kascUleron)anraraMg nigb:HBal;dl;karykcitþTukdak;elIKuNPaB. b:uEnþ KuNPaB
KWCaktþakMNt;fa etIsisSeron)anb:unµan nigecHb:unµan ehIyKuNPaBk¾kMNt;GMBIsarRbeyaCn_EdlsisS
TTYl)anBIkarGb;rMsRmab;GPivDÆsmtßPaBpÞal;xøÜn nigGPivDÆsgÁm. eKaledATI 6 rbs;Rkbx½NÐ
skmµPaBRkudakaTamTarelIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rMkñúgRKb;TidæPaBTaMgGs;. dUcr)aykarN_enH)anelIk
eLIgc,as; sisSCaeRcIn)anecjBIsalaedaymin)anTTYlBuTi§ nigCMnajc,as;las;eLIy.

eRkayBI)anviPaKEvkEjkGMBIKuNPaB r)aykarN_enH)anbgðajnUvEpnTImYysRmab;CaCMnYykñúgkarkMNt;
niymn½y nigEsVgyl;GMBIbBaðaKuNPaB ¬CMBUk 1¦. r)aykarN_enHk¾)anviPaKlT§plRsavRCavCaeRcIn
Tak;TgnwgktþaTaMgLayEdlman\Ti§BlelIKuNPaBGb;rM ¬CMBUk 2¦ ehIyr)aykarN_enHk¾pþl;nUv
yuT§saRsþ nigeKalneya)ayKnøwH²sRmab;elIkkMBs;KuNPaBpgEdr CaBiessenARbeTsEdlman
R)ak;cMNUlTab ¬CMBUk 4¦. r)aykarN_qñaMmun²bgðajfa CMnYyGnþrCatisRmab;karGb;rMmUldæan nig
kic©RbwgERbgedIm,IBRgwgkic©sRmbsRmYlk¾manbgðajenAkñúgr)aykarN_enHEdr ¬CMBUk 5¦. CaTIbBa©b;
r)aykarN_enHk¾)antamdan nigRtYtBinitükarrIkcMerInQaneTAseRmceKaledATaMg 6 Edl)anGnum½tenA
Rkugdaka qñaM 2000 Edl)anykcitþTukdak;xøaMgelIsUc©nakrN_KuNPaBGb;rM. snÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆ
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña ¬EDI¦ Edl)anbgðajenAkñúgr)aykarN_qñaMmun²k¾manbgðajbEnßmenAkñúg
r)aykarN_qñaMenHEdr ehIyr)aykarN_enHk¾)ansegçbGMBIkareCOnelOnQaneTAseRmceKaledA 4
kñúgcMeNameKaledATaMg 6 enARbeTscMnYn 127 ¬CMBUk 3¦.

4
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
CMBUk 1

karyl;dwg
GMBIKuNPaBGb;rM
KuNPaBKWsißtkñúgebHdUgrbs;karGb;rMsMrab;TaMgGs;Kña
rkcMNucrYmmYy ³ karGPivDÆBuTi§ bMNin nigCMnajécñRbDit
kMeNIneLIgGMBIkareRbIR)as;viFIsaRsþyksiTi§mnusSCamUldæan
mrtk)anBIRbéBNIGb;rM
esckIþENnaMGMBIvisalPaBTaMg 5 ya:g

eTaH bICasiTi§TTYlkarGb;rM)anelIkeLIg nigbBa¢ak;mþgehIymþgeTotenA

© Radu Sigheti/REUTERS
kñúgRBwtiþkarN_CaeRcIncab;taMgBIesckIþEføgkarN_sklsIþBIsiTi§mnusS)an
Gnum½tCapøÚvkarqñaM 1948 k¾eday k¾c,ab;GnþrCatiCaeRcIneTotsißtkñúg
sPaBes¶óms¶at;minniyayGMBIKuNvis½yénkareronsURtrbs;sisSEdr.
kñúgeBlfµI²enH esckIþEføgkarN_shsSvtSr_GgÁkarshRbCaCatiEdl
)anGnum½tkalBIqñaM 2000 )anEcgfa kumarRKb;rUbnwgman»kas nig
smtßPaBeroncb;bzmsikSaenAmun b¤RtwmqñaM 2015 b:uEnþesckIþEføg
karN_enaHmin)anniyayGVITak;TgnwgKuNPaBGb;rMeT. sñamjjwmkñúgkIþsgÇwmCafµIenAGahVhánIsßan

karseRmcsklkmµénkarcUleronGaRs½yTaMgRsugelIkarFana[man KuNPaBGb;rMkñúgRKb;TidæPaBTaMgGs; ehIyFana[man]tþmPaBsMrab;TaMg


KuNPaBGb;rM. etIsisSTTYl)ankarbeRgon)anl¥b¤eT? etIsisSeron)an Gs;Kña. dUecñH lT§plcugeRkayKWRKb;KñanwgTTYl)anlT§pl nig
bnu: aµ n? BitCaman\Ti§BlelIkarcUleronrbs;sisS TaMgry³eBleron nig plRbeyaCn_BIkarsikSaTaMgGs;Kña tamry³CMnajGkçrkmµ elxnBVnþ
Tmøab;cUleronrbs;sisS. matabitaEtgvaytémøGMBIKuNPaBsalaeron CMnaj nigbMNinCIvit.
enAeBlmatabitavinieyaKFnFansMrab;karGb;rMkUnenAsala. mnusS
TUeTAenAelIsklelakrMBwgfa kareronsURtenAsalaBitCaCYykumar[ karRsavRCavrkeKalkarN_rYm
GPivDÆBuTi§ bMNin nigCMnaj témø sIlFm’ nig\riyabfsMrab;ykeTAeRbI fVIebIsar³sMxan;énKuNPaBRtUv)anTTYlsÁal;kan;EteRcIneLIgk¾eday
kñúgCIvitRbcaMéf¶ ehIysMrab;ERbkøayxøÜnCaBlrdæskmµ nigTTYlxusRtUv. k¾Gtþn½yénKuNPaBminTan;)anÉkPaBKñaCarYmkñúgkarGnuvtþCak;EsþgEdr.
esckIþEføgkarN_sklelaksIþBIkarGb;rMsMrab;TaMgGs;Kña ¬1990¦ kñúgn½yenH maneKalkarN_BIrEdlGacykmkeRbIedIm,IkMNt;niymn½y
nigRkbx½NÐskmµPaBRkugdaka ¬2000¦- esckIþEføgkarN_d¾fµIbMputBIr rbs;KuNPaBGb;rM. eKalkarN_TI 1 kMNt;GMBIkarGPivDÆBuTi§rbs;GñksikSa
enHrbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCatiykcitþTukdak;xøaMelIkarGb;rM - TTYlsÁal; EdlCaeKaledAcMbgrbs;RbB½n§Gb;rM. eKalkarN_TI 1 cat;Tukfa ebI
KuNPaBfa CalkçxNÐTImYysMrab;FanaseRmckarGb;rMsMrab;TaMgGs;Kña. seRmceKaledAenHKWseRmcsUc©nakrN_mYyrbs;KuNPaB. eKalkarN_
Rkbx½NÐskmµPaBRkugdakaRbkasfa KuNPaBKWCa {ebHdUgrbs;Gb;rM}. TI2 sgát;F¶n;elItYnaTIrbs;Gb;rMkñúgkarelIkkMBs;témø nigGPivDÆCMnaj
eKaledATI 2 snüa[RbeTsTaMgGs;pþl;karGb;rMbzmsikSa {Rbkbeday écñRbDitEdlBi)akvaytémøelIlT§plcugeRkay.
KuNPaBl¥}. eKaledATI 6 sgát;F¶n;GMBIkarebþCJakñúgkarelIkkMBs;

5
c,ab;siTi§mnusSqøúHbBa©aMg cMNucrYmmYy)anrkeXIjenAkñúgeKaledA Dewey nig Jean Piaget man\Ti§BlkñúgkarEsVgrkkarKaMRTGMBItYnaTI
GMBICMenOEdlfa kumar EdlmanbMNgBiPakSaGMBIKuNPaB. kar rbs;kumarkñúgviFIsaRsþeronEbbskmµ nigEbbcUlrYm ehIybBa¢ak;GMBI
RKb;rUbGacGPivDÆBuTi§ nig eKarBsiTi§rbs;buKÁlmñak;² BRgIk»kas viFInanaEdlsisSGaceronedIm,IbegIátGtßn½y nigEsVgyl;edayxøÜnÉg.
CMnaj[Etsißtkñúg cUleron niglT§plsikSarbs;sisS[man
briyakaseronsURtRtwmRtUv smFm’ nigEkERbxøwmsarGb;rM[Rsbtam RTwsþI\riyaniym)andwknaMGñkGb;rMniym[edIrbRBa©as;Tis. RTwsIþenaHman
tRmUvkarCak;EsþgkñúgCIvPaBrs;enArbs; \Ti§BlxøaMgelIkMENTRmg;Gb;rMkñúgBak;kNþalstvtSr_TI21. eKalkarN_
sisS. c,ab;siTi§mnusS ¬GanRbGb;xageRkam¦ niyaysgát;F¶n;GMBI»kas cMbgKWfa \riyabfrbs;mnusSGacEkERb)an GacTsSn_Tay)an nigGac
TTYlkarGb;rM nigsmPaBénlT§pleronsURtrbs;sisS. RbGb;enHqøúH RKb;RKg)antamry³karpþl;rgVan; nigcemøIytb ¬]> etsþ nigkarRblg¦.
bBa©aMg nigviPaKGMBICMenOmYyEdlfa kumarTaMgGs;GacGPivDÆBuTi§ nigCMnaj eTaHCaGñkGb;rMmYycMnYnTTYlsÁal;nUvRTwsIþrbs;Gñk\riyabfniymk¾eday
mUldæan [EtsißtkñúgbriyakaseronsURtRtwmRtUv nigCMenOmYyeTotEdlfa k¾karGnuvtþCak;Esþg)aneFVIeLIgenARbeTsCaeRcInkñúgkmµviFIbNþúHbNþal
ebIsisSNamin)anGPivDÆBuTi§ nigCMnajmUldæan enaHmann½yfa EpñkNa RKUkñúgkmµviFIsikSa nigkarbeRgonCak;Esþgrbs;RKUkñúgfñak;eron.
mYyénRbB½n§Gb;rMBitCaTn;exSay. karviPaKbgðajfa PaBRkIRk karrs;enA ry³eBlCitmYyPaKbYnénstvtSr_TI 21 eKeXIjmankarTietonelIRTwsIþ
tamtMbn;CnbT nigkarerIseGIgeynD½renAEtCa]bsKÁraraMgdl;karcUl TaMgBIr. sgÁmviTUreFVIkarenAtamsalamYycMnYncat;Tuk karGb;rMCaynþkar
eron niglT§plsikSarbs;sisS ehIybgðajeTotfa KuNPaBbeRgonGn; KnøwHFana[manvismPaBkñúgsgÁm. sgÁmviTUrTaMgenaH)anecaTCasMNYrfa
exSayk¾CaRbPBbgá[manvismPaBpgEdr. etIkarrIkduHdalénkareronsURttamsalakan;EteRcIn nigkan;EtTUeTACa
skl nwgCYyFana[mankarGPivDÆskþanuPaBrbs;GñkeronRbkbeday
c,ab;GnþrCatisIþBIKuNPaB smPaBEdrb¤eT? GñkTaMgenaHEtgcat;TukkarGb;rMl¥CaskþanuPaBedIm,I
Fana[mankarEkERbsgÁm.
ktikasBaØaGnþrCatisIþBIsiTi§esdækic© sgÁmkic© nigsiTi§vb,Fm’k¾manbMNg
eqøIytbnwgeKalkarN_smFm’ edayelIkeLIgc,as;GMBIkarTTYlxusRtUv kic©xitxMRbwgERbgedIm,IbNþúHKMnitGMBItYnaTIrbs;karGb;rMekItecjBIkarBit
rbs;rdæaPi)aledIm,IFanafa kumarRKb;rUbman»kasTTYlkarGb;rMRbkb Edl)anekIteLIgkñúgRbeTsEdlmanR)ak;cMNUlTab eRBaHkarGb;rMCaekr
edayKuNPaB. enARbeTseRbsIul kUsþarIka nigPIlIBIn bBaØtiþkñúg dMENlsl;BIGaNaniKm. GñkRbqaMgnwgKMnitEbbenHman Ghandhi ehIy
rdæFmµnuBaØFanafa fvikamYyPaKryRtUvTMlak;[vis½yGb;rM CakareqøIytb eRkaymkeTotKW Nyerere enAsaFarN³rdæshB½n§tan;hSan;ja:. GñkTaMg
nwgtRmUvkarrbs;ktikasBaØaenH. BIrdak;sMeNIrfa RbB½n§Gb;rMKYr tamlkçN³vb,Fm’ ykcitþTukdak;elI
PaBsV½ym©as;kar smFm’ nigkargartamCnbT.
GnusBaØasIþBIsiTi§kumar ¬1990¦ kñúgmaRta 29 )anEcgya:gc,as;GMBI
kic©snüaTak;TgnwgeKaledAGb;rM EdlkñúgenaHniyaysgát;F¶n;GMBIxøwmsar KMnitTaMgenHmanenAkñúgkarGb;rMmnusScas;. GñkniBn§mYycMnYncat;Tuk
nigKuNPaBGb;rM. maRtaenHk¾bBa¢ak;bEnßmeTotfa karGb;rMKYrGnuBaØat bTBiesaFn_rbs;mnusScas;CaRbPBsMrab;kareronsURt. GñkniBn§xøHeTot
[kumarTaMgGs;mansmtßPaBseRmcskþanuPaBrbs;xøÜnkñúgkarGPivDÆBu cat;TukkarGnuvtþkarGb;rMmnusScas;CaTisedAQaneTAEkERbsßanPaB
Ti§ témø sIlFm’ bMNin nigCMnajécñRbDit. sgÁm vb,Fm’ neya)ay nigRbvtþisaRsþ.
eFVIEpnTIKuNPaB
kñúgeBlfµI²enH sklPavUbnIykmµ)anCYydwknaMrdæaPi)alCaeRcIn[viPaK
nigEsVgyl;GMBICMnaj nigbMNinEdlBlrdæRtUvkaredIm,IGPivDÆesdækic© etIKuNPaBGacsikSa)anya:gdUcemþctamviFI nigRTwsIþepSg²KñaxagelI?
rbs;RbeTs. viFImYyKWRtUvvilRtlb;eTArkRTwsIþmUldæansin ³ eKalbMNgénkar
GPivDÆBuTi§ nigtémøKuNFm’ \riyabf nigbMNinKWCaeKaledAcMbgrbs;
RbvtiþsaRsþ RbB½n§Gb;rM. karsikSaEsVgyl;lMGitGMBIRbB½n§Gb;rM nigEsVgyl;faetI
viFICaeRcInTak;TgnwgKuNPaBmanRbvtþixus²Kña. dUcTsSn³viTU Locke and RbB½n§Gb;rMGacpþl;EpnTId¾manRbeyaCn_mYyedIm,IEsVgyl; tamdan
Rousseau )anrkeXIjfa KuNPaBCaRbéBNIrbs;mnusSCati ehIycat; nigelIkkMBs;KuNPaBedayrebobNa?
TukFmµCatirbs;mnusSCaktþal¥elIseK. TsSn³enHmann½yfa mnusS Rkbx½NÑenH ¬GanRkahV 1>1¦ BicarNaelIcMNucsMxan;R)aM Edlman\Ti§Bl
TaMgGs;ekItmkKWesIµKñaTaMgGs; vismPaB)anekIteLIgedaysarplitpl elIKuNPaB. Rkbx½NÑenHCackçúvis½ylMGitmYy niyay lMGitGMBI»kas
rbs;sßanPaBminl¥ ehIymann½yeTotfa mnusSRKb;rUbmantYnaTIdwknaM cUleron skmµPaBeron nigbeRgon nig lT§plsikSarbs;sisS.
mYykñúgkarkMNt;niymn½yénkMeNItsmPaBnigvismPaBenH. eKalkarN_
enHRCYtRCabdl;pñt;KMnitrbs;GñkGb;rMCaeRcInGñk. CaBiess James

6
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
RkahV 1>1 Rkbx½NÐskmµPaBmYysRmab;EsVgyl;GMBIKuNPaBGb;rM

FnFansRmab;Gnuvtþ
beRgon nigeron
eBlevlaeron
viFIsaRsþbeRgon
sßanPaBrbs;Gñkeron rgVaytémø eyabl;EklMG rgVan; lT§plrMBwgTTYl)an
sm,Ta cMnYnsisSkñúgfñak; Gkçrkmµ elxnBVnþ
esckIþBüayam bMNinCIvit
smÖareron nigbeRgon CMnajécñRbDit
eRtomlkçN³ ehdæarcnasm<½n§ nigbrikçasala
cUleronCaeRsc nigGarmµN_
FnFanmnusS ³ RKUbeRgon nayk GFikar témøKuNFm’
cMeNHdwgeronBIsgÁm GñkRKb;RKg Gñkrdæ)al
]bsKÁkñúgkareronsURt plRbeyaCn_sRmab;sgÁm
GPi)alkic©sala

bribTTUeTA
lkçxNÐesdækic© BuTi§Gb;rM nigehdæarcnasm<½n§ TsSn³viC¢arbs;RKUbeRgon niyamsþg;darCati
nigTIpSarkargar CMnYyKaMRT nigsisS lT§plEdlRKb;Kña
enAtamshKmn_ FnFanrbs;rdæsRmab;karGb;rM ktþamitþPkþi rMBwgTTYl)an
ktþaesdækic© sgÁmkic© karRbkYtRbECgkñúgviC¢aCIv³ karKaMRTrbs;matabita tRmUvkarrbs;TIpSarkargar
vb,Fm’ nigsasna RKUbeRgonenAkñúgpSarkargar eBlevlasRmab;eTAsala sklPavUbnIykmµ
¬yuT§saRsþCMnYy¦ GPi)alkic©Cati nig nigeFVIkic©karpÞH
yuT§saRsþRKb;RKg
sßanPaBrbs;Gñkeron ³ Gñkeronminmkfñak;eronkñúgsßanPaBsgÁm nig beRgon nigeron ³ CaskmµPaBekItmanCak;Esþgkñúgfñak; nigkñúgsalaeron.
esdækic©dUcKñaeT. sßanPaBesdækic© sgÁmkic© eynD½r BikarPaB Cati skmµPaBKruekaslüfitkñúgskmµPaBeronRbcaMéf¶rbs;sisS. sUc©nakrN_
sasn_ CnCatiPaKtic emeraKeGds_¼CMgWeGds_ nigsßanPaBRtUvkar kñúgskmµPaBbeRgon nigeronrYmman eBlevlacMNaykñúgkareronsURt
CMnYybnÞan; dUcCakñúgsßanPaBCemøaH nigeRKaHFmµCatisuT§EtrYmcMENk kareRbIviFIsaRsþbeRgonEbbskmµ nigEbbcUlrYm ehIyskmµPaBeron nig
begIátvismPaB EdlTaMgenHCaktþasRmab;ykmkBicarNaedIm,IelIk beRgonCaTUeTARtUvvaytémøtamkarGnuvtþCak;Esþg. suvtißPaBkñúgsala
kMBs;KuNPaB. plRbeyaCn_EdlsisSTTYl)anBI»kaseronsURtkñúg karcUlrYmkñúgskmµPaBshKmn_ lT§plrMBwgTTYl)an nigkardwknaM
kmµviFIKaMBar nigGb;rMkumartUck¾mantYnaTIsMxan;enA suT§Etman\Ti§BlpÞal;eTAelIskmµPaBbeRgon nigeronrbs;sisS.
Gñkeronminmkfñak; kñúgRkbx½NÑKuNPaBpgEdr.
eronkñúgsßanPaB lT§plrMBwgTTYl)an ³ niyayGMBIkarseRmc)aneCaKC½ykñúgskmµPaB
sgÁm nigesdækic© bribTTUeTA ³ karGb;rMeRcInqøúHbBa©aMgGMBItémø nig\riya sikSa ¬lT§plRblg¦ b:uEnþlT§plenHk¾rMBwgfanwgTTYl)anRbeyaCn_
dcU Kañ eT bfsgÁm. sßanPaBTUeTArbs;Gb;rMKitrYmTaMgsßan esdækic© nigsgÁmkic©Gb;rMpgEdr.
PaBsgÁm nigeKalneya)ayTak;TgnwgeKaledA
niyamsþg;da kmµviFIsikSa nigRKUbeRgonsuT§Etman\Ti§BlelIKuNPaB. r)aykarN_enHviPaK nigeFVIsMeyaKlT§pleénkarRsavRCavCaeRcInTak;
TgnwgplRbeyaCn_TTYl)anBIkarGb;rMRbkbedayKuNPaBl¥ ¬CMBUk 2¦
FnFansRmab;Gnuvtþ ³ FnFanenHKitTaMgFnFansmÖar ¬esovePAsisS kMNt;rkyuT§saRsþl¥²sRmab;elIkkMBs;KuNPaB BiesssRmab;RbeTs
smÖareron fñak;eron bNÑal½y brikçasala¦ nigFnFanmnusS ¬GñkRKb; kMBugGPivDÆ ¬CMBUk 4¦ ehIyk¾tamdanCMnYyGnþrCatisRmab;elIkkMBs;
RKg GFikar sMxan;CageKbMputKW RKUbeRgon¦. TaMgGs;enHCasUc©nakrN_ KuNPaBpgEdr ¬CMBUk5¦. dUcr)aykarN_mun²Edr r)aykarN_qñaM 2005
niymeRbICageKsMrab;cg¥úlbgðajGMBIGRtapleFobsisS-RKU R)ak;ExRKU vaytémøGMBIPaBeCOnelOnQaneTAseRmceKaledATaMg 6 rbs;karGb;rM
cMENkfikarbs;rdæcMNayelIkarGb;rMsMrab;kumarmYynak;eRbobeFobnwg sRmab;TaMgGs;Kña. r)aykarN_qñaMenHykcitþTukdak;elIsUc©nakrN_
karcMNayrbs;Gb;rMCamYyplitplsrubkñúgRsuk. KuNPaBtameKaledAnImYy²rbs;karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña ¬CMBUk3¦.
7
© L. FRANEY/RAPHO

CMBUk 2 eronCamYyKña rs;enACamYyKña ³ TIFøarsalaeronmYyenARbeTseseNháal

sarRbeyaCn_énKuNPaBl¥ ³
etIkarRsavRCavR)ab;eyIgGVIxøH?
R)ak;cMNUlekIneLIg
etIkarGb;rMl¥RbesIreFVI[lT§plGPivDÆn_manPaBxusKñab¤eT? RbsinebI
manPaBxusEbøkEmn etIkarGb;rMd¾l¥RbesIrenHGaceFVI[seRmceTA)an
karkarBar)anRbesIreLIgRbqaMgnwg HIV/AIDS dUcemþc CaBiessenARbeTskMBugGPivDÆ? karyl;dwgGMBIktþakMNt;;
yl;dwgc,as;las;)anmkBIsmiT§ikmµ KuNPaBénkarGb;rMKWCalkçxNÐdMbUgmYysRmab;erobcMeKalneya)ay
ykcitþTukdak;BiesseTAelIKMrUénkarGb;;rM Fanapþl;karGb;rMRbkbedayKuNPaB. ry³eBl20qñaMknøgeTAenH sßab½n
karRsavRCavBIRbsiT§PaBsalaeron ³ xagkñúgdMeNIrkarGb;rM RsavRCavd¾FMmYyRtUv)anbegáIteLIgedIm,IRsavRCavelIbBaðaTaMgenHeday
EsVgyl;GMBIviFIsaRsþKMrU nigviFankarepSg²sRmab;vaytémøKuNPaB.
TMnak;TMngrvagFnFansala nigkarxitxMRbwgERbg
emeronCabTBiesaFn_BI 11 RbeTs R)ak;cMNUlx<s;Cagmun CMerIsedayEp¥kelIB½t’manRKb;RKan;
karsikSaRbkbedayKuNPaBsRmab;kumarmuncUl
eronenAsala nigmnusScas; karelIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rMnwgCYyseRmcnUveKaledAGPivDÆn_esdækic©
nigsgÁmkic©EdlmanPsþútagbBa¢ak;y:agc,as;las;. ebIcat;TukBinÞúetsþ
sþg;daCaxñattMNagsRmab;KuNPaBénCMnajviPaK karRsavRCavbgðaj
[eXIjBI\T§iBlénkareronBUEkenAkñúgsalaeTAelIR)ak;cMNUlRbcaMCIvit.
karRsavRCavTaMgLayk¾)anykcitþTukdak;elITMnak;TMngrvagkMeNInFn
FanmnusS nigesdækic©kñúgRbeTs. bc©úb,nñ etsþsmiT§ikmµGnþrCatiGac
ykeTAbBa©ÚlkñúgviFankarénKuNPaBl¥rbs;sala nigviPaKTaMgLay.

8
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
BinÞúKNitviTüa nigviTüasaRsþKWCasUc©nakrN_mYyénplitPaBkmøaMg karBinitüBinÞúetsþGanGkSr
Blkmµrbs;RbeTsenAeBlGnaKt. karenHbgðaj[eXIjBITMnak;TMn BinÞúetsþKWCaxñatvas;d¾mantémøedIm,IbBa¢ak;fa etIsisSeronBIkmµviFIsikSa
grwgmaMrvagkarkat;bnßyPaBRkIRk nigRbCaBlrdæEdlmankarGb;rM. )ankRmitNa BinÞúenaHCYybgðajfa etIsisSeron)anl¥kRmitNaenAeBl
KuNPaBénkarGb;rMk¾man\T§iBlRCaleRCAeTAelITegVI nigGakb,kiriyapg RblgbBa©b;ecjBIsala. BinÞúetsþk¾GaceRbIR)as;CamUldæansRmab;
Edr. karRsavRCavmYynaeBlfµI²kñúgRbeTs 6 enAGaRBic EdlmanGRta )a:n;sµanGMBITMnak;TMngrvagKuNPaBGb;rM karrIkceRmInesdækic© nigR)ak;
qøgraldalénemeraKeGds_ nigCMgWeGds_x<s;)anbgðajfa RbCaBlrdæ cMNUlrbs;buKÁlmñak;². ebIeTaHbICaBinÞúTaMgenaHGaceRbICaEm:RtsRmab;
RtUvkarCMnajnanaEdlcaM)ac;sRmab;kat;bnßyGakb,kiriyarYmePTKµan vas;KuNPaBénkarGb;rMk¾BitEmn EtminGaceRbIR)as;;sRmab;;vas;Evg[
suvtþiPaBtamry³bNþajkargarpþl;B½t’manpøÚvkar nigminpøÚvkaredayrYm )anc,as;las;GMBIKuNPaBepSg² dUcCaPaBesµaHRtg; PaBEdlGacTuk
bBa©ÚlTaMgRbB½n§Gb;rM. CMnajKit nigviPaKEdltRmUv[sisSeRCIserIs citþ)an karebþCJacitþ nigKuNPaBénkardwknaM Edlman\T§iBly:agxøaMgeTA
edayEp¥kelIB½t’manRKb;RCugeRCaymanTMnak;TMngKñay:agCitsñiT§CamYy elIPaBeCaKC½yénTIpSarBlkmµ)aneLIy.
nwgkRmiténkarGb;rM nigGkçrkmµ ]TahrN_ kareRbIR)as;eRsamGnam½y etsþsMxan;²
mankarekIneLIgy:agx<s;kñúgcMeNamRkummnusSEdlTTYl)ankarGb;rM
eRcInenAsala. karTTYl)anCMnajKitBIkarGb;rMmUldæan)ankøayCaktþa kareFVIetsþCaGnþrCati)anGnuvtþcab;taMgBITsvtSr_ 1950 KWenAeBlEdl
d¾sMxan;bMputsRmab;karBarekµgCMTg; nigyuvv½yBIkarcmøgemeraKeday smaKmGnþrCatisRmab;vaytémøsmiT§ikmµénkarGb;rM ¬IEA¦ RtUv)anbegáIt.
cat;TukkarGb;rMCa{fñaMbgáareraKsgÁm}. RkahV 2>1 bgðajfa GRtaqøgral smaKm enH)ancab;epþImeFVIkargarCadMbUg edayBinitüelIGVIEdlGacbB©Úal
eTAkñúgkarRsavRCavkñúgeKalbMNgeFVIkareRbobeFobsmiT§ikmµénkarKitenAtam
dalén HIV/AIDS eTAtamkRmiténkarGb;rMkñúgtMbn;CnbTénRbeTs kRmitepSg²énkarsikSaenAsalarbs;sisSkñúgRbeTsmYycMnYn nigedIm,IkMNt;
G‘Uháan;da CadMbUgmancMnYnRbhak;RbEhlKña b:uEnþmYyry³eBl eRkaymk GMBImUlehtucMbgénPaBxusKña. dl;qñaM 2000 RbeTsRbmaN 50 )ancUlrYm
RbCaBlrdæEdlmankarGb;rMeRcInmanGRtaqøgTabCagRbCaCnEdl kñúgkarRsavRCavEdlykcitþTukdak;eTAelIKNitviTüa nigviTüasaRsþ ¬TIMSS¦
mankarGb;rMtictYcenAsala. PsþútagenHKWCakarqøúHbBa©aMgBIsßanPaB karGan ¬PIRLS¦ nigmuxviC¢aepSg²eTot. karRsavRCavCaGnþrCatiepSg²eTot
qøgraldal HIV/AIDS kñúgRbeTsepSgeTotenAGaRBic. rYmman kmµviFIvaytémøsisSCaGnþrCati ¬PISA¦ Edl)anbegáIteLIgeday
GgÁkarGPivDÆn_esdækic© nigshRbtibtþikar ¬OECD¦ enAqñaM 1998 ehIyenA
eBlenH kmµvIFIenaH)anGnuvtþkñúgRbeTs]sSahkmµeCOnelOn nigRbeTsEdl
manR)ak;cMNUlmFümcMnYn59 smaKmGaRBicxagt,Úg nigxagekItsRmab;RtYt
BinitüKuNPaBGb;rM ¬SACMEQ¦ cMnYn 15 RbeTs nigkEnøgBiesaFn_Gaemrik
LaTInsRmab;vaytémøKuNPaBGb;rM ¬LLECE¦ EdlGnuvtþkargarkñúgRbeTs
RkahV 2>1 ³ GRtaeRbva:Lg;eGds_enAtamtMbn;CnbT G‘Uháan;da cMnYn 16. kmµviFIGnþrCatiBIrepSgeTotEdlmYyKWCaKeRmagrYmKñarvagGgÁkar
tamRbePTGb;rMqñaM 1990-2001 ¬cab;BIGayu 18-29qñaM¦ UNESCO nig UNICEF sRmab;RtYtBinitüsmiT§ikmµénkarsikSa nigmYyeTot
KWCakmµviFIsikSakñúgRbeTsGaRBicniyayPasa)araMg ¬PASEC¦ )anGnuvtþ
min)ancUleron kargarenARbeTsCaeRcIn b:uEnþkmµviFITaMgBIrenHmin)anRtYtBinitüBIsmiT§ikmµén
bzmsikSa karGb;rMmYyry³knøgeTAeT.
GRtaeRbva:Lg;emeraKeGds_¼CMgWeGds_ ¬°¦

mFümsikSa
karRsavRCavTaMgLay dUcCa karsikSaEdlbBa¢ak;kñúgRbGb;xagelIGac
CakareRbobeFobd¾mantémøeTAelIsmiT§ikmµénkareronsURtkñúgRbeTs
nanakñúgry³eBlmYy ebIeTaHbIkarRsavRCavTaMgenaHminGacykmkeRbob
eFob)anedaysarktþaénkarsikSamYycMnYnmanlkçN³xusKñak¾eday.
karRsavRCavTaMgenaHbgðajfa KuNPaBénkarGb;rMenAGaRBic)anRbQm
muxeTAnwgkarlM)akmYycMnYnkñúgb:unµanqñaMfµI²enH. ]TahrN_ kareRbobeFob
rvagkarsikSaEdleFVIeLIgeday SACMEQ enAqñaM 1995 - 1996 nig qñaM
2000 - 2001 bgðaj[eXIjBIkarqøak;cuHcMnYn 4° énBinÞúetsþGkçrkmµ
fñak;TI 6 edaymanPaBxusKñay:agxøaMgekIteLIgenARbeTsm:aLavI NamIub‘Í
nigmasebor ¬RkahV 2>2¦. eTaHbICaKµankarbBa¢ak;BImUlehtu[)an
c,as;las;k¾eday k¾R)ak;cMNUlRbcaMRKYsarGacmankarqøak;cuHenAkñúg
RbeTsEdlTTYlrgeRKaHbMputcMnYn 3 Edr. kñúgRbeTsm:aLavI cMnYnsisS
kMNt;sMKal; ³ GanCMBUk 2 r)aykarN_Gb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña eronenAbzmsikSa)anekIneTVkñúgry³eBl 1 TsvtSr_knøgeTAenH ¬karbg;éfø
salaRtUvlubecalenAqñaM 1994¦ FnFansalaeron)anFøak;cuHesÞIrTaMg
RsugkñúgGMLúgeBlénkarsikSaTaMgBIrelIkrbs; SACMEQ.

9
RkahV 2>2 ³ bMErbMrYlBnÞúGkçrkmµrvag SACMEQ Ingi SACMEQ II
kñúgRbeTsGaRBiccMnYn 6 kñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆCaeRcIn. ]TahrN_enAGaRBic sisSsala Biess
sisSRsIEdl)anTTYlkarbgðat;beRgonedayRKURsITTYl)anlT§plsikSa
l¥CagsisSRsIEdlbeRgonedayRKURbus.
karRsavRCavmYycMnYnbgðajfa sßanPaBesdækic©-sgÁmrbs;sisSxSt;
exSay nigCYbkarlM)akGacRtUv)anelIkkMBs;mYyEpñkedaysarEtkarEk
lMGbriyakaskñúgsala karykcitþTukdak;x<s;rbs;RKUbeRgon sV½yPaB
BinÞúmFümkñúgGkçrkmµ

rbs;sala nigFnFansRmab;sikSa ¬CaBiessesovePAsikSa¦.


rgVaytémøKuNPaBsala ³ ykkarRsavRCavCaxñatKMrU
karBitmYybB¢aak;fa karcMNay)anekIneLIgsRmab;sisSmñak;naM[sisS
enaHTTYl)anlT§plx<s;. eTaHCay:agenHk¾eday enARbeTscMnYn 11 Edl
GgÁkarGPivDÆn_esdækic© nigkic©shRbtibtþikar ¬OECD¦ Gnuvtþkargar
BinÞúetsþmuxviC¢aKNitviTüa nigviTüasaRsþ CaTUeTAFøak;cuHkñúgGMLúgeBl 1
PaK 4 éncugTsvtSr_qñaM 1995 ebIeTaHbICakarcMNaysRmab;sisSmñak;²
)anekIneLIgeTVdgk¾eday. karenHmanktþamYycMnYnbBa¢ak;BI\T§iBltic
tYceTAelIlT§plénkareronsURt edaysarEtkarekIneLIgénkarcMNay.
kMNt;sMKal; ³ GanCMBUk 2 r)aykarN_Gb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña karcMNayeRcInCagmun edaysarkñúgry³eBlknøgmk R)ak;cMNUlBit
R)akdrbs;mnusSmñak;² eBlxøHekIneLIgelOn CagkarcMNayrbs;sisS
sßanPaBesdækic© sgÁkic© kñúgcMeNamemeronTaMgLayEdldkRsg;ecj mñak;. RbB½n§salaeron)anBRgIkedIm,I[sisSkan;EteRcIneLIgGaccuHeQµaH
BitCamanTMnak;TMng BIkarsikSaetsþsmiT§ikmµkñúgmYyry³eBl cUleron ehIykñúgkrNImYycMnYn sßanPaB nigR)ak;Exrbs;RKUbeRgonekIn
knøgeTA[dwgfa TImYy ³ sßanPaBesdækic© eLIgebIeRbobeFobrTAnwgviC¢aCIv³epSg².
CitsñiT§CamYynwgkarseRmc
eCaKC½yRKb;bribTGb;rM sgÁmkic©manTMnak;TMngy:agCitsñiT§CamYy karsikSaBImuxgarplitPaB ³ PsþútaglMGit
smiT§ikmµkñúgbribTTaMgGs;. enAGaRBic nig
GaemrikLaTInmanPaBxusKñay:agxøaMgrvagtMbn;CnbT nigTIRkugEdlenA enATsvtSr_ 1960 karRsavRCavd¾sMxan;mYyenAshrdæGaemrikbgðajfa
TIenaH tMbn;TIRkugmanRKUbeRgonEdlmancMeNHdwgx<s;. TIBIr ³ karcMNay salaeronKWCakEnøgd¾sMxan;bgá[manvismPaBsgÁm. sßanPaBRKYsar
eBlkñúgfñak;eronsRmab;muxviC¢aKNitviTüa viTüasaRsþ nigPasaman\T§iBl nigRkummitþPkiþman\T§iBly:agxøaMgelIlT§pleronsURteRcInCagFnFan
y:agxøaMgeTAelIkarsikSarbs;sisS. TIbI ³ eynD½rRKUbeRgonman\T§iBl epSg²kñúgsalaeron. karGHGagenHbegáIt[mankarsikSalMGitmYykñúg
enARsukKICIva: RbeTseknja: sisSenAsalamYykkñúgPUmipøas;evnKñaeRbIkþarexonmYy
enAeRkAfñak;edaysarxVHbrikçaeron. GRtasisScuHeQµaHcUleron)aneKIneLIgCaxøaMgeRkam
BIrdæaPi)al)anlubéfcMNaysRmab;cUleronkñúgsalakñúgqñaM 2003.
© THERRY DUDOIT/L’EXPRESS/EDITINGSERVER.COM

10
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
eKalbMNgBinitü[)anc,as;las;fa etIkarrkeXIjTaMgenaHCakarRtwm

© E. BOUBAT/RAPHO
RtUvb¤ya:gNa. GñkRsavRCavTaMgLay)aneRbIR)as;viFIsaRsþ {muxgar
plitkmµ}mYyman\T§iBlxøaMgkøabMputeTAelIlT§plénkarsikSarbs;
sisSEdlRtUv)aneKeRbIR)as;y:agTUlMTUlaykñúgvis½yesdækic©edIm,I
viPaKfa etIFnFanRbePTNaEdlRKb;RKgedayeKalneya)ayEdlrYm
mankRmitvb,Fm’RKUbeRgón bTBisaFn_kargar R)ak;ExRKU smÖarbeRgon
GRtapleFobRKU nigsisS. karviPaKCarYmeTAelIkarRsavRCavTaMgenH
Edl)ane)aHBumÖpSayenAmunqñaM 1995 enAshrdæGaemrik)anrkeXIjfa
BMumanTMnak;TMngc,as;las;NamYyrvagkarcMNayFnFan niglT§pl
sikSarbs;sisSeLIy. lT§plTaMgenaHrwtEtbgðaj[eXIjc,as;eLIgenA
kñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆ EdlkEnøgeRbIR)as;viFIenHsRmab;karRsavRCav
PaKeRcInbgðajfa RKUEdlmankarGb;rMl¥ nigmanbTBiesaFn_ karcMNay
eRcInsRmab;sisSmñak;² nigsmÖarsikSakñúgsalasmRsbman\T§iBlelI
kareronsURt. pÞúyeTAvij fVIebIkarsikSamYycMnYn)aneRbIR)as;viFIsaRsþ
enHk¾eday k¾manmtiriHKn;CaeRcIn. karCMTas;mYyKWfa Gakb,kiriyasisS skmµPaBeronRbkbedayesckIþIsb,ayrIkray ³ enA)aeho eRbsIul
nigdMeNIrkareronsURtminGacdak;eFVICaxñatKMrU eRbobdUcvtßúFatuedIm nig kumarIKUrrUbpþan)atédelgenAelIkþarexon.
plitplminGaceRbobeFobKña)aneT.
etImanGVIxøHekIteLIgkñúgsalaeron? Edlsgát;F¶n;elIkarsikSaedayxøÜnÉgtamry³karRsavRCav. cMNucKnøwH
KWkarkMNt;fa etIRtUvykcitþTukdak;elIviFIsaRsþeronsURtkRmitNaedIm,I
viFIsaRsþmuxgarplitPaBmin)anykcitþTukdak;[)anditdl;elIviFInana CYydl;lT§PaBeronsURtrbs;sisSnigbMeBjeKalbMNgrbs;sisS.
EdlkñúgenaHskmµPaBeron nigbeRgon ¬skmµPaBRbkbedaykarécñRbDit
enAkñúgfñak;eron¦man\T§iBleTAelIKuNPaBGb;rM. dUcenH GñkRsav karsikSatamviFIBiesaFn_ ³ krNImanFnFaneRcInCagenH
RCavmYyRkumEdlmanCMnajcRmuH)ancab;epþImRsavRCaveTAelIktþaGVIxøH GñkRsavRCavTaMgLay)anBiesaFRBav²edIm,IEsVgyl;BI\T§iBlénkar
EdleFVI[salananabeRgonmanRbsiT§PaB. karRsavRCavenHbgðajfa cUlrYmeFVIGnþraKmn_BIsMNak;eKalneya)ayeTAelIlT§plénkarsikSa
salabzmsikSaTaMgLay Edl)anTTYleCaKC½y CaFmµtaKWCalT§plén enAkñúgbribTBiessmYy edayeRbobeFobCamYynwgRkumsßiteRkamkarRtYt
kardwknaMd¾xøaMgBUEk briyakaskñúgbnÞb;eron nigsalaRbkbeday Binitü. ebIeTaHbIlT§plminGacbBa¢ak;BImUlehtu[)anRKb;RKan;sRmab;
suvtßiPaB nigmansNþab;Fñab; karykcitþTukdak;eTAelItRmUvkar CMnaj kMNt;BIvisalPaBk¾eday k¾karsikSamYycMnYnbgðajBITMnak;TMngy:agCit
mUldæan kþIsgÇwmx<s;BIPaBeCaKC½yrbs;sisS nigkarvaytémøBIkar sñiT§rvagFnFansalaeron niglT§plén kareronsURt. enAcugTsvtSr_qñaM
rIkceRmInCaRbcaM. eTaHbIy:agenHk¾eday k¾karsikSaTaMgenHbBa¢ak;BIPaB 1980 KeRmagGRtasmiT§ikmµpleFobRKU nigsisS ¬STAR¦ enArdæ
xusKñatictYcénlT§plyl;dwgcMeBaHRbeTsGñkman. sßanPaBRKYsar taensIu ¬shrdæGaemrik¦)anRsavRCaveTAelIsisScMnYnRbEhl12000
bTBiesaFn_enAsalametþyü nigPaBxusKñaEdlmankarlM)akkñúgkar nak;cab;BIfñak;metþyürhUt dl;fñak;TI 3 edaycMNayeBlCag 4 qñaM edIm,I
vas;EvgepSg²eTot enAEtCaEpñkd¾sMxan;. eTaHCay:agenHk¾eday k¾lT§pl EsVgyl;GMBI\T§iBlénTMhMfñak;eroneTAelIlT§plénkarsikSarbs;sisS.
manPaBRtwmRtUveRcInsRmab;RbeTskMBugGPivDÆ RbsinmaneBlevla lT§plTaMgLay)anbgðajfa karkat;bnßycMnYnsisSkñúgfñak;eronman
beRgon manesovePAGan nigmansmÖarbeRgonRKb;RKan; RBmTaMgRKUman \T§iBlviC¢man CaBiesssRmab;sisSmkBIsßanPaBlM)ak nigRkIRk. enA
rebobénkarcMNayeBl cMeNHdwgx<s; EdlktþaTaMgenHmanmuxgard¾sMxan; RbeTseknj:a FnFansalal¥ ¬mðÚbGahar ÉksNæan esovePAsikSa¦
evlarbs;RKUman\T§iBl eFVI[karsikSarbs;sisSTTYl)anlT§pll¥. CYyelIkkMBs;karsikSa ebIeTaHbICafñak;eronmancMnYnsisSeRcInk¾eday.
y:agxøaMgeTAelIlT§pl lT§plénkarRsavRCavk¾bgðajEdrfa rebobénkar enARbeTshVIlIBIn karBiesaFmYykñúgsalacMnYn 30 bgðajfa karpþl;
énkarsikSarbs;sisS. cMNayeBlrbs;RKUbk¾man\T§iBlxøaMgelIlT§pl smÖarKruekaslüCYykat;bnßyGRtae)aHbg;ecalsalarbs;sisSy:ag
énkareronsURtrbs;sisSpgEdr. viFIsaRsþbeRgon eRcIn. enARbeTs\NÐa kumarkñúgtMbn;GnaFibetyükñúgRkugEdlmin)an
EdlmankarerobcMRtwmRtUvpþl;lT§plx<s;CaBiesssRmab;sisSEdlBMu TTYlkarsikSaenAbzmsikSa b:uEnþ)anTTYlkarGb;rMbMb:nBIkmµviFIrbs;
sUvmanlT§PaBkñúgsalabzmsikSa nigCaTUeTAenAkñúgkRmitx<s;². GgÁkareRkArdæaPi)almYy)anTTYllT§pll¥.
viFITaMg enHtRmUv[RKUbegáIteKalbMNg muxgareronsURt[)anc,as;las; karBiesaFEbbenHCYyBRgwgdl;krNIcMeBaHfñak;EdlmanTMhMtUc man
nigTuk eBlevla[sisSsYrsMNYrGnuvtþ nigetsþ[)aneTogTat;. karcg ÉksarsikSaeRcIn karbNþúHbNþalRKUedayGnuvtþpÞal; nigviFIbeRgon
RkgsisSCaRkumeTAtamlT§PaBCaTegVId¾RbesIrsRmab;sikSaCMnaj Ca Edlsgát;F¶n;eTAelItRmUvkarrbs;Gñkeron CaBiessenAkñúgRbeTsRkIRk
Biess CMnajGan nigKNitsaRsþ. BMumanGñkpþl;karGb;rMTaMgGs;ÉkPaB nigRkumsisS EdlBMusUvmanlT§PaB nigCYbkarlM)ak.
elIviFIsaRsþenHeLIy sisSTaMgenaHRbkan;ykviFIsaRsþ {sßabnaniym}
11
RbB½n§QaneTAseRmcniyamsþg;dax<s;CagenH ³ cMNucsMxan;²rbs;eKalneya)ayCatikñúgRbeTscMnYn 11
RbeTs tYelxKnøwH cMNucxøaMg
RbeTselaPln;
GaRBic R)ak;cMNUlTab kumar 2 lannak;eronenAtamsalarbs;GgkareRkArdæaPi)al ¬19 lannak;enAsalakñúgRbB½n§
karrIkceRmInxøaMgkøaelIlT§PaB salarbs;KNkmµaFikarGPivDÆCnbTrbs;bg;køaEdsbeRgoneRcInGMBIbMNinCIvit nigCMnaj
xagt,Úg cUleronkñúgsalabzmsikSa ³ sresrebIeRbobeFobnwgsalaFmµta cMENkeronGan nigGkçrkmµTTYl)anlT§pldUcKña EtGRta
GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBit 85>6° 2001 eLIgfñak;eTAmFümsikSa)aneRcInCag.
ekInBI 71>2° 1990 rdæaPi)albnþebþCJax<s;kñúgkarEkTRmg;Gb;rM. katBVkic©cMbg²rYmman ³ GRtaGvtþmanRKUx<s; ehIy
smPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxseRmc ema:gerontic.
enAbzmsikSa
karvaytémølT§plénkarsikSabgðaj
[eXIjBIkRmitTabénCMnajCamUldæan
2>2°énplitplkñúgRsuksrubsRmab;Gb;rM
RsIlgÁkar R)ak;cMNUleRkammFüm kic©RbwgERbgEdlmanEcgkúñgeKalneya)aykñúgEpnkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña 1993 - 2003
GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBit 96>5° 2001 edIm,Ikat;bnßyvismPaBtamtMb; nigkñúgsgÁmtamry³KeRmagFM²dUcCa ³
ekInBI 85>6° 1990 mUlniFismPaBrbs; FUNDEF sRmab;bnßyKmøatvismPaBénkarpþl;hirBaØvtßúeTA[sala
4>2°énplitplkñúgRsuksrubsRmab;Gb;rM bzmsikSatamtMbn;
FUNDESSCOLA edIm,IbegIáInGRtasisScUleron nigkat;bnßyGRasisSe)aHbg;ecalsala
kmµviFIGaharUbkrN_ Bolsa Escola sRmab;RKYsarRkIRk
kmµviFIelIkkMBs;smtßPaB ³ karbNþúHbNþalRKUedlKµansBaØab½Rttamry³kmµviFIeronBIcm¶ay
kmµviFIsisSbMb:n ³ pþl;»kas[sisSEdlcuHeQµaHcUleronedIm,I[man»kaseronTan;eK
kmµviFIesovePAsikSatamsala
kaNada R)ak;cMNUlelImFüm kñúgmYyTsvtSr_eTot begIánfvika[)aneTVdgsRmab;vis½yGb;rM
GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBit = 88>8° 2000 eCaKC½ykñúglT§plsikSaekIneLIgedaysarkarxitxMykcitþTukdak;eLisalaexSaycMnYn 10°
smPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxseRmc viFIbeRgonEbbcUlrYm nigEbbskmµkan;EteRbIeRcIn
enAbzmsikSa nigmFümsikSa kñúgmYyqñaM²begIánema:geron[)anBI 990 dl; 1200 ema:g
4°énplitplkñúgRsuksrubsRmab;Gb;rM bec©kviTüaB½t’mansarKmnaKmn_CaKnøwHkñúgkareFVITMenIbkmµGb;rM
KU)a R)ak;cMNUleRkammFüm taMgBIedImTsvtSr_ 1990 GRtasisSRtYtfñak; nige)aHbg;ecalsalaFøak;cuH
GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBit 90>3° 2001 ykcitþTukdak;elIkmµviFIKaMBar nigGb;rMkumartUc
ekInBI 84° 1990 cugTsvtSr_ 1990 ³ begIánR)ak;ExRKU bnßycMnYnsisSkñúgfñak; BRgwgvKÁbMb:nRKU nigEklMGRbB½n§
edaysarkarBRgIkkarGb;rMkan;EtxøaMg Epnkar 5 qñaM 2002 - 2007- ykcitþTukdak;elI {PaBl¥RbéBsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña}
eTIbkarseRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa nig karRKb;RKgEbbvimCÄkar nigEp¥kelIbec©kviTüaB½t’mansarKmnaKmn_KWCaviFIsaRsþBaNiC¢kmµ
smPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxCitQanmkdl; EdlGacykeTAeRbIkñúgkarvaytémøskmµPaBrbs;salaeron
hVaMgLg; R)ak;cMNUlTab viFIsaRsþ FAIRE-FAIRE ¬FanaGnuvtþ[)an¦
BRgIk»kascUleron[)aneRcIn ³ Eckkargar[GñkGnuvtþtamshKmn_CYyeFVI. ]> viFIsaRsþGnuvtþkñúgkmµviFIGkçrkmµ ³
GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBit = 58° 2001 manmnusScas;cuHeQµaHcUleronRbmaN 1 lannak; ehIyyuvv½yeRkAsala
ekInBI 47° 1990 )ancuHeQµaHcUleronRbmaNCagknøHlannak;.
smPaBeynD½rKitCatYelx = 0>91 smaKmnayksalakñúgRbB½n§Gb;rM ³ RkumnayksalatamtMbn;bMpus[mankareronsURt nig
GRtasisSRtYtfñak;x<s;bgÁÜrenAfñak;x<s; dkbTBiesaFn_BIKñaeTAvijeTAmk
3>2°énplitplkñúgRsuksrubsRmab;Gb;rM

visalPaBsgÁm TaMgLayGMBITMnak;TMngsgÁmCamYykarGb;rMbBa¢ak;fa sisSEdlsßanPaB


RKUsar nigRkummitþPkiþmanKMnitRsedogKña nwgsisSEdlTTYl)ankarelIk
karbeRgon nigkareronekIteLIgkñúgbribTsgÁm nigneya)ay. PaBTn; TwkcitþBIsalaxitxMeronsURtxøaMg ehIyTTYl)ankRmiténCMnajviPaKx<s;
exSayEpñkRKb;RKgrbs;salaKWRtUv)ancat;Tukfa CamUlehtucMbgénkar CagsisSEdlBüayamminbBa¢ak;BIkarExVgKñarvagKMnitrbs;eKpÞal; nig
Føak;cuHlT§plénkarsikSa CaBiess salardæenARbeTskMBugGPivDÆ. Gñk KMnitrbs;sala edayskmµPaBCMTas; dUcCakarkat;bnßykarxitxMsikSa
viPaKmYycMnYnCMruj[mankarEkERbkñúgrcnasm<½n§elIkTwkcitþRKUEdl CaedIm. tRmUvkarsRmab;eKalneya)ayGb;rMEdlRtUvbegáIteKaledA
CameFüa)ayelIkkMBs;lT§plsikSarbs;sisS. eTaHCay:agenHk¾eday sgÁmc,as;las;KWCacMNucsRmab;BicarNaelIkkMBs;KuNPaBsala
k¾PsþútagbgðajBITMnak;TMngBMurwgmaMrvagR)ak;Exx<s; nigRbsiT§PaBbeRgon. EdlminGacedaHRsayedaymeFüa)aybec©keTsEtÉg)aneLIy.
müa:gvijeTot bribTsgÁmrbs;salaeronKWCaktþad¾sMxan;. karRsavRCav
12
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
RbeTs tYelxKnøwH cMNucxøaMg
RbeTselaPln;
GRBic R)ak;cMNUlTabmFüm viFankarkat;bnßyvismPaB nigelIkkMBs;KuNPaB cab;taMgBIrbbpþac;karGa)a:eftdYlrlM 1994
GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBiteRkam 90° karGb;rMedaykatBVkic© 9 qñaM edayTMlak;fvika[)anesIµKñasRmab;RKb;RkumCnCatiTaMgGs;
xagt,Úg smPaBeynD½rKitCatYelx = 0>96 cab;epþImGnuvtþ[manKNkmµakarGPi)alkic©sala
5>5°énplitplkñúgRsuksrubsRmab;Gb;rM cab;epþImkmµviFIsikSafµIkalBIqñaM 1997
ykcitþTukdak;elIkkMBs;PaBsV½ym©as;kar nigTTYlxusRtUvkñúgviC¢aCIv³RKUbeRgon

RsIlgÁkar )ak;cMNUlTabmFüm GRtaRtYtfñak; nige)aHbg;ecalsalaFøak;cuHCaxøaMgkñúgTsvtSr_ 1990


seRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa nigsmPaB viFIsaRsþlMGitsRmab;EkTRmg; ¬1981¦ edaymansgÁmsIuvilcUlrYm
eynD½rKitCatYelxenAbzmsikSaEdr ykcitþTukdak;elIRKUbeRgon nigGPivDÆsmtßPaBtamdan nigvaytémø
1>3°énplitplkñúgRsuksrubsRmab;Gb;rM
Gnuvtþkargar)anl¥
kaNada R)ak;cMNUlx<s; kUnCnGenþaRbevsn_eronBUEk eBareBjedayBhuvb,Fm’sRmab;ksagCati
seRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa nigsmPaB mankareKarBviC¢aCIv³RKUbeRgonxøaMg karRblgeRCIserIsRKUcUleronmanlkçxNÐtwgrwgxøaMg
eynD½rKitCatYelxenAbzmsikSa kmµviFIbMb:nRKURKb;RKan;
nigmFümsikSapgEdr manRbB½n§KaMRTenAfñak;XMu nigtamsalaxøaMgkøa
5>5°énplitplkñúgRsuksrubsRmab;Gb;rM kartamdanrbs;salapÞal; rbs;Rsuk nigextþpÞal;edIm,ITb;sáat;kMu[manvismPaBekIteLIg
KU)a R)ak;cMNUlelImFüm karGb;rMCasþmÖyuT§saRsþrbs;bdivtþrbs;RbeTsKuy)a
GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBit = 88>8° 2000 nirnþrPaBvinieyaK
smPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxseRmc RKUTTYl)antémø nigkitþiysx<s;
enAbzmsikSa nigmFümsikSa manrgVan;elIkTwkcitþsRmab;sisSBUEk RKUl¥ nigsalal¥
4°énplitplkñúgRsuksrubsRmab;Gb;rM eKalkarN_RbkYtRbECg samKÁI nigshkaredIm,IelIkkMBs;KuNPaB
ynþkarpøas;bþÚrbTBiesaFn_edIm,IeronBIKñaeTAVijeTAmk nigrYmKñaeroberogkmµviFIsikSarYm
hVaMgLg; R)ak;cMNUlx<s; nirnþrPaBvinieyaKsRmab;GPivDÆFnFanmnusS edIm,ICMnYsvibtiþesdækic©kalBITsvtSr_ 1990
seRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa nigsmPaB RKUbeRgonmansmtßPaBx<s;
eynD½rKitCatYelxenAbzmsikSaEdr viFIsaRsþKruekaslül¥RKb;RCugeRCay
6>4°énplitplkñúgRsuksrubsRmab;Gb;rM sar³sMxan;ékareron nigkMsanþsb,ayenAcamYyKñaCaTmøab;
saFarN³ R)ak;cMNUlx<s; cat;TukkarGb;rMfa mantYnaTIsMxan;sRmab;GPivDÁesdækic©
seRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa nigsmPaB ykcitþTukdak;elIKuNPaBtaMgBITsvtSr_ 1980
rdækUer eynD½rKitCatYelxenAbzmsikSa BRgIkkmµviFIeronBIcm¶ay nigkmµviFIGb;rMmnusScas; edIm,Ibn§Úrbnßysm<aFelIRbB½n§salaeron
nigmFümsikSapgEdr kmµviFIbNþúHbNþalRKUmanry³eBlyUr nigmanrgVan;elIkTwkcitþ
3>6°énplitplkñúgRsuksrubsRmab;Gb;rM manbNþajsßanb½nRsavRCav TTYlhirBaØavtßúpÞal;tamry³Bn§Gb;rM
GRtapleFobsisScuHeQµaHcUleronBitenAbzmsikSa = NEF
sisSsmPaB eynD½rKitCatYelxenAbzmsikSa = GPI
bec©kviTüaB½t’sarKmnaKmn_ = ICT

emeronCabTBiesaFn_BIRbeTs 11 rIÉRbeTskaNadaCab;cMNat;fñak;elx2xagkarGan nigBinÞúsrubx<s;Cag


eKbMput)aneTARbeTshVaMgLg;. karsikSaCamFümPaKrbs;sisSkñúg
Ep¥ktamlT§plTaMgGs;enH krNIsikSananaBIRbeTs 11 pþl;[eXIjGMBI RbeTsKuy)ax<s;CageKbMputkñúgRbeTskñúgtMbn;Edl)anRsavRCavenAqñaM
rebobedaHRsaybBaðaKuNPaBenARbeTsGPivDÆ nigkMBugGPivDÆ. eyageTA 2002 eday OREALC1/UNESCO. RbeTs 7 epSgeTotGaccat;
tametsþGnþrCati RbeTs 4 kñúgcMeNamRbeTsTaMg 11 KW RbeTskaNada TukCaRbeTsmanmhicäta edaysarRbeTsTaMgenHeFVIkarxitxMRbwgERbg
Kuy)a hVaMgLg; nig saFarN³rdækUermanxñatKMrUén KuNPaBénkarGb;rMx<s;. xøaMgkøaeTAelIkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaedayqøúHbBa©aMgtamry³karBRgIk
saFarN³rdækUermancMNat;fñak;elx 1 xag muxviC¢aviTüasaRsþ nigelx3 karGb;rMbzmsikSay:agqab;rh½s nigkarQaneTAseRmcsmPaBeynD½r
sRmab;muxviC¢aKNitsaRsþkñúgkmµviFIvaytémøsisSCaGnþrCati ¬PISA¦
1> kariyal½ytMbn;TTYlbnÞúkkic©karGb;rMenAGaemrikLaTIn nigkarIbIn
13
© Kevin Lamarque/REUTERS

bTBiesaFn_cUlerondMbUgd¾man\Ti§Bl ³ sisSsalametþyüenATIRkugva:sIunetanDIsIu

KitCatYelx. RbeTsTaMgGs;kMBugeFVIkarxitxMRbwgERbgy:agmutmaMedIm,InaM énTisedAGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaBIrepSgeTotKW karEfTaM nig Gb;rMkumartUc


[mantulüPaBrvagKuNPaB nigbrimaN. RbeTseRbsIul nigCIlIKWCa ¬ECCE¦ nigCMnajGkçrkmµ nigbMNinCIvit. etImanGVIxøHEdleKGacniyay
RbeTsBIrkñúgcMeNamRbeTsTaMgLaymankarrIkceRmInGs©arüelIkarGb;rM )anGMBIKuNPaBénkmµviFITaMgBIrenH ehIyetIkmµviFITaMgBIrenHGaceFVIkar
sRmab;TaMgGs;KñaenAGaemrikLaTIn nigenAkara:b‘Ín. RbeTsTaMgBIrenHk¾ EklMG)aneT? ebIeTaHbICakareRbobeFobkmµviFI ECCE mankarlM)ak kar
dUcCaRbeTsGasg;TInEdrmanlT§pll¥RbesIr ebIBinitüeTAelIkarRsav RsavRCavbgðajfa kRmitvb,Fm’rbs;RKU skmµPaBsikSatamRkumtUc²
RCavrbs; OREALC/UNESCO . RbeTseRbsIulEdlCaRbeTsman nigPaBsm,ÚrEbbxag]bkrN_ nigsmÖarmanmuxgarviC¢man. karEfTaM
RbCaCneRcIn)anxitxMRbwgERbgxageKalneya)ayy:agxøaMgkøaedIm,IelIk kumar)anRbesIrenAmuneBlcUleronKWmanTMnak;TMng CamYynwgkarGPivDÆ
kMBs;KuNPaBénRbB½n§Gb;rMtamry³KMnitpþÜcepþImnana edIm,IedaHRsay KMnit nigsgÁm. xøwmsarerOgeCaKC½yPaKeRcInekItecjBIRbeTsman
vismPaBFnFan ¬CaBiesskarpþl;mUlniFi¦ tamtMbn; nigkñúgsgÁm R)ak;cMNUlmFüm nigx<s; b:uEnþRbeTseN)a:l; nig\NÐa KWCakrNIelIkElg
nigelIsmiT§ikmµ. karpþl;mUlniFisRmab;salaRkIRkbMput)anekIneLIg edaysarRbeTsTaMgBIrenHmankmµviFIcMNaytic b:uEnþman\T§iBlviC¢man
y:agxøaMg ¬bBa¢ak;BIkMeNInénkarcuHeQµaH¦ ehIyR)ak;Ex nigkarbNþúH xøaMgkøabgÁÜrelIkumar nigRKYsarkumar. enAkñúg
bNþalRKUbeRgonRtUv)anelIkkMBs;. ebIeTaHbICa\T§iBleTAelIlT§plén RbeTsTaMgenHEdlFanaseRmcsklkmµGb;rM karEfTaMkumarmetþyü
karsikSamanPaBsamBaØbMputk¾eday k¾eKalneya)ay nigyuT§saRsþ bzmsikSaKWCa]bsKÁd¾FM dUecñHviFankar [)anditdl;nwgCYy
mYycMnYnykcitþTukdak;elIEpñkTaMgBIrenH ¬R)ak;Ex nig karbNþúHbNþal¦ cMNayluyticKWCaCMerIsmYyd¾RbesIr. GPivDÆn_bBaØasµartI
dUcmanbgðajenAkñúgtaragEdlmanP¢ab;mkCamYyenH. nigGPivDÆn_sgÁm
kñúgGMLúgeBlCag 40 qñaMknøgeTAenH kmµviFI
mancMNucsamBaزmYycMnYnekItmaneLIgenAkñúgRbeTsmanlT§plx<s; Gkçrkmµ)anEkERbBIviFIsaRsþ{karsikSamYymux
TaMgbYn. CnTaMgGs;EdlmanviC¢aCIv³CaRKUbeRgon[témøx<s;elIviC¢aCIv³enH GacbMerIRKb;mux} EdlBIdMbUgCaKMnit {Gkçrkmµd¾sMxan;} EdlCMrujeday
ehIyeFVIkarKaMRTtamry³vinieyaKelIkarbNþúHbNþal. mankic©bnþeKal GgÁkar UNESCO enATsvtSr_ 1990 EdlCYyRTRTg;dl;kmµviFIsRmab;
neya)aykñúgry³eBlknøgeTAenH nigmanckçúvis½yéneKalbMNgGb;rM RkumviC¢aCIv³Cak;lak;. viFIsaRsþbnþbnÞab;eTot)anbegáIteLIgedayEp¥kelI
rwgmaM. RbeTsEdlmanmhicätaTaMg 7 )anCMruj[mankarrIkceRmInBit xñatKMrUxagelIedaydak;bBa©ÚlxøwmsarTaMgLaysþIBIsuxPaB brisßan
R)akdkñúgkarBRgIk»kasGb;rM edaysarKMnitpþÜcepþImxageKalneya)ay GaharUtßmÖ Gnam½y nigkarEfTaMgsuxPaB. karmanRKUbeRgonEdlman
fµI²kñúgenaHmaneKalbMNgelIkkMBs;lT§plCMnajviPaKpgEdr. eTaHbICa CMnajP¢ab;KMniteFVI[sisSyl; nigmancMeNHdwgx<s;elImuxviC¢aKWCaktþa
KµanRkbx½NÐCasklBit k¾manckçúvis½yrwgbuwgyUrGEgVgsRmab;karGb;rM seRmceCaKC½y. tamvb,Fm’mYycMnYn karGb;rMmnusSeBjv½yTTYl
kardwknaMrbs;rdæaPi)al nigRkumRKUbeRgonEdlTTYl)ankarKaMRTl¥ nig lT§plRbesIrbMputenAeBlRKUbeRgon nigsisSmanePTdUcKña. karbNþúH
manTwkcitþx<s;KWCalkçxNÐsRmab;EkTRmg;KuNPaBGb;rMRbkbedayeCaK bNþaledaysegçbeLIgvijmþgehIymþgeTot karvaytémøkarsikSa
C½y. sRmab;RbeTsEdlmanmhicätaTaMgenaH cMNg;cMNUlcitþ nigkar eTogTat; nigecjviBaØabnb½Rt KWmanTMnak;TMngKñaCamYynwgkmµviFIelIk
KaMRTCajwkjab;KWCabBaðaEdlRtUvRbQmedaHRsay. kMBs;KuNPaB. PsþútagTaMgLaybBa¢ak;fa mnusSRbmaN 80° Edl
eRkAsmtßkic©rbs;sala ³ kumartUc nigkarGb;rMmnusScas; cuHeQµaHcUleronkñúgfñak;Gkçrkmµ EdlmankarRKb;RKgl¥ mnusS)aneron
rhUtbBa©b;vKÁsikSa. karsikSaEdlerobcMeLIgsRmab;ry³eBl 400
PsþútagPaKeRcInBIRbeTsEdlelIkeLIgxagelIykcitþTukdak;eTAelI em:agGaceFVI[mnusScas; Edlmin)ancUleronesaH nigminecHGkSrGac
RbB½n§salaeron. karykcitþTukdak;tictYceFVIeLIgTak;TgnwgKuNvis½y mankRmitGkçrkmµCamUldæan.

14
© AMI VITALE/PANOS/EDITINGSERVER.COM r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña 2005
segç b

skmµPaBd¾sVahab;rbs;RKU ³ eRkayBIqøgkat;]bsKÁsgÁmd¾lM)ak LalIta narImñak;mkBIvNѳTabkMBugrIkray


beRgonKNitdl;sisSRsIenAkñúgPUmirbs;Kat;enAXMukUR)a.
CMBUk 3
rgVaytémøGMBIPaBeCOnelOnQaneTA vismPaBeynD½renARKb;kRmitTaMgGs;
KmøatR)aMcMNucniyaBIry³eBlcUleronkñúgsala
seRmceKaledAGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña rvagRbeTsGñkRk nigGñkman
RKUbeRgon ³ vibtiþxVHsmtßPaB
bBaðasisSeronminsUv)anlT§pll¥manenARKb;kEnøg
ksnÞasrSn_vaytémø BIEpñkcRmuHénKuNPaBGb;rMenAEtraMgsÞHedaysarkgVH
sþg;da. fVIebItYelxminGacqøúHbBa©aMg[)anRKb;RKan;BIPaBsµúK snÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
sµajéndMeNIrkareronsURtk¾eday k¾snÞsSn_PaKeRcInEdlmansRmab;
eRbIkñúgkarvaytémøKuNPaBKWTak;TgnwgsnÞsSn_KuNvis½y. snÞsSn_
TaMgenaHGacqøúHbBa©aMg[eXIjBIkRmitKuNPaBmYy ebIeTaHbICaKuNPaB
BMumanlkçN³eBjeljk¾eday. CMBUkenHelIkmkniyayGMBIdMeNIrkarrIk sklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa ³ karERbRbYlminsmehtupl
ceRmInrYmQaneTAseRmceKaledATaMg 6 énkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
edayykcitþTukdak;elIKuNPaBGb;rM tamry³karqøúHbBa©aMgBIktþamYy karBnüareBlcUleronenAsalaKWCaskmµPaBCYykat;bnßyyWt²éncMnYn
cMnYnTak;Tgnwgsalaeron niglT§plénkarsikSa dUcCakarcMNayR)ak; sisSRKb;GayucUleronenAbzmsikSaEdlmin)ancUleronBIcMnYn 106>9
rbs;rdæaPi)aleTAelIkarGb;rM GRtapleFobRKU¼sisS kRmitvb,Fm’rbs; lannak;enAqñaM 1998 eTARbmaNCa 103>5 lannak;enA qñaM 2001.
RKUbeRgon ry³eBlénkarsikSakñúgsalarbs;sisS nigBinÞúetsþþ. CarYm GRtaénkarFøak;cuHenHBMuTan;manlkçN³RKb;RKan;edIm,IFanaseRmcskl
karrIkceRmInkñúgkarseRmceKaledARkugdakamanerobrab;edaysegçb kmµGb;rMbzmsikSa[)anmun b¤RtwmqñaM 2015 eT. sisSRsIman cMnYn
tamry³snÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña Edlmanbgðaj 57° éncMnYnsisSsrub ¬eRcInCag 60° enArdæGar:ab; nig GasIuxagt,Úg
kñúgr)aykarN_RtYtBinitükarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaCasklqñaM 2003. nigxaglic¦ EdlenAkñúgqñaM 1998 manEtcMnYn 59/5°b:ueNÑaH.

15
RkahV ³ 3>1 GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBit nigGRtacuHeQµaHcUleronsrubenAbzmsikSa enARbeTsEdlmanGRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBiteRkam 95°- 2001

sab;sahara:GaRBic rdæGara:b; GasIukNþal


pleFobsisScuHeQµaHcUleron ¬°¦

pleFobsisScUleronsrub pleFobsisScUleronsrub pleFobsisScUleronsrub


RbPB nigkMNt;sMKal; ³ GanCMBUk 3 r)aykarN_Gb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña

GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBit ¬NER¦ esÞIrEtkøayeTACasUc©nakrN_mYy eRkam 100° ehIyRbeTseRcInCag 40 manGRtacuHeQµaHcUleronsrub


bBa¢ak;BIKuNPaBénkarGb;rMedaysarEtGRtaenHqøúHbBa©aMgBIvisalPaB enAeRkam 100° nigGRtacuHeQµaHBitenAeRkam 90° EdlCakarqøúHbBa©aMg
EdlkñúgenaHkumarEdlsßitkñúgRkumGayucUleronpøÚvkareFVIkarcuHeQµaHcUl [eXIjBItRmUvkarelIkkMBs;smtßPaBrbs;RbB½n§Gb;rM ¬RkahV 3>1¦.
eron. GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBitminrab;bBa©Úlkumar Edl)ancuHeQµaHcUl
eron b:uEnþsßitenAeRkARkumGayucUleronpøÚvkaredaysarkarcuHeQµaHcUl karbBa©b;karGb;rMenAsalabzmsikSa enARbeTsEdlmancMNUlTab
eronmun b¤yWty:av b¤k¾RtYtfñak;enaHeT. enAEtCabBaðad¾cMbgmYy. enARbeTs
EdlmanR)ak;cMNUlTab kumarCaeRcIn e)aHbCga;eecRcaInlskumalarRatedUvabygsçMcaitrþ
PaBxusKñaenAfñak;tMbn;mankRmitx<s;. kñúgRbeTsenAGnutMbn;sahara: RtUvbgçMcitþe)aHbg;ecalsalaeday
GaRBicCaeRcIn RbeTsenAGar:ab;mYycMnYn nigRbeTs)a:KIsßan GRtacuH sarkarcMNay briyakaskñúgfñak;eron karcMNay briyakas
eQµaHcUleronBitKWsßitenARkam 70°. GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBitenAkñúg minsmRsb b¤edaysarEttRmUvkar[ k ñúgfñak;eronminsmRsb
RbB½n§Gb;rMkñúgRbeTsCaeRcInenAGWr:ubkNþal nigxagekItsßitenAcenøaHrvag CY y rkR)ak; c M N U l sRmab; R KY s ar. rkbR)¤edakay;cMN
sartRmUvkar[CYy
UlsRmab;RKYsar
70° eTA 90°. karcUleronkñúgsalabzmsikSarbs;ekµgRsIenATab eTaHbI CaGRtasisSeronbnþBIfñak;TI 1
CagekµgRbusy:agxøaMgkñúgRbeTscMnYn 71 kñúgcMeNam RbeTscMnYn 175. dl;TI 5 )anekIneLIgenAkñúgRbeTsCa
RbeTsTaMgGs; elIkElgEtRbeTsbIb:ueNÑaH EdlmanGRtasmPaB eRcInkñúgTsvtSr_ 1990 ¬ehIyenA kñúgkrNImYycMnYnmankarekIneLIg
eynD½rKitCatYelxeRkam 0/90 KWCaRbeTssßitenAGnutMbn;sahara: rhUtdl;Cag 10 PaKryBIqñaM 1998 eTAqñaM 2001¦ RbeTs 30 kñúg
GaRBic ¬eBalKWGaRBicxaglic¦ rdæenAGar:ab; GasIuxagt,Úg nigxaglic. cMeNamRbeTs 91 min)anseRmcGRta cuHeQµaHcUleroncMnYn 75°
ktþanana dUcCatémøcMNaysRmab;sisScuHeQµaHcUleron nigcm¶ayBI enHebIeyagtamTinñn½yEdlmanRsab; ehIy manGRtacuHeQµaHcUleron
pÞHeTAsalaCajwkjab;bgá[mankarcuHeQµaHcUleronyWty:av. enAkñúg TabCag 66° enAkñúgRbeTsGnutMbn;sahar:a GaRBiccMnYnBak;kNþal
GnutMbn;sahar:aénTVIbGaRBic kumarRbmaNCa 20° eTA 40° Edl)an ¬RkahV 3>2¦. karqøak;cuHd¾xøaMgkøakñúgRbeTsCaeRcIn)anqøúHbBa©aMg[eXIj
cUleronfñak;TI 1 manGayueRcInCagGayuRtUvcUleronpøÚvkarcMnYnBIr b¤bIqñaM. BIkarFøak;cuHKuNPaBénkarGb;rM.
CagenHeTAeTot RbB½n§Gb;rMeBlxøHxitxMTTYlsisSdl;cMnYnkMNt; CaBiess karGb;rMenAmFümsikSa nigsaklviTüal½y³ lMnaMBIr:amItceg¥ót
enAkñúgRbeTsTaMgLayNa EdlmanGRtacuHeQµaHsrub ¬GER¦ sßitenA
kñúgxN³eBlEdlRbeTsCaeRcIn ¬RbmaNCa 144 RbeTs¦)anebþCJaERb
2> pleFobtémøeynD½rKitCatYelxrvagRsI nigRbus. snÞsSn_smPaBeynD½rKitCa køaykarGb;rMmFümsikSaeTACakatBVkic© sisSbBa©b;salabzmsikSaCa
tYelxcenøaHBI 0>97 nig 1>03 cg¥úlbgðajBItYelxCitesµIKñarvagePTTaMgBIr. eRcInCajwkjab;minbnþkareronsURtrhUtdl;mFümsikSaeT CaBiess
3> GRtasisScuHeQµaHcUleronsrubCasUc©nakrN_cg¥úlbgðajGMBIsmtßPaBrbs;sala sisSbzmsikSakñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆ. enAqñaM 2001 GRtacuHeQµaHcUl
tamTinñn½ybrivis½y. GRtaenHCapleFobcMnYnsisScuHeQµaHcUleronenAkRmitNamYy
¬]>bzmsikSa¦ edayminRbkan;Gayu eRbobeFobnwgcMnYnsisSsruberonenAkRmitenaH eronsrubCamFümkñúgkRmitmFümsikSakñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆKWmanEt
¬]>GayuBI 6 - 12 qñaM¦. 57° EdlcMnYnenHebIeRbobeFobCamYynwgRbeTsGPivDÆmanEtcMnYnBak;
16
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b

GasIuxagekIt nig)a:sIuPic GasIuxagt,Úg GaemrikLaTIn nigkarIb‘Ín GaemrikxageCIg GWur:ubkNþal nigxagekIt


nigxaglic nigGWur:ubxaglic

GRtasisScuHeQµaH`cUleron ¬°¦
RkahV 3>2 ³ GRtasisSeronbnþrhUtcb;fñak;TI 5 nigcMnYnfñak;EdlmansisSe)aHbg;ecalsalaenAbzmsikSaqñaM 2001
kRmitfañk;EdlmansisSe)aHbg;ecalsalaKitCamFüm

GRtasisSenAeronbnþrhUtcb;fñak;TI 5 ¬°¦
taragenHbgðajEtRbeTsEdlmanGRtasisSbnþeroncb;fñak;TI 5 eRkam 80°
RbPB nigkMNt;sMKal; ³ GanCMBUk 3 r)aykarN_Gb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña

kNþalb:ueNÑaH. KmøatenHkan;EtFMeLIgenAkRmitsaklviTüal½yEdl srubekIneLIgCag 2° kñúgRbeTs 80 kñúgcMeNamRbeTs 131 EdlcMnYn


GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronsrubmancMnYn 55°kñúgRbeTsGPivDÆ nigcMnYn 11° enH)anmkBITinñn½yenAkRmitmFümsikSa nigkñúgRbeTs 56 kñúgcMeNam
kñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆ. rvagBIqñaM 1998 nig 2001 GRtacuHeQµaHcUleron RbeTs 95 enAkRmitsaklviTüal½y. vismPaBeynD½rKitCatYelx
17
ekIneLIgenARKb;kRmitGb;rMTaMgGs;. Tinñn½yEdlRbmUl)anenAtamkRmit RKUbeRgonsalabzmsikSafµI²mYycMnYnEdlmancMeNHdwgeqøIytbeTAnwg
Gb;rMTaMg 3 kRmitkñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆ 83 RbeTscMnYnBak;kNþal)an sþg;daCati)anqøak;cuHenARbeTsCaeRcInkñúgGnutMbn;sahar:aGaRBic.
seRmceCaKC½yelIsmPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxkñúgkarGb;rMbzmsikSa ]TahrN_ RKU30°b:ueNÑaHEdl)anbeRgonenAqñaMdMbUgmancMeNHdwgeqøIytb
b:uEnþticCag 1 PaK 5 kñúgkRmitmFümsikSa nigmanEt 4 RbeTsb:ueNÑaH eTAnwgsþg;daCatikñúgRbeTsháamebor. cMnYnPaKrykan;Etqøak;cuHteTot
mansmPaBeynD½renAsaklviTüal½y. kñúgRbeTsbUtsVaNa ¬10°¦ eLsUfU ¬11°¦ nigqad ¬19°¦ Edlsþg;da
énRbeTsTaMenaHKWkarGb;rMmFümsikSa nigRbeTstUehÁa ¬2°¦ hÁIeno
ry³eBlcUleronkñúgsala ³ Kmøat 5 cMNucrvagRbeTsGñkman nigGñkRk b‘Ísav ¬15°¦ nigkama:rU:n ¬15°¦ EdlCaTUeTAsþg;daénRbeTsTaMgenHKW
karbUkbBa©ÚlKñaénkarcuHeQµaHcUleronKittamGayuenAkRmitTaMgbIénkar GnuviTüal½y. ninñakarenHGacqøúHbBa©aMgBIkarekIneLIgénkareRCIserIsRKU
Gb;rM etImnusSmñak;²GacrMBwgfanwgsßitenAsalaeron)anry³eBlyUr beRgon edaymin)anBicarNaeTAelIkRmitvb,Fm’caM)ac;edIm,IeqøIytbeTA
b:unµan? karKitKUrBIry³eBlenHKWCakarcaM)ac;cMeBaHviFankarrMBwgTuk nwgsm<aFEdlekIteLIgedaysarkarcuHeQµaHcUleronenARKb;kRmitGb;rM
énkarcMNayeBlevlakñúgsalaeronEdlKitbBa©ÚlTaMgkarRtYtfñak; mankarekIneLIgeRcIn. elIsenHeTot karEbgEckRKUbeRgonBMumanPaB
pgEdr. kumarenAkñúgBiPBelak)ancMNayeBlEfmmYyqñaMenAkñúgsala esµIKñaenATUTaMgRbeTs edaymantMbn;dac;RsyalmYycMnYn CaFmµtaman
eronenAGMLúgTsvtSr_ 1990 eLIgrhUtdl; 9/2 qñaMenAbzmsikSa nig RKUEdlBMumankarbNþúHbNþalx<s;. sßanPaBdUcenaHeFVI[kan;EtGaRkk;
mFümsikSa nig 1/1 qñaM enAeRkaykarGb;rM dl;kal³eTs³lM)akmYycMnYn dUcCaRbeTsTaMgLayEdlmanCemøaH b¤
kumarmYynak;enAGaRBic mFümsikSaEdlmancMnYnqñaMsrub 10/3 qñaM. eTIbEtegIbecjBICemøaH.
sab;saharaGacman CamFümku m armñ a k; e nAGnu t M b n; s ahara:
sgÇwmTTYl)ankarGb;rM GaRBicnwgTTYlkarsikSaenAsalabzm sikSa eTaHbICaTinñn½yRtUv)anRbmUlmintamlMdab;lMedayk¾eday k¾karsikSa
bzmsikSa nigmFüm RsavRCavRBav²kñúgRbeTsCaeRcInbBa¢ak;fa Gvtþman nigkgVHRKUbeRgonenA
nig mFümsikSaticCagkumarenAGWr:ub nig EtCabBaðarauMér:mYydEdl. tRmUvkaredIm,IEfrkSakargarTIBIr kgVHxatkar
sikSaBI 5 eTA 6 qñaMeRcIn GaemrikcMnYn 5 eTA 6 qñaM.
Cagkumarmñak;enA EfTaMsþg;daviC¢aCIv³ nigkgVHxatkarKaMRTBIsßab½nGb;rMKWCabuBVehtuTUeTA.
GWur:ubxaglic b¤Gaemrik kar)at;bg;»kasGb;rMF¶n;F¶renAekItmaneLIg karraldalemeraKeGds_¼CMgWeGds_KWkMBugEteFVI[Føak;cuHy:agF¶n;F¶rnUv
enAGasIuxagt,Úg nigxaglic nigrdæGar:ab;mYy karpþl;karGb;rMRbkbedayKuNPaB naM[manGvtþmanRKUbeRgon nigman
cMnYnEdlminTan;)anseRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSaenAeLIy. PaBxus plb:HBal;dl;karGb;rM. RbeTshámb‘Í)an)a:n;sµanfa RKUbzmsikSa
KñarvagRbeTsEdlmankarrMBwgTukénkarcMNayeBlevlaenAsalax<s; cMnYn 815 nak;søab;edaysarCMgWeGds_enAqñaM 2001 EdlRtUvCa 54°
bMput nigTabbMputKWmancMnYnrhUtdl;5dg. karkMNt;RkumEdlenAEt énRKUEdl)anTTYlkarbNþúHbNþalenAqñaMenaH. RksYgsuxaPi)alRbeTs
Kµan»kascUleronenAsalabzmsikSabnÞab;BImankarBRgIkkarpÁt; ekny:a)anGHGagfa emeraKeGds_¼CMgWeGds_)aneFVI[b:HBal;y:agF¶n;F¶r
pÁg;énkarGb;rMmFümsikSaKWCaParkic©bnÞan;enAkñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆCa dl;RbsiT§PaBénvis½yGb;rMEdleFVI[mankarekIneLIgénGRtasøab;kñúg
eRcIn dUcCaRbeTsenAGaemrikLaTIn karab‘Ín GasIuxagekIt nig)a:sIuhVik. cMeNamRKUbeRgon nigb:HBal;dl;vis½yGb;rMkñúgGMLúgeBlmYyTsvtSr_
karbgðat;beRgon ³ KWCamuxrbrRbkbedayPaBFujfb;kñúgcitþ knøgeTAenH. edaysarkarraldalénemraKeGds_¼CMgWeGds_kñúgRbeTs
CaeRcIn ¬CaBiessRbeTsenAGWr:ubxagekIt nigGasIu¦ emeraK¼CMgWenHGac
dUc)aneFVIkarkt;sMKal;Cajwkjab;enAkñúgr)aykarN_enHRKUbeRgonman RCabcUleTAvayRbhardl;RbB½n§Gb;rMkan;EtxøaMgkøaeLIg.
\T§iBlxøaMgkøabMputeTAelIkareronsURtrbs;sisS. Tinñn½yEdlmanRsab;
bBa¢ak;fa RKUenAsalabzmsikSaPaKeRcInmankgVHxatkRmitvb,Fm’ pleFobsisS nigRKUbeRgonRtUv)aneRbIsRmab;qøúHbBa©aMgBIKuNPaBGb;rM.
karbNþúHbNþal nigyl;dwgeRCARCHBIxøwmsarénkarGb;rM CaBiessRKU eTaHbICaplb:HBal;eTAelIlT§plénkarGb;rMenAEtCaRbFanbTsRmab;
beRgonkñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆ. sþg;dakRmitvb,Fm’CatisRmab;RKUbzm BiPakSakþI k¾karGegátbgðajfa sisSkñúgfñak;eronénsalabzmsikSakñúg
sikSamancab;BIkarGb;rMkñúgsalaeronBI 12 qñaMdl;17 qñaMkñúgRbeTscMnYn RbeTskMBugGPivDÆmancMnYneRcIn ¬RKUmñak;beRgonsisS 60 nak;¦ Edl
26 énGnutMbn;sahar:aGaRBic Edl)anRsavRCavenAqñaM 2001. RKU cMnYnenHminsmRsbdl;kareronsURteLIy. enAkñúgRbeTsEdlmanGRta
beRgonticCag 10°enAkñúgRbeTsmYycMnYntUc)aneqøIytbeTAnwgsþg;da pleFobRKU nigsisSx<s;bMputesÞIrEtKµansisScMnYn 1 PaK 3 Edl)an
Gb,brmaénkarGb;rMGnuviTüal½y ehIymanRbeTsCaeRcInmin)aneqøIytb cUleronbzmsikSa eronrhUtdl;fñak;TI 5. GRtapleFobRKU nigsisSman
eTAnwgsþg;daEdl)ankMNt;enAtamsalamFümsikSaeT. Tak;Tgnwgkar karekIneLIgkñúgeBlmYyTsvtSr_knøgeTAenHkñúgRbeTsTaMgLayEdl
yl;dwgsIuCeRmArbs;RKUbeRgoneTAelIkmµviFIsikSa karRsavRCavfµImYy GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBitmankarekIneLIg CaBiess enAGnutMbn;sahar:a
kñúgRbeTscMnYn 7 enAGaRBicxagt,Úg)an[dwgfa RKUbeRgonKNitviTüaenA GaRBic nigGasIuxagt,Úg nigxaglic. dUcenH cMnYnRKUenACabBaðaecaTmYy
salabzmsikSamancMeNHdwgEteTAelIelxnBVnþmUldæanb:ueNÑaH ehIy kñúgRbeTsEdlRbB½n§Gb;rMbzmsikSaekIneLIgeRcIn. KuNPaBénkarGb;rM
tamBit RKUTaMgenaHRblgKNitviTüa)anBinÞúTabCagmuxviC¢aepSg. nwgmanPaBminc,as;las; RbsinebItRmUvkarcUlbRgonrbs;RKUmankar
bn§Úrbnßy b¤bnÞúkkargarrbs;RKUbeRgonmankarekIneLIg.
18
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
© X. DESMIER/RAPHO
karpþl;mUlniFi ³ etIrdæaPi)al)anebþCJacitþb:unµan?
karcMNayrbs;rdæaPi)alsRmab;karGb;rMKWCasUc©nakrN_d¾l¥mYybBa¢ak;
BIkarxitxMRbwgERbgrbs;rdæaPi)aledIm,IKuNPaBGb;rM ebIeTaHbICamankgVH
xatTinñn½yBisþarTak;TgnwgGKar nigsmÖarbMBak;kñúgGKar RBmTaMgsmÖar
beRgon nigeronk¾eday. lT§plBIkmµviFIsRmab;vaytémøsisSGnþrCati
¬PISA¦ bgðaj[eXIjfa sisSkñúgRbeTsTaMgLayNaEdleFVIvinieyaK
FnFaneRcIneTAelIkarGb;rMTTYl)anCMnajGkçrkmµl¥RbesIr. TMnak;TMng
enHmanbgðajy:agc,as;las;kñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆxøH dUcCaRbeTsTaMg
LayenAGWru:bkNþal nigxagekIt nigRbeTsmYycMnYneTotenAGWr:ubxaglic
EdlmankRmiténkarcMNayTab. lT§plénkarsikSa PISA epSgeTot
bgðajfa FnFanGacman\T§iBlxøaMgeTAelIlT§plénkarGb;rMenAeBlkar
cMNaydMbUgmankRmitTab b:uEnþ\T§iBlenaHRtUvbBaÄb;eTAvijenAeBlman
karekIneLIgénkarcMNay.
karcMNaysaFarN³elIkarGb;rMqøúHbBa©aMg[eXIjBIsmamaRténplitpl
kñúgRsuksrubkñúgRbeTsGñkmaneRcInCagRbeTsRkIRk EdlRbeTsGñk matabitaecHGkSreRcIncg;Gb;rMkUn[ecHGkSr ³ «Buk
manTaMgenaH)anseRmceKaledAkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña ¬mFümPaK mYynak;kMBugeronGan nigsresrenARbeTshIÁeno
tMbn; ³ 5/2° enAGaemrikxageCIg nigGWr:ubxaglic¦. enHtRmUv[mankar
BRgIkRbB½n§Gb;rMEdlmankgVHxatFnFanRsab; eBalKWkgVHxaténkarRKb RkahV 3>3 bgðajBIkarERbRbYlénkarcMNayBitR)akdkñúgRbeTsmYy
dNþb;rbs;RbB½n§Gb;rMTaMgenaH ¬mFümPaKtMbn; ³ 3/3° kñúgGnutMbn; cMnYnenAqñaM 1998 nig 2001. CaTUeTA karcMNayBMumankarERbRbYleLIy
sahar:aGaRBic nig3/9° enAGasIuxagekIt nig)a:sIuhVik. KµanB½t’manTak; kñúgRbeTsGPivDÆkñúgeBlenaH b:uEnþRbeTskMBugGPivDÆmYycMnYntUc)an
TgnwgbBaðacMNaykñúgRbeTsGasIuxagt,Úg nigxaglic nigGar:ab;eLIy¦. begáInkarcMNayy:ageRcIn dUcCaRbeTsenAGasIuxagekIt nigGasIu)a:sIhVik
GaemrikLaTIn nigkarIb‘Ín. eTaHCay:agenHk¾eday RbeTsFM²mYycMnYn)an
kat;bnßykarcMNayy:agsem,ImEdlrYmmanRbeTs hVIlIBIn ¬cMnYn
24°¦ nig RbeTs\NÐÚensIu ¬cMnYn 8°¦.

RkahV 3>3 ³ bMErbMrYlénkarcMNaysrubkñúgvis½yGb;rMtamkarCak;EsþgqñaM 1998 - 2001


°bMErbMrYlénkarcMNaysrubkñúgvis½yGb;rM

RbPB nigkMNt;sMKal; ³ GanCMBUk 3 r)aykarN_Gb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña

19
karCECknanabnþeFVIeLIgTak;TgnwgkarcMNayelIR)ak;ExRKUbeRgonkñúg GaRBic karRsavRCavmYyEdl)aneFVIeLIgedayRkumGgÁkarGaRBicxagt,Úg
kRmitsmRsbEdlkarcMNayelIR)ak;Ex KWCakarcMNayeRcInbMput sRmab;RtYtBinitüKuNPaBGb;rM ¬1995-98¦ )anvas;sÞg;GMBIlT§PaB
CaBiess kñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆEdlCajwkjab; karcMNayelIesovePA ecHGanrbs;sisSbzmsikSaedayeFVIkareRbobeFobeTAnwgsþg;daEdl
sikSa nigsmÖarbeRgonepSg²eTotkñúgRbeTs begáIteLIgedayCMnajkarGanfñak;Cati nigRKUbeRgonfñak;TI 6. kñúgcMeNam
tRmUvkarsnSMFnFan TaMgenaHmancMnYnesÞIrEtmindl; 1° pg. RbeTsTaMgR)aMBIrmanRbeTs 4 EdlsisS fñak;TI 6 ticCagBak;kNþal
sRmab;karcMNayelIkar tRmUvkarsnSMFnFansRmab;karcMNayelI mansmtßPaBGb,brmaelIkarGan. lT§plTabenHk¾)anbgðajy:ag
Gb;rMRtUvEtmantulüPaB karGb;rMRtUvEtmantulüPaBCamYynwgtRmUv c,as;pgEdrkñúgkarRsavRCaveday PASEC ¬1996-2001¦ Edl)aneFVI
CamYynwgtRmUvkarcMNay karcMNayelIRKUbeRgonedIm,ITak;Taj nig eLIgkñúgRbeTsGaRBic 6 niyayPasa)araMg ³ 14° kñúgcMeNamsisSfñak;
elIRKU beRgonedIm,ITak; rkSaRKUbeRgonEdlmansmtßPaB. TI 5 cMnYn 43°man lT§plTabelImuxviC¢a Pasa)araMg b¤muxviC¢aKNit
TajnigrkSaRKUbeRgon PaBCaédKUrvagEpñksaFarN³ nigEpñkÉkCn
viTüa. ]TahrN_ enARbeTsesenháal; sisSCag 40° CYbkarlM)akkñúg
EdlmansmtßPaB. RtUv)anelIkkMBs;kan;EtxøaMgeLIgedaycat;
kareronelxTsPaKEdlmanelxBIrxÞg;.
TukCameFüa)aymYysRmab;kat;bnßyPaB GegáttMbn;cRmuH eyagtamkarvivtþrIkceRmInelIkarRsavRCavBIsmtßPaB
minR)akdRbCa nigkgVHxaténkarcMNayfvikardæ. manbBaðaekIteLIgmin GanGnþrCati ¬PIRLS 2001¦ sisSfñak;TI 4 y:ageRcInkñúgRbeTsmYy
cuHsMrugKñaTak;TgnwgKuNPaB nigsmFm’. shKmn_ manlT§PaBxusKña cMnYnmanCMnajGanminTUlMTUlay. kñúgRbeTsEdlmanR)ak;cMNUlmFüm
kñúgkarTak;TajkarcMNayBIrdæaPi)al nigsMumUlniFiBIEpñkÉkCn. dUcCa GahSg;TIn eblI kULMb‘Í GIur:g; nigm:ar:uk sisSCagBak;kNþalTTYl
etIsisSGacsikSaecHdwg)ankRmitNa? lT§pleRkamkRmitkMNt; 25 PaKry ¬EdlCaBinÞúkMNt;CaGnþrCati¦.
kar RsavRCavmYyrbs; PISA kñúgRbeTs 43 [dwgfa sisSGayu 15 qñaM
Tinñn½yBIkarvaytémøCati nigGnþrCatibgðajfa kumarkñúgRbeTsCaeRcInBMu cMnYn 18° kñúgRbeTs OECD ¬EdlPaKeRcInmanR)ak;cMNUlx<s;¦ man
manCMnajmUldæanc,as;las;eLIy. lT§plTabenHmanenARKb;TIkEnøg. cMeNHdwgelIkarGanTabbMput cMENksisSEdlmanGayudUcKñakñúgRbeTs
RbeTsEdlsisSmanCMnajmUldæanTabKWCaRbeTsTaMgLayNaEdlman manR)ak;cMNUlTab nigmFümKWmancMnYn40°.
RbB½n§Gb;rMTn;exSay dUcCakarcuHeQµaHcUleronrbs;sisS nigFnFan sisSkñúgtMbn;CnbT nigBIRKYsarEdlmansßanPaBesdækic©sgÁmTab
sRmab;karGb;rM. cUrBinitS]TaharN_nanadUcxageRkam³ manlT§plTabCagenHeTAeTot. TMnak;TMngrvagkareronsURtrbs;sisS nig
GaemrikLaTIn karvaytémøCatikñúgRbeTsGaemrikLaTIn 4 bBa¢ak;[ sßanPaBesdækic©sgÁmEdlCaTUeTARtUv)anvas;sÞg;tamry³kRmitsikSa
eXIjBIkRmitTabénlT§plénkarGb;rMkñúgcMeNamsisSPaKeRcInenAeBl rbs;mþay«Bukpþl;B½t’mand¾sMxan;Tak;TgeTAnwglT§plénkareronsURt
eroncb;bzmsikSa. enAkñúgRbeTs nIkar:ahÁ½r ¬2002¦ sisScMnYn 70° rbs;sisS. ]TahrN_ karRsavRCavmYyEdl)aneFVIeLIgkñúgRbeTs 12
eron)anlT§plGb,brmaelImuxviC¢aPasanigsisSeRcInCag80° eron)an eday LLECE )anbgðajfa sisSkñúgRbeTs Kuy)aTTYllT§plelI
lT§plGb,brmaelImuxviC¢aKNit.
enAGU‘r:Uháay ¬1999¦ karsikSa jaMGaharpg nigeFVIkic©karpÞHpgenAvUCI RbeTscin
muxviC¢aPasarbs;sisSfñak;TI 6 cMnYn
40° KW {exSay} b¤ {exSaybMput}.
enARbeTsEGlsal;v:aD½r ¬1999¦
sisSfñak;TI 6 cMnYn 40° eron)an
lT§plGb,brmaelImuxviC¢aPasa
KNitviTüa evC¢saRsþ nig sikSa
sgÁm. enAhugDuyr:as; ¬2002¦
kareronsURtelImuxviC¢aPasa nig
KNitsaRsþrbs;sisSfñak;TI 6 cMnYn
90° KWexSay.

20
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
kareronsURtx<s;bMput nigmþay«Buk)anTTYlkarsikSaxusKñatictYcbMput. karvaytémøKuNPaBénkmµviFIKaMBar kumarkUnRKYsarRkIRknwgTTYl
sisSkñúgRbeTsEdlmanR)ak;cMNUlmFümmanlT§plsßiteRkammFüm nigGb;rMkumartUcKWCakarlM)akTaMg )anRbeyaCn_eRcInBIkarpþl;esva
PaK OECD EdllT§plTaMgenaHmanTMnak;TMngKñay:agCitsñiT§CamYynwg RTwsþI nigkarGnuvtþCak;Esþg ehIy KaMBar nigGb;rMkumartUc.
sßanPaBesdækic©sgÁmkic© cMENkÉkñúgRbeTsFM²mYycMnYn ¬dUcCaRbeTs karenHBMu)anedaHRsay[)anRKb; k m µv iF Ie naHnwgykcitþTukdak;elI
\NÐÚensIu¦ ebIeTaHbICamansßanPaBRKYsarFUrxøaMgk¾eday k¾lT§pleron RKan;enAeLIyenAkRmitGnþrCati. karEfTaM Gnam½ysuxPaB nigGb;rM
sURtrbs;sisSTabCagsisS OECD EdlmansßanPaBRKYsarTn;Tab karRsavRCavPaKeRcInEdleFVIeLIg ehIyebItamTinñn½nbgðajfa
bMputedaysarEtdMeNIrkarminl¥énRbB½n§Gb;rMkñúgRbeTsTaMgenaH. kñúgeKalbMNgvaytémølT§plén kumarTaMgenaHeRcInRtUveK
karFanaKuNPaB karBRgIk»kascUleron kareronsURt)anvas;EvgBI\T§iBlén T a t ;ecalmin[TTYlkarGb;rM
karcUleronkñúgkmµviFIKaMBar nigGb;rM
etIGRtacuHeQµaHBit nigBinÞúetsþþGacmanTMnak;TMngKñaEdrb¤eT? karenH kumartUc eBalKWkarrIkceRmIn niglT§plenAsalabzmsikSa. GRta
TMngCaBMumanTMnak;TMngKñaeLIy. bBaðaKnøwHenaHKWfa etIRbeTsTaMgLay pleFobsisS¼RKUenAkRmitKaMBar nigGb;rMkumartUcmankRmitx<s;bMput
seRmc)any:agNa ebIeKcg;)anTaMgKuNPaBTaMgbrimaNénkarsikSa enAGnutMbn;sahar:aGaRBic ¬25³1 b¤eRcInCagenHenAkñúgRbeTsesÞIrEt
enaH? tMbn;Edlman»kascUleronbzmsikSaenAEtmankarlM)akcMeBaH Bak;kNþal¦ nigmankRmitTabbMputenAGWr:ubkNþal nig xagekIt nigGasIu
RbCaCnmYycMnYn dUcCaenAGnutMbn;sahar:aGaRBic GasIuxagt,Úg nig kNþal ¬eRkam 15³1 kñúgRbeTs 3énRbeTs 4¦. PsþútagBIRbeTs
xaglic nigrdæGar:ab;mYycMnYntRmUv[begáIteKalneya)aytwgrwgsRmab; manR)ak;cMNUlmFüm nigx<s;bgðajfa buKÁlikenAkRmitmunbzmsikSa
ksagRbB½n§Gb;rMeLIgvij rIÉRbeTsxøHeTottRmUv[ykcitþTukdak;elIEpñk RtUv)aneKcat;Tukfa mankRmitvb,Fm’esµIKñanwgRKUbzmsikSa. pÞúyeTA
Cak;lak;mYycMnYnéneKalneya)ayGb;rM CaBiesselIEpñklT§plénkar vij RKUCaeRcInkñúgRbeTsrkR)ak;cMNUlTabKWCaRKUCab;kic©snüaTTYl)an
eronsURt b¤»kascUlsikSarbs;RkummnusSEdlminsUvman»kas nig R)ak;Extic nigqøgkat;karbNþúHbNþalviC¢aCIv³tictYc b¤KµanTal;EtesaH.
CYbkarlM)ak. Gkçrkmµ ³ katBVkic©lM)akEdlRtUvbMeBjkñúgRbeTs 9
karelIkkMBs;»kas³ karKaMBar nigGb;rMkumartUc manGnkçrCnmnusSeBjv½yRbmaN 800 lannak;kñúgBiPBelakEdl
karrIkceRmIneTAelI»kaseRbIR)as;kmµviFIKaMBar nigGb;rMkumartUcmun RtUvCa 18/3° énRbCaBlrdæeBjv½y. GnkçrCnesÞIrEt 2 PaK 3 Edl
bzmsikSa[)ankan;EtTUlMTUlaymankRmityWt²cab;BIqñaM1998. RtUvCa 64° kñúgBiPBelakKWCaRsþI. GnkçrkmµkRmitF¶n;F¶rKWmanenA
RbeTs CaeRcInenAGnutMbn;sahar:aGaRBic rdæGar:ab; GasIukNþal nig GnutMbn; sahar:aGaRBic rdæGar:ab; nigGasIuxagt,Úg nigxaglicEdltMbn;
GasIuxagt,Úg nigxaglicmanGRtacuHeQµaHcUleronTabenAkRmitmunbzm TaMgenaH manGRtaGkçrkmµEtcMnYnRbmaNCa 60° b:ueNÑaH. GnkçrCneBj
sikSakñúgRbeTsRkIRkmYycMnYnEdlmanCMBak;bMNuleRcIn karcUleron v½yCag 70° rbs;BiPBelak ¬562 lannak;¦ rs;enARbeTs 9 b:ueNÑaHKW
kñúgkmµviFIKaMBar nigGb;rMkumartUc)anFøak;cuHrvagqñaM 1998 nig 2001. \NÐa ¬34°¦ cin ¬11°¦ bg;køaEds ¬6/5°¦ nig )a:KIsßan ¬6/4°¦. kar
KitCamFüm kumarmñak;enAGaRBicmñak;GacrMBwgfanwgcMNayeBlEtcMnYn seRmceKaledAGkçrkmµkñúgkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaRtUvBwgEp¥ky:ag
0/3 qñaMsRmab;karKaMBar nigbNþúHbNþalkumarmuneronbzmsikSa sMxan;elIeKalneya)ayEdl)anGnuvtþkñúgRbeTsTaMgenaH.
ebIeRbobeFobeTAnwg 1/6 qñaMrbs;ekµgmñak;enAGaemrik LaTIn nigkar:ab‘Í nig kñúgGMLúgTsvtSr_ 1990 kRmitGkçrkmµmankarrIkceRmInxøaMgkñúgRbeTs
2/2 qñaMrbs;ekµgmñak;enAGWr:ubxagt,Úg nigGaemrikxageCIg. ebIeTaHbICa mYycMnYn. ]TahrN_ enAeRbsIul GRtaGkçrkmµ)anekInBI 80/1°dl; 88°
PaBxusKñaéneynD½rKitCatYelxBMumanlkçN³TUlMTUlayenAkRmitKaMBar kñúgry³eBl 1 TsvtSr_ edaymanGRtaGkçrkmµrbs;RsþIcMnYn 88/3°.
nigGb;rMkumartUcmancMnYnticCagenAbzmsikSakþI k¾KmøaténkarcUl
eronrbs;kumara nigkumarIenAEtmanTMhMFMkñúgRbeTsmYycMnYnedayrYmTaMg CMnajGkçrkmµkñúgcMeNammnusSeBjv½yk¾GacmanTMnak;TMngKñaCamYynwg
RbeTsm:Ur:uk nig)a:KIsßan EdlenAkñúgRbeTsTaMgBIrenH GRtacuHeQµaHcUl karrIkceRmInQaneTAseRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSaEdr. karRsavRCav
eronsrubrbs;kumarIKWmancMnYn 3 PaK 4 énGRtacuHeQµaHcUleronrbs; mYyEdl)aneFVIeLIgkñúgRbeTsnIehS Lav nigbUlIvI )anbgðajfa ktþaEdl
kumara b¤GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronsrubticCagenHeTAeTot. kumarmkBIRKYsar naM[kumare)aHbg;ecalsalamankRmitx<s;bMputenAkñúgcMeNammata
RkIRkbMputTTYl)anplRbeyaCn_eRcInbMputBIkmµviFIKaMBar nigGb;rMkumar EdlmanCMnajGkçrkmµTab. enARbeTsnIehS kumarRKb;GayucUleron
tUc ebIBinitüeTAelIkarKaMBarsuxPaB nigkarGb;rM. eTaHCay:agenHk¾eday
k¾Tinñn½ybgðajfa kumarCaeRcInnak;BMu)anTTYlkmµviFIenaHeT. kmµviFIenaH 4> viTüasßansßiti UNESCO )an)a:n;sµaneLIgvijGMBIcMnYnGnkçrCnedayeRbITinñn½yfIµcug
manlMeGogeTARbCaBlrdærs;enAkñúgTIRbCMuCn nigRKUsarGñkman. eRkay. GRtasµanbc©úb,nñRbEhlticCag 862 lannak;kñúgqñaM 2000 kñúgr)aykarN_
sklelaktamdankarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña 2003¼4. kareRbITinñn½yfIµbNþalmkBI
ktþaeRcInya:g dUcCa Tinñn½y)anmkBICMerOn nigGegátfIµrbs;bNþaRbeTsCaeRcIn. ]> CMerOn
qñaM 2000 rbs;cinpþl;Tinñn½ydl;viTüasßansRmab;KNnacMnYnGnkçrCnmnusScas;enA
RbeTsenH Edl)anfycuHCag 50 lannak;.

21
bzmsikSacMnYn 70° EdlmanmataminecHGkSrmin)ancUleroneLIy ebI sRmab;eynD½r nigGRta énkarbnþeronsURtrhUtdl;fñak;TI 5. snÞsSn_enH
eRbobeFobCamYykumarEdlmþayecHGan nig sresry:agc,as;las;man eRbIR)as;kñúgRbeTs 127 enAqñaM 20015 ¬cUlemIlkñúgRbGb;¦.
cMnYnEt 30° b:ueNÑaH .
GRtaGkçrkmµkñúgcMeNamyuvv½y ¬Gayu 15-24 qñaM¦ KWCasUc©nakrN_d¾ IRbeTsnanasßitenATItaMgNatamsnÞsSn_GPivDÆkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
sMxan;mYybgðajBIkarrIkceRmInrbs;karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña nig RbeTs 41 ¬1 PaK 3énRbeTsTaMgGs;¦ EdlRbeTsTaMgenaHsßit
eKaledAGPivDÆn_shSvtSr_ BIeRBaHfasUc©nakrN_enaHqøúHbBa©aMgfa etI enAGaemrikxageCIg nigGWr:ubxaglic kNþal nigxagekIt)anseRmc
RbB½n§Gb;rMkalBImYyTsvtSr_knøgeTA)anpþl;CMnajGkçrkmµmUldæan)an b¤esÞIrEt)anseRmceKaledATaMg 4.
l¥kRmitNa. GRtaGkçrkmµkñúgcMeNamyuvv½yKWmancMnYneRcInCag 70°
enAtamtMbn;TaMgGs; ehIyvismPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxsRmab;yuvv½y RbeTs 51 mantémøsnÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
RtUv)aneKykcitþTukdak;ticCagvismPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxkñúgcMeNam cenøaHBI 0/80 nig 0/94. CitBak;kNþalénRbeTsTaMgenHEdlPaK
mnusSeBjv½y. eRcInsßitenAGaemrikLaTInmankarGn;fyelIeKaledAKuNPaBénkar
bMNinCIvit ³ karxitxMRbwgERbgvaytémønana Gb;rM. kumarkñúgRbeTsTaMgenaH Edlman»kascUleron e)aHbg;ecal
kareronsURtmunkMNt;mYyEpñkedaysarKuNPaBénkarGb;rMTab.
eKaledATI 3énRkbx½NÐskmµPaBRkugdakaKWsMedAelIkkMBs;»kascUl RbeTs35 mankarlM)akxøaMgkñúgkarFanaseRmceKaledAKuNPaB
eronsRmab;yuvv½y nigmnusScas;CaBiesssisSEdlmin)anTTYlpl Gb;rMEdlmantémøénsnÞsSn_karGPivDÆGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaenAkRmi
RbeyaCn_BIkarGb;rMmUldæan b¤sisSEdl)ane)aHbg;ecalsala. t mYyeRkam 0/80. eRkABIenH man 22 RbeTsenAGnutMbn;sahar:a
RbeTsLav m:alI en):al; nigesenháal;)ancab;epþImBinitüeKal GaRBic. bBaðaenHk¾ekItmankñúgRbeTs 3 EdlmanRbCaCneRcInEdr KW
neya)ayrYmKñaelIeKaledAenH edaycat;TukfaCakarGPivDÆCMnaj. RbeTs\NÐa bg;køaEds nig)a:KIsßan. bBaðacRmuHTaMgenHRtUvEtelIk
RbeTsTaMgenH)ancab;epþImedayeFVIkar)a:n;sµanBItRmUvkar[mankmµviFI mkedaHRsay[)anRBm²Kña RbsinebIcg;eFVIkarvas;EvgkarGb;rM
sikSaedayykcitþTukdak;elImUldæanénktþaRbCasaRsþ nigesdækic© sRmab; TaMgGs;KñasRmab;eKaledAKuNPaBén karGb;rMenH.
sgÁm ehIy)ansnñidæanfa kmµviFIGb;rMeRkARbB½n§ nigkarbNþúHbNþal
viC¢aCIv³mFümsikSamineqøIytbeTAnwgtRmUvkarrbs;buKÁlmñak;² nigsgÁm
eLIy. CagenHeTAeTot kmµviFI nigPñak;garpþl;karGb;rMeRcInqøúHbB©aMgBI karvi P aKni n ñ a karkñ ú g RbeTs74 karbBa¢ak;[eXIjfa karrIk
tRmUvkarepSg² b:uEnþeFVI[karRtYtBinitümankarlM)ak. Tinñn½yGMBI EdlmanTinñn½ysRmab;snÞsSn_ ceRmInqab;rh½sénkarGb;rMsRmab;
visalPaB nigRbsiT§PaBénkmµviFITaMgenaHkMrrk)anNas;. Rkbx½NÐRtYt TaMg4kñúgqñaM1998 niig2001 bgðaj TaMgGs;KñaGacekItmaneLIg)an
BinitüsamBaØmYyGacekItmanrUbrageLIg RbsinebIKMnitpþÜcepþImén [eXI j BI d M e NI r c,as; l as; e q< a H ebIeTaHbICaenAkñúgRbeTsRkIRkbMput
RbeTsTaMg 4 enHRtUv)anBRgIk[)anTUlMTUlay. eTAseRmckarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs; k¾eday[EtmankarebþCJacitþ nig
karvas;EvgBIkarrIkceRmInCaskl ³ Kñab:uEnþdMeNIrenaHBMuEmnlkçN³Ca eKalneya)aysmRsb.
snÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña skleLIy. 3 PaK 4 énRbeTs
TaMgenaHmantémøénsnÞsSn_énkar
cab;taMgBI)anbgðajenAkñúgr)aykarN_qñaM 2003 snÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆ GPivDÆkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñamankarekIneLIg. RbeTsEdlman
Gb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñamanbBa©ÚlsnÞsSn_sRmab;eKaledA4éneKaledA snÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaTabrYmmanRbeTslIebrIy:a
RkugdakaTaMgGs;eBalKW sklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa GkçrkmµmnusScas; m:UhSMb‘ík tUehÁa nigeyEm:nmankarekIneLIgtictYcbMputKW 15° ¬ebI
smPaBeynD½rKitCatYelx nigKuNPaBGb;rM. Tinñn½yTaMgenHminTan;)an eRbobeFobmFümPaK 2°énsnÞsSn_TaMgmUl¦ cenøaHBI 1998 nig
kMNt;sþg;da[)anRKb;RKan;sRmab;dak;bBa©ÚleTAkñúgkmµviFIKaMBar nigGb;rM 2001. karenHbBa¢ak;[eXIjfa karrIkceRmInqab;rh½sQaneTAseRmc
kumartUc ¬eKaledATI 1¦ nigbMNinCIvit ¬eKaledATI3¦ enAeLIyeT. karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaGacFana)an eTaHbICaenAkñúgRbeTsRkIRkbMput
sUc©nakrN_mYyRtUv)aneKeRCIserIseFVICatMNagéneKaledAnImYy² dUcCa k¾eday [EtmankarebþCJacitþ nigeKalneya)aysmRsb. RbeTs
GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronBittMNag[ sklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa GRtaGkçrkmµ eyEm:nmankarrIkceRmInxøaMgenAkñúgEpñkTaMgbYnénsnÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆ
kñúgcMeNammnusSGayu 15 qñaM nig elIsBI 15 qñaM sRmab;GkçrkmµCneBj karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña. snÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆGb;rMsRmab;TaMg Gs;Kña
v½y snÞsSn_énkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaEdlTak;TgnwgeynD½r ¬snÞsSn_ kñúgRbeTscMnYn 20 mankarqøak;cuHmYyEpñk KWkarqøak;cuH elIGRtae)aHbg;
smPaBeynD½rKitCatYelxsRmab;GRtacuHeQµaHcUleronsrubenAbzm kareronsURtdl;fñak;TI 5.
sikSa nigmFümsikSa nigGRtaGkçrkmµkñúgcMeNammnusSeBjv½y¦ 5> témøsnÞsSn_énkarGPivDÆkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaGacmancenøaHBI 0 - 1.
kalNatémørMkilCit 1 mann½yfa RbeTsenaHCitQanseRmceKaledArbs;xøÜn
ehIykarGb;rMk¾seRmckan;EteRcInEdr.
22
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
CMBUk 4
eKalneya)aysRmab;eFVI[KuNPaBkan;Etl¥RbesIr
© STEFAB BIBESS/PANOS/EDITINGSERVER.COM

GñkeronsURtRbePTepSgKña kareqøIytbedaydak;bBa©ÚlrYmKña sisSkøahanmYynak;enARbeTseGrIeRto


kareFVI[manPaBxusKñaenAkñúgfñak;eron ³ eBlevla
kmµviFIsikSa esovePAsikSa nigPasa fVI ebIsisSmYycMnYnmin)anTTYlCMnajmUldæanc,as;las;enAeBlbBa©b;
karsikSaenAbzmsikSay:agNak¾eday k¾karvinieyaKedIm,IelIkkMBs;kar
skmµPaBbeRgon³ erobcMtamrcnasm<½n§ eronsURtKWCakarcaM)ac;pgEdr. rdæaPi)alPaKeRcInkMBugrgsm<aFBIsisS
nigyksisSCamCÄmNÐl BImþay«Buk GñkRKb;RKgsala nigBIRKUbeRgon EdlminRtwmEtTamTar[
smÖar b¤GKarsmRsb BRgIk»kascUleronb:ueNÑaHeT EtEfmTaMgCMrujsßanb½nGb;rM nigkmµviFIGb;rM
[Gnuvtþkargar[manRbsiT§PaB nig[)anl¥RbesIrCagmun. eTaHCay:ag
karbNþúHfñak;dwknaM nigRKb;RKgsalaeron Nak¾eday k¾rdæaPi)alkñúgRbeTsmanR)ak;cMNUlTab nigRbeTsepSg²
eTotEdlman]bsKÁxVHxatFnFanF¶n;F¶rRbQmmuxnwgCeRmIsd¾lM)akkñúg
karBRgwglMhUrcMeNHdwg karGnuvtþkargarrbs;xøÜn.
R)ak;cMNUl nigkarGPivDÆviC¢aCIv³RKUbeRgon karExVgKMnit)anekIteLIgRtg;cMNucEdlfa rdæaPi)alKYrvinieyaKfvika
y:agtic 6° énplitplCatisrub ¬GNP¦ elIvis½yGb;rM ebIeTaHbICa
neya)ayelIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rM³ eFVIdUecñHminFanapþl;KuNPaBGb;rMk¾eday. eTaHbIsßitenAkñúgkRmitvinieyaK
RbyuT§RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYy ksag karTTYlxusRtUv TabsRmab;eBlbc©úb,nñ k¾rdæaPi)alGacmanCeRmIsd¾RbéBedIm,IsRmYl
FanaPaB m©as;kar dl;lkçxNÐénkareronsURt[)ankan;EtRbesIrEdr.
23
düa:RkamxageRkambBa¢ak;BIRkbx½NÐeKalneya)aymYykñúgkarelIkkMBs; kumarTaMgenaH Cajwkjab;RtUv)at;bg;edaysartRmUvkarEfTaMsmaCik
KuNPaBénkarbeRgon nigeronedayykcitþTukdak;enAtamkRmitepSg² RKYsarmanCMgW b¤tRmUvkarCYyrkR)ak;cMNUlciBa©wmRKYsar. sßanPaBdUecñH
nigPaKIBak;B½n§sMxan;²enAkñúgskmµPaBGb;rM. GMBavnav[maneKalneya)aylMGitEdlGaceqøIytbeTAnwgtRmUvkar
nigkal³eTs³ epSg²rbs;kumarRKb;RbePT.
eKalneya)ayGb;rM suxPaBRTúDeRTam nigkgVHGaharUbtßmÖman\T§iBleTAelIsmtßPaBeron
briyakasKaMRT sURtrbs;kumar. enAkñúgRbeTsCaeRcIn bBaðasuxPaB nigGaharUbtßmÖRtUv
)anedaHRsayRbkbedayeCaKC½ytamry³kmµviFIyksalaCamUldæan
karbeRgon EdlCaTUeTA kmµviFIenaHCYypþl;Twks¥at Gnam½yRKb;RKan; karBüa)al
ehdæarcna RKb;RKg nig
suxPaB dUcCakarbBa©úHstVl¥itkñúgxøÜn GaharenAsala nigbeRgonCMnaj
sm<½n§cMeNHdwg Gñkeron GPi)alkic©sala suxPaBCamUldæan. cMENkRbeTsEdlmanGRtaqøgemeraKeGds_¼CMgW
eGds_x<s;vij muxgarénkarGb;rMkñúgkarTb;sáat;karqøgraldalénemeraK
kareron d¾Rbl½yenHmanRbsiT§PaBx<s;bMput.
kumary:ageRcInenAelIBiPBelak)anTTYlnUvPaBGyutþiFm’edaysarkar
FnFanmnusS bdiesFn_min[TTYlplRbeyaCn_BIkarGb;rM eRBaHkumarTaMgenaHman
nigFnFanrUbv½nþ lkçN³epSgBIkumardéT. tamkar):an;sµan[dwgfa enAelIsklelak man
kumarBikarRbmaNCa 150 lannak; ehIykñúgcMeNamenaHmankumartic
Cag 2° Edl)ancuHeQµaHcUleronenAsala. karBiPakSaelICeRmIsviFI
dak;GñkeronsURtTaMgGs;[)ancUleronCamYyKña KaMRTedaydak;bBa©ÚlkumarTaMgenaHeTAkñúgsalaTUeTA nigkarTamTar[man
salaBiesssRmab;kumarRbePTenaHBMuTan;RtUv)anedaHRsayenAeLIyeT.
GñkeronsURtKWCatYGgÁd¾sMxan;enAkñúgdMeNIrkarbeRgon nigeron. dMeNIrkar ebIBinitüelIKuNPaBGb;rM viFImYykñúgcMeNamviFITaMgBIrenHmancMNucEdl
enHemIleTAhak;bIdUcCakarCak;Esþg b:uEnþ Canic©kalBMumankarBiteLIy. RtUvBicarNaeRcIn. enAkñúgRbeTsmYycMnYn RKUbeRgonEdlTTYl)ankar
emeraKeGds_¼CMgWeGds_ BikarPaB CemøaH nigkareRbIR)as;Blkmµkumar bNþúHbNþalBiessTTYl)anR)ak;kéRmticCagkRmitsþg;daedaysarRKU
eFVI[kumarrab;lannak;CYbRbTHnwgKuNvibtþiF¶n;F¶r. enAGnutMbn;sahar:a TaMgenaHRtUvbeRgonsisSticCagRKUFmµta. karGb;rMedaykardak;bBa©ÚlKña
GaRBic kumarCag 11 lannak; EdlmanGayueRkam 15 qñaM )at;bg;y:ag Edll¥RtUvcMNayeRcIn - sRmab;EklMGkmµviFIsikSa karbNþúHbNþalRKU
tic«Buk b¤mþayedaysaremeraKeGds_¼CMgWeGds_. »kascUleronrbs;
sisSxMRbwgeroneRkamBnøWePøIgTanenARbeTsháaetma:La
© Miguel Dewever Plana/AGENCE VU

24
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
begáItsmÖareron nigbeRgonnwgCYysRmYldl;lT§PaBeTAsalaeronrbs; kmµviFIsikSamankarERbRbYlmYycMnYnkñúgry³eBl 20 qñaMknøgeTAenH.
kumarTaMgenaH. fVIebIkarGb;rMedaydak;bBa©ÚlKñaCaeKaledAl¥mYyk¾eday eTaHbICaCMnajmUldæanenAEtCaEpñkmYyd¾caM)ac; témøsklEdlTak;Tg
k¾viFIsaRsþTaMgBIrenHGacdak;bBa©ÚlKña[eTACa {viFIsaRsþePøaH} EdlGñk nwgBlrdæviC¢a nig lT§iRbCaFibetyü nigkarGb;rMsiT§imnusSRtUv)aneKyk
eronGaceRCIserIs)anenAkñúgbribTeKalneya)aydak;bBa©ÚlKña. citþTukdak;kan;EteRcIneLIg.
kumarkñúgRbeTsEdlTTYlrgeRKaHedaysarCemøaH b¤eTIbegIbecjBI tulüPaBmuxviC¢a
CemøaHTamTarCabnÞan;nUv»kascUleron nigkarKaMRTxagsµartI. karRsav eTaHbIeKaledA nigeKalbMNgénkmµviFIsikSaRtUv)anqøúHbBa©aMgtamry³
RCavfµImYykñúgRbeTs 10 EdlmanCemøaH)anrkeXIjfa kumar nigyuvv½y muxviC¢aEdlRtUvbeRgonenAkñúgsalak¾eday k¾mankarBiPakSaelIeKal
Cag 27 lannak;minmanlT§PaB nig»kasTTYlkarGb;rMkñúgRbB½n§eLIy. neya)ayTak;TgnwgKMnitEdlfa etImuxviC¢aTaMgenaHRtUvkMNt;y:agNa
CakarRbesIr kmµviFIsikSaKYrykcitþTukdak;elIGaharUbtßmÖ nigGnam½y muxviC¢ab:unµanRtUvykeTAbeRgon ehIymuxviC¢anImYy²RtUvkarry³eBl
karyl;dwgBIRKab;mIn skmµPaBvb,Fm’ kILa nigtémøepSg²EdlCYy beRgonb:unµan. tamkarCak;Esþg muxviC¢amYycMnYnEdlmanenAkñúgkmµviFI
FanarkSasnþiPaB. bNþajkargarGnþrsßab½nTTYlbnÞúkkic©karGb;rMkñúg sikSakñúgRbB½n§enAelIBiPBelakenHmankarERbRbYltictYcb:ueNÑaHkñúg
eBlGasnñ6 kMBugbegáItkRmitsþg;daGb,brmamYyedIm,ICYydl;smaCik GMLúgeBl 2 TsvtSr_knøgeTAenH. eTaHCay:agenHk¾eday k_smasPaBén
shKmn_GnþrCati nigPaKIsMxan;epSgeTot muxviC¢aTaMgenaHmankarEkERbxøH CaBiessedaymankardak;bBa©ÚlnUv
kumarkñúgRbeTsEdlTTYl edIm,IFanafa kumarkñúgsßanPaBlM)akenaHGac muxviC¢afµI²Tak;TgnwgsuxPaB siT§imnusS brisßan nigbec©kviTüaEdlRtUv
rgeRKaHedaysarCemøaH TTYl)ankarGb;rMEdlmanKuNPaBRKb;RKan;. bEnßmelImuxviC¢a {RKwH} Tak;TgpÞal;eTAnwgGkSrsaRsþ nigelxnBVnþ. Epñk
b¤eTIbEtegIbecjBI sMxan;rbs;kmµviFIsikSaRKwHKWkarbeRgon[sisSecHGan nigeronGan. GkSr
CemøaHTamTarCabnÞan; CeRmIsepSg²sRmab;pþl;karGb;rMkñúgRbB½n§ nig saRsþKWCaviFand¾caM)ac;mYysRmab;eron[BUEkelImuxviC¢aepSg²eTot.
nUv»kascUleron nig CeRmIsEdlmanPaBTn;Pøn;tRmUv[manCa GkSrsaRsþk¾CasUc©nakrN_mYykñúgcMeNamsUc©nakrN_d¾l¥bMputbBa¢ak;BI
karKaMRTxagsµartI caM)ac;edIm,I[kumarmYycMnYnEdlRbQmmux lT§plTTYl)anBIkareronsURtyUrGEgVg. dUecñH eronGanRtUvcat;TukCa
nwgkarlM)akman»kasTTYlkarGb;rM . rdæ muxviC¢aGaTiPaBmYysRmab;elIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rMmUldæan CaBiess
GaRda)a:EdsénRbeTs\NÐaGnuvtþkmµviFIeron sRmab;sisSmkBIRKYsarRkIRkCYbkarlM)ak.
BIcm¶ayEdlmansisSsikSakñúgkmµviFIRbmaNCag 100000 nak; rYm
mansisSe)aHbg;ecalsala kumarmkBIRKYsarvNѳTab nigkumarBikar. kareRbIR)as;eBlevla[manRbsiT§PaB
kmµviFIenHmantémøRbhak;RbEhlnwgkarGb;rMbzmsikSakñúgRbB½n§Edr. karRsavRCavbgðajBITMnak;TMngviC¢man nigeTogTat;rvageBlevlaénkar
pþl;emeron niglT§pleronsURtrbs;sisSTaMgenAkRmitbzmsikSa nig
karelIkkMBs;skmµPaBbeRgon nigeron mFümsikSa. sMxan;CagenHeTAeTot TMnak;TMngenHkan;EtmanPaBrwgmaM
dMeNIrkarbeRgon nigeronKWCaCIvitrbs;kmµviFIsikSa. dMeNIrkarenHkMNt; enAkñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆ. eTaHCay:agenHk¾eday k¾karRsavRCavenAeBl
skmµPaBenAkñúgfñak;eron nigKuNPaBénlT§pleronsURt. karGnuvtþ fµI²bgðajfa tamkarBinitüCaskl eBlevlasRmab;karbeRgonEdl
dMeNIrkarenH[)anl¥RtUvykcitþTukdak;elIbBaðaeKalneya)ayCaKnøwH6 )anerobcMTukRbcaMqñaMmin)anekIneLIgeLIy EtpÞúyeTAvijmanRbeTs
cMNucEdlman\T§iBlpÞal;eTAelIkarbeRgon nigeronrbs;sisS. karGnuvtþ CaeRcIn)ankat;bnßyeBlevlabeRgonmYyEpñk edaysarsm<aFeqøIytb
dMeNIrkarenHk¾TamTar[ykcitþTukdak;elIFnFanepSg²EdlCYyeday eTAnwgtRmUvkarx<s; enAeBlEdlmankarlM)akxVHFnFan. karsikSatUc²
Rbeyaldl;dMeNIrkarbeRgon nigeronsURtpgEdr. mYycMnYnbgðajfa eBlevlaCaeRcInEdl)anerobcMsRmab;beRgonRtUv)an
)at;bg;edaysarGvtþmanrbs;RKU nigsisS kgVHxatbnÞb;eron kgVHxat
eKalneya)ayTaMg 6 cMNuc smÖareronsURt nigvin½ysalaminl¥. eTaHbICary³eBl 100 em:agkñúg
eKalbMNgsmRsb mYyqñaMRtUvTTYl)ankarÉkPaBy:agTUlMTUlayfa CaeBlevlaRKwHsRmab;
karBiPakSaelIeKalneya)ayRtUvEteFVIeLIgtamkRmiteKalbMNgBak;B½n§ kareron nigbeRgonk¾eday k¾manRbeTstictYcb:ueNÑaH)anTTYleCaKC½y
nigmantulüPaBedayerobrab;fa etIGñkeronsURtKYreronGMBIGVI ehIyehtuGVI elIkareRbIR)as;eBlevlaenH. karRKb;RKgsalaeron)anl¥ nigyuT§saRsþ
KYreronemeronEbbenaH. karGPivDÆCMnajviPaK écñRbDit nigcMeNHdwg beRgonmanRbsiT§PaBGacCYy[seRmcninñakarenH.
sgÁmKWRtUvbBa©Úledayxanmin)an b:uEnþmankar)armÖGMBItémø TaMgenAfñak; viFIsaRsþcitþKruekaslüCYysisS[eron)anl¥RbesIr
sklelak tYy:agkareKarBsiT§imnusS bBaðabrisßan snþiPaB nig PaB enAkñúgRbeTsCaeRcIn rebob nigviFIsaRsþbeRgonEdlRKUykeTAeRbICaTUeTA
Gt;»n nigTaMgenAtammUldæan dUcCa PaBExVgKMnitKñaxagvb,Fm’CaedIm. min)anCYysisS[eron)anRbesIreLIy. GñkCMnajGb;rMCaeRcInÉkPaBfa
RbeTsCaeRcInkMBugGnuvtþkargartRmg;eq<aHeTArkkardak;bBa©ÚlKñatam KruekaslüykRKUCaeKalmCÄmNÐl eday[sisSmanmuxgarCaGñkTTYl
EdlsmRsbnwgtémøskl nigtémømUldæan edaykarRc)ac;bBa©ÚlKñanUv suT§saFBMuRbesIrsRmab;kareronsURtrbs;sisSeLIy b:uEnþviFIsaRsþenH
kmµviFIsikSa nigCIvitesdækic© sgÁmkic©kñúgshKmn_ nigfñak;Cati. Tinñn½y RtUv)anGnuvtþenAkñúgbnÞb;erony:ageRcInenAGnutMbn;sahar:aGaRBic nig
sþIBIkmµviFIsikSafñak;CatiénRbeTs 108 bgðajfa karykcitþTukdak;elI kEnøgepSg²eTot. kmµviFIsikSasMxan;²TaMgLayeKRbTHeXIjenAkñúgtMbn;
6. http://www.ineesite.org

25
TaMgGs;CMrujelIkTwkcitþ[eRbIKruekaslüyksisSCaeeKalmCÄmNÐl R)as;PasaepSg²KñaKWCaCeRmIseKalneya)aymYyEdlman\T§iBleTA
viFIeronsURtedaykarcUlrYm nigGPivDÆn_CMnajKitviPaK nigCMnajedaH elIkmµviFIsikSa xøwmsarénmuxviC¢a nigviFIsaRsþcitþKruekaslü. tulüPaB
RsaybBaða. ]TahrN_énkmµviFITaMgenaHrYmmankmµviFI Escula Nueva PasacaM)ac;RtUveFVIeLIgrvagPasaEdlCYy[GñkeroneRbIR)as;Pasakñúg
enARbeTskULMb‘Í kmµviFIsala-shKmn_enARbeTseGhSIb kmµviFI RsuksRmab;kareronsURt nigeFVIy:agNa[sisSTaMgenaHmanlT§PaBeRbI
Kruekaslü Convergent enARbeTsm:alI nigsalaCaeRcInEdlRKb;RKg R)as;Pasasklelak)an.
nigdMeNIrkaredayKN³kmµkarGPivDÆCnbTbg;køaEds. karRbwgERbgEk eronsURt nigdkBiesaFn_BIkarvaytémø
sRmYledIm,IeRbIR)as;viFIsaRsþfµIenH)ankøayeTACaEpñkts‘UmYyelIkarEk karvaytémøeTogTat;ykCakar)an nigTan;eBlevlaKWCaktþaKnøwHkñúgkar
lMGKruekaslüenAGnutMbn;sahar:aGaRBic b:uEnþBMuTan;mankarsnñidæan elIkkMBs;lT§plénkareronsURt. enAtambnÞb;eron karvaytémøGacEbg
lT§plenAeLIy ehIymankarcMNayx<s;. EckCakarvaytémøsrub ¬vaytémølT§pltamry³etsþEdlmankar
Tak;TgnwgviFIsaRsþbeRgonEbbRbéBNI {sresr nigniyay} nigviFIsaRsþ erobcMTukCamun¦ b¤karvaytémøtamdankarrIkceRmIn ¬viPaKGMBIrebob
{beRgonedaykarcUlrYm} manGñkGb;rMCaeRcInnak;KaMRTdl;karbeRgon EdlsisSmYynak;²sikSaeronsURttamry³karsegát¦. eKaledAénkar
edaymanrcnasm<½n§RtwmRtUv eBalKWkarbeRgonEdlmandak;bBa©ÚlKña vaytémøenHKWedIm,IrkKMnitqøúHbBa©aMgsRmab;pþl;[sisSvij nigedIm,IelIk
nUvkarENnaMpÞal; karGnuvtþedaymankarENnaMCamun nigkareroneday kMBs;skmµPaBbeRgon nigeronsURt. RbeTsmYycMnYn ¬dUcCaRbeTs
m©as;kar. CaFmµta RKUbgðajxøwmsaremeronmYycMnYn ¬edayeFVIy:agNa[ háaNa Gaemrikxagt,Úg nigRsIlgáa¦ )aneRCIserIsykkarvaytémø
sisSyl;BIxøwmsaremeronenaHsin¦ ehIybMpus[sisSeronEsVgyl;. tamdankarrIkceRmIneFVICaEpñkbMeBjbEnßmeTAelIkarRblgpøÚvkar. enA
PsþútagCaeRcInbgðajfa karbeRgonedaymanrcnasm<½n§enHTTYl)an kñúgRbeTsCaeRcIn kal³eTs³enAmUldæanbgá]bsKÁdl;karBRgIkkarvay
lT§plRbesIrCagviFIsaRsþbeRgonedaykarcUlrYmsRmab;kumarEdlman témø[)anTUlMTUlay dUcCa tRmUvkar[manFnFanRKb;RKan; karbNþúH
sßanPaBlM)ak kumarEdlmankarlM)akkñúgkareronsURt nigkumareronkñúg bNþalRKUbeRgonGMBIbec©keTsvaytémø nigcMnYnsisSkñúgfñak;erontic.
fñak;EdlmansisSeRcIn. viFIenHk¾enAEtGacbegáIt[manbriyakaseron FnFanEdlCYydl;karbeRgon nigeron[)anl¥
sURtyksisSCaeKalmCÄmNÐlEdr eBalKWsisSenAEtman»kasRsav
RCav nigEsVgyl;edayxøÜnÉg. eKalneya)ayesovePAsikSafñak;Cati
tMbn;dac;RsyalGacRtUvkarviFIsaRsþGb;rMBiess dUcCakmµviFIeronBI esovePAsikSaBitCaCYysRmYldl;karEkERbKuNPaBénkarbeRgon nig
cm¶ay fñak;eroncl½t nigkarbeRgonedaymanfñak;cRmuH. kmµviFIsikSa eronrbs;sisSpgEdr b:uEnþkarRsavRCavRtUv)aneFVIeLIgtictYckñúgGMLúg
eTotesatRtUvEtEksRmYleTAtamsßanPaBCak;Esþg ehIyRKUbeRgonKYr eBlknøgeTA. kgVHesovePAsikSaGacbNþalmkBIRbB½n§énkarEbgEckBMu
TTYl)ankarbNþúHbNþaledIm,IbegáItviFIsaRsþKruekaslü smRsb dUcCa manRbsiT§PaB karGnuvtþminRtwmRtUv b¤GMeBIBukrlYy. karsikSakñúg
kareronsURtCamYymitþPkþi karsikSaCaRkum nigkarsikSaedayxøÜnÉg. RbeTshSmb‘Í ¬qñaM2000¦ rkeXIjfa esovePAticCag 10° RtUv)anyk
eTAeRbIR)as;kñúgbnÞb;eron. karEkTRmg;;TIpSaresovePAsikSa)aneFVI[man
eKalneya)ayPasa esovePAsikSasm,ÚrEbbsRmab;sisS nigmantémøefakenAkñúgRbeTs
RbCaCnRbmaN 1/3 lannak; EdlRtUvCa 20° énRbCaCnBiPBelak CaeRcIn. enAkñúgRbeTsyUháan;da témøesovePA)ancuHéfø 50° edaysar
man {PasakñúgRsuk} CaPasakMeNIt. enAkñúgkrNICaeRcIn kareRCIserIs lT§plénkarEckcay)anl¥. enAkñúgRbeTsepSg²eTot ¬dUcCashB½n§
PasasRmab;eRbIenAkñúgsalaeronKWmansar³sMxan;bMputsRmab;CYy rUsSIú¦ TIpSarTUlMTUlay)anlk;esovePAenAkñúgtMbn;mYyeRcInCagtMbn;
Psþútagbgðajfa karcab; elI kkMBs;KuNPaBénkarbeRgon nigeron. mYyeTot. karplitesovePAsikSa[mansmFm’ edayrYmbBa©ÚlTaMgkar
epþImbeRgonedayeRbIPasa Psþ útagRsavRCavbgðajfa karcab;epþIm elIkkMBs;kare)aHBum<esovePAenAtamtMbn;TamTar[mankic©sRmb
kMeNItrbs;GñkeronCYyelIk beRgo nedayeRbIPasakMeNItrbs;Gñkeron sRmYlxøaMgkøaBIrdæaPi)al CaBiesstamry³sßab½nCMnajfñak;Cati nig
kMBs; lT§plénkareronsURt tic kat;kkMbBnßs;ylGRtaRtY
CYy elI T§plénkareronsURt cMNay edaymankarcUlrYmBIRksYgBak;B½n§ EpñkÉkCn nigsgÁmsIuvil k¾dUcCa
cMNaytic kat;bnßyGRta ecalsala. viFIstaRsþ fñak; nigGRtae)aHbg;
KMrUEdlTTYl)an
Gnuvtþ b¤begáIteKalneya)ayfñak;CatisþIBIesovePAsikSa. karKaMRTxøaMg
køaBIeKalneya)ayCatieFVI[rdæaPi)alRbeTseRbsIulGacpÁt;pÁg;esov
RtYtfñak; nigGRtae)aH eCaKC½ y bM p u t enaHKW f a bnÞ ab;BI)ancMNay ePAsikSasRmab;dak;bNÑal½yenAesÞIrEtRKb;salabzmsikSaTaMgGs;
bg;ecalkarsikSa eBlsikSadMbUgenAsalaCaeRcInqñaMrYcmk tamry³kmµviFIbNÑal½yesovePAsikSafñak;Cati.
KYrbBa©ÚlPasaTIBIrCabeNþIr². RbeTs briyakaseronsURtRbkbedaysuvtßiPaB nigTak;TajGarmµN_
hSmb‘Í)anbegáItviFIsaRsþKMrUeTVPasa ehIyeBlenH)anRbkan;P¢ab;y:ag
hµt;ct;kñúgkarEkTRmg;Gb;rMedIm,IelIkkMBs;KuNPaB. RbeTs)a:BYrjÚKIenor edIm,IseRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSatRmUv[RbeTsnanamankarerobcM
eRbIR)as;Cag 434 PasasRmab;beRgonenAfñak;dMbUg²kñúgcMeNamPasa tubEtg nigksagbnÞb;eron EdlBMuFøab;manBImunmk. salaRtUverobcMbgá
cRmuHrbs;RbCaCnRbmaN 830 Pasa. rebobvar³EkTRmg;;vis½yGb;rMqñaM lkçN³gayRsYldl;sisSBikar nigmanGKar b¤bnÞb;eronedIm,IFana[
1995 )anERbkøayPasaniyayeTACaPasasRmab;beRgonenAqñaMTI 1 nigTI manbriyakaseronsURtRbkbedaypasukPaB. Twks¥at nigGnam½yRKb;
2 ehIyPasaGg;eKøsRtUvbBa©ÚlenAcugqñaMTI3. karbeRgonedayeRbI RKan; KWCaktþad¾sMxan;. enAGnutMbn;sahar:aGaRBic rhUtmkdl;eBlfµI²
26
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
KeRmagsagsg;salaeronkRmmanbBa©ÚlbgÁn;Gnam½y b¤RbB½n§Twks¥at RbeTsesra:eLGUn ³ RKUbeRgonbzmsikSaRbQmmuxnwgkarxVHxatRKb;ya:g
Nas;. ]TahrN_ enARbeTsm:UrItanI nigRbeTsqad karbBa©ÚlbgÁn; enAeBlbBa©b;sRgÁamsIuvilGs; 11 qñaMkñúgRbeTsesra:eLGUnenAqñaM 2001
Gnam½y nigRbBn§½TwkeTAkñúgKeRmagsagsg;salabzmsikSa)anekIt éføcMNaysRmab;karGb;rMRtUvlubecal ehIyGahartamsalaRtUv)anpþl;
manBIqñaM 2001-2002 b:ueNÑaH. karEfTaMbgÁn;Gnam½y nigRbB½n§TwkKWCa CaTUeTA CaehtueFVI[karcuHeQµaHcUleronenAbzmsikSaekIneLIgy:agxøaMg.
viFankarEdlmankarcMNaytic b:uEnþCYyelIkkMBs;CIvit nigKuNPaB karcuHeQµaHcUleron)anekIneLIg 3 dg kñúgry³eBlticCag 4 qñaM. mYyfñak;
GKarsikSa. EteTaHCay:agenHk¾eday k¾karEfTaMCajwkjab;RtUv)aneK mansisSCag 70 nak;. RKUbeRgonbzmsikSaCag 20° enAsalardæBMuman
emIlrMlgenAkñúgKeRmagCMnYy nigfvikardæ. pÞúyeTAvij karTTYlxusRtUv eQµaHkñúgbBa¢ITTYlR)ak;kéRmBIrdæ. RKUPaKeRcInCaRKUsµ½®KcitþedayTTYl)an
KWCabnÞúkrbs;shKmn_EdlGacxVHFnFansRmab;karEfTaMCamUldæan. karbNþúHbNþalviC¢aCIv³bnþicbnþÜc b¤BMu)anTTYlesaH. RKUmYycMnYnTTYl
RKUbeRgon ³ karvinieyaKd¾sMxan; R)ak;]btßmÖBIshKmn_. R)ak;ExRKUbzmsikSarbs;rdæenAcugqñaM 2003
CamFüm)anRbEhl 50 duløaGaemrik. tamBit R)ak;ExRKU)anFøak;cuHeRcIn
kareFVIvinieyaKelIRKUbeRgonEdlCamnusSd¾sMxan;kñúgkarEkTRmg;vis½y CagBak;kNþalcab;taMgBIBak;kNþalTsvtSr_ 1990. RKUPaKeRcInman
Gb;rMedIm,IelIkkMBs;KuNPaB KWCaEpñkd_sMxan;bMputenAkñúgfvikardæ. viFI bnÞúkciBa©wmsmaCikRKYsarBI 4 eTA 5 nak; CamYynwgR)ak;cMNUlticCag 2
saRsþelIkkMBs;kareRCIserIsRKUbeRgon karbNþúHbNþal nig lkçxNÐ duløakñúgmYyéf¶. karebIkR)ak;ExCajwkjab;yWt. RKUenATIRkugGacrkR)ak;
kargarrbs;RKUbeRgonKWCabBaðaneya)ayd¾sMxan;. cMNUlbEnßmtamry³karbeRgonÉkCn. RKUmYycMnYnminbeRgonsisStam
kmµviFI[)aneBjeljeT pÞúyeTAvijbgçMsisS[cUleronÉkCn. RKUenA
karbNþúHbNþalEdlRtUvKitKUreLIgvij CnbTCaFmµtalk;nM nigsáRKab;[sisSenAeBlsMrak. eTaHCasIlFm’RKU
edIm,ITak;Taj[manebkçCnRKUbeRgonTaMgkñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆ nigRbeTs Føak;cuHkIþ RKUFøab;Gvtþman 20° enAcugqñaM 2001 hak;dUcCaFøak;cuHbnþic.
GPivDÆ)anbBa©úHsþg;dasRmab;eRCIserIsRKU[cUleronkñúgvKÁbNþúHbNþal
RKU. eTaHbICaCeRmIsenaHKYrEtRtUv)aneFVIeLIgedayykcitþTukdak;k¾eday kñúgry³eBlknøgeTAenH R)ak;cMNUlrbs;RKU
k¾enAmanviFIepSg²EdlmanlkçN³bt;Ebn nigTn;Pøn;sRmab;bBa©ÚlRKUeTA )anFøak;cuH. enAkñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆR)ak; enAkñúgRbeTskMBug
kñúgviC¢aCIv³beRgon)anEdr. ]TahrN_ eTBekaslü nig cMNg;cMNUlcitþKYr ExRKUbzmsikSaCamFümPaKenAqñaM 1975 GPivDÆCaeRcIn R)ak;ExRKU
cat;TukfamantémødUcKñaeTAnwgkarGb;rMkñúgRbB½n§mYycMnYnpgEdr. KWeRcInCag 6 dgénplitplkñúgRsuksrub TictYcminRKb;RKan;sRmab;
rbs;mnusSmñak;² b:uEnþenAqñaM 2000 GRta CIvPaBsmrmüeT
tamviFIsaRsþKMrUd¾sMxan;énkarbNþúHbNþaldMbUg² karGb;rMkñúgRbB½n§RtUv enHRtUvqøak;cuHesÞIrEtBak;kNþal. ninñakar
eFVIeLIgBIqñaMdMbUgrhUtdl;qñaMTI 5 Edlry³eBlénkarbNþúHbNþalCak;Esþg enHRtUv)ankt;sMKal;eXIjCaBiessenAGaRBicniyayPasa)araMg Edl
GacxøI b¤Evg ehIyCajwkjab;mankarcMNayeRcIn. viFIsaRsþKMrUEdlTak; enATIenaHGRtaenH)anFøak;cuHrhUtdl; 1¼3 ¬emIltarag 4>1¦.
TgeTAnwgEpñkGnuvtþCak;Esþgry³eBlEvgtRmUv[mansalaeronRKb;RKan;
EdlmansmtßPaBbNþúHbNþalRKUbeRgon. enARbeTsKuy)a karbNþúH enARbeTsEdlmancMNUlmFüm nigcMNUlx<s;mYycMnYn RKUbeRgonkøayCa
bNþalmuneBlcUlbeRgonTaMgGs; KWeFVIeLIgenAtamsalaeron. eBlxøH RkumGñkmanrhUtdl;TsSvtSr_ 1990 cMENkRKUbeRgonenARbeTsEdl
karbNþúHbNþaledayyksalaeFVICamUldæanGacdak;bBa©ÚlkareronsURt manR)ak;cMNUlTabmYycMnYn R)ak;cMNUlBitrbs;RKUbeRgonRtUvFøak;cuH
BIcm¶ay RbsinebIsikçakamRKUbeRgonTaMgenaHTTYl)ansmÖareronsURt nig RbmaN 20°. enARbeTsCaeRcInenAGaRBic R)ak;cMNUlrbs;RKUbeRgon
karKaMRTRKb;RKan;. kmµviFIbNþúHbNþalnanaeFVIkar)a:n;sµanmin)anRtwm kñúgqñaM 2000 TTYl)anticCagkalBIGMlugqñaM 1970.
RtUvGMBIry³eBlEdlsikçakamRKURtUvkaredIm,Iyl;dwg[)anc,as;GMBI tarag 4>1 ³ pleFobR)ak;ExRKUbzmsikSa nigplitplCatisrubtamtMbn;
muxviC¢aEdlRtUvykeTAbeRgon. sikçakamRKUbeRgon Cajwkjab; BMu)anEsVg 1975-2000 ¬RbeTsmanR)ak;cMNUleRkam 2000 duløaGaemrik 1993¦
yl;BIkarBitRbcaMéf¶enAkñúgsalaeroneT. 1975 1985 1992 2000
GñkbegáIteKalneya)ayenAkñúgRbeTsnanaGacBicarNaBItulüPaBrvag RbeTsEd;lmanR)ak;cMNUl 6>6 4>6 4>3 3>7
eRkam2000 duløakñúgmYyqñaM
karbNþúHbNþaldMbUg nigkarbNþúHbNþalkñúgeBlbMeBjkargar. RKU
beRgonEdleTIbEtbBa©b;karbNþúHbNþaltRmUv[mankarKaMRTxøaMgkøa GaRBic 8>6 6>3 6>0 4>4
CaBiess kñúgGMLúgeBlénkarbeRgonqñaMdMbUg. TRmg;;vinieyaKmanTMenareTA niyayPasaGg;eKøs 4>4 3>5 3>6 4>2
rkkarbNþúHbNþalKWmanplRbeyaCn_eRcIn. karKaMRTbnþ[)anl¥ viC¢a niyayPasa)araMg 11>5 8>0 6>3 4>8
CIv³RKUbeRgonKWCarcnasm<½n§elIkTwkcitþ EdleFVI[RKUbeRgonemIleXIj niyayPasasaEhl 17>6 11>8 8>2 6:>4
plRbeyaCn_elIkarelIkkMBs;karbeRgon ehIyCMrujsala[Kitfa
karelIkkMBs;kareronsURt[l¥RbesIrKWCamUldæanénckçúvis½yGb;rM. GasIu 3>7 2>7 2>5 2>9
GaemrikLaTIn 2>7 2>9 2>3 2>3
karrkcMNUlfycuH mCÄwmbUBa’ nigGaRBicxageCIg 5>6 2>8 3>3 3>3
enAkñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆmYycMnYn karrkR)ak;cMNUlrbs;RKUbeRgonman
kRmitTabxøaMgrhUtdl;minGacmankRmitCIvPaBsmrmü ¬emIlRbGb;¦. RbPB ³ CMBUk 4 r)aykarN_Gb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
27
dMeNIreq<aHeTAkat;bnßykRmitmFümPaKéncMNUlrbs;RKUbeRgonbgákar kariyaFibetyü nigGMNacénkareFVIesckþIseRmc. eTaHCay:agenHk¾eday
lM)ak ehIyb:HBal;dl;KuNPaBGb;rMF¶n;F¶r. bnÞúkénkarcMNayelIR)ak;Ex rhUtmkdl;eBlenHBMuTan;manPsþútagRKb;RKan;GMBI\T§iBlénsala
Gackat;bnßy)anbnþicbnþÜctamry³viFankarepSg² dUcCa BRgIkfñak;[FM sVy½teTAelIlT§plénkarGb;rMenAeLIy. kic©RBmeRBogrYmmYybBa¢ak;fa
¬ebIeFVI)an¦ beRgoncRmuHfñak; nigkarbeRgonedaykarmankarpøas;bþÚrevn lkçxNÐmYycMnYnRtUvkarbegáIt[manCacaM)ac; RbsinebIRtUvkarelIkkMBs;
RbsinGacGnuvtþedayykcitþTukdak;eTAtamkal³eTs³smRsb. KuNPaBGb;rMkñúgsalasVy½t. lkçxNÐTaMgenaHtRmUv[manyuT§saRsþ
karTak;TajRKUbeRgon rdæaPi)alkNþalRbkbedaykarKaMRT nigc,as;las;edIm,IBRgwgsmtßPaB
nigpþl;karKaMRTEpñkviC¢aCIv³beRgondl;sala nigFana[mantmøaPaB.
edIm,IseRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSatRmUv[manRKUbEnßmeRcInnak;. ktþaCaKnøwHepSg²eTotmanrcnasm<½n§RtYtBinitütamdan nigFanafa
GRtapleFobsisS nigRKU ¬60³1¦ b¤eRcInCagenHRtUv)ankt;RtaTukenAkñúg salaTaMgenaHTTYl)anB½t’manRKb;RKan;Tak;TgnwgskmµPaBGnuvtþ.
RbeTsCaeRcIn EdlkarcuHeQµaHcUleronmankarekIneLIgenAeBlfµI²enH. GñkdwknaMRKUbeRgonKWCamnusSd¾sMxan;sRmab;CMrujkic©xitxMRbwgERbgenH
RbeTsmYycMnYnenAGaRBic nigGasIueRCIserIsRKUbMrugCab;kic©snüary³ mann½yfa criténkardwknaMrbs;eKGacman\T§iBly:agxøaMgkøaelIKuNPaB
eBlxøI ehIyRKUTaMgenaHTTYl)anR)ak;Ex nigkéRmepSg²ticCagsmPaKI Gb;rM. enAkñúgRbeTsGPivDÆmansßanb½nCMnajsRmab;dusxat;CMnaj
RKUbeRgonGaCIB. rdæaPi)alkMBugRbQmmuxnwg dwknaM RKb;RKgsala. karenHkRmekItmanenAkñúgRbeTsEdlmanR)ak;
KYrerobcM[manCMnYy karlM)akkñúgkarRTRTg;RKUTaMgenaHedaymin)an
elIkTwkcitþdl;RKU cMNUlTabNas; pÞúyeTAvij enAkñúgRbeTsTaMgenaH karEtgtaMgRKU[eTA
BRgwglkçxNÐesvakmµrbs;RKUGaCIBeLIy. CaGñkdwknaMBMu)anpþl;karbNþúHbNþalEfmeTotGVIeLIy. eTaHCay:agenH
eFVIdUcenH
salatamCnbTdac; tRmUvkarRkbxNÐkargarfñak;CatiEdlmankar k¾eday k¾ninñakareTArksV½yPaBTUlMTUlayKWmann½yfa GñkdwknaMsalaKYr
RsyalnwgmanRKUEdl kMNt;c,as;las;edIm,IFanafa salaTaMgGs; mantYnaTIRKb;RKgfµI nigsµúKsµajCagmun. GaRBicxagt,ÚgkMBugbegáIt
mansmtßPaBRKb;RKan; manbuKÁlikbMerIkargarRKb;RKan;. karbBa¢ÚnRKU eKalneya)aymYysþIBIkarBRgwgfñak;dwknaMsala ehIykmµviFIRKb;RKg
eTAbeRgonenAsalaCnbT EdlRKUTaMgenaHmin salabzmsikSaenARbeTsekny:a ¬PRISM¦ k¾GPivDÆCMnajdl;RKUcMnYn
GaceRbIR)as;PasamUldæanc,as;las;GacnaM[b:HBal;dl;KuNPaBén 16700 nak;. enAkñúgkarEkTRmg;;NamYysMedAelIsV½yPaBTUlMTUlay
karGb;rM. RtUvkar[mankarelIkcitþ ¬dUcCa »kassRmab;kareronsURt caM)ac;RtUvkMNt;karTTYlxusRtUv[)anc,as;las;. RbsinebIKµaneKal
bEnßm CYykEnøgsñak;enA¦ edIm,IbMerIkargarenAtamTIkEnøgdac;Rsyal neya)ayfñak;Catid¾manRbsiT§PaBeT lT§PaBénkarGnuvtþkargarxusKña
edIm,IFanafa salaTaMgGs;manRKUbeRgonEdlmankRmitvb,Fm’x<s;. BIIsalamYyeTAsalamYyeTotnwgGacekItmaneLIgCaminxan.
salal¥ enAkñúgRbeTskMBugGPivDÆCaeRcIn sßab½nGb;rMcaM)ac;RtUvseRmccitþd¾
lM)akGMBIviFIedIm,IeRbIR)as;FnFand¾kRm[manRbsiT§PaBbMput CaBiess
KMnitEklMGsalaeronTaMgRsugEdlmanlkçN³xusKñaBIkarBRgwgFnFan enAkñúgRbeTsEdlGRtasisScuHeQµaHcUleronenAsalabzmsikSaman
b¤dMeNIrkar salanImYy²)anTTYlkarKaMRTenATUTaMgsklelak. KMnit karekIneLIgy:agqab;rh½y b:uEnþBMumankarpþl;mUlniFifµIbEnßm. karpþl;
enaHbgðajBIkarcab;GarmµN_ tamRkbx½NÐepSg²Kña b:uEnþmanTMnak;TMngKña karGb;rMtamry³kmµviFIpøas;bþÚrem:ageronKWCaCeRmIsmYyEdlGacelIk
eTAvijeTAmk dUcCa karelIkkMBs;sala karGPivDÆsalaTaMgmUl nig kMBs;karpÁt;pÁg;TIkEnøgeronsURt nigeRbIR)as;FnFanEdlmanRsab; dUcCa
salaEdlsisScUlcitþ. KMrUEbbenHRbEhlCaGacbgðajBIkarpþl; GKarsikSa smÖarepSg² esogePA nigRKUbeRgon. kareFVIdUecñHnwgdak;
sVy½PaBeRcIneLIgdl;salaeron. karGHGagKMnitsV½yPaBenHKWfa siT§i sm<aFF¶n;F¶reTAelIGñkdwknaMsala ehIyGaceFVI[KuNPaBGb;rMFøak;cuH.
esrIPaBeRcInCYypþl;GMNacdl;RKUbeRgonkat;bnßyrebobeFVIkarEbb karpþl;karGb;rMtamry³kmµviFIpøas;bþÚrem:ageronsURtRtUvkarcaM)ac;nUv
eronenAsMya:bsalaenARbeTs)a:KIsßan karerobcMkmµviFI[)anl¥itl¥n; nigmanrcnasm<½n§RKb;RKgsmRsb.
© R. & S. MICHAUD/RAPHO
kar]btßmÖKaMRTsalaeron RtUvmankñúgeKalneya)ay
lT§PaBTTYlcMeNHdwgGMBIskmµPaBnanaEdlGacGnuvtþ)anedIm,IelIk
kMBs;KuNPaBGb;rMGaceFVI[mankarERbRbYlKYrCaTIkt;sMKal;. GñkCab;
Bak;B½n§ nigsßab½nCab;Bak;B½n§kñúgkarbegáIt nigEckrMElkcMeNHdwgGac
begáItehdæarcnasm<½n§cMeNHdwgfñak;Cati)an. edIm,IelIkkMBs;TMnak;TMng
énkarRsavRCavGMBIkarGb;rMrvagRbeTsmYycMnYn dUcCa GaRBicxagt,Úg nig
RbeTstg;hSanI)anbegáIt[mansßab½nEdlmankarcUlrYmBIGñkeFVI
eKalneya)ay RKUbeRgon bNÐitsPa nigtMNagrbs;GgÁkareRkA
rdæaPi)al nigPñak;garpþl;CMnYyTaMgLay. karRsavRCavGMBIskmµPaB
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
kargark¾GacCYykat;bnßyKmøatrvagRTwsþI nigkarGnuvtþCak;Esþg nig RtUvmanKNenyüPaBsRmab;mnusSRKb;rUb
naMeTArkdMeNaHRsaytamviFIsaRsþmUldæan. RbeTsCaeRcIn)andak; RkmsIlFm’GacCYyelIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rMedaykMNt;sþg;dasIlFm’
bBa©ÚlKñanUvsßab½nviC¢aCIv³ nigsßab½nTIRbwkSaedIm,ICYysalaeron. sßab½n nigEcgeKalkarN_KNenyüPaBRbkbedaykareyaKyl;Kña. CaFmµta
TaMgenaHrYmmanmCÄmNÐlFnFanRKUbeRgonEdlmantYnaTIpþl;FnFan RkmsIlFm’TaMgenaHBak;B½n§nwgbBaðanana dUcCakarGnuBaØat[cUleron
sRmab;beRgon nigelIkkMBs;karEckrMElkKMnitl¥epSg²kñúgcMeNamRKU lkçxNÐkargarrbs;RKU nigbuKÁliksikSadéTeTot karRblg viFIsaRsþvay
beRgon Gñkpþl;karGb;rM nigGñkbegáIteKalneya)ay. vinieyaKsRmab; témø nigkarEsVgrkFnFan. RkmsIlFm’mYycMnYnRKbdNþb;eTAelIRbB½n§
bNþajkargar nigkmµviFIEkERbEdl)anerobcMeLIgsRmab;begáIt nigEck Gb;rMTaMgmUl nigRkmsIlFm’mYycMnYneTotTak;TgEteTAelIRKUbeRgon.
rMElkcMeNHdwgGMBIkarGb;rMGacTTYl)anlT§ply:agRbesIrtamry³kar CaTUeTA RksYgGb;rMTTYlxusRtUvelIkarBRgwgRkmsIlFm’TaMgenaH. edIm,I
CYysala[eronsURtBIKñaeTAvijeTAmk nigeRbIR)as;[Gs;lT§PaBnUv BRgwgRkmsIlFm’man[RbsiT§PaB RtUvbegáIt[mankic©shkarCamYy
FnFanEdlmantictYc. vinieyaKenHGacCYybegáItvb,Fm’énkarelIk RkumviC¢aCIv³RKUbeRgon nigpSBVpSay[)anTUlMTUlay RBmTaMgtRmUv[man
kMBs;KuNPaBedayQrelImUldæancMeNHdwg nig PsþútagBak;B½n§. ynþkarc,as;las;sRmab;eFVIbNþwg. enAeBlmankaryl;c,as; ehIy
neya)ayEkTRmg; RkmsIlFm’TaMgenaHGacCYyelIkkMBs;briyakaseronsURtkñúgsalaeron
CYyBRgwgkarebþCJacitþbMerIkargarrbs;RKUbeRgon[kan;EtmanRbsiT§PaB.
karEkERb b¤EkTRmg;eKalneya)ayGb;rMNamYymanTMnak;TMngnwgkar
cMNay b:uEnþkaredaHRsayelIkarcMNayenaHGaceFVIeTA)an bnÞab;BIman karRbyuT§RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYy
karÉkPaBKñaenAfñak;CatiGMBIKuNPaBénkarGb;rMsin. bnÞab;BI)anbMeBj
tRmUvkareKalneya)ayenHrYcehIy KYrkMNt;EpñkCaGaTiPaBedayEp¥k karRsavRCavCaeRcInkñúgGMLúgeBlmYyTsvtSr_knøgeTA)anykcitþTukdak;
elIviFIsaRsþTUlMTUlaymYy. karEkTRmg;;Gb;rMRbkbedayeCaKC½yGac CasMxan;eTAelI\T§iBlGviC¢manénGMeBIBukrlYyeTAelIkarGPivDÆ. GMeBIBuk
seRmceTA)ankñúgbribTneya)ayTUlMTUlay nigkñúgsgÁmEdlmankRmit rlYyedIm,Irs; nigGMeBIBukrlYyKYrEtRtUvEbgEck[)anc,as;las;. {GMeBI
RTBüFnxus²Kña. enAkñúgcMeNambBaðanana Edlman\T§iBlpÞal;eTAelIfa BukrlYyedIm,Irs;} KWCaTRmg;énkarrkR)ak;xusc,ab;kRmitRsalEdlCa
etIkarEkTRmg;Edl)anerobcMeLIgsRmab; jwkjab;ekItecjBItRmUvkarcaM)ac;edIm,Irs; dUcCaenAeBlRKUbeRgon
karEkTRmg;Gb;rMRbkb elIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rMnwgeFVI[manPaB mñak;xkxanmin)anbeRgonsisS edaysarRKUCab;rvl;rkR)ak;edIm,IbRgÁb;
edayeCaKC½yGacseRmceTA xusEbøkb¤y:agNaenaH ktþabIy:agEdlRtUv R)ak;ExtictYc b¤ebIkminTan;eBlevla. {GMeBIBukrlYy} KWCaTRmg;énkar
)ankñúgbribTneya)ayTUlM ykcitþTukdak;ya:gBiessKW karbegáItédKU rkR)ak;xusc,ab;kRmitF¶n;F¶r. vimCÄkar ÉkCnPavUnIkmµ nigkarCYlRKUBI
TUlay nigkñúgsgÁmEdl kargarCamYyRKUbeRgon nigPaKIBak;B½n§ xageRkAsalamkbeRgonnaMeTArk»kasfµI²kñúgkarRbRBwtþGMeBIBukrlYy.
mankRmitRTBüFnxus²Kña karBRgwgkarTTYlxusRtUv nigkarRbyuT§ karRbRBwtþGMeBIBukrlYyGacTak;TgeTAnwgkarlYcbnøM nigekgRbv½Ba©enA
RbqaMgnwgGMeBIBukrlYy. tamEpñkepSg² dUcCakarsagsg;sala karpÁt;pÁg;esovePA karbg;luy
enAeBlebIR)ak; karbg;R)ak;sRmab;eFVIkargarenAsala b¤sRmab;[
PaBcenøaHsRmab;BieRKaHeyabl; lT§plRblgx<s;dl;sisSexSay nigbkSBYkniymkñúgkareRCIserIsRKU.
viFankar nigviFIsaRsþEdlmanRbsiT§PaBsRmab;bM)at;GMeBIBukrlYyman
eTaHbIRKUmanmuxgarsMxan;kñúgkarelIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rM k¾karcUlrYm karGnuvtþc,ab; ¬edaymanbBa©ÚlTaMgkarBRgwgsmtßPaB tamsßab½nedIm,I
rbs;RKUkñúgRkumviC¢aCIv³ CaBiesstamry³shCIBRKUbeRgon nigsmaKm BRgwgkarGnuvtþc,ab;enaH¦ nigkarelIkkMBs;PaBCam©as;éndMeNIrkar
viC¢aCIv³KWCakarsMxan;minGacxVH)an. kRmiténkarcUlrYmkñúgkarcrcaelI RKb;RKg. CMrujshKmn_[ecHdak;sm<aFeTAelIGaCJaFredIm,IedaHRsay
lkçxNÐesvakmµepSg²rbs;shCIBRKUbeRgonmanlkçN³xusKñaFMmhima GMeBIBukrlYyenH.
BItMbn;mYyeTAtMbn;mYy nigBIRbeTsmYyeTARbeTsmYy. karkekItén
rdæaPi)alRbkan;lT§iRbCaFietyüenAGaemrikLaTIn)aneFVI[mankarEklMG EpñkepSg²éneKalneya)ayTaMgLayEdl)anerobrab;enAkñúgCMBUkenHqøúH
sßanPaBenATIenaHKYrCaTIcab;GarmµN_. cMENkÉRbeTsEdlkMBugBRgwg bBa©aMg[eXIjGMBIkarGnuvtþeKalneya)ayelIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rMenA
lT§iRbCaFibetyü ¬dUcCaRbeTsenAGWr:ubxagekIt nigGaRBicxagt,Úg¦ CMuvijBiPBelakenH. KMnitBak;B½n§sMxan;rYmman karyl;dwgGMBItRmUvkar
RbQmmuxnwgbBaðaksagvb,Fm’BiPakSacrca. rdæGar:ab; nigRbeTsenA epSg²rbs;sisS nigkarKaMRTdl;karEkTRmg;EdlykcitþTukdak;elI
GasIumYycMnYnRtUvRbwgERbgCagRbeTsxagelI. smtßPaBrbs;RKUbeRgon lT§plx<s;énkarbeRgon nigeron dUcCa xøwmsaremeronBak;B½n§ eBlevla
edIm,IeFVIkarRsavRCavk¾RtUvkar[mankarKaMRTCacaM)ac;Edr. enAelIqak eronsURtRKb;RKan; viFIsaRsþbeRgonkñúgfñak;edayyksisSCaeKalmCÄ
GnþrCati kic©BiPakSaEdlgaysabsUnü b:uEnþpþl;kþIsgÇwmkMBugdMeNIrkar mNÐl nigkarvaytémø. karKaMRTdl;RKUbeRgonKWCakarcaM)ac; ehIyRtUv
edaymankarcUlrYmBIGñkpþlCMnYy smaKmRKUbeRgon nigGgÁkareRkA Fanafa salamankarRKb;RKgl¥. yuT§saRsþTaMgenHRtUvEtmanlkçN³
rdæaPi)al. karqøúHbBa©aMgBIkic©BiPakSaenHmanelIkeLIgenAkñúgkarBinitü smRsbeTAnwgckçúvis½yénkarGb;rMyUrGEgVg smRsb nigsIucgVak;Kña
emIleLIgvijénkarcUlrYmrbs;shCIBRKUbeRgonkñúgyuT§saRsþkat;bnßy EdlekItecjBIcMeNHdwgrYmKña. yuT§saRsþTaMgenHRtUvEtTTYl)ankar
PaBRkIRkEdl)aneFVIenARbeTscMnYn 23 KaMRTedayFnaKarBiPBelak. KaMRT nigelIkTwkcitþBIqnÞ³neya)ayrwgmaM nigBIFnFanRKb;RKan;.

29
CMBUk 5
eqøIytbnwgkarebþCJaCaGnþrCatirbs;eyIgTaMgGs;Kña
© Agnad Nasood/REUTERS

sßanPaBénkarpþl;CMnYy ³ enAtictYcNas; sßabnaRbB½n§Gb;rMeLIgvij KWCamUldæanRKwHsRmab;ksag


vaytémøRbsiT§PaBénkareRbIR)as;CMnYy sgÁmeLIgvijenAGaháanIsßan qñaM
etICMnYyepþatelIsmPaBb¤eT?
karcayvayEdlTak;TgnwgGñkpþl;CMnYyBhuPaKI
kic©xitxMRbwgERbgedIm,I[manPaBsIucgVak;Kña
ka tBVkic©cMeBaHmuxTaMgeTVEdlRtUvbMeBj[)anKWkarBRgwgKuNPaB
nigkarBRgIk»kascUleron[)anesµIKñaTamTar[mankarvinieyaKEdl
karpþÜcepþImKMnitedIm,IBenøÓndMeNIrkar ³ qñaMTI 3 mannirnþrPaB EdlhYsBIsmtßPaBrbs;RbeTsmYycMnYnFM. CMBUkenH
niyayTak;TgnwgbBaðaCMnYy viPaKBIkarRbwgERbgedIm,IBRgwgkic©shkar
rvagGñkpþl;CMnYy nigrdæaPi)al nigtamdanBinitüPsþútagénRbsiT§PaBkñúg
kareRbIR)as;CMnYysRmab;karGb;rM.

30
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
rUbPaBTUeTA RkahV 5>1 ³ CMnYyeTVPaKIEdl)ansnüasRmab;karGb;rM 1999 - 2002
CMnYysRmab;GPivDÆn_mankarekIneT,Igvij edaymankarEbgEcksrubCit
6 ekadiduløaGaemrikenAqñaM2002. enHKWCacMnYnd¾eRcInCageKKitcab;taMg
BIqñaM 1992 mk. karekIneT,IgvijenHbgðajBIkarekIneT,Igénkarpþl;CMnYy
eTVPaKI nigRbEhlCaGacedaysarkarsnüaEdleK)aneFIVenAÉsnñisIT

°én ODA srub


GnþrCatisþIBIhirBaØvtßúsRmab;karGPivDÆenAqñaM 2002 enAm:ugetrI. Rbsin
CaeKGacbMeBj)annUvral;karsnüaTMagGs;EdleK)aneFIVenAm:ugetrI
CMnYyGaceT,IgrhUtdl; 16 ekadiduløaGaemrik – eBalKW RbEhl 30°
enARtwmqñaM 2006. eTaHbICaCMnYyhak;dUcCaeRcInsn§wksn§ab;k¾eday
k¾cMnYnenHenAEtticCagcMnYnEdleKKitTukedIm,IseRmceKaledAGb;rMTaMg
6 EdlmancMnYnRbEhlCa 50 ekadikñúgmYyqñaM. KµankarFanaNamYy
eTfa nwgmanfvikabEnßmsRmab;eKaledAGPivDÆn_FnFanmnusSdUcCa
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;KñaCaedIm. RbPB ³ CMBUk 4 r)aykarN_Gb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
CMnYyeTVPaKI ³ sBaØaénkarekIneT,Ig
CMnYyeTVPaKIkMBugEtekIneT,Ig7 ³ enAqñaM 2002 cMnYnekIneT,IgelIsBI 4 RbsinCaeKGacbMeBj
ekadiduløaGaemrik. enHKWCakarekIneT,IgelIkTI 1 cab;taMgBI qñaM 1999 mk CMnYyeTVPaKIdl;karGb;rMmUldæanekIndl; 0>9
¬emIlRkahV 5>1¦. cMnYnenHtMNag[RbEhl 9° énCMnYyGPivDÆn¾pøÚvkar ekadiduløaGaemrikkñúgmYyqñaM b¤ 29° énkarpþl; )annUvral;karsnüa
srub. eKsg,wmfa cMENkenHnwgmankarekIneT,Ig ebItamkarsnüaEdl CMnYyeTVPaKITaMgGs;dl;karGb;rMenAqñaM 2001- TMagGs;EdleK)aneFIV
eK)aneFIVenAkñúgvis½yGb;rMcab;taMgBIkic©RbCMudakamk. enAqñaM 2001 nig 2002. kñúgcMeNamRbeTsTaMg 8 nUEvlesT,g; enAm:ugetrI CMnYyGac
2002 RbeTscMnYn 88 ebþCJapþl;y:agehacNas;k¾ 100 landuløaEdr cRkPBGg;eKøs nigshrdæGaemrikEbgEck eT,IgrhUtdl; 16ekadi
dl;vis½yGb;rMTaMgGs;bBa©ÚlKñaeTAmanRbEhlcMnYn 85° énCMnYyGb;rM fvikacMnYn 70°énkarpþl;CMnYyGnþrCatirbs;eK duløaGaemrik – eBalKW
eTVPaKI. CMnYyGb;rMeTVPaKITaMgGs;eRcInpþl;eTAGnutMbn;GaRBicsahara: dl;karGb;rMmUldæan enAeBlEdlGñkpþl;CMnYy RbEhl 30 PaKry
¬30°¦ GasIubUBa’ nig):asIuPik ¬27°¦ nigrdæGar:ab; ¬18°¦. FMTaMg 3 KW )araMg Cb:un nigGaløWm:g;hak;dUcCa enARtwmqñaM 2006
cab;GarmµN¾elIkarGb;rMeRkaymFümsikSavij.
eKGacviPaKGaTiPaBEdlGñkpþl;CMnYypþl;dl;karGb;rM9 eTaHbICaeKRtUv
cgcaMfa nItiviFIeFIVr)aykarN¾GnþrCatiGac):an;RbmaNCMnYyGb;rMTab Pñak;garCMnyyBhuPaKI ³ BMumankarERbRbYleRcIneT
k¾eday edaysarEtninñakarcMeBaHCMnYyEdlKaMRTfvikaTUeTA nigKeRmag Pñak;garBhuPaKI – elIkElgEtFnaKarBiPBelakecj – EbgEckfvika
EdlmansRmab;eRcInCagmYyvis½yk¾eday. RbeTsnUEvlesT,g;pþl; cMnYn 0>66 ekadiduløaGaemriksRmab;qñaMsikSa 2001-2002 dl;vis½y
GaTiPaBcMnYn 3>5 dgeRcInCagmFümrbs;RbeTs OECD-DAC. Gb;rM. cMnYnenHKW)anEtcMnYn 17° énCMnYyeTVPaKIsrubTaMgGs; nigcMnYn
shrdæGaemrikpþl;GaTiPaBticcMeBaHkarGb;rMenAkñúgkBa©b;pþl;CMnYy enHticCagcMnYnkalBIqñaMsikSa 1999-2000 EdlmancMnYn 0>8 ekadi
rbs;xøÜn. kñúgcMeNamRbeTspþl;CMnYyFM²TaMg 8 )araMg GaløWm:g; kaNada duløa. eTaHbICaKN³kmµkarGWr:ubenAEtbnþCaGñknaMmuxenAkñúgkarpþl;CMnYy
nigeGs,ajpþl;GaTiPaBdl;karGb;rM ebIKittamkarvas;EvgEbbenH. dl;vis½yGb;rM)anFøak;cuH 1° EdlenAsl;Et 4° énCMnYyshKmn¾GWr:ub
srubTaMgGs;.
7> karKNnaenHminKitbBa©ÚlmUlniFipþl;edayPñak;garpþl;CMnYytamry³kmµviFICMnYy
TUeTAeT nigCMnYyBhuPaKIeT. CMnYyxøHpþl;[vis½yGb;rM. RbB½n§sresrr)aykarN_rbs; FanaKarBiPBelakenAEtCaGñkpþl;CMnYyd¾FMCageKbg¥s;EtmYyKt;dl;kar
OECD-DAC minrab;bBa©ÚlCMnYykñúgkmµviFICMnYyTUeTA nigCMnYyeTVPaKIsRmab;Gb;rMeT. Gb;rM. karpþl;R)ak;km©Idl;karGb;rM)anekIeT,IgBI 3° enAcugTsvtSr_ 1960
8> RbeTskaNada )araMg GaLWm:g; Cb:un hULg; eGs<a:j cRkPBGg;eKøs nigGaemrik. dl;7° enATsvtSr_ 1990 muneBlcuHbnþicvijdl; 6° enAedImTsvtSr_
2000. enAkñúgGMT,úgTsvtSr_ 1990 smPaBénkarpþl;R)ak;km©Idl;kar
9> sUc©nakrN_enHcg¥úlbgðajGMBIcMENkfvikaCMnYy Edlm©as;GMeNaynImYy²pþl;[ Gb;rMmankarpøas;bþÚr ³ karGb;rMmUldæanenAEtCaEpñkd¾sMxan;CageKbg¥s;
sRmab;vis½yGb;rMéncMENkrbs; OECD-DAC. témøelI 1 mann½yfa m©as;GMeNay
pþl;sarRbeyaCn_dl;vis½yGb;rMeRcInCagFmµtasRmab;RKb;Pñak;garpþl;GMeNayTaMgGs; eTaHbICaCMnYydl;karGb;rMTUeTAmankarekIneT,IgKYr[kt;sMKal;k¾eday10.
10> FanaKarBiPBelak[niymn½yGb;rMmUldæanfa cab;BImetþyü bzmsikSa Gb;rMeRkA
RbB½n§ nigGkçrkmµmnusScas;. Gb;rMcMeNHTUeTAKitTaMg KeRmagGb;rMRKb;TaMgGs;.

31
bEnßmelIkarsnüa kñúgcMeNamRbeTscMnYn 138 EdleK)aneFIVkarsÞabsÞg;manRbeTscMnYn
CMnYyeTVPaKI nigBhuPaKIdl;karGb;rMmUldæanmancMnYn 1>54 ekadienAkñúg 76° manEpnkarGb;rMtamGnuEpñk nig 83° kMBugEterobcMEpnkarCati
qñaMsikSa 2001 – 2002 – elIsqñaMsikSa 1999-2000 bnþicbnþÜc Gb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña. RbeTscMnYn 58 ¬40°¦ manyuT§saRsþkat;
b:ueNÑaH. Kmøaténkarpþl;hirBaØvtßúenAEtman ebIeTaHCakarsnüafµI²RtUv bnßyPaBRkIRkbeNþaHGasnñ b¤eBjelj. b:uEnþeKKYrEtGantYelxTaMgenH
)anbMeBjehIyk¾eday. RbsinCaGñkpþl;CMnYyTaMgGs;pþl;CMnYyGPivDÆn_ edaymankarRbugRby½tñx<s;. etIEpnkartamEpñk nigEpnkarGb;rMsRmab;
bEnßmcMnYn 16 ekadienARtwmqñaM 2006 dUcEdl)ansnüaenAm:ugetrIman TaMgGs;KñaCaEpnkardUcKñab¤eT? PsþútagénkarGnuvtþEpnkarTaMgGs;enH
n½yfa kñúgmYyqñaM²RtUvbegáInCMnYycMnYn 0>4 ekadisRmab;karGb;rMmUldæan enAmantictYcenAeT,Iy. xøHRKan;EtCaGMNHGMNagénbMNgb:ueNÑaHEdl
RbsinCaKµankarERbRbYlenAkñúgkarEbgEckeTenaH. EpñksRmbsRmYl RtUv)aneKsresreT,IgedIm,IeqøIytbeTAnwgtRmUvkarGnþrCati.
hirBaØvtßúGnþrCati ¬EdlesñIedaycRkBPGg;eKøs¦ edayBinitüemIl vaytémøCMnYysRmab;karGb;rM
FnFanTIpSarBiPBelakedIm,IeqøIytbnwgeKaledAGPivDÆshstvtSr_ rgVaytémøCaeRcInGMBIKuNPaBénCMnYysRmab;karGb;rMRtUv)aneKeFIVeT,Ig.
enAmun b¤RtwmqñaM 2015 nwgRtUvbegáInCMnYy[)an 1>24 ekadisRmab;kar karRsavRCavmYyrbs;CMnYyshKmn¾GWru:bdl;karGb;rMRtUv)aneKeFIVeT,Ig
Gb;rMmUldæankñúgmYyqñaM11. FnFanGnþrCatiRbcaMqñaMsrubsRmab;karGb;rM RbeTsenAkñúgTIVGaRBic kara:b‘Ín nig)a:sIuPik rvagqñaM 1993 nig2000
mUldæannwgekIndl; 3>2 ekadi – ekIneT,IgBIrdgénCMnYybc©úb,nñ b:uEnþ
enAEtticCagcMnYnEdlRtUvkarcMnYn 5>6ekadienAkñúgFnFan bEnßmRbcaMqñaM ehIyeXIjfakarsRmbsRmYlrbs;Gñkpþl;CMnYymanRbsiT§PaBCageK
EdltRmUv[manedIm,IFanaseRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa nigsmPaB enAeBlEdlyuT§saRsþTUTaMgvis½yRtUv)aneKykmkGnuvtþ ehIyenHKWCa
eynD½rKitCatYelxenAkñúgcUleronenAsala. viFIsaRsþEdleKcg;)ansRmab;CMnYykmµviFIGb;rM.
elIkkMBs;CIvPaBrbs;GñkRk karvaytémørYmKñaénkarKaMRTBIxageRkAdl;karGb;rMmUldæanenAkñúgRbeTs
kMBugGPivDÆRtUv)aneFIVedayPñak;gareTVPaKI nigBhuPaKIcMnYn 13 enAkñúg
bBaðaRbsiT§PaBénCMnYy nigkRmiténCMnYyCYy[mankarekIneT,IgénlT§pl RbeTsb‘ulIvI b‘WKINahVasU G‘UhÁg;da nighSmb‘Í. karsikSabgðajBIcMNuc
sikSamansar³sMxan;Nas;. karBiteTA kareRbIR)as;CMnYy[)anRtwmRtUv exSaykñúgTMnak;TMngrvagkarerobcMkmµviFI nigGIVEdlGacdMeNIrkarl¥enA
sRmab;eBlenHnwgnaM[mankarRbwgERbgkan;EtRbesIrenAeBleRkay. tammUldæan CaBiessTak;TgnwgkarGb;rMRKUbeRgon kmµviFIsikSa smÖar
edaymankarcgsm< ½ n § P aBCaskl sikSa nigviFIsaRsþbeRgon. karsikSasakl,gminRtUv)aneKeFIVenAkñúg
edaymankarcgsm<½n§PaBCa kmµviFIFM²eT. karvaytémøbgðajfa kgVHFMCageKKWectna nigkarebþCJacitþ
sklebþCJaseRmc[)aneKaledA ebþ C J a seRmc[)aneKaledAGPi v DÆ EklMGKuNPaBGb;rMmUldæan tamry³karrkdMeNaHRsaytamtMbn;erogxøÜn
GPivDÆshsvtS BIkarRBmeRBog shsvtSr_ karRBmeRBogKñay:agTUlM EdlRtUv)aneKerobcMeT,IgBIeRkameTAelI CaCagGIVEdleK)anerobcMCaKMrU
Kñay:agTUlMTUlaymYyfa karrIk TUlaymYyfa karrIkceRmInEdlman rYcCaeRscenAkRmitGnþrCati. karsikSa)ansnñidæanfa édKUl¥sßitenAelI
ceRmInEdlmannirnþrPaBenA nirnþrPaBenAkñúgCIvPaBrs;enArbs;Cn kareRbIR)as;CMnYysRmab;karGb;rMRbkbedayRbsiT§PaB. ktþaEdlb:H
kñúgCIvPaBrs;enArbs;CnRkIRk RkIRk KWCasUc©nakrN_sMxan;enAkñúgkar Bal;dl;KuNPaBénPaBCaédKUrYmbBa©ÚlBIviFIsaRsþEdlPñak;gar nig
KWCasUc©nakrN_sMxan;enAkñúgkar vaytémø R bsi T § P aBénkareRbI R )as; RksYgrbs;rdæshkarKña vinieyaKenAkñúgkargarksag bec©keTs nig
vaytémøRbsiT§PaBCMnYy. CMnYy. eKalkarN_sMxan;²cMnYn 3 én rdæ)al kic©RBmeRBogelItYnaTI nigkarTTYlxusRtUvEdlRtUv)ankMNt;y:ag
bTBiesaFn_l¥²rbs;GnþrCatirYmman ³ c,as;las; nigTMnak;TMngKñaénCMnYyenAkñúgbribTnImYy².
sar³sMxan;éneKalneya)ayGPivDÆ
EdlerobcMeT,Igl¥RKb;RCugeRCay karbnSIúKña[CitsiñT§rvagGñkpþl;CMnYy nig rgVaytémøTI 3 sikSaBICMnYyEdlpþl;[karGb;rMenAbzmsikSaenARbeTs
GaTiPaBrbs;rdæaPi)al nigeFVI[RsbKñaénkarGnuvtþrbs;Gñkpþl;CMnYy bg;køaeds hÁaNa \NÐa \NÐÚeNsIu Ekny:a nigm:aT,avIedaynaykdæan
TaMgGs;. PsþútagEdlekIneT,Igbgðajfa eKalneya)ayCatil¥²edIm,I sRmab;karGPivDÆGnþrCatirbs;Gg;eKøsBIqñaM 1998 eTAqñaM 2001. kar
lubbM)at;PaBRkIRkKWCakarykcitþTukdak;mYy EdlecHEtmansar³sMxan; vaytémøbBa¢ak;BIkarlM)akrvagkarxitxMRbwgERbgbegáInPaBm©as;kar[
eT,Ig sRmab;Pñak;garpþl;CMnYy enAeBlEdlPñak;garpþl;CMnYyRtUvseRmc Gs;lT§PaB nigkarbegáInkarcUlrYmrbs;Gñkpþl;CMnYykñúgkarerobcM
faetICMnYyKYrEtpþl;eTAvis½yNaCaGaTiPaB. eKalneya)ay karRKb;RKg nigkarlM)akénkar[manRksYgeRcIncUlrYm
CMnYysRmab;karGb;rMKYrRtUveK)aneXIjenAkñúgbribTEbbenH. RbsinCa nigkRmitepSgKñarbs;rdæaPi)al nigkgVHmUldæanTinñn½yBisþar nigRtwmRtUv.
eKalneya)ayrbs;Catil¥²KWCacMNuccab;epþImsRmab;kareRbIR)as; karvaytémøTaMgbI)ansnñidæanfa eTaHCamankarrIkceRmIn[manyuT§saRsþ
CMnYy[manRbsiT§PaB vaBMumankarxVHxatEpnkarGb;rMtamEpñkenaHeT. EdlmankarsRmbsRmYlsIucgVak;Kña edIm,Ipþl;CMnYydl;karGb;rMk¾eday
kareRCIserIsCak;EsþgenAEtCabBaðaEdlRtUvEtsmRsb nigTn;Pøn;.
11> karsniñdæanenHeRbIsRmab;Bnül;[gayyl;b:ueNÑaH. karsniñdæaneRbEhlCam©as;
GMeNayTaMgGs;minÉkPaBKñaTaMgRsug ehIyCMnYyrbs;m©as;GMeNaynImYyGacxusKña

32
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
viFIsaRsþTUTaMgvis½yCYyBRgwgPaBm©as;karenAkñúgeKalneya)ay nig eTaHbICavamankarlM)akkñúgkarvaytémø\Ti§BlCMnY yelIKuNPaBRbkb
yuT§saRsþsRmab;GPivDÆGb;rM nigpþl;»kassRmab;Gñkpþl;CMnYyedaH edaylkçN³CaRbB½n§c,as;las;k¾eday k¾sUc©nakrN_sMxan;mYycMnYnGac
RsaybBaðaKuNPaBGb;rMEdlmanCayUryarNas;mkehIy. karpøas;bþÚr CaCMnYyd¾RbesIr. sUc©nakrN_TaMgenHrYmmaneKalneya)ayGb;rMl¥²
viFIsaRsþ)anbegáInKeRmagkan;EteRcIn karcrcaeKalneya)ay nigkar EdlmanTMnak;TMngKña nigGacykeTAGnuvtþ)an. eKalneya)ayEbbenH
dak;lkçxNÐrbs;Gñkpþl;CMnYy. viFIsaRsþTaMgBIrGacCakarRbQmmuxrbs; maneKalbMNgc,as;las;sRmab;pþl;»kascUleron smFm’ KuNPaB
m©as;karmUldæan begáIntRmUvkarsRmbsRmYl nigkat;bnßykarGnuvtþ nigsUc©nakrN_. sUc©nakrN_TaMgenHCaxñatvas;Evgd¾sMxan;rbs;rdæaPi)al
CaBiessenAkEnøgEdlkarRKb;RKghirBaØvtßúrdæaPi)alenAexSay. enAkñúg nigCacMNucedAsRmab;GgÁkarTaMgGs;vas;EvgkarrIkceRmIn. kñúgn½yenH
bribTenH karksagsmtßPaB KWCaRbkard¾sMxan;. karykcitþTukdak;elIkarvaytémø[)aneTotTat;manlkçN³sMxan;Nas;.
CMnYy nigKuNPaB ³ eFIV[manTMnak;TMngKña kmµviFICMnYydac;edayET,kBIKña
mankarRsavRCavEtmYycMnYntUcb:ueNÑaH Edl eKk¾Gacmankaryl;dwgBIRbsiT§PaBCMnYy)anEdredayviPaKGMBIkarEbg
mankarRsavRCavEtmYy sikSaBITMnak;TMngrvagCMnYy niglT§plsikSa. EckFnFanrbs;Gñkpþl;CMnYy[eTARkumeKaledAFM b¤tUcrbs;RbeTs.
cMnYntUcb:ueNÑaHEdlsikSa enARbeTshÁaNaCMnYy]btßmÖrbs;FnaKar lT§plBIkarRsavRCavrbs;Gñkpþl;CMnYyeTVPaKIFM²cMnYn20 Edlpþl;CMnYy
BITMnak;TMngrvagCMnYy BiPBelakdl;bzmsikSatamry³karpþl; dl;RbeTscMnYn 149 bgðajfa Pñak;garpþl;CMnYyEbgEckCMnYydl;
niglT§plsikSa esovePAsikSa nigEklMGehdæarcnsm<½n§ RbeTscMnYn 63. )araMg GaløWm:g; nigCb:unebþCJacitþpþl;CMnYydl;RbeTs
salaCYy[mankarEklMGKuNPaBGb;rM. cMnYnCag 100 enAeBlEdlRbeTsRháicpþl;CMnYydl;RbeTscMnYnEt 8
b:ueNÑaH. bIPaKbYnénCMnYyGb;rMeTVPaKI)anpþl;[RbeTsEt 38 b:ueNÑaH.
RbeTsmYycMnYn)anbegáItsUc©nakrN_sMxan;²sRmab;vas;EvgkarrIk karpþl;CMnYyeRcInKñaEbbenH eFIV[Gs;éføkñúgkarepÞrR)ak;CaeRcIn. KuNPaB
ceRmInenAkñúgRbeTs. enAG‘UhÁg;da Edl)anTTYlfvikasRmab;karGb;rM énkarpþl;CMnYyGacnwgRtUvBRgwg RbsinCacMnYnmFüménRbeTsTTYlCMnYy
RbEhl 50° BICMnYybreTs RksYgGb;rMeRbIR)as;sUc©nakrN_enaHedIm,I Gb;rMRtUvkat;bnßyenaH. bBaðaenHGacmanhYsBIvis½yGb;rMeTot.
BinitüemIlKuNPaBGb;rMenAbzmsikSa. sUc©nakrN_TaMgenHrYmmankRmit
vb,Fm’rbs;RKUbeRgon pleFobRKU¼sisS nigPaKrysisSerondl;fñak;TI6
EdlGacmancMeNHdwgRKb;RKan;GMBICMnajmUldæanRKwHmYYycMnYnEdl)an
kMNt;CalkçN³Cati. eKvay
témøkarrIkceRmIny:ageTogTat;
edayshkarCamY y Gñ k pþ l ;
CMnYy. Rbhak;RbEhlKñaenH
EdrRbeTseGcU B I k t; s M K al;
sUc©nakrN_KuNPaBcMnYn 6
EdlTak;TgnwgkRmitvb,Fm’RKU
pleFobsisS¼esovePAsikSa
niglT§sikSarbs;sisS.
]TahrN¾enHbgðajfa Pñak;gar
pþl;CMnYymYycMnYnbegáItkar
vaytémø r bs; x ø Ü n edI m ,I d w g BI
RbsiT§PaBénCMnYyelIKuNPaB
Gb; r M e dayeRbI s U c © n akrN_
sMxan;²rbs;rdæaPi)aleFIVCa
mU l dæ a nsRmab; v as; E vgkar
rI k ceRmI n CaCagkareRbI
sUc©nakrN_rbs;Gñkpþl;CMnYy.

33
© AMI VITALE/PANOS/EDITINGSERVER.COM

\T,ÚvRtUv)aneKkMNt;fa CakarpþÜcepþImCasklEdlebIkcMhrdl;ral;
Pñak;garpþl;CMnYyEdlcab;GarmµN¾ nigRbeTsEdlmanR)ak;cMNUlTab
TaMgGs;. Rkbx½NÐenHkMNt;eKaledAcMnYn 6 nigeKalkarN_cMnYn 5 edIm,I
dwknaMskmµPaBénkarpþÜcepþImKMnitEdlRtUvGnuvtþ[)anmuneK.
eKaledA FTI eKalkarN_ FTI
CMnYyEdlmanRbsiT§PaBx<s;sRmab;Gb;rMbzmsikSa m©as;karrbs;RbeTs
begáInCabnþbnÞab;nUvCMnYydl;karGb;rMbzmsikSa xñatsRmab;vas;Evg
eKalneya)aytamEpñkl¥²enAkñúgkarGb;rM TMnak;TMngCMnYy nig
karpþl;hirBaØvtßúkñúgRsukRKb;RKan;sRmab;karGb;rM lT§pl
begáInkarTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHlT§pl cMNaykñúgkarepÞr
R)ak;tic
EckrMElkbTBiesaFn¾sklnUvGIVEdldMMeNIrkarl¥
tmøaPaB

eTaHbICakic©RBmeRBogelIRkbx½NÐtMNag[karrIkceRmInl¥k¾eday bBaðaCa
enAGg;ehÁaLa cMNucRbehagsñamRKab;kaMePøIgkñúgCBa¢aMgR)ab;eyIgGMBI eRcInenAEtmanenAeT,Iy. karRBYy)armÖdMbUgKWTak;TgnwgkRmitén FTI Ca
sRgÁamsIuvilEdleFVI[manCnGenþarRbevsn_edaysarsRgÁam2 lannak; ynþkarpþl;CMnYypÞal;. rhUtdl;Exemsa qñaM 2004 mUlniFi Catalytic
EFA-FTI )anTTYlCMnYy 236 landuløaGaemrikBIGñkpþl;CMnYycMnYn 4.
CMnYyenHminTan;RKb;RKab;enAeT,IysUm,IEtsRmab;tRmUvkarbnÞan;sRmab;
pllM)akmYyKWfa RbeTsTTYlCMnYy – KitCamFüm - RtUvedaHRsay RbeTsEdl)ancUl FTI muneKk¾eday12. sMnYrTI 2 Tak;TgnwgkRmit
CamYyGñkpþl;CMnYyBI 7 eTA 12 – dMMeNIrkarEdlGaceFIV[mankarxatbg; EdlsmaCik FTI nwgTamTar[mankarGnuvtþtamxñatvas;EvgEdlman
éføepÞreRcIn luHNaEtCMnYyTaMgenaHRtUv)ansRmbsRmYl[)anl¥RbesIr dak;bBa©ÚlenAkñúgRkbx½NÐsUc©nakrN_edIm,IseRmcsklkmµbzmsikSa
EmnETn. tYelxGaceRcInCagenHenAkñúgRbeTsEdlBwgEp¥kelICMnYyxøaMg. Tak;TgnwgeKalneya)ayelIbBaðadUcCaR)ak;ExRKU nigRbB½n§hirBaØvtßú.
RbeTshSMb‘ÍEdl 43° énfvikaGb;rMKWCaCMnYybreTs eFIVkary:agCitsñiT§ CaeKalkarN¾ enAeBlEdlGñkpþl;CMnYyenAkñúgRbeTseBjcitþfa Epnkar
CamYyGñkpþl;CMnYycMnYn 20. enAcugTsvtSr_ 1990 RbeTsenHmankic© Gb;rMtamEpñkedaHRsaybBaðasMxan;²RtUv)aneKcat;Tukfa)anTTYlkar
RBmeRBogelIkmµviFIvinieyaKelIGnuEpñkGb;rMmUldæan. CMnYyGb;rMRtUv)an KaMRT FTI faetIFnaKarBiPBelak nigPñak;garpþl;CMnYyepSgeTotTTYl
pþl; nigRKb;RKgedayRksYgGb;rM b:uEnþkarGnuvtþCak;Esþgvij RtUvbBa©Úl ykkarseRmcenHb¤minTTYlenAminTan;c,as;enAeT,Iy. TI3 dUc)an
lkçxNÐepSg²Kñarbs;Pñak;garpþl;CMnYypgEdr. enARbeTsm:UhMSb‘Ík raykarN¾xagedImrYcmkehIy BIsmaCikEdlpSarP¢ab;CamYynwglkçN³
¬28° énfvikaGb;rM)anmkBICMnYybreTs¦ EpnkaryuT§saRsþGb;rMRtUv)an vinicä½ymYycMnYnGacnwgminrab;bBa©ÚlRbeTsmYycMnYnEdlkarRbQmmux
Gnum½tenAqñaM 1998 begáIt[manEpnkarrYm nigvtþmanénkartamdan rbs; EFA manlkçN³FMeFgeBk. TI4 karykcitþTukdak;xøaMgCagenHeTot
RtYtBinitü EdlsßitenAeRkamkardwknaMd¾rwgmaMrbs;rdæaPi)al. CakarcaM)ac;edIm,IerobcMEpnkarsRmab;karGb;rMenAkñúgEpñkTUlMTUlaymYy
karpþÜcepþImKMniténkarGnuvtþ)anmuneK (FTI) ³ édKUGnþrCati nigkarEkTRmg;edIm,IlubbM)at;PaBRkIRk.
karpþÜcepþImKMniténkarGnuvtþ)anmuneK (FTI) pþl;kareqøIytbGnþrCati eTaHbICamankarrIkceRmInxøHenAkñúgkarsRmbsRmYlsRmab;karGb;rMTaMg
dac;edayET,kcMeBaHkarRbQmmuxénkareFIV[sIucgVak;Kñarbs;Gñkpþl; Gs;Kñak¾eday k¾enAEtminTan;smRsbedIm,IQaneTAseRmceKaledARkug
CMnYykñúgkarKaMRTeKalneya)ayCati. PaBCaédKUGnþrCatienHRtUv)an dakaEdr. CMruj[manqnÞ³neya)ayGnþrCati nigkarebþCJacitþenAEtCa
erobcMedIm,IbegáInkarrIkceRmIneq<aHeTAseRmcsklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa tRmUvkard¾cMa)ac;. kgVHxatFnFanbegáInsar³sMxan;énkarFanafa CMnYy
enAmun b¤RtwmqñaM 2015. RbkasedayKN³kmµkarGPivDÆrbs;FanaKar RtUvEteRbI[manRbsiT§PaBtamEdlGac)an nigtRmg;TiseTARbeTsEdl
BiPBelak¼GgÁkarrUbIvtßúGnþrCatikñúgqñaM2002 \T,ÚvenH édKUmanrYmbBa©Úl RtUvkarCMnYyCageKbMput. karsRmbsRmYl[)ankan;EtRbesIrrvagGñk
TaMgPñak;gareTVPaKI nigBhuPaKI nigFnaKarGPivDÆtMbn;Cag 30 pgEdr. pþl;CMnYy kareRCIserIsRtwmRtUvnUvnItiviFIpþl;CMnYy nigkartamdaneday
eTotTat;nUvKuNPaBGb;rMGacCYYyelIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rM)anCaminxan.
enAqñaM 2004 Pñak;garédKUÉkPaBKñaelIRkbx½NÐmYyedIm,ICakarENnaMdl;
karGPivDÆkarpþÜcepþImKMniténkarGnuvtþmuneK ¬emIltaragxageRkam¦. 12> sRmab;RbeTs 10 dMbUg Edl)anKaMRT FTI KmøathirBaØvtßúGacxusKñaBI 204>5
landuløaGaemrikkñúgqñaM 2004 nig 231>5 landuløaGaemrikkñúgqñaM 2005.

34
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
CMBUk 6
dMeNIrQaneTA
seRmckarGb;rM
sRmab;TaMgGs;Kña ³
sar³sMxan;rbs;
KuNPaB
Rb B½n§Gb;rMmYymanKuNPaBx<s; b¤TabGacvaytémø
)anGaRs½yelIfa etIkarGb;rMenaHeqøIytbnwgeKal
bMNgEdl)ankMNt;)ankRmitNa. rdæaPi)al GgÁkar
GnþrCati nigGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al RKU RKYsarnig sisS
RbEhlCaminmankaryl;eXIjEbbenHeT. b:uEnþ
sRmab;GñkTaMgGs;xagelIBItCayl;eXIjfa eKal
bMNgrbs;Gb;rMmanya:gehacNas; 2 EdrKW ³ begIán
BuT§i nigelIkkMBs;\riyabf nigsIlFm’EdlGaccat;
Tukfamansar³sMxan;sRmab;køayxøÜnCaBlrdæl¥ nig
sRmab;CIvitRbkbedayRbsiT§PaBenAkñúgshKmn¾.
karvaytémøGMBIKuNPaBRtUvKitdl;smFm’pgEdr.
RbB½n§Gb;rMEdlmanvismPaBeynD½r b¤karerIseGIg
RbqaMgnwgRkumNamYyedaysarCnCati b¤vb,Fm’
xusKñaKWCaRbB½n§Gb;rMEdlKµanKuNPaB. karxitxM[
mansmFm’mann½yCakarelIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rM.
r)aykarN¾enHsgát;F¶n;fa karGb;rMEdlmanKuNPaB
KWCakarGb;rMEdleFIV[mankarEkERby:agsMxan;enAkñúg
ckçúvis½yedIm,IseRmc[)annUveKaledAGPivDÆTUeTA
BIkarGPivDÆsuxPaBl¥RbesIrrhUtdl;karbegáInR)ak;
cMNUl[)aneRcIn nigGPivDÆskþanuPaBesdækic©.
edayRKan;Etsgát;F¶n;elIeKaledAbrivis½y dUcCa
sklkmµGb;rMbzmsikSa enaHkarGb;rMsRmab;TaMg
Gs;KñaminGacseRmc)aneT. tamTsSn³eKal
neya)ay ehtuplcMbgmYyKWfa enAkñúgRbeTsCa nisiStTamTar[elIkkMBs;KuNPaBGb;rM[kan;EtRbesIrEfmeTot
eRcInelIBiPBelak Kmøatd¾FMenAEtmanrvagGñkEdl kñúgGMLúugeBl)atukmµenAmuxRksYgGb;rMrbs;RbeTshugDUra:s ¬2002¦
)anbBa©b;karsikSaBIsala nigGñkEdlmancMeNHdwg
nig ecHKitKUrBicarNaBitR)akd.

35
taragTI 6>1 ³ sUc©nakrN_KuNvis½y nigbrivis½yénkarcUleronenAbzmsikSa
sikSa RbeTs RkumRbeTs °sisScuHeQµaH °sisSenAront °sisSeroncb; ehIy GRtacuHeQµaHcUleron
¬Gayu6-14¦ rhUtcb;fñak;TI 5 manCMnajGb,brma BitenAbzm muneFVIetsþ
SACMEQ (1995)
etsþeronGanfñak;TI 6 ma:LavI 100 91 31 7 69
m:UrICUs 100 99 98 52 99
NamIb‘Íu 100 97 74 19 84
sa>r> tg;hSanI 100 87 70 18 54
PIRLS (2001)
etsþeronGanfñak;TI 4 kULMúb‘Íu 100 98 60 27 87
mU:rU:kU 100 99 77 59 81
PASEC (Mid 1999)

etsþPasa)araMgfñak;TI5 bWKINahVasU 100 35 25 21 28


kaemrUn 100 88 45 33 73
kUdWv½r 100 65 45 38 49
hÁInI 100 48 32 21 36
ma:daháasáa 100 78 31 20 63
GRtapleFobsisScuHeQµaHcUleronBit = NER
RbPB ³ CMBUk 4 r)aykarN_Gb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
tarag 6>1 bgðajBIxñaténkarvas;EvgbBaðaenAkñúgRbeTsGaRBic nig CamFüm sRmab;RbeTsTaMgGs;Edl)anbgðajenAkñúgtarag 6>1 man
GaemrikT,aTInmYycMnYn. taragenHbgðajfa enAeBlEdlGRtacUleron kumarticCag 2 PaK 3 eronenAfñak;TI 4 dl;fñak;TI 6 EdlmancMeNHdwg
srubekInx<s;enARbeTsCaeRcIn manGñkeroncb;mYycMnYntUcb:ueNÑaH)an Gb,brmadUcEdl)ankMNt;enAkñúgsþg;daCati eTaHCamanGRtacuHeQµaH
eronecHdUcEdl)ankMNt;edaysþg;daGb,brmaCati. cUleronsrubenARbeTsTaMgenaHeRcInCag 65° k¾eday. eKalneya)ay
enA\NÐa GñkRKUmñak;kMBugCECkelgCamYysisS EdlBüayam[)an seRmcGRtacuHeQµaH[)an
100°enARbeTsTaMgenaHnwgnaM[mankarKitmin
dl;GMBItRmUvkarsikSarbs;sisS nigmin)an
seRmcplRbeyaCn¾ B i t R)akdénkarsi k Sa
rbs;ekµgmYycMnYnFMEdlminmancMeNHdwgBit
R)akddUcEdl)ankMNt;edaysþg;daCati.
rdæ a Pi ) alEdlBüayamelI k kM B s; K u N PaB
sikSarbs;sisSk¾CYbRbTHkarlM)akCaeRcInEdr
CaBiess enARbeTsEdlmanR)ak;cMNUltic.
enARbeTsTaMgenaH fñak;eronmansisSeRcIn
ehIyRKUmankarGb;rMtic. viFIsaRsþmYyKWkar
kMNt;sþg;daGb,brmacaM)ac;EdlsisSRKb;Kña
nigsalaTaMgGs;sg,wmfanwgseRmc[)an.
© O. FOLLMI/RAPHO

b:uEnþk¾mankarRbfuyRbfanpgEdrfakarsgát;
F¶n;elIsþg;daGb,brmaGacCakarkMhitdl;
skmµPaBepSgeTot.

36
r)aykarN_sklelaktamdan 2005
karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña
segç b
r)aykarN¾enHBN’naGMBIeKalneya)ayEdlminhYsBIsmtßPaBrbs; karEkTRmg;KuNPaBEdlmaneCaKC½yTamTar dMeNIrkarneya)ay
RbeTsRkIRkxVHFnFan nighirBaØvtßúkñúgkarseRmckarGb;rMsRmab;TaMg [mantYnaTIdwknaMd¾xøaMg rbs;rdæaPi)al. eTaHbICa enAkñúgRbeTsGac
Gs;Kña. eKalneya)aycab;epþImBIGñksikSa nigsgát;F¶n;elIPaBsm,Úr CMnYybreTsGacbegáInFnFanRKb;kRmit nigCYy
Ebbénkareron nigbeRgonEdlKaMRTedaysñaédRsavRCavEdlbgðajBIGIV dl;karRKb;RKgRbB½n§Gb;rMk¾eday k¾minGacman eCaCkaCk½yteþalFaIknMEaNsTeRRmmcg;
EdlmanRbsiT§PaBsRmab;sala nigRKU. ktþamYycMnYn dUcCa kmµviFI RbsiT§PaBedayBMumanKeRmagsgÁmsRmab;elIk
sikSa cMnYnem:agsikSa viFIsaRsþbeRgon nigsmÖarsRmab;eron nigbeRgon kMBs;Gb;rM b¤GñkxageRkAGacerobcMKeRmagEbb
RtUv)aneKpþl;karykcitþTukdak;y:agBiess. karvinieyaKelIRKUbeRgon enH)aneT. dMeNIrkarneya)ayenAkñúgRbeTsKWCaktþaFana[mankMEN
nigkarGPivDÆviC¢aCIv³RKUbeRgonKWkarvinieyaKd¾sMxan;dUcEdlbgðajy:ag TRmg;RbkbedayPaBeCaKC½y. RbsinebIKaMRT[mankarEkERbCMnYy
c,as;edaybTBiesaFn¾mkBIRbeTsmYycMnYneTot. kardwknaM nigRKb;RKg breTsGacnwgCYy[mandMeNIreq<aHeTAseRmcsklkmµGb;rMRbkbeday
sala nig»kassRmab;pøas;bþÚrbTBiesaFn¾eTAvijeTAmkmantYnaTIy:ag KuNPaBx<s;sRmab;mnusSTUeTA.
sMxan;sRmab;eFVIdMeNIreq<aHeTArkvb,Fm’KuNPaB.
TMnak;TMngrvagFatuepSg²eTotenAkñúgkarGb;rMGacCYyelIkkMBs;KuNPaB.
Cajwkjab; FatuTaMgGs;enHRtUv)aneKeFIVmindwgminB¤edaysßab½nrbs;
rdæaPi)al. karGb;rMkumartUc nigkmµviFIGb;rMCMruj[mankarelIkkMBs;
KuNPaBCaTUeTA nigkarsikSamYyCIvit. Gkçrkmµ
dMeNIrkarneya)ay CYyelIkkMBs;karebþCJacitþrbs;mnusSeBjv½y
enAkñúgRbeTsGac cMeBaHkarGb;rMkUn. eKalneya)ayEdleqøIy
CaGñkFanaseRmc tbnwgtRmUvkareynD½rCYyelIkkMBs;KuNPaB
eCaKC½yelIkMENTRmg; Gb;rM niglT§plénkarsikSaedaypÞal;.

37
38
r)aykarN_segçb 2 0 segç
0 5b

r)aykarN_sklelaktamdankarGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña 200 5
KuNPaBsßitkñúgebHdUgrbs;Gb;rM. KuNPaBman\Ti§BlelIxøwmsaremeronEdl
sisSeron man\Ti§BlelIskmµPaBeron lT§plénkarsikSa nigman\Ti§BlelI
plRbeyaCn_EdlsisSTTYl)anBIkarGb;rM. edIm,IFanafa sisSseRmckarsikSa
)anl¥ nigmanCMnaj nigtémøKuNFm’EdlsisSGacykeTAeRbItampøÚvl¥sißtkñúg
rebobvar³eKalneya)ayrbs;RbeTsnImYy². edayrdæaPi)alCaeRcInBüamyam
BRgIkGb;rMmUldæan rdæaPi)alTaMgenaHRtUvRbQmmuxnwgkatBVic©mYyEdlRtUv
bMeBjKWRtUvFanafa sisSRtUveronkñúgsala[)anyUrRKb;RKan;edImRsUbyk
cMeNHdwg nigBuT§iykeTAeRbIkñúgsgÁmEdlvivtþya:gelOnenH. karvaytémøbgðajfa
karFanaenHminTan;eFVI)anenARbeTsCaeRcIn. r)aykarN_enHykPsþútag)anBIkar
RsavRCavTak;TgnwgktþananaEdlkMNt;GMBIKuNPaBmkviPaK ehIyr)aykarN_
enH)anKUsbBa¢ak;c,as;GMBIeKalneya)ayKnøwHsRmab;elIkkMBs;skmµPaBeron
nigbeRgon CaBiessenARbeTsEdlmanR)ak;cMNUlTab. r)aykarN_enHk¾
tamdanGMBICMnYyGnþrCatiCYydl;vis½yGb;rM nigtamdankarrIkceRmInQaneTA
seRmceKaledATaMg 6 rbs;karGb;rMsRmab;TaMgGs;Kña EdlkalBIqñaM 2000
manRbeTsRbmaN 160 )anebþCJaGnuvtþ[)anenAevTikaGb;rMBiPBelak.

rUbftelIRkb
kumarkñúgfñak;eronmYyenAsalaTIgTIhIueRkn RbeTsma:lI Edlkñúgfñak;enaHman
RKUEtmYynak;Kt;beRgonsisS 65 nak;.
© CRISPIN HUGHES/PANOS/EDITINGSERVER.COM

39