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axali qarTuli literaturis istoria

II
ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

axali qarTuli literaturis istoria

II
axali qarTuli literaturis istoriis kaTedris mier momzadebuli wi-
namdebare wigni warmoaCens im wvlilsa da damsaxurebas, romelic XIX sauku-
nis, kerZod misi meore naxevris, mwerlobas miuZRvis mravalsaukunovani
qarTuli literaturis ganviTarebis saqmeSi.
saxelmZRvanelo gankuTvnilia umaRlesi saswavleblebis humanitaruli
fakultetebis studentebisa da farTo mkiTxveli sazogadoebisaTvis.

saredaqcio kolegia: iuza evgeniZe


Tengiz kikaCeiSvili (redaqtori)
lado minaSvili (redaqtori)
salome yubaneiSvili
jumber WumburiZe

recenzentebi: daviT wowkolauri


ivane jagodniSvili

© Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 2010

ISBN 978-9941-13-166-0
saredaqcio kolegiisgan

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo


universitetis axali qarTuli literaturis istoriis ka-
Tedram pirvelad 1956 wels, xelmeored ki 1972 wels gamos-
ca `axali qarTuli literaturis istoriis~ saxelmZRvane-
los I wigni. winamdebare naSromi warmoadgens `axali qar-
Tuli literaturis istoriis~ saxelmZRvanelos meore
nakveTs, romelic moicavs periods XIX saukunis 60-iani
wlebidan saukunis dasasrulis CaTvliT.
qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi miTiTebuli xana
azrovnul-literaturuli mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva.
bunebrivia, rom politikur, socialur Tu literaturul
TvalsazrisTa naTesaobis gverdiT Sesabamis poziciaTa
dapirispirebulobac arsebobs, magram azrTa am Widilis
regulireba qarTuli sazogadoebriv-literaturuli az-
rovnebis udidesma figuram — ilia WavWavaZem iTava da epo-
qis saukeTeso moRvaweebTan da did SemoqmedebTan erTad
mxolod azrTa sxvadasxvaobis procesSi dabadebuli WeSma-
ritebis Rirebuleba gamokveTa. aseTi pozicia Rrmad gan-
Wvretili da bunebrivic aRmoCnda, radgan, principulad,
qarTvel mwerlebsa da moazrovneebs kvebavda da asazrdo-
ebda, urTierTTan akavSirebda saqarTvelosa da qarTveli
kacis erovnul-socialur, zneobriv, pirovnul Tavisuf-
lebaze fiqri. amitomac gaxda am epoqis literatura saTa-
nadod pasuxismgebeli eris maSindeli sulieri da fiziku-
ri mdgomareobis warmoCenis didad mniSvnelovan saqmeSi,
amasTan, is dResac qarTveli eris momavali Rirseuli ar-
sebobis udidesi funqciis matarebeli fenomeni gaxlavT.
winamdebare saxelmZRvanelo konkretulad aSuqebs
XIX saukunis meore naxevris qarTuli literaturuli az-
rovnebis procesebs, avlens maT specifikas ganviTarebis
sxvadasxva etapze, ikvlevs calkeul mweralTa cxovrebisa
da Semoqmedebis istorias, afasebs maTi publicistikisa da
mxatvruli nawarmoebebis sazogadoebriv-politikur, fi-
losofiur da eTikur mniSvnelobas, aanalizebs Txzuleba-

5
Ta enobriv-stilistikur da stilistur qsovils da yove-
live amiT saTanadod amzeurebs eris epoqalur sulier
kulturas, fsiqikur wyobas, ideologiuri moZraobis bu-
nebas.
saxelmZRvanelos meore nakveTis avtorebi arian:
pr.kekeliZe (`akaki wereTeli~), a. Wilaia (`giorgi were-
Teli~), gr. kiknaZe (`vaJa-fSavela~), ap. maxaraZe (`aleqsandre
yazbegi~, `baCana~), s. xuciSvili (`anton furcelaZe~, `sof-
rom mgalobliSvili~, `ekaterine gabaSvili~), b. bardaveliZe
(`daviT kldiaSvili~), j. WumburiZe (`XIX saukunis 60-70-iani
wlebi~, `XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebi~), l. minaSvili (`ilia Wav-
WavaZe~, `ioseb daviTaSvili~), i.evgeniZe (`niko lomouri~, `eg-
nate ninoSvili~, `saukunis dasasruli~), T. kikaCeiSvili (`Te-
do razikaSvili~).

6
XIX saukunis 60-70-iani wlebi

60-iani wlebi gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis periodia ruseTisa da saqar-


Tvelos azrovnebis istoriaSi. rogorc cnobilia, moicavs yirimis omis Semdeg-
droindel aTeul wels da xasiaTdeba didi socialuri erupciebiT. 60-iani wle-
bi garkveuli cnebaa da, maSasadame, Tavisi Sinaarsis matarebeli.
60-iani wlebis umniSvnelovanesi Sedegebia ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis
mZlavri aRmavloba da batonymuri institutis mospoba. am ukanasknel movlenas
axasiaTeben rogorc gadatrialebas, rasac Sedegad mohyva sazogadoebis erTi
formis Secvla meoriT — batonymobisa kapitalizmiT.
Cven ar gamovudgebiT am periodis sazogadoebrivi procesebis ganmsazR-
vreli ekonomikuri faqtorebis daxasiaTebas. specialur literaturaSi es kar-
gad aris cnobili. amJamad CvenTvis sainteresoa aRvniSnoT, rom saqarTvelo,
romelic me-19 saukunis damdegidan Cabmuli iyo ruseTis imperiis saerTo eko-
nomikur cxovrebaSi, kvaldakval mihyveboda ruseTis ganviTarebas. marTalia, am
mxriv is ramdenadme yovelTvis CamorCeboda imperiis centraluri guberniebis
temps, magram ganviTarebis procesi analogiuri iyo. aseve literaturisa da xe-
lovnebis sferoSic saqarTvelo, istoriuli aucileblobis Sedegad, ruseTis
kulturis ganviTarebis gzas mihyveboda da yoveli didi istoriul-sazogadoeb-
rivi moZraoba maleve poulobda aq gamoZaxils. ueWvelia, rom am mxrivac zogi-
erTi mniSvnelovani literaturuli procesi ramdenime wlis mogvianebiT iCenda
Tavs CvenSi, magram sxvaoba arcTu ise didi iyo. yovel SemTxvevaSi, revoluci-
ur-demokratiuli ganwyobilebani, brZola batonymobis winaaRmdeg da ganmaTa-
visuflebeli moZraobis saerTo aRmavloba, d.WonqaZisa da, gansakuTrebiT, Ter-
gdaleulTa gamosvlis Semdeg, faqtia, mebrZoli, realisturi literaturisa da
xelovnebis mniSvnelovani problemebi, romlebic 60-iani wlebis rusma moRvawe-
ebma gaaSuqes, ZiriTadad, amave dros da amdagvaradve gadaWres qarTvelma samo-
cianelebmac. am TvalsazrisiT 60-iani wlebi saqarTveloSi Sinaarsobrivad da
qronologiurad met-naklebad emTxveva ruseTis 60-iani wlebis moZraobas.
gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom socialur protests, rac upiratesad ba-
tonymobis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli, saqarTveloSi daemTxva Zlieri erovnul-
ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraoba. Cveni qveynis politikuri mdgomareobis Tval-
sazrisiT es savsebiT kanonzomieri movlena iyo. momwifebuli sazogadoebrivi
problemis Sedegad erovnuli grZnobisa da Segnebis axali safexuri gamovlinda
da patriotulma tendenciam, romelic Cvens mwerlobas yovelTvis axasiaTebda,
60-iani wlebis literaturaSi axali ZaliT iCina Tavi. saqarTveloSi 60-iani wle-
bisaTvis niSandoblivi yvela es momenti Cinebulad daaxasiaTa i. WavWavaZem Ta-
vis cnobil statiaSi `werilebi qarTul literaturaze~:
`TvalnaTlad dasanaxia, rom samocian wlebSi axali xana dawyebul iqna... sa-
mocian wlebSi yvelaze uwinares gamobrwyinda daviwyebuli sityva `mamuli~ mTe-
lis Tavis gulTmimzidvel da didebul mniSvnelobiTa ... aRdgenilma mamulma
dahbada mamulis siyvaruli, mamulis-Sviloba da sakvirveli ar aris, rom misi
warsuli, misi awmyo da mermisi kvlevisa da gamoZiebis sagnad Seiqmna. `vina varT
da rani varT~ — am zRvaebr farTo sakiTxs Semoejara gars Cveni mwerloba ...pro-
ziT Tu leqsiT, yvela hRaRadebda adamianobis darRveul uflebis saxeliTa da
TviT mosaqme cxovrebis gankargebis wyurviliTa. am egreT-wodebul `realurma
mimarTulebam~ Cvenis azrianobisam Cveni goneba daakvirva Cvens miwier av-kargi-
anobas da samocian wlebidan dRevandlamde, am ocdaaTi wlis manZilze, bevri sa-
yuradRebo Rvawli dasdo, bevri nayofieri Tesli dahyara samermisod.
... samocian wlebamde — al. WavWavaZedam dawyebuli — Cveni poezia TiTo-
orola magaliTebs garda, isic ormocdaaTian wlebis bolo xanebSi, dahfufu-
nebda Cvenis didkacobis gulTa-Tqmas, TiTqos ukadrisobs amaT gare raime saga-
ni upovos poezias. samocian wlebma am viwrod SemoRobils sarbiels Cveni poezi-
isas Tavisi talRa gahkres da Semoamtvries Robeebi. am xanaSi moRvaweebma miag-
nes rom mdabioTa cxovrebaSiac aris adamianuri gulTa-Tqma; rom am mdabioTa
guli igive zRvaa, saca Tu ara meti, naklebi margalitebi ar aris glovisa da si-
xarulisa, Wirisa da lxinisa, Zulebisa da siyvarulisa; rom am mdabioTaca aqvT
Tavisi idealebi, Tavisi sanatrelebi, oRond ki kacs madli hqondes amaebis da-
naxvisa, amaebis gamoxatvisa~.1
sadavo ar aris, rom is, rac samocian wlebSi Cvenma mwerlobam Seqmna, upir-
veles yovlisa, qarTuli sinamdvilis adgilobrivi sazogadoebrivi urTierTo-
bis Sedegi iyo. savsebiT momwifda niadagi axali ideebis warmoSobisa da ganviTa-
rebisaTvis. amave dros am axals organuli kavSiri ar gauwyvetia erovnuli war-
sulis did tradiciebTan, swored amitom, gasuli saukunis 60-iani wlebis mem-
kvidreoba Cveni erovnuli kulturis sasicocxlo interesebs gamoxatavda. mag-
ram cxadia isic, rom axali tendenciebis intensiur ganviTarebas didad Seuwyo
xeli rogorc evropis, aseve ruseTis progresulma azrovnebam. gansakuTrebiT
mowinave rusulma kulturam `didi zemoqmedeba iqonia~ saqarTvelos inteleq-
tualuri cxovrebis winsvlaze, TviTon ilia aRniSnavda 1889 wels, gahyurebda
ra ganvlil gzas:
`Tqma ar unda, rom rusulma literaturam didi xelmZRvaneloba gagviwia
warmatebis gzazed da didi zemoqmedeba iqonia yovels maszed, rac Cvens suliers
ZalRones Seadgens da Cvens gonebas, Cvens azrs, rom grZnobasa da erTob Cvens mi-
marTulebas zed daaCnia man Tavisi avkargianoba. ar aris dRes CvenSi arc erTi
moRvawe da moqmedi kaci mwerlobaSi, Tu sazogado saqme sarbielzed, rom Tavisu-
fali iyos xsenebul literaturis zegavlenisagan. sakvirvelic ar aris: rusulma
skolam — mecnierebam gagviRo kari ganaTlebisa da rusulmave literaturam moa-
woda sazrdo Cvens gonebasa da gamohkveba Cveni azri moZraobis gzazed~.2
am mxriv qarTveli samocianelebis ideur-SemoqmedebiT evoluciaSi gansa-
kuTrebuli roli Seasrules rusma revolucioner-demokratebma — b.belinskim,
n.CerniSevskim, n.dobrolubovma... Cveni moRvaweebi xSirad emyarebodnen maT av-
toritets.
cnobilia, rom polemika rusuli presis furclebze n. CerniSevskis sama-
gistro Sromis garSemo (`xelovnebis esTetikuri damokidebuleba sinamdviles-
Tan~, 1855 w.) am wignis meore gamocemis Semdeg daiwyo; 1865 wlidan gansakuTre-
biT gaZlierda interesi `esTetikuri damokidebulebisadmi~ da igi gacxovelebu-
li msjelobis sagnad iqca (daibeWda soloviovis statiebi JernalSi `oteCestven-
nie zapiski~, zaicevis recenzia `russkoe slovoSi~, antonoviCis statia — `Tana-
medrove esTetikuri Teoria~ — `sovremennikSi~, pisarevis `esTetikis ganadgure-
ba~ da sxv).3 sagulisxmoa, rom Cvens samocianelebs adreve, sanam es didi xmauri
atydeboda presis furclebze CerniSevskis wignis garSemo, miuqceviaT yuradR-
eba `saratoveli seminarielis~ SromisaTvis da, TergdaleulTa pirveli gamos-
vlebidanve, xelSesaxebi gaxda rusi moazrovnis gavlena mowinave qarTul inte-
ligenciaze.

1
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, III, 1953, gv. 224-230.
2
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, VIII, 1957, gv. 332.
3
ix. n. C e r n i S e v s k i , rCeuli filosofiuri Txzulebani, saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademia,
Tb., 1955, komentarebi, gv. 652-653.
8
isic cnobilia, rom 1862 wlis ivlisidan Zneli da saxifaTo iyo CerniSev-
skis saxelis damowmeba oficialuri presis furclebze. TviT n. nikolaZe, rome-
lic, saerTod, CerniSevskis gavlenas xazgasmiT aRniSnavs Tavis mogonebebsa da
publicistur werilebSi, 70-iani wlebis dasasrulisTvisac ki iZulebulia pre-
saSi SemovliT ilaparakos CerniSevskize.1 miuxedavad amisa, 60-ian wlebSi ram-
denjerme gamoCnda CerniSevskis saxeli TviT Jurnal `ciskarSi~. pirvelad ant.
furcelaZem axsena igi i. WavWavaZesTan polemikis dros:
`ara, uf. WavWavaZe, Cvena da Tqven am SemTxvevaSi belinskoba da CerniSev-
skoba ar gamogvadgeba! jer koWic aris unda migvigvandes imaTa da mere mivba-
ZoT~.2 Semdeg uloRikom daasaxela CerniSevski, rodesac daviT yifians ekamaTe-
boda:
`aq, me vici, uf. yifiani Tvalebs damibrialebs da SemomWyivlebs: maS, Sen av-
toritetebi ginda, avtoritetebis pativiscema da ara gandevna!! maS, Sen `sovre-
menniki~ ar wagikiTxavs! maS, Sen CerniSevskisa ara wagikiTxavsra! maS Sen, dobro-
lubovis wignebSi ar Cagixednia!..3
rogorc vxedavT, n.CerniSevskis saxeli ara marto damowmebulia am avtore-
bis mier, aramed rusi moazrovnis mniSvnelobac aris aRiarebuli. yovelive es
imaze miuTiTebs, rom rusi revolucioner-demokratebis ideebis gavlena qar-
Tvel mowinave inteligenciaze cxovelmyofeli iyo da man, upirveles yovlisa,
Tavi iCina saliteraturo kritikis sferoSi.
cxadia, rodesac am ideur-literaturul urTierTobaze vlaparakobT, yo-
velTvis unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom rusuli progresuli kulturis gavlena
qarTvel moRvaweebze brma xasiaTisa rodi iyo. Cveni samocianelebi Segnebulad
iTvisebdnen axal literaturul principebs da yovelive amas qarTul sinamdvi-
les ufardebdnen. uwinares yovlisa, erovnuli mwerlobis saWiroebani, Cveni si-
namdvilis konkretuli moTxovnilebani gansazRvravda qarTveli samocianele-
bis ideur-esTetikur mrwamss. amitom, bunebrivia, rom maT ara marto kritiku-
lad aiTvises axali principebi, rogorc amas araerTxel dabejiTebiT aRniSnavs
i. WavWavaZe, aramed, erovnuli kulturis saWiroebaTa mixedviT, mravali Tavise-
burebac gamoamJRavnes. xSir SemTxvevaSi Cvens samocianelebs gansxvavebuli az-
ri da gza hqondaT. magaliTad, i. WavWavaZe, romelic, saerTod, iyenebda belin-
skis statias `vai Wkuisagan~, rodi iziarebda am statiis erT-erT ZiriTad Tezas,
rom `yovelive arsebuli gonivrulia~ (Teza, romelic Semdeg TviT belinskim
uaryo, aRebuli iyo hegelis moZRvrebidan) iseve, rogorc igi ar iziarebda be-
linskis Sexedulebas satiraze. Tavisi moRvaweobis pirvel periodSi, emyarebo-
da ra hegelis zemoaRniSnul debulebas, imave statiaSi belinski amtkicebda,
rom `satira ar SeiZleba iyos mxatvruli nawarmoebi~, ilias ki g.erisTavis, ro-
gorc mwerlis, erT-erT damsaxurebad miaCnda swored satiris Semotana Cvens
literaturaSi.4 aseve unda aRiniSnos, rom, marTalia, ilia sargeblobs belin-
skis recenziiT i.kozlovis leqsTa krebulze, magram igi savsebiT rodi eTanxme-
ba kozlovis poeziis belinskiseul Sefasebas. rusi kritikosisagan gansxvave-
biT, ilia kozlovis poetur memkvidreobas srulebiT umniSvnelod miiCnevs da
sxv.
1
ix. magaliTad, krebuli 1873, 4. dawvr. ix. s. xundaZe, masalebi qarTuli literaturisa da sa-
zogadoebrivi azrovnebis istoriisaTvis, Tb., 1949.
2
ciskari, 1863, #3, gv. 445.
3
ciskari, 1863, #9, gv. 117.
4
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , werilebi qarTul literaturaze, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. III, 1953, gv.
222.
aq isic ar unda daviviwyoT, rom ilia, ra Tqma unda, belinskis saerTo Sexedulebebidan amodioda,
belinskis kritikuli memkvidreobis saerTo xasiaTs iTvaliswinebda, angariSs uwevda ra misi Semo-
qmedebis meore periods.
9
saerTod ki Cveni samocianelebi rusi revolucioner-demokratebis mier
wamoyenebul principebs imarjveben mSobliuri literaturis kvleva-Ziebisa da
analizis dros da amkvidreben saqarTveloSi realistur saliteraturo kriti-
kas.
amitom iyo, rom qarTvelma samocianelebma, kerZod ki Tergdaleulebma,
SeZles SeeqmnaT farTo TvalTaxedviT aRWurvili, moqalaqeobrivi paTosiT aR-
savse, mebrZoli literatura da kritika, romlis devizi sazogadoebrivi inte-
resebis samsaxuri iyo, rac 60-iani wlebis inteleqtualur cxovrebas saerTod
axasiaTebda. es Segnebuli mizanswrafva ase gamoxata im drois erT-erTma mowinave
kritikosma da publicistma k.lorTqifaniZem: `Tu Cveni sakuTari interesi ar da-
Cumdeba sazogado interesis win, maSin Cvens gzasa da kvals veravin gaigebso~.1
amitom qarTvel samocianelebs ar SeeZloT gaeziarebinaT kritikis karamzi-
niseuli daxasiaTebis erTi mniSvnelovani momenti, rasac zogierTi qarTveli li-
teratori imeorebda: `upirvelesi wesi kritikisa aris, — rogorc hswers karamzi-
ni, — umetesad vaqoT Rirsi qebisa, viremc vaZagoT, romlisa Zageba SeiZleba~.2
Cvens samocianelebs, piriqiT, miaCndaT, rom kritikis erTi upirvelesi mo-
valeobaa dadebiTis CvenebasTan erTad Seufaravad amxilos naklovanebani da
amitom igi unda iyos aqtiuri, mebrZoli da ukompromiso.
60-ian wlebSi gansakuTrebiT Zlierdeba polemika qarTvel literatorTa
Soris. es garemoeba savsebiT gasagebia, ramdenadac amas ganapirobebda salite-
raturo kritikis momwifeba da presis ganviTareba maSindel rTul socialur
viTarebaSi. polemika bunebrivad Tan axlavs kritikas da, rac ufro maRal safe-
xurzea es ukanaskneli, miT ufro xSirad iCens Tavs igi kritikis istoriaSi. 50-
ian wlebSi dawyebuli polemika 60-ian wlebSi didad farTovdeba da axal Sinaar-
ssa da mniSvnelobas iZens. winaaRmdegoba e.w. Zvelsa da axal Taobebs Soris, uwi-
nares yovlisa, saliteraturo kritikis sferoSi gamomJRavnda. jer `ciskris~
furclebze gaiSala paeqroba, xolo Semdeg `ciskarsa~ da `saqarTvelos moambis~
TanamSromlebs Soris. am xanebSi polemika arc erTi da imave rwmenis adamianebs
Soris iyo iSviaTi. yovelive amis wyalobiT 60-iani wlebis periodi Zalze mraval-
ferovani da sainteresoa kritikuli azris mkvlevarTaTvis.
amJamad, rodesac istoriuli TvalsazrisiT SevxedavT 60-iani wlebis po-
lemikas, unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom literatorTa Zveli Taobis warmomadgen-
lebic Tavisi qveynis Svilebi iyvnen. Cveni mizani is ki ar aris, rom erTi davamci-
roT, raTa meoris mniSvneloba gamovaCinoT, saqme ise ki ar unda warmovidginoT,
rom Zveli Taobis literatorebi uvicebi da Cveni kulturis moZuleni iyvnen.
maTac hqondaT TavianTi principebi, usazRvrod uyvardaT erovnuli mwerloba
da Tu dros CamorCnen, es istoriuli aucileblobiT iyo ganpirobebuli.
polemika Zveli Taobis literatorebsa da axal Taobas Soris gardauvali
aRmoCnda, radgan pirvelni, umetes SemTxvevaSi, verc amaRldnen epoqis moTxov-
nebis gagebamde, xSirad ar esmodaT wamoWrili sakiTxebis principuli mniSvne-
loba. Jurnali `ciskaric~, romelic maT mier iyo daarsebuli, TandaTan CamorCa
dros, Tumca man dasaxuli amocana Seasrula da didad Seuwyo xeli erovnuli
literaturis warmatebas. is progresul rols TamaSobda Tavisi arsebobis pir-
vel wlebSi, magram TergdaleulTa gamosvlis Semdeg, romlebmac axali ideebi
da principebi Semoitanes, `ciskarma~ TandaTan dakarga mniSvneloba, radgan ve-
Rar SeZlo samociani wlebis diad moZraobas kvaldakval mihyoloda.
aman ganapiroba axali Taobis mier sakuTari organos — `saqarTvelos moam-
bis~ daarseba 1863 wels. marTalia, Jurnalma mxolod erTi weli iarseba, magram
misi roli da mniSvneloba scildeba 60-iani wlebis farglebs. momdevno xanebSi

1
ciskari, 1862, #9, gv. 48.
2
a. s a v a n e l i , mkiTxvelTadmi, ciskari, 1857, #4, gv. 28.
10
gamosuli perioduli gamocemebi (`droeba~ 1866 wlidan, `krebuli~ 1871 wlidan)
didad arian davalebuli `saqarTvelos moambisagan~, agrZeleben mis tradiciebs
da, `saqarTvelos moambis~ msgavsad, cdiloben axali ideebis Tanmimdevrulad
gatarebas.
ra principiT gamovida `saqarTvelos moambe~? movusminoT mis redaqtors —
i. WavWavaZes:
`xelovnebasac imas movTxovT, rom sarkesaviT cxovreba gadmoices, raTa
Cveni Tavi mis momxiblavis kalmiT cxovlad iyos warmomdgari Cven wina, raTa si-
cudec da sikeTec Cven davinaxoT... iq, cxovrebis ZirSi is ipovis bevr margalits
da ufro bevr leqssa da lafsa; arc erTis gamoxatva ar unda aSinebdes xelovne-
basa da arc meorisa, arc erTis gamoTqma da arc meorisa ar unda aSinebdes Jur-
nalsa~.1
`saqarTvelos moambe~ ZiriTadad sami sakiTxis gaSuqebas cdilobda: socia-
luri problema — umTavresad batonymobis winaaRmdeg brZola, erovnul-ganman-
Tavisuflebeli moZraoba da realisturi xelovnebis danergva.
am principebisaTvis Jurnals ar uRalatnia. am TvalsazrisiT unda Sevafa-
soT `saqarTvelos moambis~ roli da mniSvneloba realisturi esTetikis da li-
teraturis ganviTarebaSi.
marTalia, 50-iani wlebis kritikam saerTod moumzada niadagi esTetikuri
azris intensiur ganviTarebas 60-ian wlebSi, magram ar unda daviviwyoT, rom wina
Taobis mweralTa Soris bevri dabejiTebiT icavda konservatorul da arqaul Se-
xedulebebs. literatorTa am jgufTan samocianelTa Sejaxeba aucilebeli iyo,
ramac Cveni kulturis istoriaSi `ori Taobis brZolis~ saxelwodeba miiRo. mag-
ram samocianelTa mxareze iyo farTo ganaTleba, erudicia, istoriuli simarTle.
Zalebi araTanabari aRmoCnda, da, bunebrivia, rom dawyebuli polemika litera-
torTa `Zvel~ da `axal~ Taobebs Soris ukanasknelis gamarjvebiT damTavrda.
CvenTvis amJamad gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani ki is aris, rom am polemikam qar-
Tvel mweralTa da kritikosTa mTeli Taoba gamoaCina.
am Taobis upirvelesi warmomadgenlebi iyvnen: i. WavWavaZe da a. wereTeli.
maT mxardamxar iRvwodnen: g. wereTeli, n. nikolaZe, k.lorTqifaniZe, a. furce-
laZe da mravali sxva. maT yvelas erTi azri da miswrafeba aerTianebdaT. magram
mainc gamorCeulia roli ilia WavWavaZisa, romelic 60-iani wlebis didi sazoga-
doebrivi da literaturuli moZraobis WeSmariti Tavkaci iyo da romelmac na-
xevari saukunis manZilze `kalTiT atara~ Cveni mwerlobis bedi da ubedoba. ukve
misi pirveli literaturul-kritikuli statia — `oriode sityva Tavad revaz
Salvas Zis erisTavis kozlovis mier `SeSlili~-s Targmnazeda~, romelic 1861
wels gamoqveynda `ciskarSi~ (#4), axali Taobis literaturul manifestad iqca.
aq Camoyalibebuli principebi daedo ZiriTadad safuZvlad axali Taobis Sem-
dgom literaturul saqmianobas.
mweralTa da kritikosTa am axalma Taobam erovnuli kulturis winaSe far-
To problemebi dasaxa da qarTvel mkiTxvels didad gaufarTova TvalTaxedvis
are. es axalgazrdebi sakmaod sworad arCevdnen Zveli da axali mwerlobis did
warmomadgenlebs da, am mxriv, maT erTiani Tvalsazrisi hqondaT. es ki saSuale-
bas aZlevda qarTvel samocianelebs ara marto axali saxelebi gaecnoT mkiTxve-
lisaTvis da am mxriv gaefarTovebinaT kritikuli msjelobis sfero, aramed ki-
dec ganesazRvraT erovnuli mwerlobis ganviTarebis saWiro tendenciebi.
yvela samocianeli mwerali da kritikosi samoRvaweo asparezze Camoyali-
bebuli SexedulebebiT, principebiT gamovida da amisda Sesabamisad daiwyo li-
teraturuli saqmianoba. ra Tqma unda, es imas ki ar niSnavs, rom isini mwerlobas

1
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , `saqarTvelos moambezed~, Txz. kr., t. III.
11
xelobad irCevdnen, raTa TavianTi azrebi eqadagnaT, am adamianebs hqondaT nam-
dvili mowodeba Semoqmedisa da niWs is Rirsebac emateboda, rom maT icodnen, ra
unda eTqvaT, esmodaT xelovnebis didi sazogadoebrivi daniSnuleba. swored sa-
mociani wlebis qarTulma kritikam sabolood gaucnobiera mkiTxvels xelovne-
bis buneba, funqcia da mizandasaxuloba. man ara marto daazusta da daasabuTa
wina periodis kritikis mier wamoyenebuli debulebebi, aramed saerTod axali
problemebi daayena; 60-iani wlebis literaturam daamkvidra CvenSi realisturi
xelovnebis principebi da amitom dabejiTebiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom es iyo qar-
Tuli mwerlobis ganviTarebis axali safexuri.

***

samocdaaTiani wlebi — es aris batonymobis gadavardnis Semdegdroindeli


periodi, romelic Tavisi politikuri da socialur-ekonomikuri tendenciebiT
sakmaod gansxvavdeba 60-iani wlebisagan. saglexo reformam ver gaamarTla masze
damyarebuli imedebi. amitom iyo, rom revoluciur-demokratiulad ganwyobili
inteligencia Seufaravad akritikebda reformis Sedegebs, kerZod, Tavs esxmoda
`droebiT valdebulTa instituts~. il. WavWavaZe aRniSnavda: `gamoicvleba 172
muxlis ZalaTa awindeli wilaRobili Rala da kuluxi Tu ara, mainc da mainc amas
vityviT, rom es ar aris gvirgvini batonymobis saqmisa. eg Suagzaa ukeTesi mas-
zed rac aris da uaresi maszed rac sanatrelia. magazed gaCereba yovlad SeuZ-
lebelia. dRes Tu xval saWiroeba moiTxovs, rom glexi miwis patronad Seiqmnas...
yvelaze umTavresi mizezi, romelic naymevsa da memamuleebis daxsnas xels uS-
lis da didad abrkolebs, is aris, rom naymevi mamuls ver iyidis, Tu mebatone am-
as ar moiwadinebs... batonymobaSi dabadebuls, batonymobaSi gamozrdils, rasak-
virvelia, eZneleba, guli eTanaRreba, rom mis garSemo batonobas Zala aRara
aqvs da fiqrobs raki wyals mivyevarT, xavss mainc moveWidoo. xavsad kidev mize-
ziani meoTxedoba gauxdia da amas magrad eWideba. rasakvirvelia, am gvaris meba-
tonisaTvis mamulis gayidva, romelic glexis srul ganTavisuflebas moaswa-
vebs, sanatreli ar iqneba, radganac amiT moispoba is mizezi, ra mizeziTac dRes
glexi Zalauneburad begaras uwevs~.1
amitom brZola batonymobis gadmonaSTebis winaaRmdeg erT-erTi upirve-
lesi amocana iyo qarTveli samocianelebisa, romelTa mxatvrul Semoqmedebasa
da publicistikaSi sakmao sisruliT aisaxa 70-iani wlebis ZiriTadi tendenciebi.
amitomaa, rom maT SemoqmedebaSi axali ZaliT iCens Tavs erovnul-ganmanTavi-
suflebeli moZraobis motivebic. araa SemTxveviTi, rom 70-iani wlebis damdegs
aqveynebs ilia `glaxis naambobsac~ da `mgzavris werilebsac~. Cveni samocianele-
bi, kerZod ki Tergdaleulebi, kvlav am ori ZiriTadi Temis gaSuqebas eswrafvi-
an, magram TandaTan aqcenti erovnul problemaze gadaaqvT, ramdenadac i. WavWa-
vaZisa da mis TanamoazreTa SexedulebiT, batonymobis gauqmebis Semdeg upirve-
lesi sakiTxi `qarTlis bedis~ gadawyvetaa, aqeTken unda warimarTos mTeli
erovnuli energia da mis gadaWras unda mohyves sxva problemebis mogvarebac.
marTalia, 60-ian wlebSi arsebiTad damTavrda brZola `Zvelsa~ da `axal~
Taobebs Soris, samocianelebma faqtobrivad daamkvidres TavianTi socialur-
politikuri da esTetikuri Sexedulebebi, magram maSindel rTul sazogadoeb-
riv pirobebSi winaaRmdegoba grZeldeboda da amitom moulodneli ar aris, rom
70-ian wlebSi igi kvlav gamomJRavnda mxatvrul literaturasa, publicistikasa
da saliteraturo kritikaSi. brZolis ganaxleba gamoiwvia Semdegma faqtma: 1871

1
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , `cxovreba da kanoni~. Txz. sr. krebuli, t. 6, 1956, gv. 25.
12
w. saqarTveloSi unda Camosuliyo imperatori aleqsandre II. Tavadaznauroba am-
zadebda imperatorisaTvis misarTmev adress. sagangebo yrilobam, Tergdaleul-
Ta gavleniT, daadgina moeTxova universitetis gaxsna TbilisSi, magram Tavadaz-
naurobis winamZRolma (marSalma) revaz andronikaSvilma mefis nacvlisa da kavka-
siis saswavlo olqis mzrunvelis baron nikolais zegavleniT waradgina sxva mi-
marTva, romelSic, nacvlad universitetisa, moiTxovdnen kadetTa korpusis gax-
snas. igi Sedgenili iyo komisiis mier, romelSic Sediodnen g.muxran-batoni,
d.jorjaZe, iase WavWavaZe, b.RoRoberiZe da m.TumaniSvili (am ukanasknelis zogi
biografi saqmes cota sxvagvarad warmogvidgens da amtkicebs, rom m. TumaniSvili
momxre iyo universitetis gaxsnisa).
am `uqveSevrdomilesi~ grZnobis gamovlenam moTminebidan gamoiyvana i. Wav-
WavaZe da amave wels dawera `gamocanebi~ da `kidev gamocanebi~. am pamfletebSi,
romlebic imdroindeli gavleniani pirebis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli, iliam
yvelas Rirseulad miuzRo.
`gamocanebs~ gamoepasuxa grigol orbeliani da gaCaRda polemika. akakim es
periodi daaxasiaTa, rogorc `ucenzuro mwerlobis~ gavrcelebis xana (ramdena-
dac es pamfletebi maSindel presaSi ki ar qveyndeboda, aramed xelnawerebis sa-
xiT vrceldeboda). rogorc cnobilia, gr.orbeliani 60-ian wlebSi TaobaTa
brZolaSi ar Careula. igi Wkviani da ukve cxovrebagamovlili kaci, grZnobda,
rom simarTle axali Taobis mxareze iyo. magram axla, rodesac uSualod mis pi-
rovnebasac Seexnen (Tumca iliam, sxvebTan SedarebiT, igi sakmaod rbilad gaken-
wla), gr. orbelianma wonasworoba dakarga da dawera Tavisi cnobili `pasuxi
SvilTa~, romlis pirveli varianti (`gamocanebis pasuxis~ saTauriT) gacilebiT
uxeSia, vidre mogviano, 1874 wlis redaqcia.
gr. orbelianma am leqsSi sastikad gakicxa axali Taoba. mas umecreba, laC-
roba, gadagvareba dasdo bralad da amayad miuTiTa `mamaTa~ warsulze. `Svi-
lebs~ enis waxdenac ki daayvedra:
`maT uswavlelTa, cru rusTavelTa
sul wagvibilwes ena mdidari,
ena maRali, mis Zali, madli
uwyalod waxda uwmindurT xelSi!~
da didma poetma da aristokratma ase daitira saqarTvelo:
`he, sasurvelo gmirTa mamulo,
nuTu Sen marTlad esred damcirdi,
rom Sensa bedsa, Sensa imedsa
daexelmwifnen cru poetebi?
cru liberalni, patriotebi,
mesxi, mevele, meliq-aRebi?!~
ilia WavWavaZes upasuxod ar dautovebia es pamfleti da leqsSi `pasuxis
pasuxi~ (1872 w.) ukve aRar dazoga mxcovani poeti:
`...Cven vvleT ruseTi, magram arc erTi,
xeloba Tqveni ar gviswavlia,
Cveni qveyana, mkvdari Tqvengana,
Tqvenebr Cinebzed ar gagvicvlia~.
iliam piriqiT dasdo bralad `mamebs~ `enis waxdena~:
`is ar xarT Tqvena, rom RviZli ena
brZanebiT dasTmeT aRmosakveTad?!
SiSiT — arc karSi da aRarc saxlSi
mas aRar xmarobT Tqvenda sarcxvenad~.

13
ilias mxedvelobaSi hqonda senator giorgi muxranskis wignaki `О существе
национальной индивидуальности и об образовательном значении крупных единиц~ (1872 w.),
sadac avtori patara erTa enis asimilaciis garduvalobas amtkicebda did erTa
enasTan. ilia werda:
`pirvel Tqvenganma, ima bedSavma,
mas mkvdris sudara gadaafara~.
amitom ilias ufleba hqonda ganecxadebia:
`Tqvengan gmobili, Tqvengan ltolvili
ena Cvens qoxSi Cven SevifareT,
kargad Tu avad Cven mas vinaxavT
da mis sikvdiliT ar gagaxarebT~.

i. WavWavaZem 1872 wels moaxerxa `droebaSi~ (#35) gamoeqveynebina leqsi


`rCeva~, romelic imave g. muxranskis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli.
70-iani wlebis am polemikaSi Caebnen s. mesxi, n. nikolaZe, a. wereTeli da
sxvebi. kerZod, akakim amave xanebSi dawera alegoriuli pamfleti `enebis gasa-
marTleba~, romelsac aseTi SeniSvna daurTo: `vuZRvni g. muxran-batons~ (leqsis
dabeWdva akakim mxolod 1874 w. SeZlo `droebaSi~), xolo gr. orbelians 1872 w.
gamoepasuxa leqsiT `xarabuza Renerals~, romelSic mowinaaRmdeges aseTi gana-
Ceni gamoutana:
`iaranal-xarabuza,
sityviT sworo, saqmiT kuza,
dagikargavs Seni muza!
bzzu, bzzu, buza-buza~.
akakim gr. orbelianis warsuli `demokratobac~ gaixsena: `novRorodis li-
beraloo~ — ase mimarTa. SeiZleba akaki aq gulisxmobs poetis dRiurebs `mgzav-
roba Cemi tfilisidam peterburRamdis~ (1831-32ww.), sadac `novgorodis respub-
likis~ apologiaa mocemuli. gamoricxulia, rom akaki gacnobili yofiliyo am
nawarmoebs, ramdenadac `mgzavrobis~ erTaderTi cali 1832 w. SeTqmulebis saq-
meebSi inaxeboda. aq ufro gr. orbelianis warsulis zepir gadmocemasTan unda
gvqondes saqme.
1872 w. akakim `droebaSi~ dabeWda feletoni — `axmed-faSa kaxaberi~, romel-
Sic CarTulia adre dawerili leqsi `farSavangi~. feletonica da leqsic mimar-
Tulia gr. orbelianisa da saerTod `mamebis~ winaaRmdeg. alegoria metad gam-
Wvirvalea da mkiTxveli advilad xvdeba, Tu viszea laparaki. 1875 w. `droebaSi-
ve~ dabeWda akakim alegoriuli xasiaTis leqsi `Zveli da axali weli~, xolo amas
mohyva cnobili `patriotis aRsareba~, romelSic CarTulia leqsebi: `bobolebis
baiaTi~ da `koRo-buzebis pasuxi~.
`Tqven sxva xarT da Cven sul sxva, ara gvaqvs-ra saerTo~ — ganacxada akakim da
amiT sabolood gaTiSa TaobaTa gzebi.
gr.orbeliani axali Taobis am polemikur Txzulebebs oficialurad aRar
gamoxmaurebia, magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom man pozicia Seicvala. 1876 w. mas da-
uweria satiruli xasiaTis leqsi — `droebis~ aTi wlis iubile — ferxuli da buq-
na~. im dros, rodesac qarTvelma sazogadoebam zeimiT aRniSna am progresuli
gazeTis iubile, gr. orbelianma uaryofiTad Seafasa `droebisa~ da misi redaq-
toris — s. mesxis saqmianoba:
`fu am drosa
uniWosa, ukacosa,
rom `droeba~ win gviZRveba mesxiTa,
Cveni enis, Cveni qveynis mfarvelad!!~

14
dasasrul, isic unda aRvniSnoT, rom 1874 w. gr. orbelianma `Zveli semina-
ristis~ fsevdonimiT `ciskarSi~ (9,10) dabeWda statia `mgzavroba svaneTisaken~.
g. w. (ganxilva). igi mimarTulia giorgi wereTlis winaaRmdeg, kerZod, kritiku-
ladaa ganxiluli `kikoliki, Cikoliki da kudabzika~ (g. wereTlis es nawarmoebi
gamoqveynda `krebulsa~ da `droebaSi~ 1866-1873 wlebis manZilze). werili metad
mniSvnelovania gr. orbelianis literaturul-enobrivi poziciis gasarkvevad.
statiaSi Tavi iCina `mamaTa~ banakis moZvelebulma mrwamsma enis sakiTxSi, ker-
Zod, es iTqmis leqsikisa da Zveli asoebis xmarebis Sesaxebac, rasac Tavgamode-
biT icavs gr. orbeliani. avtori arc imas malavs, rom igi p. ioselianis gramati-
kul Sexedulebebs emyareba. magram isic unda davsZinoT, rom, miuxedavad stati-
is zemoaRniSnuli tendenciisa, avtoris konkretuli enobrivi xasiaTis SeniSvne-
bi g. wereTlis misamarTiT, umetes SemTxvevaSi, marTebulia. gr. orbelianis brZo-
la enis siwmindisaTvis am poziciidan udavod misaRebia. ar SeiZleba angariSi ar
gaewios gr. orbelianis Semdeg gancxadebasac: `xSirad amboben awindeli mweralni:
`xalxis enazed vhsweroTo~. maS, ra enaze unda dahsweron? magram es ki unda axsov-
deT, rom xalxis ena aris mxolod masala SeumuSavebeli; vidre daxelovnebuli
mwerali masalasa mas ar gadaarCevs, kargsa uvargisisagan ar gahswmends, ar gaam-
Svenierebs da didebulebiTa ar aRiyvans saliteraturos samflobeloSi; mere im
galamazebulsa enasa gamSvenierebulis formiTa gadmohcems mosaxmareblad isev
imasve xalxsa, romelic aris patroni enisa da romelica SeiTvisebs imas, viTarca
sakuTrebasa; da am saxiT umetes da umetes Svenierdeba xalxis ena da miT umetes
naTldebaca misi goneba!~
anda: `risgan moxda, rom `saqarTvelos istoria~ da `kacia, adamiani!?~ ram-
denjerme wavikiTxe didis siamovnebiT da kikolikis mgzavroba meCvena esreT sa-
zizRrad? maS, amaT Soris, marTlad, romeli aris qarTuli?~
gr. orbelianis es gancxadeba ara marto axali qarTuli realisturi mwer-
lobis aRiarebis faqts gamoxatavs poetis mxriv, aramed im tendenciebis gageba-
sa da met-naklebad gaziarebasac, romelTac Tavi iCines saliteraturo enis
sferoSi realisturi mwerlobis damkvidrebasTan erTad.
70-ian wlebSi, Tu, erTi mxriv, grZeldeboda brZola Zvelsa da axal Tao-
bebs Soris, meore mxriv, axali Taobis warmomadgenelTa Sorisac gamomJRavnda
winaaRmdegoba. rasakvirvelia, es ar niSnavs imas, rom Seicvala maTi saerTo
Tvalsazrisi batonymobis gadmonaSTebis winaaRmdeg brZolaze, erovnul-gan-
manTavisuflebel moZraobaze, xelovnebis sazogadoebriv daniSnulebaze da a.S.
magram iyo sakiTxebi, romelTa gagebaSi gamomJRavnda gansxvavebuli Tvalsazri-
sebi. es, uwinares yovlisa, e.w. `axali axalgazrdobis~ jgufis poziciasTanaa da-
kavSirebuli. niko nikolaZem gamoaqveyna statiebi: `Cveni axalgazrdoba~ (krebu-
li, 1872, #2) da `axali axalgazrdoba~ (krebuli, 1873, #1), romlebSic Tavisebu-
rad Seafasa qarTvel samocianelTa moRvaweoba da maT daupirispira `axali ax-
algazrdoba~. n. nikolaZis sityviT, Zvelma Taobam ukve didi xania dakarga Zala
da gavlena, misi CamorCenili konservatiuli Sexedulebani istorias Cabarda,
magram Zveli Taobis `Caqolvisa da damxobis mizezi ufro cxovrebisa da garemo-
ebis Zala iyo, vinem axali Taobis moqmedeba da brZola~. axal Taobas bevri ram ak-
lda imisaTvis, rom gardaeqmna cxovreba, aklda gamocdileba, praqtikuli codna,
igi ufro Teoriulad iyo momzadebuli da konkretuli praqtikuli moqmedeba ar
SeeZlo, — `am Taobas, am axal razms Seadgenda TiTqmis marto erTi kaci — ilia Wav-
WavaZe, romelic winamZRolic iyo da razmic, an, ufro sworad rom vTqvaT, urazmo
winamZRoli iyo am axali Taobisa, romelsac Cvens cxovrebaSi fexi unda Semoedga~.
es Taoba `erideboda Zvel Taobas, an, marTali vTqvaT, eSinoda misi. marto erTi
mxriT SeeZlo am Taobas Zvelis daCagvra da daTrgunva, im mxurvale siyvaruliT,
romelic axalgazrda gulSi unda Rviodes sazogado bednierebis da saqmisadmi, am
15
grZnobam, am siyvarulma aamaRla es Taoba sazogadoebis TvalSi da Seavso misi nak-
lulevaneba cxovrebis codnaSi~ .
ase calmxrivad Seafasa 70-ian wlebSi n. nikolaZem im Taobis saqmianoba, rom-
lis erT-erTi warmomadgeneli TviTonac iyo da sxvebTan erTad Seadgenda im
`razms~, romelsac ilia WavWavaZe Tavkacobda. ase rom, ilia ar iyo `urazmo wi-
namZRoli~, mas Tanamoazrenica da TanamebrZolnic hyavda. es Taoba arc Zvel Ta-
obas `erideboda~ da praqtikuladac bevri ram gaakeTa.
n. nikolaZem win wamoswia vaWroba-aRebmicemobis saqme, e.i., erovnuli burJuazi-
is ganviTarebis sakiTxi da miiCnia, rom am saqmes saTaveSi unda Caudges `axali axal-
gazrdoba~, romelic ufro momzadebuli gamovida 70-ian wlebSi.
60-iani wlebis yvelaze niWier da `saimedo~ warmomadgenlebs n. nikolaZe
mouwodebs mxarSi amoudgnen `axal axalgazrdobas~, raTa am ukanasknelma SeZ-
los masze dakisrebuli misiis Sesruleba. n. nikolaZe aRniSnavs, rom Tavis weri-
lebSi man gadmosca axalgazrdobis survilebi, miswrafebani da azrebi, yovelive
is, rac maTganve gaugonia. igi darwmunebulia, rom ` ... Cveni axali axalgazrdoba
bevri aRar Camogavs uwindel Taobas, bevri mxriT win wasula imaze da im suraTs
damsgavsebia, im ideals daaxloebia, romelic Cven gvenatreboda~. n. nikolaZe
ara ubralod TanaugrZnobs am `axal axalgazrdobas~, aramed, rogorc Cans, wi-
namZRolobasac kisrulobs. TviTon 60-iani wlebis moRvawe (romelic, sxvaTa So-
ris, axlac da Semdegac yovelTvis didi pativiscemiT ixseniebs i. WavWavaZes)
n. nikolaZe ukve gamoyofs TanamoazreTa erT jgufs (g. wereTeli, k.lorTqifa-
niZe, s. mesxi, a. wereTeli) da maTTan erTad fiqrobs mxarSi amoudges 70-iani
wlebis axalgazrdobas.
ase iCina Tavi ganxeTqilebam 60-ianelTa Soris, rac imiT damTavrda, rom i.
WavWavaZe TandaTan Camoscilda n. nikolaZis jgufs da 1877 wlidan sakuTari or-
ganos —`iveriis~ gamocema daiwyo.
70-ian wlebSi iwyeba qarTuli presis aRmavloba: kvlav gamodis 1866 wels
daarsebuli `droeba~, romelSic Cveni mowinave inteligencia TanamSromlobs;
kvlav ganagrZobs arsebobas Jernali `ciskari~ (1875 wlamde), romelmac Tavisi
mniSvneloba dakarga. magram, rac mTavaria, arsdeba ramdenime axali perioduli
gamocema.
marTalia, `droeba~ agrZelebs `saqarTvelos moambis~ gzas, magram gazeTs
ar SeeZlo Jurnalis magivroba gaewia. amitom 70-ian wlebSi kvlav mwvaved dgas
Jurnalis gamocemis sakiTxi, rac qarTuli Jurnalistikis istoriaSi udavod
mniSvnelovani movlenaa. n. avaliSvilis redaqtorobiT Jurnal `mnaTobis~ daar-
seba (1869-1872 ww.). `mnaTobis~ mesveurebs Tavidanve Segnebuli hqondaT, Tu ro-
goria, saerTod, presisa da, kerZod, Jurnalis movaleoba da mizandasaxuloba.
ukve pirvelsave statiebSi aRniSnulia perioduli gamocemis roli sazogadoe-
bis inteleqtualuri da zneobrivi ganviTarebis saqmeSi. am mxriv Jurnali izia-
rebs im principul debulebebs, romlebic ase kategoriulad wamoayenes da
vrclad daasabuTes i. WavWavaZem da misma Tanamoazreebma. saerTod, `mnaTobis~
redaqcia imTaviTve cxadyofs Tavis simpaTias `saqarTvelos moambisadmi~ da Se-
ufaravad eubneba mkiTxvels, rom Tavs am Jurnalis tradiciebis gamgrZeleblad
Tvlis.
aseve agrZelebs `saqarTvelos moambis~ tradiciebs meore Jernali `krebu-
li~ (1871-1873 ww.). misi TanamSromlebi — n. nikolaZe, g. wereTeli, p.umikaSvili,
nik. yifiani da sxvebi saTaveSi Caudgnen am periodis saliteraturo kritikis
ganviTarebas. uwinares yovlisa, swored es adamianebi cdilobdnen Tanmimdevru-
lad gaetarebinaT realisturi esTetikis principebi da daecvaT qarTuli rea-
listuri kritikis aRmavali xazi. isini cdilobdnen gamoxmaurebodnen erovnu-
li mwerlobis yovel axal movlenas, raTa mSobliuri literaturis ganviTare-

16
bisaTvis swori gezi miecaT. isic sayuradReboa aRiniSnos, rom Cveni moRvaweebi
cdilobdnen erovnuli mwerlobis tendenciebi ukve 60-ian wlebSive ganexilaT
sxva xalxTa literaturis analogiur movlenebTan kavSirSi da eCvenebinaT, rom
yoveli erovnuli mwerloba saerTo literaturuli procesis ganuyofeli nawi-
lia, rac 70-iani wlebis kritikosebma kidev ufro gaaRrmaves. qarTuli kritikis
zrdasa da interesebis sferos gafarToebas mowmobs is faqti, rom swored am pe-
riodSi TandaTan ufro xSirad gvxvdeba rusul-evropuli mwerlobis calkeul
warmomadgenelTa specialuri Sefaseba-daxasiaTebac.
Jurnal `krebulis~ TanamSromelTa Soris am TvalsazrisiT, uwinares yov-
lisa, yuradRebas iqcevs n. nikolaZe — Zalze nayofieri kritikosi, romelmac ar-
sebiTad gansazRvra am organos literaturuli mimarTuleba da saqmianoba
(JurnalSi igi statiebs aqveynebs umTavresad `skandelis~ fsevdonimiT). 70-ian
wlebSi n. nikolaZe, rogorc kritikosi, daaxloebiT iseTsave rols TamaSobs,
rogorsac i. WavWavaZe 60-ian wlebSi. n. nikolaZis literaturul-kritikulma we-
rilebma didad Seuwyves xeli qarTul sinamdvileSi realisturi esTetikis prin-
cipebis sabolood ganmtkicebas, kritikis amocanebis gafarToebas da, saerTod
ki, Cveni mwerlobis ganviTarebis swori gziT warmarTvas.
bunebrivia, n. nikolaZis winaSe imTaviTve daisva sakiTxi, Tu ra amocanebs
isaxavs saliteraturo kritika da rogoria misi daniSnuleba. unda iTqvas, rom
specialuri werili kritikis bunebasa da mniSvnelobaze XIX s. 70-ian wlebamde ar
gvqonia. ama Tu im sakiTxis garkvevasTan erTad wamoiWreboda saWiroebac kriti-
kis cnebis ganmartebisa. n. nikolaZe pirveli iyo, romelmac Jurnal `krebulSi~
1871 wels gamoaqveyna specialuri statia — `kritika da misi mniSvneloba lite-
raturaSi~.
`krebulSi~ gamoqveynebul n. nikolaZis sxva werilTagan gansakuTrebiT
mniSvnelovania i. WavWavaZis `glaxis naambobis~ ganxilva. unda iTqvas, rom es
erT-erTi saukeTeso werilia XIX saukuneSi i. WavWavaZis Semoqmedebaze. mtkice,
Camoyalibebuli Tvalsazrisi, msjelobis siRrme da piruTvneli damokidebule-
ba ganxilvis obieqtisadmi, statiis maRalkvalificirebul avtors warmogvid-
gens. n. nikolaZe Tavidanve Seecada ganesazRvra `glaxis naambobis~ adgili ilias
SemoqmedebaSi. am mxriv man es moTxroba mwerlis `pirveli periodis~ Semoqmedebas
miakuTvna da igi ganasxvava `kacia adamianisa~ da momdevno xanis sxva TxzulebaTa-
gan, romlebSic kritikosi i. WavWavaZis `davaJkacebul gonebasa da niWs~ xedavs.
CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa, rom am werilSi n. nikolaZem pirve-
lad wamoayena literaturaSi e.w. `Seuferavad~ asaxvis cneba. kritikosi axasia-
Tebda ra `glaxis naambobs~, miiCnevda rom masSi Cans `ucxoeTis mwerlobis gav-
lena~, rom avtors `mibaZva Tavidam ver aucilebia~ da a.S. am sxvaTa mwerlobis
`mibaZvaSi~ n. nikolaZe gulisxmobs rusuli literaturis gavlenas axalgazrda
iliaze, kerZod ki, im faqtze miuTiTebs, rom `glaxis naambobSi~ gamoxatuleba
pova tendenciam, romelic am ociode wlis winaT damaxasiaTebeli iyo rusuli
mwerlobisaTvis. kerZod beletristika, sacenzuro pirobebiT SezRuduli, cdi-
lobda Sefarulad aReZra siZulvili batonymobisadmi, amas ki yvelaze ukeT
imiT axerxebda, rom xatavda glexis uuflebo mdgomareobas, gviCvenebda, rom
glexebic adamianebi arian, ician siyvaruli da a.S. erTi sityviT, cdilobda
aReZra TanagrZnoba rusi glexisadmi. amitom am glexs mwerloba ramdenadme Se-
lamazebulad, gaidealebulad warmogvidgenda: `am mwerlebis (grigoroviCis,
potexinis, pisemskis, turgenevis, marko-vovCokisa da sxv.) naklovaneba imaSi
mdgomareobda, rom isini glex-kacobas xatavdnen ise, TiTqo win namdvili glexi
ki ara, maTi sakuTari Tavi yolodeT, glex-kacur farajaSi Cacmuli~. es mwerle-
bi tendenciurad xatavdnen yma-glexs, alamazebdnen mis sulier samyaros da, ma-
Sasadame, `Seufaravad~ ar asaxavdnen sinamdviles. n. nikolaZis azriT, istoriu-

17
li TvalsazrisiT, aseTi tendenciuroba gamarTlebuli iyo, magram igi mudmivad
ver gagrZeldeboda. rac dro gadioda, rusuli literatura TandaTan unda gan-
Tavisuflebuliyo zemoaRniSnuli naklisagan, kerZod, batonymobis gauqmebis
Semdeg ukve aRar iyo saWiro rusi glexi kacis xasiaTis Selamazeba. am mxriv pir-
veli sityva `sovremennikma~ Tqva `Tavisi ufrosi TanamSromlis~ statiiT. xom ar
aris es dasawyisi cvlilebisa? (n. nikolaZe gulisxmobs Tavisi maswavleblis — n.
CerniSevskis werils). marTlac, n. CerniSevskim am statiaSi aRniSna, rom refor-
mamdelma rusulma literaturam Sealamaza rusi glexis xasiaTi, zne-Cveulebani
da rom `Zlier idealizacias~ Tavisi safuZveli hqonda. magram mweral n.uspen-
skis magaliTze n. CerniSevski askvnis, rom daiwyo Semobruneba, uspenskis Rirse-
ba swored isaa, rom igi `wers yovelgvari Seferadebis gareSe~.
n. nikolaZe n. CerniSevskis swored zemoaRniSnul statias emyareba, rode-
sac `glaxis naambobsa~ da mis personaJebs axasiaTebs. mas miaCnia, rom gabrielis
saxe rusuli literaturis zemodasaxelebuli tendenciis gavlenis Sedegia. si-
namdvilis `Seuferavad~, Seulamazeblad aRwera miaCnia kritikas xelovnebis
upirveles movaleobad. es `Seuferavi~ asaxva, ra Tqma unda, sinamdvilis ubralo
aslgadaRebas, fotografiul Cvenebas ar gulisxmobda. n. nikolaZes kargad es-
moda, rom xelovneba, kerZod, literatura sinamdvilis axali warmosaxvaa, axali
mxatvruli sinamdvilea. n. nikolaZis moTxovna `Seufaravad~ asaxvisa cxovrebis
marTlad, obieqturad asaxvas gulisxmobda da realizmis umTavres princips em-
yareboda. ase rom, n. nikolaZe agrZelebda samocianelTa mier ukve damkvidre-
bul Tvalsazriss da mas erovnuli literaturis konkretuli nimuSebis anali-
zis dros iyenebda.
n. nikolaZis es msjeloba Taviseburad gamoiyena 90-ian wlebSi g. wereTel-
ma, romelmac daamkvidra `Seuferavi realizmis~ cneba. sinamdvilis `Seferi-
lad~, `Selamazebulad~ asaxva man gamoacxada i. WavWavaZis da e.w. `pirveli dasis~
mxatvruli meTodis Tvisebad.
aseve mniSvnelovania n. nikolaZis werili — `gr. orbeliani~, romelic imave
`krebulSi~ daibeWda. sayuradReboa iTqvas, rom XIX saukunis 70-ian wlebamde
Cven ar gvxvdeba qarTveli mwerlebis mTliani Semoqmedebis analizi. 60-ian wleb-
Sic ki Cven gvaqvs mxolod ama Tu im mwerlis calkeuli nawarmoebis ganxilva. n.
nikolaZe am mxriv pirvelia, romelic gvaZlevs qarTveli mwerlis mTliani Se-
moqmedebis analizs da, unda iTqvas, rom gr. orbelianis poeziis amaze vrcelsa
da srul ganxilvas qarTuli kritika ar icnobs XIX saukuneSi.
70-ian wlebSive iwyeba CvenSi xalxosnuri moZraoba, romelic Tavis met-nak-
lebad srul gamoxatulebas 80-iani wlebis damdegis literaturaSi poulobs.
70-iani wlebis dasasruls iwyeba qarTuli mudmivi Teatris aRorZinebac.
swored 1879 wels yalibdeba qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoeba, ramac biZgi mis-
ca 80-iani wlebis erovnuli dramaturgiis ganviTarebas.

18
ilia WavWavaZe

(1837—1907)

saqarTvelos istorias bevri didi mamuliSvilis saxeli amSvenebs. qarTve-


li xalxi amayobs Tavisi saxelovani gmirebiT, mwerlebiT, swavlulebiT. magram
am sasaxelo mamuliSvilTa Soris gamoiyofian kidev rCeulni, romelnic amasTa-
nave TavianTi qveynis moZRvarT-moZRvarnic arian. maT Soris, pirvel yovlisa,
moCans monumenturi figura ilia WavWavaZisa, saqarTvelos sulieri da praqti-
kul-sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis warmmarTvelisa XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi.
ilia WavWavaZe im dros moevlina saqarTvelos, rodesac Cvens qveyanas uaR-
resad sWirdeboda Tavganwiruli winamZRoli. ilia WavWavaZe eris beladis niSan-
TvisebebiT aRWurvili pirovneba iyo. man naxevari saukunis manZilze zida eris
Tavkacis tvirTi; zida, vidre ar daeca qveynis sakurTxevelze, vidre msxverplad
ar Seewira im ideas, romelsac Segnebulad Sealia Tavisi sicocxle.
ilia WavWavaZe uaRresad mravalmxrivi moRvawe iyo, SemousazRvreli da
TvalSeudgami. ilias mZlavri pirovneba moicavs moRvaweobis sruliad sxvadas-
xva sferos — literaturas da xelovnebas, Jurnalistikas, istorias, iurispru-
dencias, filosofias, ekonomikas, soflis meurneobas... bunebrivia, amgvari viTa-
reba arTulebs mis samyaroSi Sesvlas... magram amasTan ilia iyo monoliTuri pi-
rovneba, mTliani da myari. misi mZlavri, Rrma da rTuli fizikuri da sulieri Za-
lebi erTiani iyo. misi didi neba da inteleqti axerxebda mTeli misi bunebis mra-
valmxrioba, SemoqmedebiTi da praqtikuli energia erTi miznisaken waremarTa, er-
Ti, misTvis saarsebo, sasicocxlo moTxovnisaTvis daeqvemdebarebina. misi arse-
bobis erTaderTi forma iyo azriani cxovrebiT cxovreba.
ilia WavWavaZis TiToeuli nabiji pirovnuli, sazogadoebrivi Tu litera-
turuli cxovrebis gzaze sinaTliTaa savse, mizanswrafulia. amgvari viTareba
ki gansazRvravs misi Semoqmedebis samyaroSi Sesvlis xasiaTs. mTavaria moiZeb-
nos is dedaZarRvi, rac mwerlis cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis Sinaarsad, misi ar-
sebobis paTosad qceula da kvalSi Caudge, mihyve, igi Tavad gatarebs.

biografia

ilia WavWavaZe daibada 1837 wels `kaxeTis Tvalad~ wodebul sofel yva-
relSi. es sofeli garemosilia ilias mier poeziaSi ukvdavyofili yvarlis mTe-
biT da alaznis momxibvlel vels gadahyurebs. daRestnis gzaze mdebare sasazR-
vro soflis cixis aReba faqtobrivad kaxeTis WiSkris Semoxsnas niSnavda. `sa-
qarTvelos sazRvrebs am sadarajoze monapireobam gamoumuSava am mxaris
mkvidrT Seudrekeli, rainduli suli~.1 mteri bevrjer cdila yvarlis aRebas.
amgvar faqtebs XIX saukuneSiac hqonia adgili. TviT ilias mamas ramdenime gzis
uwinamZRvria yvarlelebisaTvis da mteri vaJkacurad ukuuqceviaT. swored le-
kebTan Setakebis dros daiRupa ilias Zma konstantine. bunebrivia, es Setakebe-
bic da maTSi iliasaTvis uZvirfasesi adamianebis monawileoba yrmis gulsac aT-

1
p . i n g o r o y v a , ilia WavWavaZe (biografiuli narkvevi), wignSi — ilia WavWavaZe, Txzulebani aT
tomad, t. I, 1951, gv. X.
19
rTolebda da garkveulad mis sulier formirebasac gansazRvravda, awrTobda.
`kidev ufro Zalumad moqmedebda iliaze saucxoo buneba, romelic gars ertya
yvarels. CrdiloeTiT burjis ukan aRmarTulia xSiri tyiT Semosili maRali
mTebi. xeobaSi viwro biliki Cans, romelsac mgzavri ucxo mxareSi, daRestanSi
mihyavs. am tyeSi raRac saidumloeba mefobs. are-mare Rrma siCumiT aris mocu-
li. samxreTiT yvarlis vrcel zvrebs iqiT aTasfrad aWrelebuli mziani mxare
iSleba. es aris saucxoo alaznis veli, romelic ilias Zlier uyvarda~.1 mainc
yvarlis mTebma erTob aatokes momavali poetis guli. ramdenjer unatria
mTrTolvare yrmas zviadi mTebis `amay Tavs~ Sexeboda; natrobda, rom `subuq
qars~ moxveoda, raTa `Tavisufali arwivis Zlieri frTebiT~ laJvardi cis siR-
rmeSi aWriliyo.
ilias mama, grigol WavWavaZe adre oficrad iyo namsaxuri. man sanaqebo ma-
mobrivi mzrunveloba gamoiCina dediT daoblebuli Svilebis mimarT. grigoli
mowinave Sexedulebebis kaci iyo, xelmokleobis miuxedavad Svilebis swavla-aR-
zrdaze izruna, Tanac TavadiSvilTa umravlesobis darad igi ar gahyva inercias
— Svilebi samxedro karierisTvis ki ar gaamzada, aramed samoqalaqo saswavle-
belSi miabara. ara marto vaJebi, aramed ufrosi qali ninoc TbilisSi Camoiyvana
swavlis misaRebad.
grigoli Svilebis sulier Camoyalibebaze STambeWdavi monaTxrobiT da piradi
magaliTiTac axdenda saTanado zemoqmedebas. `yvelas uyvars, Svilebo, Tavisi qveyana
da roca uWirs, Znelia kacma umtyunos da Tavi ar gamoimetos~ — ase sadad, Sinagani
darwmunebulobiT, warsulis gmirebis savaJkaco saqmeebis moTxrobiT aRvivebda mama
ilias sulSi mamulis winaSe keTilSobiluri valis grZnobas.
darbaiseli, amasTanave erTob gonebamaxvili da sityvamoswrebuli grigo-
li gulCaTxrobilic yofila, gansakuTrebiT meuRlis gardacvalebis Semdeg.
ilias erTi biografis sityvebiT, `es orive Tviseba — niWi oxunjobisa da sastiki
dumili, didxans yofna xmaamouRebliv, gamohyva mis SesaniSnav Svilsac~ (gr. yif-
SiZe).
grigol WavWavaZe 1852 wels gardaicvala, ormocdaerTi wlisa, maSin ilia
15 wlisa iyo.
ilias deda mariam beburiSvili Tbiliseli qali iyo, meuRlisa da ojaxis
didi erTguli, didad gonieri, Tavisi drois kvalobaze nakiTxi, kargi mcodne
qarTuli literaturisa. mariami gonivrulad zrdida Svilebs. igi sul mTlad
axalgazrda gardaicvala 1848 wels, roca ilia mxolod aTi wlisa Sesrulda.
mSobelTa saxeebi, maTi xsovna Rrmad CaebeWda gulSi ymawvils da mTeli
cxovreba faqizad atara. mogvianebiT warsulis naRvelnarevi sitkboTi savse
mogonebani bavSvobaze, mSoblebze man faqizad aRadgina saaxalwlo moTxrobaSi
`nikoloz gostaSabiSvili~.
daoblebuli bavSvebis movla-patronoba, rogorc xSirad momxdara, aqac
mamidam, daqvrivebulma makrinem iTava. igi `burjad Seudga Zmis ojaxs~2 da arc
mouklia mzrunveloba da siyvaruli ZmiSvilebisaTvis.
yrmobaSive Tavsdatexilma ubedurebebma, mware tkivilebma mgrZnobiare da
fiqriani bavSvi kidev ufro gulCaTxrobili gaxada. ilia Rrmad ganicdida mar-
toobas da amasTanave uTqmelad iTmenda yovelives. es moTmena, gulSi uxmod
Cakvla dardisa, mwuxarebisa, garegnuli SeumCnevloba `didis Sinaganis cecxli-
sa~ ilias bunebad eqca. mas, vinc ilias axlos ar icnobda, STabeWdileba rCeboda,
rom ilia gulqva iyo, pirquSi. sinamdvileSi am garegnuli simkacris, zogjer

1
a r t u r l a i s t i , saqarTvelos guli, 1963, gv. 34.
2
i . b e r o S v i l i , ilia da yvareli, 1977, gv. 11.
20
ulmobelobis, iqiT Sinagani silbo, sinaze da didi siyvaruli ifareboda. ilias
urTierToba axloblebTan, misi Semoqmedeba amas TvalsaCinod mowmobs.
ilias swavla-aRzrdas Tavdapirvelad deda xelmZRvanelobda. ojaxSi, yrmo-
bis wlebSi unda ziareboda igi qarTuli literaturis nimuSebs da maT Soris, pir-
vel yovlisa, qarTvelTa `xelixelsagogmanebel~ `vefxistyaosans~.
rva wlis ilia WavWavaZe saswavleblad miabares soflis mTavar diakvans. aq,
soflis skolaSi, iliasTan erTad ramdenime glexis biWic dadioda. mwerali Ta-
vis avtobiografiaSi didi siTboTi igonebs soflis skolaSi gatarebul dros.
mTavarTan siaruls didi zemoqmedeba mouxdenia yrmis sulze. maswavlebeli ma-
incdamainc ar qancavda bavSvebis mexsierebas. drois ZiriTadi nawili TamaSSi ga-
dioda. TamaSobdnen bavSvebi maswavleblis meTvalyureobiT. weras da kiTxvas
sul erT saaTs andomebdnen. umTavresi Rirseba mTavrisa `is iyo, rom momxibvle-
li Tqma icoda ambebisa. gviambobda mdabiurad da bavSvisaTvis advilad gasage-
bis eniT ufro saRmrTo da samSoblo qveynis istoriis ambebsa, vis ra gmiroba
moemoqmedna, vis ra falavnoba gaewia, vis ra Rvawli da sikeTe daeTesa samSob-
los da sarwmunoebis sasargeblod da dasacvelad~. yrmis suli SeuZravs gmir
winaparTa Tavdadebis ambebs. imdenad Rrma yofila mTavris monayolis zemoqme-
deba, rom zogi ram ilias Semdgom gamouyenebia Tavis SemoqmedebaSi.
TerTmeti wlisa ilia mamam TbilisSi Camoiyvana da jer erT-erT saukeTeso
kerZo saswavlebelSi, raevski-hakes pansionSi, Seiyvana, xolo aqedan iliam swav-
la gaagrZela Tbilisis gimnaziaSi.
ilias yuradRebas pansionsa da gimnaziaSi swavlisas maswavlebelTagan ma-
inc hake iqcevs, ufro sworad, mexsierebam yvelaze Zalumad hakes saxe Semoinaxa:
`hake germaneli iyo, yovelmxriv ganaTlebuli kaci... hake sastiki kaci iyo, mag-
ram Tan imodenad mamobrivs mzrunvelobas iCenda Tavis Segirdebis mimarT, imo-
denas cdilobda da yurs ugdebda maTs zneobrivsa da gonebrivs ganviTarebas,
rom TiTqmis mTel Tavisufal dros klasSi mecadineobis Semdeg, imaT andomeb-
da. xan emusaifeboda, xan arTobda musikiT da marTavda xeldaxel koncerts ro-
ialzed, romlis dakvrac saucxovod icoda~.
es aris da es, rac Cven ilias pansionisa Tu gimnaziis drois maswavleblebze
viciT. unda vifiqroT, rom ilia TviTonve hqmnis Tavis pirovnebas da Tavisi saq-
cielis, moqmedebis axsnas gare pirobebis, maswavleblebis ragvarobiT ar cdi-
lobs. igi arc aqebs da arc aZagebs swavlis sistemas da maswavleblebs.
ilias ojaxi erTob xelmokled cxovrobda. magram mamidam yovelnairad Se-
uwyo xeli da daamTavra Tu ara gimnazia, maSinve, 1857 wels ilia WavWavaZe gaem-
gzavra peterburgs swavlis gasagrZeleblad. aq igi Cairicxa universitetSi iu-
ridiul fakultetze.
ilia WavWavaZisa da misi Taobis axalgazrdebis peterburgSi Casvla daem-
Txva ruseTis sinamdvilisaTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovan, erTob mRelvare xanas. es
iyo samociani wlebi, dro `sinaTlis sxivis bneleTis samefoSi~ SeWrisa (dobro-
liubovi). am droisaTvis rus samocianelebs saSualeba miecaT azris SedarebiT
Tavisufali gamoxatvisa.
ruseTSi mimavali ilias miswrafebebi da idealebi ukve gamokveTili iyo.
peterburgSi wasuli ilia Tavisi qveynis `momavlis bedze~ zrunvis grZnobiT iyo
Sepyrobili. am poziciidan afasebda ilia yovelives. peterburgSi myof qarTvel
studentTa mowinave nawilisaTvis ilia iqca Zalad, avtoritetad da mis garSemo
Semoikribnen kidec. ilias pirovnuli simyare, sidinje, didi erudireba iqca
imis pirobad, rom igi axalgazrdebis jgufSi moTaved eRiarebinaT.
ilia WavWavaZe da misi megobrebi interesiT adevnebdnen Tvals ruseTisa da
dasavleT evropis sazogadoebrivi azris ganviTarebas da moazrovnis poziciidan
afasebdnen yovelives. erTi sityviT, isini ara marto codnis dauflebas eltvod-

21
nen, aramed rusul sinamdvileSi TavianTi erovnuli poziciis Sesabamisad iseT az-
rebs irCevdnen, romelTa transformacia SesaZlebeli aRmoCndeboda qarTuli si-
namdvilisaTvis. maSasadame, rusuli moZraobis, mowinave evropuli da rusuli az-
ris ganxilva xdeboda qarTuli sazogadoebrivi interesebis aspeqtSi.
peterburgis universitetSi ilia TviTganviTarebas eZleva. igi bevrs muSa-
obs; kiTxulobs bevrs, gansakuTrebiT politikuri da ekonomikuri sagnebiT inte-
resdeba, safuZvlianad swavlobs evropul da rusul literaturas.
peterburgSi myofi ilia qarTul niadags wamiT ar mowyvetia. swored aq, pe-
terburgSi, gaicno man safuZvlianad Zveli qarTuli mwerloba. saqme is iyo, rom
am dros prof. d.CubinaSvilma qarTvel studentebs gadasca salome batoniSvi-
liseuli mdidari biblioTeka.
swored am droisaTvis peterburgSi gansakuTrebuli ZaliT gaiSala ilias
SemoqmedebiTi muSaoba. igi wers leqsebs: `xma samaridam~, `guTnis deda~, `qar-
Tvlis dedas~, `gavswordeT bedo~, `muSa~, `aleqsandre WavWavaZe~, `nikoloz ba-
raTaSvilzed~, `risTvis miyvarxar~, `gaxsovs turfav~ da kidev bevr sxvas. aqve
iwereba poema `aCrdilis~ pirveli varianti. peterburgSi iwyebs ilia moTxrobis
weras, romelic Tavdapirvelad ori nawarmoebis, moTxrobebis — `kacia-adamia-
nis~?! da `glaxis naambobis~ siuJets aerTianebda. amave dros iwyebs ilia mTar-
gmnelobiT saqmianobasac. Targmnis goeTesa da Sileris, baironisa da haines, ru-
kertisa da Senies, puSkinisa da lermontovis nawarmoebebs.
rogorc vxedavT, peterburgSi yofnis dros ilia gansakuTrebuli Semoqme-
debiTi produqtiulobiTac gamoirCeva da es imitomac, rom aq, ucxoeTSi, gaci-
lebiT ufro didia dro fiqrisa, CaRrmavebisa, sakuTar gancdebze dakvirvebisa
da gamoxatvisaTvisac.
ilia WavWavaZis yvela biografi peterburgSi misi yofnis droidan gansa-
kuTrebiT erT faqtze amaxvilebs yuradRebas. erT zafxuls ilia swvevia Tavis
saxelovan naTesavs — ekaterine WavWavaZe-dadianisas. aq misTvis uCvenebiaT n. ba-
raTaSvilis xelnaweri krebuli, romelsac igi guldasmiT gascnobia. am xelna-
wers, Tumca igi adrec icnobda am poetis `ciskarSi~ gamoqveynebul zogierT
leqss, gansacvifrebeli zemoqmedeba mouxdenia iliaze. `sami dRe gaognebuli
dadiodao~- igonebs k. afxazi. im droidan mokidebuli ilia mTeli Tavisi cxov-
rebis manZilze genialuri qarTveli poetis popularizacias eweoda. misi uSua-
lo damsaxurebaa n. baraTaSvilis saxelis gansakuTrebuli amobrwyineba CvenSi.
peterburgis universitetis studentTa areulobasTan dakavSirebiT ilias
universiteti ar daumTavrebia. 1861 wels igi saqarTveloSi dabrunda, sadac mas
eloda `zeca sul sxvafrad damSvenebuli da sul sxva rigad damSvidebuli~...
manamde ki, ramdenime TviT adre, iliam Jurnal `ciskarSi~ dasastambad ga-
mogzavna Tavisi pirveli kritikuli statia `oriode sityva Tavad revaz Salvas
Zis erisTavis mier kazlovidgan `SeSlilis Targmanzeda~, romelic Jurnalis ap-
rilis nomerSi daibeWda kidec da didi polemikuri vnebaTa Relvac gamoiwvia.
swored es werili gaxda 60-iani wlebis qarTul literaturul sinamdvileSi im ka-
maTis mizezi, romelic `TaobaTa brZolis~ saxelwodebiT aris cnobili. ilias am
dros qarTuli literaturuli sinamdvilisaTvis sruliad uCveulo, mZafri sa-
tiruli toniT daweril werils maSinve gamoexmaurnen `ciskris~ avtorebi: barba-
re jorjaZe, giorgi baraTaSvili, TviTon `SeSlilis~ mTargmneli revaz erisTavi,
xolo mogvianebiT sardion aleqsi-mesxiSvili. iliac TiTqos swored amas ucdida
da TiTqos sababs eZebda, dauyovnebliv aqveynebs `ciskarSi~ `pasuxs~, sadac, garda
imisa, rom oponentebs mkacrad akritikebs, pirvelad qarTul sinamdvileSi rea-
listuri xelovnebis Teoriis mTel rig moTxovnebs wamoayenebs.
male ilia WavWavaZem Jurnali `ciskari~ Seufereblad miiCnia Tavisi interese-
bis gamosaxatavad da Seudga zrunvas sakuTari Jurnalis daarsebisaTvis. cxadia, ax-

22
algazrda ilias, romelsac am droisaTvis arc literaturuli avtoriteti hqonda
mopovebuli, arc diplomi gaaCnda da arc materialuri dasayrdeni, maincdamainc xe-
lisuflebisaTvis arc politikurad Cans sando, advilad ar miscemdnen Jurnalis
daarsebis uflebas. erTi iyo survili, magram meore iyo ndoba. da ai, axalgazrda po-
ets Jurnalis daarsebis saqmeSi mxari dauWira da daxmareba aRmouCina gr. orbelian-
ma. man `iSuamdgomla saTanado umaRlesi instanciis winaSe da amiT erTgvari pasuxis-
mgeblobac itvirTa~ (i. evgeniZe). iliam miiRo Tanxmoba da 1863 wels gamovida i. WavWa-
vaZis Jurnali `saqarTvelos moambe~. Jurnalma, marTalia, erTi weli iarseba (gamovi-
da misi Tormeti nomeri), magram Znelia gadaWarbebiT Sefasdes misi roli qarTuli
kulturisa da sazogadoebrivi azris ganviTarebis saqmeSi.
1863 weli kidev erTi mniSvnelovani faqtiT aRiniSna ilias cxovrebaSi. am
wels ilia daqorwinda Tadeoz guramiSvilis asulze, olRaze, vinc mTeli si-
cocxlis manZilze ilias ganuyrel megobrad iqca da Rirseuli meuRleoba gau-
wia mas.
`saqarTvelos moambis~ gamosvlidan erTi wlis Tavze iliam uari ganacxada
Jurnalis gamocemaze, radgan is farTo da gabedulze gabeduli programa eris
satkivaris, momavlis safiqralis gamoxatvisa, rasac ilia Tavis Jurnals usaxav-
da, sinamdvileSi, garkveuli mizezebis gamo, ganuxorcielebeli rCeboda.
1864 wlidan ilia iZulebuli iyo samsaxuri daewyo. Tavdapirvelad ilia
quTaisis guberniaSi dainiSna general-gubernatoris calke mindobilobaTa mo-
xeled, xolo male, batonymobis gauqmebis Semdeg, igi gadmovida duSeTis mazra-
Si jer momrigebel Suamavlad, xolo 1868 wlidan — momrigebel mosamarTled.
ilia WavWavaZem duSeTSi karga xani dayo. igi aq, periferiaSi muSaobis dro-
sac, mouclelobis miuxedavad gafacicebiT adevnebda Tvals qveynis literatu-
rul da kulturul majiscemas.
am droisaTvis daasrula iliam `glaxis naambobi~, aqve gaukeTa saboloo re-
daqcia `mgzavris werilebs~, dawera `glexTa ganTavisuflebis pirveli droebis
scenebi~, sabolood daamuSava poema `qarTvlis deda~, aqve Seiqmna `1871 weli, 23
maisi, parizis komunis dacemis dRe~, SesaniSnavi `Cemo kargo qveyanav~, didi pirov-
nuli ZaliT aRbeWdili satiruli leqsebi `ra vakeTeT, ras vSvrebodiT anu saqar-
Tvelos istoria mecxramete saukunisa~, `bednieri eri...~ swored aqedan daesxa igi
Tavs Tavisi `gamocanebiT~ da `kidev gamocanebiT~ did saxelmwifo moxeleebs da
im qarTvel moRvaweebs, romelTac, misi azriT, bralad edebodaT im adresis Sina-
arsis Secvla, saqarTveloSi Camosul aleqsandre meores rom miarTves 1871 wels.
mowinave qarTveli inteligencia, ilias megobrebi kargad grZnobdnen, rom
maT sWirdebodaT iliasTan uSualo kavSiri, misi uSualo xelmZRvaneloba. qar-
Tveli inteligenciis warmomadgenlebi, rogorc n. nikolaZe gadmogvcems, ram-
denime gzis asulan duSeTSi da iliasaTvis uTxovniaT, rom TbilisSi dabrunebu-
liyo. bunebrivia, rom iliasac guli Tbilisisaken mouwevda, isic frTaSekveci-
lad grZnobda aq, duSeTSi, Tavs. isic Sesaferis dros da viTarebas eloda da ma-
le es droc dadga.
70-ian wlebSi gadawyda saTavadaznauro bankis daarseba. idea am bankis da-
arsebisa ekuTvnoda didebul qarTvel moRvawe dimitri yifians, suli da guli
ki am saqmis erovnuli SinaarsiT gamizvnisa da sabolood dagvirgvinebisa ilia
WavWavaZe gaxda.
iliam Zalian didi dro da energia Sealia jer bankis daarsebis, xolo Sem-
deg misi xelmZRvanelobis saqmes. erTi SexedviT es Tvgamodeba didi mwerlisa
literaturul saqmianobasTan sruliad SeuTavsebel sferoSi bevrs gaugebra-
dac ki moeCvena; mogvianebiT gaazrianda, rom ilia banks uyurebda ara rogorc
wminda safinanso, aramed rogorc erovnul dawesebulebas. ilias mixedviT, jer
erTi, banks qarTuli adgil-mamulebi ucxo Tesl-tomis warmomadgenelTa xelSi

23
Cavardnisagan unda exsna, xeli Seewyo im qarTvel memamuleebisaTvis, romelnic
qveynis sasikeTod Tavis miwas mouvlidnen da dovlaTs Seqmnidnen, meore mxriv,
bankis mogebis didi nawili unda moxmareboda erovnul wamowyebebs. marTlac
Semdgom gazeTi `iveria~, qarTuli Teatri, wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazo-
gadoeba da sxva erovnuli dawesebulebebi swored bankis SemweobiTac suldgmu-
lobdnen. ase rom, ilia WavWavaZisa da sxva qarTvel moRvaweTa bevri naocnebari
ocnebadve darCeboda, Tu mamuliSvilur survilebsa da ocnebebs saTanado niv-
Tieri SesaZleblobebic ar Seumagrebda safuZvels.
faqtia, rom ilias mware gamocdileba hqonda — `saqarTvelos moambis~ da-
xurvis erTi mizezi axalgazrda redaqtoris usaxsrobac iyo, da ai, didi xnis na-
fiqrs Sesaferisi Jamic daudga... 1877 wlisaTvis ekonomiurad momagrebulma
iliam erovnul safiqralze saerTo gansjis mizniT daaarsa gazeTi `iveria~, ro-
melic 1879 wlidan Jurnalad, xolo 1886 wlidan yoveldRiur gazeTad gadakeTda.
didi xniT 80-90-ian wlebSi `iveria~ erTaderT organosac ki warmoadgenda Cvens
qveyanaSi. misi mniSvneloba ganuzomelia qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azrisa da kul-
turis istoriaSi. swored aq, `iveriaSi~ gaSala didma iliam erovnul-gamaTavi-
suflebeli brZola. misi meTaurobiT gazeTma udidesi roli Seasrula qarTveli
xalxis erovnuli Rirsebisa da TavisTavadobis dacvis saqmeSi.
`iveriis~ garSemo ilia WavWavaZem Semoikriba Cveni mwerlobis saukeTeso
Zalebi, xolo TviT redaqcia qarTvel mweralTa da JurnalistTa aRzrdis kerad
aqcia.
didi sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba gaSala iliam 80-90-ian wlebSi. am droisaT-
vis igi akaki wereTelTan erTad gaxda mudmivi qarTuli Teatris aRdgenis inicia-
tori, iniciatori qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoebis daarsebisa, romlis gamgeo-
bis Tavmjdomare erTxans TviTon iyo. ilia WavWavaZis aqtiuri monawileobiT Ca-
moyalibda `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba~, romel-
mac udidesi roli Seasrula ara marto qarTveli axalgazrdobis mSobliur enaze
gasanaTleblad, aramed saerTod qarTuli kulturisa da mecnierebis aRorZinebi-
saTvis. ilia WavWavaZis meTaurobiT es sazogadoeba iqca `qarTveli xalxis erov-
nul TavSesafarad~.
ilias isedac didi saxelis mniSvneloba, kidev ufro gaizarda am droisaT-
vis. igi Cveni eris azrisa da fiqris gamomxatveli Seiqna. gasagebia, rom es faqti
ar moswondaT Cveni qveynis mtrebs... Tanac adgilobriv, TviT Cvens qveyanaSi,
mravldebodnen dapirispirebuli Zalebi. mometebulad es iyo socialur moZra-
obas, politikas mitmasnili xalxi, visac aRizianebda, mosvenebas ukargavda misi
didi avtoriteti, misi azrTampyrobeloba. isini cdilobdnen ilias didi saxelis
gabiabruebas, lafSi amosvras. azris enaze maTTvis sruliad miuRweveli iyo ili-
as maRal gonebasTan, rkinis logikasTan dapirispireba, amitom upatiosno gzebiT
cdilobdnen mas gasworebodnen. ilia ukompromiso, ulmobeli iyo aseTebis mi-
marT. 900-ian wlebSiac bevri daumsaxurebeli da uzneo dapirispirebisagan, usa-
marTlo brZolisagan jangatexili ilia mainc ar cxreboda da fxizlad adevnebda
Tvalyurs qveyanaSi mimdinare movlenebs. 1905 wlisaTvis xalxis gamosvlebTan da-
kavSirebiT mefis mTavrobam jari Seusia soflebs Relvis dasacxrobad. ilia Wav-
WavaZe didad zrunavda glexobaze, cdilobda, rom aecdina igi saSineli rbevisa-
gan da amisaTvis arafers erideboda.
1906 wels ilia WavWavaZe arCeul iqna saxelmwifo sabWos wevrad, rogorc saqar-
Tvelos Tavadaznaurobis warmomadgeneli. iliam arCevisTanave ganacxada, rom igi
sabWoSi gamovidoda ara TavadaznaurTa saxeliT, aramed qarTveli eris saxeliT, iq-
neboda eris interesebis gamomxatveli da damcveli. aq, saxelmwifo sabWoSi, ilia
mcirericxovan memarcxeneTa Soris, progresulad moazrovne inteligenciis warmo-
madgenelTa Soris aRmoCnda. ilias farTo gegmebi hqonda, igi moiTxovda saqarTve-

24
los avtonomias, qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalias. isic sayovelTaodaa cnobili,
rom ilia ilaSqrebda sikvdiliT dasjis winaaRmdeg da am mxriv sityvasac ki amzadeb-
da sabWoSi gamosasvlelad.
am dros ki Cveni qveynis sulieri moZRvris garSemo Savbneli Zalebi iyrida
Tavs, xolo 1907 wlis zafxulis miwuruls ilia WavWavaZes sicocxle mouswrafes
imaT, vinc `saqarTvelosac mohklavdnen, rom SesZlebodaT~ (vaJa). Tavzardamcem
dReebSi gazeTi `isari~ erTgvarad saerTo azrs gamoxatavda, roca werda, rom ilias
mkvleloba `naZiralebis, teroristebis moqmedebaa... savalalo da saSineli is aris,
rom Cvenma cxovrebam Seqmna is atmosfero, sadac aseT borotebas adgili aqvs da mar-
jve niadagi momzadebuli~.
qarTvelma erma udidesi gulistkiviliT daitira didi ilia da Tavis gul-
Si dagubebuli naRveli akakis, vaJas, iakob gogebaSvilis da sxva qarTvel mamu-
liSvilTa piriT gamoxata.
akaki ilias cxedris win ambobda: `rogorc sicocxle, ise sikvdili Seni gax-
da mizezi xalxis amoZravebisa... da vin icis, egeb sikvdiliT mainc ganamtkico is,
rasac Seni sicocxle Seswire~.
vaJa-fSavela glovis dReebSi ase afasebda ilias Rvawls: `mTeli 50 weli...
saqarTvelos bedi kalTiT atara, iyo misi daraji, rogorc deda erTaderT
Cvils Svilsa, ise dasZrwoda da dahkankalebda, an ar Semicivdes, an ar momiSivde-
so. moseuls mters, vinc saqarTvelos isrebs esroda, igi pirveli agebebda Tavis
mkerds, Semoqneuls xmals pirveli ufarebda farsa~... `nuTu visme fanatikosebs
hgoniaT, rom iliebis xocviT mohkvlen TviT ideas, romelic ukvdavia da romel-
sac mxolod iliasTana adamianebs SeuZlianT emsaxuron~.
ilias glovis dReebSi, roca mTeli qarTveli xalxi SeZrwunebuli da Tavzar-
dacemuli iyo, gamoCndnen iseTebic, vinc Cveni qveynisaTvis am mZime Jams geslianad
asisinda da erTgvari kmayofilebac ver dafara. ZiriTadad eseni social-demokra-
tiuli partiis mesveurni iyvnen. cnobili qarTveli poeti irodion evdoSvili swo-
red maTi misamarTiT aRSfoTebiT ambobda: `Tqven, romelnic ar malavT Tqven Rimil-
sa da sixaruls avazakebis mier gangmiruli didi mgosnis gvamTan, Tqven, romelnic na-
siamovnebi darCiT misis sikvdiliT, SeekiTxeT Tqvens sindiss, ra daaSava iliam iseTi,
rom is sikvdilis Rirsi yofiliyos. aSkarad da xmamaRla gamoaqveyneT es da ara quCis
kuTxeebSi furCuliT. nuTu ar gesmiT, rom Tqveni Rimili vaSaa avazakebisadmi, rom
igi TanagrZnobaa mwerlis jalaTebisadmi~.1
ilia WavWavaZis mkvlelobaSi eris WeSmarit mesveurTa, WeSmarit winam-
ZRolTa xvedric iqna danaxuli. `gamoCenili, qveynis keTilmoRvawe, adamianebi
sazogadod yvela devnili da wamebulni yofilan da arian dResac Savi Zalebisa-
gan, romelTa ricxvi bevrad sWarbobs sindisierTa ricxvs~,2 — werda cnobili
qarTveli moRvawe konstantine gvaramaZe.
ilias mkvlelobis dReebSi cxadad gamoikveTa erTi azric — mowinave qar-
Tvelma sazogadoebriobam ilias mkvlelobaSi Cveni erTgvari daudevrobac dai-
naxa, udardeloba... kerZod iTqva, rom maSin, roca ilias garSemo gaismoda Seu-
racxmyofeli ciliswameba, wamaqezebeli kiJina, ar gamoCnda arc romelime jgufi,
arc romelime partia, Tu calke piri, romlebic xmas aimaRlebdnen, mkacrad dag-
mobdnen am ciliswamebas, ilias wmidaTawmida saxelsa da Rirsebas daicavdnen. er-
Ti oratori ilias cxedarTan ambobda: `Cven rom ilia Tavis droze gagvecno, rom
ilias namcnebi moZRvreba urTierTis sibralul-siyvarulisa, samSoblosTvis
Tavdadebisa da qarTveli eris ganviTarebisa mSobel dedis rZesTan erTad gveq-
cia Cveni arsebobis sisxlad da xorcad, maSin arc dRevandeli marcxi ar Segvem-
1
ilia WavWavaZis sikvdili da dasaflaveba, 1907, gv. 39.
2
sarke ilia WavWavaZis cxovrebisa anu daxasiaTeba mokleT da martivad Sedgenili mesxi konstan-
tine gvaramaZis mier, 1907, gv. 8.
25
Txveoda, magram damnaSaveni varT yvelani dididan-pataramde Sens winaSe, sulo ma-
Ralo, arc kaci da arc qali, arc swavluli da arc umecari, arc didi da arc pata-
ra ar gafasebdiT Rirseulad, arc gesarClebodiT Tavdadebulad da swored aman
gaxada SesaZlo Seni Zvirfasi sicocxlis mospoba veragi sulisagan~.1
kita abaSiZe ufro mkveTrad werda: `Cven migvaCnia am borotebis monawiled
ilias Tayvanismcemeli jgufebi da partiebi. maT am saSineli moqmedebis dros pila-
tes roli aRasrules... rom romelime moqmed jgufs ultimatumi wamoeyenebina, rom
ilias xelis Sexeba aravis epatiebao, Cven gadavirecxdiT samaradiso, saSviliSvilo
sircxvils~.2
qarTvelma erma kargad gaacnobiera axla, am mZime viTarebis Jams, rac moxda
da arnaxuli zemoqmedebiTi Zala mianiWa am erTob mZime faqts Cveni xalxis cxovre-
baSi. didebulad werda am dReebSi iakob gogebaSvili: `Seudarebeli, uebro Suris-
Zieba icis istoriam, saukeTeso istorikosebi im azrze dganan, rom qristianoba pa-
tara adgilobriv sarwmunoebad darCeboda, Tu rom ieso naZirala ebraelebs jvars
ar ecvaT. am ubedurebs egonaT, raki iesos sazarel sikvdils mivcemT, masac saSin-
lad davamarcxebT da mis swavlasac amovfxvriT da gavaqrobTo. namdvilad ki am sa-
zarelma sikvdilma, am jvarcmam gaaRmerTa ieso, gaxada igi sagnad usazRvro Tayva-
niscemisa, umxurvalesi siyvarulisa, mianiWa imis swavlas uZleveli Zala, mohfina
igi kidiT kide da qristianoba gadaiqca msoflio sarwmunoebad da jvarcmulis ja-
laTni ki gaakra kacobriobis TvalSi samarcxvino boZze ukuniTi ukunisamde~. aseve
fiqrobdnen ilias mkvlelebi, `bneleTis nabiWvrebi, magram Tavisave ugunuris da
wyeulis TvalebiT ixilaven sruliad winaaRmdegs nayofs TavianT sazizRar mkvle-
lobisas. am veragulis mokvlis Semdeg ilias saxeli moicvis didebuli mowamis Sara-
vandediT, erTi asad imatebs is Rrma pativiscema, is Tayvaneba, romliTac yoveli Wku-
aTmyofeli qarTveli ganmsWvaluli iyo misadmi. erTi asad gaizrdeba is didi mniS-
vneloba, romelic imis qmnilebebs hqonda da qarTveloba am qmnilebebs daewafeba
sruliad gaumaZRrobiT~.3
ilias sikvdilma TiTqos marTlac erTbaSad gamoafxizla Cveni qveyana, er-
Ti safiqraliT, erTi mizniT ganmsWvala yvela. TiTqos axla, glovis dReebSi
yvelam igrZno umTavresi. mere da mere kidev da kidev meti sxivmosileba SeiZina
ilias saxelma, vera Zalam veRar Seakava misi aRmasvla...
ase gauwia Tavisi mowamebrivi sikvdiliTac didma iliam ers udidesi samsa-
xuri; ase daidga Tavs `did wamebis man gvirgvini mSvenieri~...
mis sikvdilSiac iyo didi azri da saidumlo, rac, ra Tqma unda, ilias
mkvlelebs ar SeiZleboda scodnodaT.

ilia WavWavaZis mwerluri da moqalaqeobrivi mrwamsi

didi xelovanis memkvidreobis gasaazreblad gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba


eniWeba misi mwerluri da moqalaqeobrivi mrwamsis gaTvaliswinebas, romelsac
efuZneba mwerlis mTeli Semoqmedeba, ukeT, Semoqmedeba mrwamsis uSualo mxat-
vrul gansaxierebas warmoadgens.
ilia WavWavaZis mrwamsi adre Camoyalibda. sazogadoebas igi warudga ro-
gorc didad erudirebuli literatori, romelic idga mowinave evropuli da
rusuli azrovnebis simaRleze da Tvals usworebda mas.

1
ilia WavWavaZis sikvdili da dasaflaveba, gv. 120.
2
k. a b a S i Z e , `jvars acv, jvars acv ege~, g. abaSiZis redaqciiT, winaTqmiT, komentarebiT da
SeniSvnebiT, 1991, gv. 33.
3
ilia WavWavaZis sikvdili da dasaflaveba, gv. 133-134.
26
ilia WavWavaZe Tavidanve erTgulia gulwrfeli, marTali grZnobebis asaxvisa;
rac poets Sinaganad ar ugrZvnia, rac mTeli sisruliT ar gauTvaliswinebia, rasac
misi suli ar SeuZravs, asaxvis sagnadac ar uqcevia. ilias yuradRebas is iqcevs, rac
bunebrivia, bunebrioba aris piroba uSualobisa, uSualoba ki wyaro WeSmariti xe-
lovnebisa.
ilia WavWavaZis mrwamsiT literaturaSi Sinaarss gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eni-
Weba. xelovnebis nawarmoebi garkveul sinamdviles unda asaxavdes. mis Sinaarss azri
unda warmarTavdes, TavisTavad sityva arafers ar aRniSnavs; `sadac azri ar aris, iq
ena rac ar unda kargi iyos, sul uqmia... azri da mxolod erTi azri aZlevs enas enis
mniSvnelobas~.1
sazogadoebrivi da erovnuli satkivaris gareSe ar arsebobs WeSmariti poe-
zia. eris satkivaris, misi gulisTqmis gamoxatva SeuZlebeli iqneba, Tu xelovanma
cxovrebas ar miugdo yuri. rac SeiZleba cxovrebasTan axlos, rac SeiZleba miax-
loveba eris satkivarTan, aseTia mwerlis moTxovna da am moTxovnis erTguli rCeba
igi bolomde. `zogierTma unayofo poetma xelovnebis saxeliT ukuaridos piri Ta-
visi xalxis cxovrebas. meSvide cas SeaCeros gabecebuli Tvalebi... Cven imaTTan sa-
erTo gza ara gvaqvs... xelovnebasac imas movsTxovT, rom sarkesaviT cxovreba gar-
dmoices, raTa Cveni Tavi mis momxiblavis kalmiT cxovlad iyos warmomdgari Cven
wina, raTa sicudec da sikeTec Cveni davinaxoT~ (V,131).
xelovneba sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis samsaxurSi unda idges, xelovani aq-
tiurad unda monawileobdes sazogadoebriv winsvlaSi. xelovnebis umTavresi
amocanaa ara Tvalis arideba sazogadoebriv naklze, aramed swored erovnuli,
sazogadoebrivi naklovanebebis daufaravi mxileba, gamoaSkaraveba, ramdenadac
eris winsvlis pirobaa codna naklisa da simrudisa, rom moiZebnos wamali mis ga-
sasworeblad. `maS rogor unda gavswordeT, Tu Cveni simrude ar gvecodineba.
netavi oriode kaci iyos saqarTveloSi, rom Cveni boroteba erTianad asweros
da dagvanaxos. aba is iqneba namdvili da saqebari mamulismoyvare da ara is, vinc
metis-metad damJavebuli siyvarulis gamo angeloziviT asaxelebs saqarTvelos.
borotebis Rviareba naxevari gasworebaa~ (V, 30).
poeturi saqmianoba ara marto bednierebaa, aramed didad sapasuxismgeblo
tvirTi, radgan mwerlisagan eriskacobas moiTxovs. sinamdvileSi mwerloba Tavgada-
debas niSnavs da visac es ar ZaluZs, igi amaod daiCemebs mwerlis saxels. literatu-
ruli saqmianoba qveynis samsaxurs niSnavs, xolo `qveynis samsaxuri yvelgan msxver-
plia da ara seiri~.2
iliasaTvis ucxoa tanjulis poza; igi Tavis Tavs ar amadlis vinmes. man es
gza Segnebulad airCia da Segnebuladve, amayad xvdeba gansacdels.
iliaseburi energiiTa da SeupovrobiT iSviaTad Tu vinmes gamouxatavs Cvens
mwerlobaSi zrunva qarTuli saliteraturo enis gamSvenierebisa da amaRlebisaTvis,
ramdenadac, misi sityvebiT, `eris vinaobis pirveli niSani enaa~.
mwerlis nayofieri Semoqmedebis aucilebel pirobad ilia WavWavaZes miz-
nis sicxade da momavlis Sinagani rwmena miaCnda. ilia WavWavaZis didi Sinagani
damarwmuneblobiT ganmsWvalul sityvebs `Tu kacma ver cno Cveni guli, xom icis
RmerTma, rom wminda aris ganzraxva da survili Cveni~ Tavisi sayrdeni napovni
aqvs poetis pirovnul Zalasa da gamZleobaSi.
ilia WavWavaZis mwerluri mrwamsi Rrma moqalaqeobriv Segnebas efuZnebo-
da, ramdenadac igi Tavisi drois udidesi moqalaqe iyo. ilia WavWavaZis saxiT

1
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli oc tomad, t. V, gv. 42. ilia WavWavaZis litera-
turul-kritikuli werilebidan masalis moxmobisas mivmarTavT aRniSnul gamocemas. amdenad,
narkvevis sqolioebiT gadatvirTvis asacileblad uSualod teqstSi mivuTiTebT toms da gverds.
2
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. III. gv. 291.
27
ukompromiso xasiaTis Seuvali moqalaqeobrivi principebis Tavkaci hyavda Cvens
qveyanas.
ilia WavWavaZe Sinagani aqtivobiT savse is moRvawe iyo, romelsac imTaviT-
ve devizad gaexada `moZraoba da mxolod moZraoba~. Zneli da erTob gabeduli
erovnuli amocanebis gadaWris dros igi ara mxolod Tavisi pirovnebiT warmo-
adgenda moqalaqeobrivi da SemoqmedebiTi gmirobis nimuSs, aramed dReniadag
qadagebda Tavis mxatvrul peblicistur memkvidreobaSi aqtiurobas.
moqalaqeobrivi simamacis asparezad ilia WavWavaZes inteligenciis moazre
cxovreba miaCnda. inteligencias Tvlida igi eris winamZRolad. misi fiqriT,
qveynis cxovrebas win unda gauZRven `WeSmaritad ganaTlebuli da mcodne kace-
bi, imisTanebi, romelTac mecnierebaSi saxeli moupovebiaT~ da `visac zneobrivi
da gonebrivi Zal-Rone aqvs win gauZRves Tavisi sakuTari qveynis cxovrebas.~
namdvili moqalaqeobrivi moRvaweobis asparezi ilias samsxverplo asparezad
miaCnda. namdvili inteligenciisagan ilia gmirobasa da simamaces iTxovda.
ilia Tvlida, rom saqveyno saqmisaTvis, samsxverplo saqmisaTvis Tavdade-
ba did pirovnebebs SeeZloT. mxolod maT namdvil, WeSmarit pirovnebebs SeeZ-
loT eris momavlis gamoWedva. am TvaliT zomavda ilia sazogado asparezze ga-
mosul yvela moRvawes. ilia werda: `arian bevrni didxarisxovannica, mecnierni-
ca, moRvawenica da ar arian mxolod xasiaTis kacni, kacni guliTa srulni. mZled
moburTalni qveynierebis moedanzed marto didi xasiaTis kacni arian, qveynis
RerZs marto is atrialebs, visac mihmadlebia guliT sruloba, didxasiaToba
imisdamiuxedavad — triali emarjvaT Tu emarcxaT... yoveli didebuli saqme, ri-
Tac ki kacobrioba hqadulobs da Tavs iwonebs, qmnilia xasiaTian kacTa mier da
ara visme sxvisagan. amitomac xasiaTiani kacis winaSe yvela uneblied Tavs ixris
mowiwebiTa da sasoebiTa~.1
qveynis simdidred ilia WavWavaZe materialur da qonebriv dovlaTs ki ar
Tvlida, pirvel yovlisa, aramed sulier cxovrebas. igi sulieri potencialis
mixedviT zomavda eris sicocxlisunarianobas, Tavisuflebis mopovebis SesaZ-
leblobebs.
ilia WavWavaZis literaturuli da sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba im rwmenas
efuZneboda, rom yvelaferi eris interesebs unda dauqvemdebardes. ilia WavWa-
vaZisaTvis miuRebeli iyo yovelgvari moZRvreba, romelic patriotizmis sawina-
aRmdegod iyo mimarTuli. ilias Rrmad swamda, rom swored patriotizmia sazo-
gadoebrivi keTildReobis, winsvlis, progresis WeSmariti piroba. ilias miaC-
nda, rom adamiani Tavis ers unda emsaxuros keTilgonivrulad da Tavisi samSob-
lo aamaRlos sulierad da materialurad. mxolod amiT Seuwyobs igi xels saer-
To sakacobrio winsvlas. amitomac yoveli moRvawe Tavisi samSoblos keTildRe-
obaze unda fiqrobdes. cdilobdes, rom misma erma mometebuli Zala, energia, si-
cocxlisunarianoba gamoamJRavnos da kacobriobis did salaroSi sakuTari ka-
pitali Seitanos. ase unda iyos es yvela SemTxvevaSi da aTasjer metad ase unda
iyos iseTi patara qveynis SemTxvevaSi, rogoric saqarTveloa. `Cveni mSobeli
qveyana yvela sxva qveyanaze CvenTvis ufro safiqrali da sazrunvelia. aq aravis
Zraxvas da sayvedurebs ar veridebi. Cemi mrwamsi es aris. adamiani asea gaCenili,
Tavisas ufro hrCeobs, vidre sxvas~2, — ase swerda ilia im qarTvel axalgaz-
rdebs, vinc rCeva hkiTxa, gamoxmaurebodnen Tu ara berZenTa brZolas.
ra Tqma unda, aRniSnuli ar niSnavs imas, rom ilia ar cnobs, ar aRiarebs, pa-
tivs ar miagebs sxva xalxebis kulturas. ilia WavWavaZem yvelaze ukeT icoda fa-
si da Zala rusuli mwerlobisa da kulturisa saerTod. amas igi saTanadod gamo-

1
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. IV. gv. 223.
2
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. X. gv. 142.
28
xatavda kidec, magram Tavi da Tavi isaa, literaturuli saqmianobis drosac
ilia im moqalaqeobrivi principiT xelmZRvanelobda, rom `Cvenc, rasakvirvelia,
zedmiwevniT unda gavicnoT rusuli mwerloba da agreTve unda vscdilobdeT,
sxva ucxo mwerlobac SeviswavloT... mxolod im pirobiT, rom rac SeiZleba meti
Zal-Rone movaxmaroT Cvens mwerlobas da sakuTaris viTarebis Seswavla gavixa-
doT qvakuTxedad yovelisave codnisa~ (V,426), mxolod erovnul niadagze amoz-
rdilia, ilias azriT, safuZvliani da gamZlec: `is mwerloba uqmia da mkvdrad
Sobili, romelsac saZirkvlad sakuTari viTarebis Seswavla ar daudvia~ (V,23).
ilia, Tanasworobis ideis Tavgamodebuli mqadagebeli, sxva erTa Rirsebis
pativismcemeli, Tavisi eris interesebis mouRleli guSagi iyo. ilia WavWavaZes
miaCnda, rom saqarTvelo ruseTis gverdiT unda idges, rogorc TavisTavadi, Se-
uzRudveli, Tanasworuflebiani — `didi muxis gverdiT rom patara iac yvaodes,
aravis arafers dauSavebs~ — aseTi iyo ilias politikuri Tvalsazrisi.
samSoblo qveynis Zliereba unda gamoeWeda qveynis yvela wodebis mowinave
warmomadgenelTa erTobas, erTiani saqveyno interesebiT SekavSirebas, SeerTe-
bul Sromas da Rvawls. saerTo ideebiT gamsWvalva, sazogadoebis yvela fenis
mowinave, jansaRi nawilis gaerTianeba erTi miznisaTvis — esaa ilia WavWavaZis
moqalaqeobrivi ideali. `gankerZoeba... wodebaTa gancalkeveba erTi qveynis
SvilTa, romelTac cxovreba, interesebi, grZnoba, azri da miswrafeba uricxvis
simiT aris gadabmuli da gadaxlarTuli danaSTenTan, Secdomaa. es Secdoma dah-
gmo Zvel erTa istoriam da daamtkica, rom mxolod yvela wodebis kavSiri gauZ-
lebs ganaTlebis da xalxis dawinaurebis damabrkolebel mizezebs. umTavresi da
iqneba erTaderTi garemoeba, romlis wyalobiTac daiRupnen da aRigavnen deda-
miwis zurgidan mravalni Zlierni da saxelovanni erni, iyo uTanxmoeba da gan-
sxvaveba wodebaTa Soris~.1 ilia WavWavaZe mTeli Tavisi Segnebuli cxovrebis
manZilze axorcielebda Tavis moqalaqeobriv mrwamss da sxvaTaganac moiTxovda
eris Rirsebis dacvas, misi TavisTavadobis sadarajoze dgomas.
ilia Tavisi mZlavri niWis naRvawiT da sazogadoebrivi saqmianobiT darCa,
rogorc zneobrivi magaliTi momavali TaobebisaTvis gulsrulobisa da gonebis
sinaTlisa, adamianis saqveyno saqmiT cadamaRlebisa.

ilia WavWavaZis literaturul-esTetikuri Sexedulebebi

ilia WavWavaZe mwerali ara marto mxatvruli gansaxierebiT kmayofilde-


boda, aramed literaturis, xelovnebis Sesaxeb Tavisi mosazrebebis gadmoSlac
Seadgenda mis Sinagan moTxovnilebas.
ilia WavWavaZis literaturuli da moqalaqeobrivi mrwamsi 60-ian wlebSi
Camoyalibda. amas TvalsaCinod mowmobs ilias mxatvruli da literaturul-
kritikuli werilebi, romlebic am wlebSi Seiqmna.
ilia WavWavaZem qarTul sinamdvileSi iseT simaRleze aiyvana literatu-
rul-esTetikuri movlenebis analizi, rom Semdeg igi faqtobrivad gadaulaxavi
darCa.
mainc ra sakiTxebi aqcia iliam Tavisi dakvirvebisa da gansjis obieqtad, ra
literaturul movlenebsa da faqtebze gaamaxvila yuradReba, raSi mdgomare-
obs misi, rogorc moazrovnis, damsaxureba?
ilia WavWavaZem Cvens sinamdvileSi pirvelma sistemaSi moiyvana da qarTvel
sazogadoebas miawoda Camoyalibebuli, Tavidan bolomde garkveul amocanasTan
Sefardebuli literaturul-esTetikuri Sexedulebebi. iliam mTeli sisruliT

1
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. IV. gv. 376.
29
dasva sakiTxebi xelovnebis raobis, misi funqciis, misiis, xelovnebisa da yofis
urTierTdamokidebulebis, SemoqmedebiTi procesebis da, sazogadod, mxatvruli
azrovnebis specifikis, Targmanis Sesaxeb.
ilia WavWavaZe Seexo kritikis raobis sakiTxsac da qarTul sinamdvileSi
misi amocanebi gansazRvra.
iliam pirvelma gaiTvaliswina qarTuli mwerlobis ganviTarebis da, ker-
Zod, XIX saukunis qarTuli mwerlobis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi tendenciebi. man
qarTuli mwerlobis umTavresi warmomadgenlebic daaxasiaTa da am mxrivac qar-
Tuli literaturis istorikosTaTvis saxelmZRvanelo mosazrebebi gamoTqva.
ilia WavWavaZis literaturul-esTetikur naazrevSi sagangebo adgili
uWiravs Teatrisa da dramaturgiis sakiTxebs. mudmivi qarTuli Teatris ganax-
lebis Jams iliam Teatris recenzentobac iTava da aqac fasdaudebeli samsaxuri
gauwia profesiuli qarTuli Teatris Camoyalibebis, qarTvel msaxiobTa Taobis
aRzrdis, Teatris repertuaris SerCevis saqmes.
ilia musikis da, kerZod, qarTuli xalxuri musikis problemebiTac dainte-
resda da am sferoSi jer kidev Cven mier saTanadod Seufasebeli mosazrebebi ga-
moTqva.
mxolod ocdasami wlisa iyo ilia WavWavaZe, roca Tavisi pirveli gaxmaure-
buli kritikuli statia `oriode sityva Tavad revaz Salvas Zis erisTavis mier
kazlovidgan `SeSlilis~ Targmanzeda~ dabeWda. aqac da Semdegac oponentebi-
saTvis gacemul `pasuxSi,~ Tu saprogramo xasiaTis werilSi `saqarTvelos moam-
beze~ ilia WavWavaZem principulad wamoayena realisturi literaturis saWiro-
ebis sakiTxi. iliam dagmo Cvens sinamdvileSi sentimentaluri xasiaTis nawarmoe-
bebis gadmoTargmnis faqti. sentimentaluri literatura, ilias azriT, im qvey-
nebSic, sadac igi arsebobda, ar iyo raime mniSvnelovani faseulobis Semqmneli,
miT umetes, ar iyo igi saWiro iseTi mcirericxovani erisaTvis, rogoric Cven vi-
yaviT, ramdenadac es literatura ar iyo datvirTuli socialuri problemati-
kiT, xolo amgvari problematikiT literaturis gamsWvalvas ilia sasicocxlo
mniSvnelobas aniWebda.
ilia WavWavaZe Tavisi literaturul-esteTikuri Sexedulebebis Camoyali-
bebisas, iseve rogorc yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi, xelmZRvanelobda erovnuli
TvalsazrisiT. xelovneba cxovrebis saWiroebisagan warmoiqmneba da cxovre-
biTvea gansazRvruli, magram Zalze xSirad Cven saqme gvaqvs adamianuri an cxov-
rebis moTxovnilebis yalb gagebasTan. marTalia, adamianis yoveli naRvawi da
maT Soris xelovnebis nawarmoebi, adamianis moTxovnis pasuxia, magram ar aris pa-
suxi sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis moTxovnisa. xelovneba mxolod maSin aris
Rirsi gansakuTrebuli sazogadoebrivi yuradRebisa, rodesac igi gansakuTre-
bul sazogadoebriv moTxovnilebas akmayofilebs; roca igi am sazogadoebis sa-
sicocxlo amocanebs exeba da momavlis gansazRvrisakenaa mimarTuli. amdenad,
ilias azriT, xelovneba, literatura mxolod maSin iqneba mowinave, roca igi sa-
erTo sazogadoebriv satkivars, erovnul satkivars cxadad gvagrZnobinebs, ro-
ca Tavis masalas cxovrebis sinamdvilidan aiRebs da sazogadoebrivi yofiT ga-
nisazRvreba. xelovneba, literatura sazogadoebrivi gardaqmnis zemoqmedebi-
Ti ZaliT unda iyos aRbeWdili.
ilia WavWavaZe Tavis pirvelsave werilSi Seexo mxatvruli nawarmoebis
erovnulobis sakiTxs. misi azriT, mwerali unda Tavisi eris Taviseburebebs Caw-
vdes da mis mier gansaxierebuli personaJebic Tavisi eris warmomadgenlebi un-
da iyvnen.
erovnulobis sakiTxs ilia kidev ufro mwvaved ganixilavs moqalaqeobrivi
paTosiT savse statiaSi `zogierTi ram~. ilia WavWavaZem miiCnia, rom mwerloba
eris sulieri miswrafebebis, misi saerTo erovnuli niSnebis saerTo erovnul

30
enaze gamoxatvas unda cdilobdes da amas miT ufro arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs
iseTi qveynisaTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa, romlis calkeul kuTxeTa warmomad-
genlebs qveynis `politikuri bedis trialis~ gamo saerTo saqveyno satkivarze
safiqreli daSretiaT, ganTviToebulan da erTmaneTisaTvis zurgi ubrunebiaT.
saerTo erovnulis Zieba, im `saerTo niSnis~ danaxva da asaxva, saiTkenac `TviTo-
euli CvenTaganis Wkva, goneba, fiqri, grZnoba, survili erTad, xalisianad da Se-
upovrad~ unda miiwevdes, aqcia ilia WavWavaZem qarTuli mwerlobis gadaudebel
amocanad, urTules, magram mainc usaTuod gansaxorcielebel amocanad. konkre-
tuli mxatvruli masalis analizisas da Sefasebisas ilia swored am Tvalsazri-
siT xelmZRvanelobda. XIX saukunis qarTveli mwerlebis daxasiaTebisas ilia-
saTvis mTavaria, Tu rogor iCens maT SemoqmedebaSi Tavs erovnuli, Tu ramdenad
warmoadgens esa Tu is mwerali erovnulis gamovlenas.
ilia WavWavaZem Tavis werilebSi literaturis daniSnulebis sakiTxze
msjelobisas mtkiced dagmo `metismetad damJavebuli siyvarulis gamo~ qeba da
dideba da yuris datkboba, literaturisagan man moiTxova daundoblad gamofe-
na `cxovrebis WuWyisa~. mcdaria azri, romlis Tanaxmad naklis dafarvaa patrio-
toba: `rac ufro mkafiod da daundoblad aris gamoTqmuli boroteba da naklu-
lovneba cxovrebisa, zogjer miT ufro sCans gamomTqmelis gulis simxurvale,
mouTmeneli, cxari wadili gasworebisa.~
ilia WavWavaZe Tavis literaturul-kritikul werilebSi araerTgzis exeba
mxatvruli simarTlis asaxvis sakiTxs. misi azriT, mwerali ki ar unda gvacnob-
des Tavisi personaJis xasiaTs sityvierad, miTiTebebiT, aramed es personaJi
TviTon unda vlindebodes qcevebsa da moqmedebebSi.
erTob mniSvnelovani mosazrebebi gamoTqva iliam mTargmnelobiTi saqmia-
nobis da, kerZod ki, masalis SerCevis Sesaxeb. man sruliad garkveviT ganacxada,
rom saTargmni masalis SerCeva ar unda moxdes piradi mowonebis mixedviT, ara-
med erovnuli poziciidan, is mwerali unda SeirCes, romlis gacnoba saWiroa
Cveni erisaTvis. aris Tu ara gamarTlebuli kozlovis Targmna im dros, roca
araa Targmnili puSkinis, gogolis, lermontovis Txzulebebi.
ilia WavWavaZem Tavis literaturul-kritikul werilebSi da Semdegac da-
bejiTebiT moiTxova literaturidan gaZeveba yvela `uniWo mbRajvnეlisa~. mwer-
lis upirveles movaleobad man enis codna miiCnia da am mxriv mudmivi zrunva.
ilia WavWavaZe, bunebrivia, gulisxmobs ara ubralod codnas enisas, aramed enis
grZnobas, mis aqtiur flobas, im unars, romlis SemTxvevaSi ara marto xerxdeba
kargisa da sustis garCeva (garkveulad esec didi Rirsebaa), aramed kargis Seq-
mna. statiaSi `zogierTi ram~ ilia sulisSemZvrelad kiTxulobda: `sadRa aris
exla qarTuli ena, an gvindaRa qarTuli, roca Cven TviTon Cvenda dasaRupavad
qarTvelobaze xeli aviReT? gonebiT rom aRar vscxovrobT, qarTuls enas azrs
rogorRa gamovaTqmevinebT?~. ilia WavWavaZem am statiaSi Cveni literaturisaT-
vis aqamde uCveulo simZafriT wamoayena erTiani saliteraturo enis aucileb-
lobis moTxovna, xolo axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis fuZemdeblad ilia
imis gamo iqca, rom Zala Seswevda Tavis mier wamoyenebuli moTxovnebi praqtiku-
lad ganexorcielebina.
rogorc aRniSnaven, ilia WavWavaZis `saqmianoba `saliteraturo kritikis
sferosac gadawvda da iqac waruSleli kvali datova~.1 uaRresad didia ilia Wav-
WavaZis damsaxureba qarTuli kritikis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. kritikis, rogorc
`cnebis ganmarteba, misi mecnieruli daxasiaTeba pirvelad ilia WavWavaZem mogva-
woda~.2 ilia Tvlis, rom kritikis done sazogadoebis azrovnebiTi simwifis gamo-

1
j . W u m b u r i Z e , qarTuli kritikis istoria, 1, 1974, gv. 156.
2
iqve.
31
xatulebaa. kritika, ilias azriT, unda iyos mebrZoli da mwerlobis mxardamxar
xels unda uwyobdes sazogadoebis gardaqmnas, gemovnebis ganviTarebas.
ilia WavWavaZem Tavis statiaSi `ra mizezia rom kritika ara gvaqvs~ Tavisi
droisaTvisac da SemdgomisTvisac uaRresad mtkivneuli sakiTxi dasva. da ai, sa-
yuradReboa, ras fiqrobs mainc ilia am mtkivneul problemasTan dakavSirebiT.
zogierTi CvenSi kritikis uqonlobas xsnis literaturis arqoniT. ilia WavWava-
Zis azriT Tavis marTlebis es forma `pariJis yavaxanis sibrZniTaa~ nakvebi da mas
simarTlesTan saerTo araferi aqvs. igi an ucodinarobiT, an Tvalis Zalad dab-
rmavebiTaa gamowveuli. sazogadod ki TviT literaturis uqonlobac ver xsnis da
ver gaamarTlebs kritikis uqonlobas. aseT SemTxvevaSi kritikam unda axsnas, Tu
ratom ar gvaqvs literatura. Torem Tavi rom davaneboT Zvel literaturas, ro-
melsac `aseTis siuxviT asxivosnebs `vefxistyaosani~, amSvenebs daviT guramiSvi-
li `romlis didaqtikuri poezia pirs ar Seircxvens Tund lukrecis, virgilis da
horacios didaqtikur poezias dauyeneT pirispir da romlis sarwmunoebrivi Ra-
Radeba daviT winaswarmetyvelis fsalmunebis simaRlemdea asuli~; Tavi rom dava-
neboT Teimuraz I, arCilis, vaxtang VI, sakmarisia mecxramete saukunis poeziis gax-
senebac, misi `warCinebuli warmomadgenlebis~ saxelebi, rom sruliad usafuZ-
vlod CaiTvalis mosazreba Cveni literaturis siRaribis Sesaxeb.
jer erTi, rogorc vaxtang kotetiSvili SeniSnavs, `Cveni erovnuli kriti-
ka, miuxedavad garegnuli zviadobisa, Sinaganad mainc darcxvenilia da sakacob-
rio masStabiT romelime qarTveli moRvawis gazomva gveCoTireba. ilia WavWava-
Ze am mxrivac qarTveli adamianis axali tipia, romelmac gadalaxa azrovnebis
simxdale da qarTvel ers Rrmad mofiqrebuli da Tamami sityva gaagona.1 daviT
guramiSvilis poeziis fsalmunTa simaRleze azidva, qarTveli poetis lukreci-
usis, virgiliusis da horaciusis gverdiT dayeneba swored didi Sinagani Zalis
qarTveli moazrovnis gabeduli azria, romelic saTanado gaSinaarsebas jer ki-
dev moelis.
rac Seexeba uSualod didi ilias mier dasmul problemas, maS, ra mizezia,
rom kritika ara gvaqvs? rogorc Cans, amis mizezis axsna TviT qarTuli litera-
turis siRaribeze gadabralebiT aramc da aramc ar SeiZleba. aq ilia erT metad
sayuradRebo faqtze amaxvilebs yuradRebas. Cveni kritikosi dawers wigns rome-
lime did evropel mweralze, mag. homerosze, Seqspirze, goeTeze an baironze,
romelnic CvenSi aTasSi erTs Tu waukiTxavs; SesaZloa iseTi saswaulic moxdes,
rom qarTveli kritikosis wigni wasakiTxadac ki gamodges, magram igive kritiko-
si qarTveli poetis erT pawia leqssac ki ver gauZRves. es ki Turme imitom xdeba,
rom gamoCenil ucxoel avtorze bevri ram aris Tqmuli gamoCenili ucxoeli
kritikosebis mier da maTze azris Sedgena erTob advili saqmea. am SemTxvevaSi
sakmarisia `imodena Rone iqonioT~, rom azrebi `mohkriboT~, erTmaneTs Seufar-
doT, SeuwonoT da yovelive Sekrebili, Sefardebuli da Sewonili erTs Znad
SehkraT da ise miarTvaT mkiTxvelsa. ra Tqma unda, rom amasac Wkua, codna unda
da mcireodeni xelovnebac, magram aq TviTmoqmedeba ufro xelisaa, Tu ese iT-
qmis, vidre im sulieris Zal-Ronisa, romelic TviTon hqmnis, TviTon sjis, Tvi-
Ton swlavs, TviTon sWris da TviTon keravs. aq yvelaferi ujra-ujrad awyvia
evropis literaturis salaroSi mzamzareulad, oRond im salaroSi Sesvlis Ro-
ne moipoveT da, raki es geqnebaT, xelis gawvdenis meti ara aris ra saWiro, rom
ujra gamoswioT da rac gsurT is gamoiRoT~ (V,344-345). rac Seexeba qarTul
mwerlobas, qarTvel mwerals, misi Sefasebisas kritikosi sakuTar Tavs unda da-
eyrdnos, ramdenadac Cveni literatura jer kidev xeluxlebeli ganZia, masze
did evropel moazrovneebs araferi uTqvamT; maSasadame aq Cveni kritikosi saku-

1
v . k o t e t i S v i l i, rCeuli nawerebi, 1, 1965, gv. 279.
32
Tar `sulier Zal-Rones~ unda daeyrdnos, sakuTari azri Seadginos, TviTgan-
sjas daeyrdnos, xolo es unari mas samwuxarod ar gaaCnia.
erTi sityviT, ilia WavWavaZem mourideblad miuTiTa, rom nasufraliT ik-
vebeba qarTuli kritika, mometebulad parazitul saqmianobas eweva da amis mize-
zi Cveni uRonoba da uZlurebaa. iliam am brwyinvale statiaSi isic gaxaza, rom
kritikosoba Znelze Zneli saqmea da igi moiTxovs mravali unaris erTobas. amas-
Tan man `qarTveli kritikosis mniSvneloba metad maRla aswia da didi siZnele
daanaxa qarTuli mwerlobis momaval mkvlevars. esec mniSvnelovani momentia.
literaturuli meSaoba saqarTvelos masStabiT aramc Tu ufro advilia, aramed
Seudareblad ufro Zneli yifila, vidre evropel mweralTa Sesaxeb wera da, ma-
Sasadame mxolod didi pasuxismgeblobiT SeiZleboda am saqmis xelis mokideba~.1
TviTon ilia WavWavaZe iyo Cvens sinamdvileSi nimuSi sakuTar sulier Za-
lebze dayrdnobili kritikosisa, `romelic TviTon hqmnis, TiTon sjis, TiTon
swlavs~ da qarTuli literaturis auwyvel simdidres frTxilad aanalizebs,
qarTvel mwerlebs TavTavianT adgils miuCens Cveni mwerlobis istoriaSi.
Tu, erTi mxriv, ilias naazrevi yuradRebas iqcevs zogadliteraturuli
da esTetikuri TvalsazrisiT, meore mxriv, man iTava qarTuli literaturis is-
torikosoba da kritikosoba.
fasdaudebelia is Rvawli, rac i. WavWavaZem Zveli qarTuli literaturis
Seswavlis saqmes dasdo.
i. WavWavaZe kargad icnobda Zvel qarTul xelnawerebs, zrunavda ara mxo-
lod maT Sekrebaze, aramed saqveynod maT gamomzeureba-publikaciaze. mas, mar-
Talia, specialuri naSromi ar miuZRvnia Zveli qarTuli mwerlobisaTvis, magram
mis literaturul-kritikul naazrevSi gvxvdeba saintereso dakvirvebebi, mo-
sazrebebi, sagulisxmo SeniSvnebi Zveli mwerlobis Sesaxeb.
savsebiT bunebrivia, rom i. WavWavaZis gansakuTrebuli siyvarulis sagani
iyo, misi yuradRebis centrSi yovelTvis idga qarTuli epikuri poeziis gvir-
gvini, Cveni `Tavmosawonebeli~, `sasiqadulo~ poema `vefxistyaosani~. rusTve-
lis genia gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iliasaTvis im mxriv iZenda, rom misma po-
emam sakacobrio Sinaarsis saTqmeli daitia, qarTvelTa warmomCeni iyo msoflio
asparezze. i. WavWavaZe sxvadasxva werilSi sagangebod exeba poemis istoriul-
literaturul sakiTxebs, sadReisodac sanimuSod unda CaiTvalos ilias mier
nestanisa da tarielis pirveli Seyris epizodis ganxilva. ilias es epizodi `ge-
nialuri kalmis mosmad~ miaCnda, homerosis poemis erTi brwyinvale adgilis
tolfasad.
ilias bevrjer daucavs qarTvelTa `xelixelsagogmanebi~ wigni damknine-
belTa da ganmaqiqebelTagan.
ilia WavWavaZe Rrmad icnobda aRorZinebis xanis qarTul mwerlobas, mis
did warmomadgenlebs, eweoda maTi naazrevis popularizacias. fasdaudebelia
ilias wvlili maTi Semoqmedebis gaazrebis saqmeSi.
da mainc unda iTqvas, rom ilia WavWavaZem, pirvel yovlisa, iTava XIX s. kri-
tikosoba da istorikosoba. am mxriv sayuradReboa ilias bevri Txzuleba da maT
Soris gansakuTrebiT iqcevs yuradRebas `werilebi qarTul literaturaze~,
romelic 90-ian wlebSi Seiqmna. `werilebSi~ miTiTebulia axali qarTuli mwer-
lobis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi etapebi 60-iani wlebis CaTvliT; gansazRvrulia
XIXs. qarTuli mwerlobis `warCinebul warmomadgenelTa~ ZiriTadi damsaxureba
da adgili Cveni mwerlobis istoriaSi.
`werilebi~ 60-iani wlebis daxasiaTebaze wydeba. ase rom, igi dasrulebuli
ar Cans. magram is umTavresi mizani, rac iliam misi Seqmnisas daisaxa, savsebiT
TvalsaCinodaa ganxorcielebuli im nawilSic, romelic CvenTvisaa cnobili.
1
v . k o t e t i S v i l i , rCeuli nawerebi, 1, 1965, gv. 300-301.
33
ilias mizani ki iyo, eCvenebina, rom XIXs. qarTuli mwerloba misi ganviTarebis
romelsame monakveTSi CixSi ar Sesula da, rom igi uwyvet jaWvs gvidgens, rom
yoveli momdevno monakveTi garkveulad aris Semzadebuli wina monakveTiT, mas
eyrdnoba, misi memkvidrea. am ganviTarebis gzis Cvenebis aucilebloba ki ilias
winaSe im mizezebma ganapiroba, rom jer kidev gasul saukuneSi gavrcelda azri,
romelic mecxramete saukunis qarTvel mwerlebs e.w. `Zvel~ da `axal~ Taobebad aj-
gufebda da maT Soris araTu SeuTanxmeblobas, aramed ukompromiso brZolas aRia-
rebda (ara marto literaturul sakiTxebze) da erTmaneTisagan TiSavda 60-ianelTa
da adreul mweralTa literaturul memkvidreobas. aRniSnul azrs TaobaTa brZo-
lis Sesaxeb amJamadac mkvlevarTa didi nawili icavs, da ai, didi ilia, romelic am
Sexedulebis mixedviT axali Taobis meTauradaa aRiarebuli, sazogadod, gaumar-
Tleblad miiCnevs `Zvel~ da `axal~ Taobebze saubars. ilias azriT, mweralTa da
moRvaweTa Zvel da axal Taobebad dayofis safuZveli, maT Soris azrebis, ideebis
dapirispirebasa da gansxvavebulobaSi unda veZeboT, xolo aseTi dapirispireba
XIXs. literaturaSi, Tu ho-araobis Cxirkedelaobas mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT, ar-
sad ar SeiniSneba. ilia `werilebSic~ da sxvaganac brwyinvaled cxadyofs imas, rom
qarTveli samocianelebi memkvidreni da gamgrZelebelni arian a. WavWavaZis, n. bara-
TaSvilis, v.orbelianis, g.erisTavis, r.erisTavis da sxvaTa saxelebTan dakavSire-
buli literaturisa, xolo, rac Seexeba Zveli Taobis beladad miCneul gr.orbeli-
ans, igi is moRvawe da mweralia, romelic daucxromeli enTuziazmiT amoudga gver-
dSi axalgazrdebs da maTTan erTad iRvawa saerTo erovnuli saqmisaTvis Tavisi di-
debuli poeziiT Tu praqtikuli saqmianobiT.1
unda sagangebod aRiniSnos, rom qarTvel mweralTa im Sefasebas, romelsac
ilia WavWavaZe am statiebis seriaSi (`werilebi~) Tu sxva werilebsa da sityvebSi
iZleva, arc sadReisod daukargavs saxelmZRvanelo mniSvneloba.
ilia WavWavaZe Tavis kritikul-esTetikur naazrevSi did adgils uTmobs
Teatrisa da, kerZod, qarTuli Teatris problemebs. Teatrs ilia WavWavaZe udi-
des mniSvnelobas aniWebda eris sulier cxovrebaSi, erovnuli Segnebis momwife-
bis, qarTuli enis Rirsebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT. `didi ram aris scena sazoga-
dod da nametnavad CvenTvis... Zlivs erTi sajaro adgili mainc gveqneba, saca Cve-
nis eniT vilxenT, Cvenis eniT vinaRvlebT, Cvenis enis mowyalebiT Tvalwin gavi-
tarebT Cvens cxovrebasa mTelis misis WkuiT da gulis monagriTa. amas garda
scena igive Skolaa, romelic cxovelis suraTebiT elaparakeba kacis gulsa da
Wkuasa. igi am Tavis TvisebiT kacis gunebazed ufro medgrad moqmedebs, vidre
sxva rame. am mxriv aris igi sanatreli, am mxriv aris igi kacis grZnobisa da Wkuis
gamafaqizebeli, gamwmendeli. scena xalxis mwvrTneli, xalxis gamzrdeli unda
iyos da amasTanac imisTana Semaqcevari aris, rom ukeTes mxares adamianisas fexs
aadgmevinebs, frTas aSlevinebs. ukeTesi Sesaqcevari, ukeTesi drois gasarTobi,
sulisa da gulis amamaRlebeli, sxva iseTi ara viciT ra, scenis meti~ (V,40). ilia
WavWavaZem ara marto qarTuli Teatris ganaxlebis saqmeSi Seasrula erTi Tavka-
cis roli, ara marto am mxriv aRmoCnda igi suli da guli qarTuli Teatrisa,
aramed man am Teatris recenzentis mZime tvirTic zida karga xans da am mxrivac
waruSleli kvali gaavlo qarTuli Teatraluri kritikis saqmeSi. Tavis kritikul
naazrevSi iliam didi adgili dauTmo repertuaris saqmes. man Tavis droze miuTi-
Ta erovnuli dramaturgiis siRaribeze da qarTul dramaturgias ganviTarebis
gzebic dausaxa. ilia WavWavaZem sagangebod aRniSna gansakuTrebuli sirTule am
Janris nawarmoebis Seqmnisa, gansakuTrebuli niWisa da saTanado momzadebis auci-
lebloba amisTvis. erTi sityviT, ilia WavWavaZem gza gadauRoba qarTul drama-
turgiaSi advilad werasa da gadmokeTebas, am mxriv erTgvar upasuxismgeblobas
da uniWobas. ilia WavWavaZem yuradReba miaqcia scenaze saeWvo mxatvruli Rire-
1
ilia WavWavaZis Sexedulebaze dayrdnobiT, tradiciulisagan gansxavebuli Tvalsazrisia `TaobaTa
brZolaze~ ganviTarebuli gr. kiknaZis wignSi `metyvelebis stilis sakiTxebi~, 1957, gv. 148-184.
34
bulebis komediebis momravlebas. sadReisodac araferi mohklebia ilias azrs im
moaruli Sexedulebis umarTebulobis Sesaxeb (da es azri amJamadac cocxalia),
rom TiTqos sasacilo Txzulebebi ufro izidavs xalxs, vidre seriozuli. ilias
fiqriT, ama Tu im xalxis damaxasiaTebel niSnad sicilis an tirilis upiratesobis
aRiareba ki ar gamodis, aramed saubari yvelgan esTetikurs unda exebodes. esTe-
tikuri grZnobis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi faseulia rogorc sasacilo, aseve serio-
zulic da satiralic, radgan esTetikur grZnobas erTi TvaliT gaRviZeba ar
SeuZlian ise, rom meorec ar mRviZareobdes (V, 313). mTavaria, rom WeSmariti xe-
lovnebis sagani iyos sasaciloc da satiralic da mas mayurebeli erTgvari ZaliT
miiRebs da aRiqvams. `uazro, umizezo sicili lazRandarobaa... dauJiniaT sasaci-
loao!.. bevri ram aris qveynad sasacilo, magram esTetikuri grZnoba yvela si-
cils ver Seiwynarebs, Tavis Svilad ver gaixdis. sicili Tavis dReSi ar unda gar-
daiqmnas lazRandarobad da tirili kidev ugemur knavilad. es xSirad aviwydebaT
Cvens sakuTar avtorebsac, mTargmnelebsac da zog-zog niWier artistebsac. saca
WeSmarit sicils, an WeSmarit cremls ver aWrevineben, iq sicili lazRandaroba-
zed gadaaqvT da cremli umarilo knavilzed~ (V, 314-315).
rogorc vxedavT, ilias azriT, sazogadoebrivi gemovnebis aRzrda aris er-
Ti umTavresi funqcia Teatrisa da man es funqcia arasodes unda daiviwyos. swo-
red am da amgvari msjelobis SemTxvevaSi vxedavT Cven, Tu rogor didebulad
amowmebs kidec, axleburad iazrebs da aviTarebs zogadesTetikur debulebebs
ilia WavWavaZe.
ilia WavWavaZiseuli analizi konkretuli dramatuli Txzulebebisa, romle-
bic qarTul scenaze daidga, kerZod, avqs. cagarlis `qarTvlis dedisa,~ `xanumasi,~
i.lazaraSvilis `mtarvalisa,~ sardus `gaviyarneTis,~ v.abaSiZiseuli gadmokeTebiT
dResac sanimuSod unda CaiTvalos.
ilia WavWavaZe Tavis recenziebSi ara marto TviT dramatuli Txzulebebis av-
kargze SeCerda, aramed msaxiobebis TamaSze, zomierebis grZnobis mniSvnelobaze
TeatrSi, aqtioruli ostatobis srulyofaze da, erTi sityviT, TiTqos iseT
wvrilmanzec, rogoricaa rolis codna.
ilia WavWavaZe darCa nimuSad mkacri da obieqturi, magram amasTanave faqizi
Teatraluri recenzentisa, romelmac Zalian kargad icis, Tu rogori saTuTi gu-
lis patronia msaxiobi, romelsac sWirdeba ara marto SeniSvna, aramed mowoneba da
waxalisebac, radgan igi pirdapir gulis ficarze iwers wyenasac da sixarulsac.
ilia WavWavaZis yuradReba wvdeboda yovelive erovnuls. ilia dafiqrda
musikis da, kerZod, qarTuli xalxuri musikis sakiTxebzec da am mxriv Tavisi na-
azrevi gamoxata erTob mniSvnelovan werilSi `qarTuli xalxuri musika~. ilia am
werilSi aviTarebs azrs qarTuli xalxuri musikis unikalurobis Sesaxeb. am Sem-
TxvevaSi igi patriotuli TavmowonebiT ki ar xelmZRvanelobs, aramed wminda
mecnieruli gansjiT im daskvnamde midis, rom qarTuli polifoniuri musika arc
erTi xalxis musikas ar edareba arc evropulisas da, miT umetes, arc aziurisas,
kerZod sparsulisas, im xalxis musikisas, romlis gavleniTac bevr marTal da
ufro met aramarTal niSnebs mogvaweren. Tu musika xalxis `sulis moZraobisa da
gulis ZarRviscemis~ gamomxatvelia, TavisTavad es unikaluroba qarTuli musi-
kisa bevri ramis mTqmelia.
ilia WavWavaZe qarTuli musikis erTob seriozuli kvlevis saWiroebas mo-
iTxovs. miuxedavad imisa, rom ilia WavWavaZis mere bevri ram gakeTda qarTuli
musikis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT, misi es moTxovna sadReisodac friad aqtua-
lur moTxovnad rCeba.
ilia WavWavaZe Tavis literaturul-esTetikur Sexedulebebs sazogadoeb-
riv yofasTan, tradiciul gemovnebasTan, moSvebulobasTan da indiferentiz-

35
mTan WidilSi afuZnebda. amitom polemikuri xasiaTisaa misi werilebi. ilia Wav-
WavaZe nimuSi iyo mebrZoli kritikosisa da publicistisa.
ilia WavWavaZis literaturul-kritikuli naazrevi sakuTar nagrZnobsa da
gancdils efuZneba, amdenad aris igi uaRresad originaluri. araferi ar gaux-
dia mwerals iseTi gansjis sagnad, rac uSualod qarTuli viTarebiT ar iqnebo-
da nakarnaxevi. marTalia, ilia icnobs da xSir SemTxvevaSi mihyveba kidec, magram
ara monurad mowinave evropel da rus avtorebs, magram, rogorc amboben, igi yo-
velTvis rCeba damoukidebel `qarTvel moazrovned~.1 ilia arasdros Tavs ar
iwonebs mravali avtoris citirebiT. citirebas igi mxolod aucilebel SemTxve-
vaSi mimarTavs. ucxo da brWyviala terminTa momarjvebiT, saeWvo modurobiT
igi Tavs ar irTobs. mwerals TviTon aqvs didi saTqmeli da yvelafers, wakiTx-
uls da gagonils, Tavis saazrovno masalad aqcevs.
ilia WavWavaZem kritikosma da moazrovnem axali gzebi dausaxa qarTul li-
teraturul azrovnebas da kritikas. igi amJamadac gvaswavlis, gvmoZRvravs, am-
Jamadac gvirCevs, rom ar avyveT cdunebas, brmad ar vendoT azrebs, rac ar unda
did avtoritetebs ekuTvnodeT isini. ilia ganmsjeli kritikis, dafiqrebuli,
sabuTebis enaze mosaubre, konkretuli masalis Rrma gaazrebaze dafuZnebuli
kritikis momxrea da TviTonve iZleva nimuSebs aseTi kvlevisas. amitomac aqvs
mis naazrevs didi, damarwmunebeli Zala.

ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli Semoqmedeba

ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli Semoqmedeba mxolod erTi nawilia misi didi su-
lieri memkvidreobisa. raodenobrivad araa igi didi, magram uaRresad Rrmaa da
gamZle.
ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli Semoqmedebis raodenobrivi SekumSuloba imi-
Tac unda aixsnas, rom mwerali SemoqmedebiTi muSaobis dros gonebis mkacri kon-
troliT xelmZRvanelobs. yvelaferi, rac misi xelidan gamosula, avtoris uSe-
RavaTo Semowmebis sagani gamxdara. ilia WavWavaZe arafers iseTs ar miscems ar-
sebobis uflebas, rac wamieria da mxolod pirovnuli; rac mis Tvalsazriss ar
Seesabameba; romelic erTiania da ucvleli mTeli misi moRvaweobis manZilze.
ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebis Tematika myaria; mwerals aqvs Tavisi garkveu-
li sakiTxebi, romlebsac ki ar cvlis, aramed literaturuli moRvaweobis mTel
manZilze afarToebs da aRrmavebs, akvirdeba da aanalizebs sxvadasxva aspeqtiT,
gamovlenis sxvadasxva formaSi.
ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebas Tu Tematikis TvalsazrisiT davakvirdebiT,
davinaxavT, rom mas ZiriTadad erTi sakiTxi msWvalavs — erovnuli sakiTxi. es
sakiTxi dgas mweralTan awmyos TvalsazrisiT — ras warmovadgenT, rani varT,
raSia Cveni sasicocxlo Zalebi. amis garkvevas mwerali warsulis gaTvaliswine-
bis niadagze axdens — rani viyaviT, rogor gamoviareT saukuneebi, rom ar gadave-
geT da gavZeliT, raSi mdgomareobs Cveni xalxis ukvdavebis saidumlo, yvelafe-
ri ki mimarTulia momavlis gansaWvretad — ra mogvelis? TavisTavad es uzoga-
desi sakiTxi moicavs sakiTxTa did wyebas, romelTac arsebiTi mniSvneloba eniWe-
baT ara marto qarTuli sinamdvilis TvalsazrisiT; kerZod esenia: sakiTxi adami-
anis arsebobis azris, misi daniSnulebis, cxovrebaSi misi adgilis Sesaxeb, xelova-
nis funqciisa da xelovanis misiisa da misi movaleobis, sazogadoebaSi misi adgi-
lis Sesaxeb, Tavisuflebis sakiTxi, socialur wodebaTa urTierTobis, maTi Ta-
nasworuflebianobisa da TanabarRirebulebis sakiTxi. Tanasworuflebianobis

1
g r. k i k n a Z e, literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, 1979, gv. 230.
36
sakiTxi dgas ara marto socialur sibrtyeze, aramed erovnul sibrtyeze — erov-
nebaTa Tanasworuflebebisa da TanabarRirebulebis TvalsazrisiT, sazogadoe-
bisa da misi calkeuli wevris urTierTobis, maTi ufleba-movaleobis, danaSauli-
sa da sasjelis, Sromis arsisa da misi mniSvnelobis sakiTxebi da a.S.
sxvadasxva literaturul JanrSi am sakiTxTa ganxilva-gamoxatva kidev uf-
ro migvaaxlovebs im uaRresad mdidar grZnobaTa da ideaTa samyaros, romelsac
ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli memkvidreoba gvidgens.

ilia WavWavaZis lirika. ilia WavWavaZis SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweoba liri-


kiT daiwyo, xolo Semdeg sakuTari grZnobebis gadmocemas TandaTan Seenacvla
im viTarebis, motivTa farTo ganxilva-daxasiaTeba, rac misi grZnobebis, fiqre-
bisa da gansjis ganmsazRvrelad gamodioda. aman ki epikuri Janrebi moiTxova.
mainc ra daxvda ilia WavWavaZes, poets qarTul poeziaSi, riT suldgmulobda
qarTuli leqsi, roca ilia gamovida samwerlo asparezze. sinamdvilisadmi ra axali
midgoma gamoamJRavna man, gamosaxvis ra saSualebebs mimarTa.
rogorc cnobilia, ilia WavWavaZis mosvlamde qarTuli poezia romantiku-
li xasiaTisa iyo. ilias winamorbedTagan saxelmoxveWilni iyvnen aleqsandre
WavWavaZe, grigol orbeliani da nikoloz baraTaSvili.
mainc ra gansazRvravda qarTvel romantikosTa lirikis Taviseburebebs,
ra gamoarCevs ilias leqsebs romantikosTa lirikisagan, anu ra qmnis mis Ziri-
Tad Taviseburebebs.
qarTvel romantikosTa memkvidreoba didi sazogadoebrivi Rirebulebis
Semcvelia, ramdenadac maTi tkivilebi da miswrafebebi emTxveva qarTvelTa sa-
erTo sulier tkivilebsa da miswrafebebs. magram Cveni romantikosebi, pirvel
yovlisa, swored imitom iyvnen romantikosebi, rom maTi lirika ufro pirov-
nul-individualuri xasiaTisa aRmoCnda. ra Tqma unda, aRniSnuli imas ar niS-
navs, rom maT poezias an socialuri safuZveli aklda, anda aseTi mizanswrafva
ar gaaCnda. TqmuliT mxolod is aRiniSneba, rom maT poeziaSi garkveul niadagze
warmoSobili gancdebia gadmoSlili am niadagis sagangebo Cvenebis gareSe. es
gansazRvravs, erTi mxriv, maTi poeziis romantikul xasiaTs. amdenad SeiZleba
iTqvas, rom romantikosebi ufro pirovnul gancdebs gvixasiaTeben da maT poe-
ziaSi wina planze ufro Rrmad intimuri grZnobebi warmosdgebian.
ilias samwerlo asparezze gamosvlamde qarTul poeziaSi moqalaqeobrivi
motivebi nakleb iCendnen Tavs da Tan zogjer sakmaod faruli tendenciis saxiT.
am tendenciis migneba iyo saWiro, imdenad faruladaa igi, magaliTad, warmodge-
nili al.WavWavaZis SemoqmedebaSi. marTalia gr. orbeliani am mxriv ufro Sors
wavida, magram masTan patriotuli grZnoba mainc ufro warsulis grZnobaa. n. ba-
raTaSvili iyo is didi poeti, romelmac gansakuTrebiT Tavisi Semoqmedebis mog-
viano xanaSi farTo moqalaqeobrivi interesebi gamoamJRavna, magram poetis sev-
da-mwuxarebis ganmapirobebeli konkretul faqtebze uSualod da pirdapir
TiTqmis araferia miTiTebuli. sakiTxi masTan ufro zogad filosofiur aspeq-
tSia gancdili da ganxiluli.
erTi sityviT, Cveni romantikosebis lirika sulieri cxovrebis konkretu-
li niadagis Cvenebas ar isaxavs miznad. es garemoeba sruliadac ar vnebs istori-
kosis TvalSi romantikosTa lirikis sazogadoebriv Rirebulebas, magram mis
Taviseburebas ki asaxavs da mowmobs. romantikosi poetebis Semoqmedebas udide-
si sazogadoebrivi mniSvneloba aqvs da swored am mniSvnelobas gausves xazi sa-
gangebod qarTvelma realistebma, magram faqti isaa, rom romantikosTa intere-
si ufro TviTCaRrmavebisaken, SigniT, pirovnulisaken, sakuTar sulier mdgoma-
reobaze dakvirvebisa da misi gadmoSlisaken aris mimarTuli, vidre gare viTare-

37
baze pirdapir da uSualod miTiTebasa da mis amgvarsave daxasiaTebisaken da es
apirobebs ZiriTadad maTi asaxvis romantikul iersa da xasiaTs.
ra Taviseburi midgomiT gamoirCa am mxriv ilia WavWavaZe lirikosi? ilia
WavWavaZem lirikaSi interesebi Signidan, Rrmad pirovnulis daxasiaTebidan, in-
timuridan gareT, sazogadoebrivisaken Semoabruna, man sazogadoebrivi aqcia
lirikis ZiriTad sagnad. lirikaSi poeti Tavisi pirovnuli sulieri mdgomareo-
bis, grZnobaTa uSualo daxasiaTebis gzas ki ar gahyva, aramed masTan asaxva pova
uSualod, daufaravad da SeuniRbavad im sazogadoebriv-politikurma sakiTxeb-
ma, im yofiTma garemom, rac misi sulieri mdgomareobis ganmsazRvrelad gamodi-
oda. iliam bejiTad iwyo socialuri problemebis ganxilva, yofiTi garemos
farTo asaxva da am mxriv gamoavlina mouRleli energia.
ilias, bunebrivia, arc sakuTari grZnobebis, uSualod sakuTari sulieri
moZraobis gamoxatvaze uTqvams uari, magram maTi gadmoSlisasac ki, TiTqos er-
Tgvarad ganze gadga, manZiliT daSorda Tavis gancdebs da isini sazogadoebrivi
interesebidan gaanalizebis saxiT mogvawoda. is, rac adre moqalaqeobrivi mo-
tivebis TvalsazrisiT ufro faruli tendenciis saxiT iCenda Tavs, ilias liri-
kis ganmsazRvreli gaxda da mis TvalsaCino Sinaarsad iqca. amitomacaa ilias li-
rika moqalaqeobrivi lirikis nimuSi. aq sruliad Segnebulad pirovnulma, kerZo
interesebma ukana planze gadainacvles da gabatonebuli adgili sazogadoeb-
riv, saerTo interesebs dauTmes. ilia WavWavaZem poetis amocanad swored sazo-
gadoebrivi tkivilebis gamosaxva miiCnia da poeziis gamarTlebac moqalaqeobri-
vi interesebis asaxvaSi dainaxa. iliam pirovnuli grZnoba mTlianad dauqvemde-
bara sazogadoebrivs. intimur grZnobebs mis lirikaSi mxolod sazogadoebrivi
interesebiT gamsWvalvis Semdeg mieca arsebobis ufleba da maTi Rirebulebac
swored am TvalsazrisiT Semowmda.
Cveni romantikosebi mometebulad `maRal materiebze~ laparakobdnen, ma-
Ralze im azriT, rom iq, maT poeziaSi dasmul sakiTxebs yvelasaTvis ar hqonda
sadReiso-yofiTi mniSvneloba. al. WavWavaZesTan da gr. orbelianTan saubari
iyo `udabnod qmnul savaneze~, `foTolT uxSir Wirze~ da `borot suliskveTeba-
Tagan gansvenebaze~. al. WavWavaZe da gr. orbeliani mometebulad TavianT wminda
intimur lirikas qmnidnen. maTi lirikis sagani iyo `trfobis isarT kona~ da
`melnis tbaTa gars mcvelad mdgari Savi hindni~, `aSiyT mowame mTvare~ da `Raw-
vTa zeda gadakruli nuSis yvavili~.
n. baraTaSvili faqizad metyvelebda mTawmindasa da iq `SemoRamebaze~,
`obol sulsa~ da `meranze~, `Sav yoransa~ da `bedis samzRvarze~, `bundovan klde-
sa~ da `locviT miqancebul sulze~. ase laparakobda poeti da erTgvari idumale-
biTac aRbeWdavda Tavis mRelvare naambobs.
erTi sityviT, Cveni romantikosebis poeziaSi cxovrebaze erTgvarad amaR-
lebuli movlenebi gveZleodnen. am TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom maTi po-
ezia sagangebod gafaqizebuli gancdebis poeziaa.
ilia WavWavaZem Tavisi lirikis sagnad airCia is, rac Cveulebrivi, yovel-
dRiuri da aqtualuri iyo. ilias poeziaSi Zalumad igrZnoba miZinebuli mamu-
lis gamoRviZebis survili, warmoCenilia qarTveli dedis saxe, saqarTvelos
warsuli da momavali. `tvirTmZimeT da maSvralT~ bedi da `Sromis axsna~ — ai,
ilias lirikis obieqtebi. romantikosebTan idumalis Sinaarsis Semcveli `be-
dic~ ki iliasTan naTeli, realisturi SinaarsiT aivso da momavlis mniSvneloba
SeiZina. ilia WavWavaZem Tavis poeziaSi mkiTxvels Tvalwin dauyena adamianuruf-
lebaayrili guTnis deda da `usamarTlod dasjili~ muSa, `xalxis sisxlisTvis
agrgvinebuli cari~ da gaiZvera diambegi. ilias lirikiT cxadi gaxda, rom Cveu-
lebrivi da yoveldRiuric SeiZleba iqces poeziis sagnad, roca mas didi da fxi-
zeli xelovanis xeli Seexeba.

38
yvelaferi zemoaRniSnuli uflebas gvaZlevs, ganvacxadoT, rom ilias li-
rika axal safexurs qmnis qarTuli lirikis istoriaSi.
tradiciulad momdinareobs azri, rom lirika aris poetis sulieri samyaros
daxasiaTeba, misi grZnobebis gadmoSla, movlenebisa da sagnebisadmi misi mimarTe-
bis warmodgena. magram lirikis amgvari gaazreba mTlad amomwuravi ar unda iyos,
radgan faqtobrivad amave amocanas upasuxebs arsebiTad sxva Janrebic. epikur na-
warmoebSiac aisaxeba mwerlis sulieri viTareba, misi mimarTeba, grZnobebi. lirikis
SemTxvevaSi arsebiTi isaa, rom aq uSualod TviTon poetis sulieri mdgomareoba,
misi grZnobebia CaTvlili sazogadoebrivi yuradRebis Rirsad. poetis `mes~ gan-
cdas eniWeba lirikul nawarmoebSi uSualod fasi. amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, lirika
Cveulebriv pretenziuli Janria im azriT, rom, rasac poeti grZnobs, mas mniSvne-
lovnad miiCnevs. TavisTavad cxadia, nakleb pretenziulia sxvaTa piriT laparaki,
sxvaTa azrebisa da moqmedebebis daxasiaTeba, maT saxeebs amofareba, maTSi gauCina-
reba. erTi sityviT, lirika avtorTan axlos misuli formaa gamoxatvisa da, amde-
nad, metad sapasuxismgeblo formac. yovelive amis aRniSvnas axla is mniSvnelobac
aqvs, rom ilia WavWavaZis saxiT saqme gvaqvs iseT poetTan, romelsac mZlavrad aqvs
gacnobierebuli es viTareba. masTan yvelgan igrZnoba es didi pasuxismgebloba.
ilia WavWavaZis lirikuli poezia araa vrceli. mas sul 72 leqsi aqvs daweri-
li. nawili leqsebisa poets an ar daumTavrebia, an sazogadod uari aqvs maTze naT-
qvami.
Tematikuri TvalsazrisiT dajgufebisas SeiZleba pirobiTad Semdegi jgu-
febi gamovyoT mis poeziaSi: erT Tematikur jgufs Seadgenen wminda socialuri
xasiaTis leqsebi, iseTebi, rogoricaa: `guTnis deda,~ `muSa,~ `mesmis, mesmis~...,
`gazafxuli,~ `1871 weli, 23 maisi~ da a.S. meore jgufSi SeiZleba gavaerTianoT
leqsebi, romlebic aSkarad patriotuli mizandasaxulebisani arian, Torem ise
faqtobrivad ilias yvela leqsi patriotul mizandasaxulebasaa sabolood daq-
vemdebarebuli. aseTi leqsebia: `yvarlis mTebs,~ `qarTvlis dedas,~ `elegia,~
(`mas aqeT...~), `ra vakeTeT, ras vSvrebodiT anu saqarTvelos istoria mecxramete
saukunisa,~ `bednieri eri,~ (`Cemo kargo qveyanav...~), `bazaleTis tba~ da a.S. Sem-
degi jgufia iseTi leqsebi, romlebic exebian poeziis daniSnulebas da poetis
misias. aseTebia: `poeti,~ (`Cemo kalamo~...) da a.S. ilias aqvs satrfialo Sinaarsis
leqsebic. aq Sedis: `mec Sav Tvalebs,~ (`vixile satrfo~), (`erTxel jda Cem-
Tan...~), (`risTvis miyvarxar~), (`gaxsovs turfav...~) da a.S. Semdegi jgufia iseTi
leqsebi, romlebic Cven SeiZleba romelime aRniSnul jgufs mivakuTvnoT, mag-
ram isini mainc gamoirCevian, ramdenadac maTSi poetis TviTdaxasiaTebaa, misi
pirovnuli Zalebis Sefasebaa warmodgenili. aseTebia: `dae Tund movkvde...~,
`gavswordeT bedo~ da a.S. calkea gamosayofi iseTi leqsebi, romlebsac polemi-
kuri ieri aqvT. esenia `gamocanebi,~ `kidev gamocanebi,~ `pasuxis pasuxi.~
ra SeiZleba iTqvas sakuTriv socialuri Sinaarsis leqsebis daxasiaTebis
TvalsazrisiT. `guTnis deda~ erT-erTi adreuli brwyinvale leqsia. poeti
mkiTxvels uqmnis imis mxatvrul iluzias, rom qarTveli glexkaci gviSinaarsebs
Tavis safiqrals da satkivars. am iluzias aRrmavebs adgilobrivi koloritis
Rrma codna da saTanado gamoxatva, sada, dauZabavi metyveleba, aforizmuli, qa-
ragmebiT uxvi, rac ase maxlobelia xalxuri poeziisaTvisac. leqsSi igrZnoba
didi TanagrZnoba da siyvaruli poetisa mSromeli kacisadmi...
sagangebo aRniSvnis Rirsia is, rom am leqsis Sinaarsi sruliadac araa mi-
jaWvuli gamosaxatav obieqtTan — guTnis dedasTan, aramed masze maRldeba da
sayovelTaod Rirebuli azris saxes iZens, romelic erTob mniSvnelovania guT-
nis dedis gareSec. am leqss mTlianad gasdevs azri adamianis RirsebaTa aRiare-
bisa da maTi dacvisa. aq didi mxatvruli ZaliT aris wamoyenebuli moTxovna ada-
mianis Sinagani Tavisuflebisa. adamianis Rirseba unda iqnes daculi — es azria

39
wamyvani am leqsSi. SeiZleba aRar iarsebos ilias leqsis asaxvis uSualo obieq-
tma, guTnis dedam, magram leqsSi gamoxatuli gamZle azris gamo es leqsi sul
icocxlebs. rogor aris am leqsSi poetis mier es mxatvruli amocana ganxorcie-
lebuli. am amocanis ganxorcieleba xerxdeba ilias poeziisaTvis niSandoblivi
mWevrmetyvelebiTi gziT. mWevrmetyveluroba am leqsisa, pirvel yovlisa, obi-
eqtis amaRlebaSi vlindeba. Cveulebrivi gza obieqtis daxasiaTebisa iyo da amJa-
madac aris am obieqtis doneze dasvla, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli metyvelebis
formis SerCeva da, saerTod, iseTi mxatvruli saSualebebis SerCeva, rac am obi-
eqts Seesabameba. `guTnis dedaSi~ ilia WavWavaZe am tradiciul gzas ar mihyveba.
ilia guTnis dedis doneze ki ar dadis, aramed TviTon igi — guTnis deda ahyavs
Tavis simaRleze... guTnis deda, romelic arc maincdamainc enamWevrad warmog-
vedgina, ilias leqsSi ase STambeWdavad ametyvelda. swored gansasaxierebuli
obieqtis amaRleba, rac ase niSandoblivia ara marto ilias lirikisaTvis, ara-
med sazogadod misi SemoqmedebisaTvis (gavixsenoT lelT Runia, mwyemsi qali)
aris erTi niSani am leqsis mWevrmetyvelurobisa.
am leqsis mWevrmetyvelurobas gaucveTeli, siaxlis niSniT warmodgenili
leqsikac da sazogadod metyvelebac apirobebs. marTalia, `guTnis dedaSi~ leq-
sika ZiriTadad yofiTia, magram frazis konstruqcia aqvs poets uCveulo. erTi
sityviT, poeti yofiT metyvelebas ki ar eqvemdebareba, aramed masze maRldeba,
rac misi pirovnuli siZlieris maCvenebelic aris.
rac iTqva konkretulad am leqsis Sesaxeb, igive unda gavavrceloT ilias
TiTqmis yvela leqsze, oRondac ramdenime sityva unda iTqvas leqsze `muSa~. pir-
velad aseTi saTauriT am Temaze leqss ilia WavWavaZis poeziaSi vxvdebiT da Sem-
deg es Tema sazogadod mkvidrdeba qarTul poeziaSi (gr. orbeliani, ir. evdoSvi-
li, g. quCiSvili da a.S.). Zala garkveuli Temisa da misi gansaxierebisa Cans pirve-
lobaSi, Torem Semdeg SesaZloa ukeTesi Txzulebac daiweros amave Temaze. es iT-
qmis Tundac gr. orbelianis didebuli leqsis `muSa boqulaZis~ mimarT.
ilia WavWavaZis SesaniSnavi leqsi `mesmis, mesmis...~ 1860 wels Seiqmna, mag-
ram misi gamoqveyneba mxolod TerTmeti wlis Semdeg moxerxda Jurnal `krebul-
Si~ n. nikolaZis aseTi SeniSvniT: `es leqsi glexebis ganTavisuflebis dros
ekuTvnis~. cxadia, es SeniSvna fandi iyo cenzuris Tvalis asaxvevad. leqsis Seq-
mnis namdvili safuZveli da mizanswrafva iseTi iyo, rasac cenzura ver Seiwyna-
rebda. es leqsi peterburgSi Seiqmna, sadac studenti ilia didi interesiT,
RelviT adevnebda Tvalyurs msoflioSi mimdinare socialur-politikur pro-
cesebs, didi TanagrZnobiT imsWvaleboda TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli damone-
buli xalxebis mimarT. rogorc Tanamedroveni gadmogvcemen, ilia auRelvebia
italiis erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel brZolas; am brZolebis legendaruli gmi-
ris — juzepe garibaldis gamarjvebebs. ilias garibaldisTan wasvla da mis raz-
mSi Cawerac seriozulad hqonia gadawyvetili. swored aman gansazRvra am leqsis
Seqmna. leqsSi gamoxatulia didi TanagrZnoba da siyvaruli TavisuflebisaTvis
mebrZoli xalxis, `simarTlis xmis qveynad quxilis~ mimarT, rac aris safuZveli
monobis borkilebis sabolood darRvevis imedisa. poeti natrobs, rom es xma mis
mamulSiac gaismas.
ilias lirikis daxasiaTebisas erTxmad miuTiTeben, rom patriotizmia misi
ZiriTadi Sinaarsi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom swored es grZnobaa amosavali mis nawar-
moebebSi gamoxatuli sxva grZnobebisa. am grZnobis niadagzea aRmocenebuli,
gaSlili da ganviTarebuli patriotuli ideali, romelic gansazRvravs yvela
mis sxva ideals.
`yvarlis mTebs~ aris faqtobrivad ilias pirveli maRalmxatvruli leqsi.
is cxrameti wlis Wabukma SeTxza peterburgSi gamgzavrebis win. es leqsi mraval-
mxriv aris sayuradRebo. is warmogvidgens im mwuxare ganwyobilebas, romelic

40
Sors, ruseTSi mimaval axalgazrdas daeufla samSoblo qveyanasTan ganSorebis
Jams. leqsSi gamoxatuli sevda ar aris gauvali da yvelafris damTrgunavi, rad-
gan ganSorebis tkivils Tan axlavs gacnobierebuli Segneba imisa, rom Tavis sam-
SoblosTan mas aSorebs saqveyno vali. `momavlis bedi~ iTxovs msxverplad gay-
ras, rom mSobliuri mTebi mudam masTan iqnebian xsovniT, ucxoeTidan kvlav mo-
awvdens gulsa da Tvalsa. am leqsSi patriotuli grZnoba mSobliur adgilTan,
konkretul adgilTan siaxlovis saxiT mJRavndeba — kerZod mSobliuri yvarlis
mTebTan siaxloviT... gansaxierebis aseT gzas Semdeg faqtobrivad poeti aRar
imeorebs. konkretuli adgilis, teritoriis siyvaruls Seenacvleba samSoblos,
rogorc aseTis, siyvaruli, samSoblos ideis siyvaruli.
leqsi `yvarlis mTebs~ yuradRebas iqcevs bunebis grZnobis gamoxatvis
TvalsazrisiTac. igi cxadad warmogvidgens poetis mimarTebas bunebasTan. bune-
bas aq, ise rogorc sxva leqsebSi, patriotuli grZnobis gamowvevis mniSvneloba
eniWeba.
sagangebod miuTiTeben leqsis Sinagan kompoziciur gamokveTilobaze da
mkacr organizebulobaze.
`qarTvlis dedas~ ilias saprogramo xasiaTis leqsebis wyebaSi Sedis, ram-
denadac aq gamokveTili ideali mTeli misi Semoqmedebis manZilze ar icvleba da
Tematikurad meordeba, iSleba da konkretdeba mxatvrul saxeebSi misi poeturi
moRvaweobis mTel manZilze.
es leqsic, erTi mxriv, pasuxi iyo im amocanis gadawyvetis gzaze, Tu ra un-
da moemoqmedna qarTvel xalxs, rom ar gaTqvefiliyo uzarmazari imperiis masa-
Si, Tavisi TavisTavadoba, erovnuli iersaxe SeenarCunebina; dros dalodeboda
da xelsayrel SemTxvevaSi ebrZola damoukideblobisa da TavisuflebisaTvis.
Tavdapirvelad poeti `qarTvlis dedaSi~ im azrs aviTarebs, rom Tavisu-
fal saqarTveloSi Zvelad deda Svils mamuls uzrdida. dedis nana mtrebTan
mebrZol qveyanas momaval gmirs umzadebda. is dro gaqra. tyvedpyrobilma, kir-
Tebis qveS daCagrulma bedma dedis sicocxlis Zala Cakla da misi Svilic Crdi-
ls daamsgavsa. aRaraa mamapapuri mxneoba, saxelisaTvis amayi TrTola, gmiruli
suli. TiTqos unda movelodeT, rom leqsSi romantikuli sevda SemoiWreba war-
sulze misi idealizebis mizniT, magram molodinis sapirispirod es leqsi swo-
red imiTaa saetapo, rom ilia aq radikalurad emijneba amgvar damokidebulebas
warsulTan. sicocxlisunarian ers ar SeSvenis warsulze godeba. warsulze
cremls sicocxle rodi mohyolia:
`moviklaT warsul droebzed dardi...
Cven unda vsdioT axla sxva varskvlavs,
Cven unda Cveni vSvaT myoobadi,
Cven unda mivsceT momavali xalxs~.
leqsis meore nawili mTlianad itvirTeba momwodebluri intonaciiT. esaa
leqsi-mowodeba. dedam Svili unda aRzardos qristes mcnebiT, mamulis siyvaru-
liT. poets Rrmad swams, rom dedis nanasTan Sezrdili saRvTo da saqveyno idea-
lebi sasurvel zemoqmedebas moaxdenen da keTil nayofs moitanen:
`mende, miiRebs nergs Sengan darguls
da mogvcems nayofs viT kaci kacurs~.
ase amaRlebulad warmogvidgina poetma dedis misia. Rirseuli Svilis aR-
zrda dedis saqveyno valad dasaxa.
elegiuri xasiaTis ganwyobilebebi ilias zogierTi leqsisaTvis saerTod
ar aris ucxo. erT leqss ki ilia pirdapir ase asaTaurebs — `elegia~. es leqsi
dawerilia 1859 wels. am leqsisaTvis, iseve rogorc ilias bevri sxva leqsisaT-
vis, niSandoblivia erTgvari kontrastuloba leqsSi gamoxatul Sinaarssa da
41
formas Soris. rogorc cnobilia, elegiuri xasiaTis leqsebi ufro pirovnul
samyaros exebian, intimurobiT xasiaTdebian. SemTxveviTi araa, rom lirikul
JanrTagan elegia Zveli droidanve popularuli iyo... gansakuTrebiT gabatonda
igi romantikosTa poeziaSi. maT sulier ganwyobilebebs elegia Zalzed miesada-
geboda formis TavisuflebiTac da ganwyobilebiTac.
ilia WavWavaZe elegiuri Janris leqsis Sinaarsad Rrmad socialur, sazo-
gadoebrivi mniSvnelobis grZnobas aqcevs, riTac leqsis patriotul gamiznu-
lobas mkveTrad gaxazavs. `elegiaSi~ poeti Tavdapirvelad xatavs bunebis mkafi-
od suraTovan ferwerul lirikul peizaJs. igrZnoba erTgvari idumali kavSiri
bunebasa da adamianis suls Soris. amgvari kavSiri sazogadod iyo damaxasiaTebe-
li romantikuli poeziisaTvis. magram romantikosTagan sruliad gansxvavebiT
bunebis suraTi `elegiaSi~ poetis sawuxaris, misi saocnebos konkretul fonad
warmodgeba. poeti Sewuxebulia qveynis umoqmedobiT. bunebis simSvenierec ki
ufro mkveTrad gaxazavs miZinebuli mamulis mdumarebas.
leqsi `mas aqeT raki~ 1861 wels Seiqmna. esaa leqsi — aRsareba, romelSiac sau-
baria imaze, Tu rogor daeufla poets mamulis siyvarulis grZnoba. leqsSi gamoxa-
tulia moqalaqeobrivi Segnebis umaRlesi safexuri. poets udides siamovnebas ani-
Webs imis Segneba, rom misi sicocxle samSobloze fiqrsa da zrunvaSi Sreba. siamov-
nebis gancdas Tan axlavs im simwaris realobac, rom namdvili mamuliSvili Tavs
martod grZnobs Tavis fiqrebsa da satkivarTan. saqveyno satkivarsa da sazrunavSi
martoobis gancda uCveulo araa gamorCeul pirovnebaTaTvis; iliasac Tan axlda
igi da mis saerTo sulier mdgomareobas erTgvarad gansazRvravda.
ilia WavWavaZis patriotuli xasiaTis leqsTagan uaRresad mniSvnelovania
leqsebi, romlebSiac mamuliSviluri grZnoba TviTgakicxvis, eris naklovaneba-
Ta daufaravi mxilebis gziT vlindeba. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa
leqsebi `bednieri eri~, `ra vakeTeT, ras vSvrebodiT anu saqarTvelos isto-
ria mecxramete saukunisa~. pirvel maTganSi poeti satirul formaSi eris im
naklovanebebs amxels, rac grZel gzaze qarTveli xalxis istoriis avbediT mo-
saxvevebSi mankierebebad Camouyalibda. es leqsi yovelTvis gvaxsenebs imasac,
rac xSirad sabediswerod ubrundeba Cvens qveyanas. xolo meore leqsSi, romel-
sac piesis saxe aqvs da papasa da SviliSvils Soris gasaubrebis formiTaa war-
modgenili, gaTvaliswinebulia Cveni istoria mecxramete saukunisa satirul
formaSi. am leqsis mixedviT irkveva, rom am saukunis manZilze erTmaneTs vwew-
diT da viwewebodiT, erTmaneTs vabezRebdiT, ruseTisaken saxvewnelad gavrbo-
diT da gamovrbodiT, vyvlefdiT ymebs, Cin-medlebze zrunvas gadavyeviT. erTi
sityviT, Cveni istoria sul iqiTken aris mimarTuli, rom kiTxva dagviyenos, ro-
gor gadavrCiT. ilia aseT leqsebSi aris Seupovari da mrisxane, mouridebeli.
ilias, rogorc yvelaze did gulSematkivars Tavisi xalxisa, eris winamZRols
hqonda ufleba amgvari gakicxvisa.
miuxedavad imisa, rom ilia mkacria da daundobeli naklovanebaTa mxilebi-
sas, igi gauval sevdas arasdros ar eZleva. imedze xels ar iRebs, piriqiT, swo-
red imis gamo, rom Zalian mkacria, imave dros aris dajerebuli Tavisi qveynis
momavalSi. swored am TvalsazrisiTac aris saintereso didi sinaziTa da siTbo-
Ti savse leqsi `Cemo kargo qveyanav...~. didi uSualobiT mimarTavs poeti Tavis
qveyanas: marTalia, awmyo ar gwyalobs, Cemo qveyanav, da es aris Seni mowyenis mi-
zezi, magram samomavlo daRonebis safuZveli ara gaqvs, `momavali Senia~. gasage-
bia, rom iseTi xelovanis SemTxvevaSi, rogorc ilia WavWavaZea, momavlis imeds,
cxadia, aqvs Tavisi konkretuli safuZveli. bunebrivia, gvainteresebs ras emya-
reba ilias rwmena; gasagebia, rom lirikul leqsSi ar SeiZleba am mxriv velodeT
vrcel mxatvrul dasabuTebas. faqtia, rom erT garkveul da konkretul safuZ-
velze aq sruliad naTladaa miTiTebuli da, rogorc Cans, am leqsis Seqmnis Zi-

42
riTadi motivic am safuZvlis cxadi gancdaa. leqsis mixedviT momavlis rwmenas
amagrebs is, rom
`wvrilSvilni wamogeswrnen nazardni, gulmtkicebi;
maTi zrunvis sagani Sen xar da Sen iqnebi,
ar gimtyuneben Sena, Tuki maT miendebi.
maTis RvawliT Segeqnes saxe bediT mTenia
Cemo kargo qveyanav, razed mogiwyenia!
maTi guli Senisa trfobis farTo budea,
maTi gulTa ficari Seni mtkice zRudea...
ver wabilwavs maTs grZnobas simuxTle, simrudea!..~
erTob mniSvnelovania, rom poeti, romelic aTiod wlis win veravis xedavda,
visac `fiqrs andobda, grZnobas gauziarebda~, ndobas ucxadebs axalgazrdobas,
romelic asparezze gamodis da... sazogadod momaval Taobebs.
`bazaleTis tba~ daiwera 1883 wels. patriotuli grZnobis gaRvivebis miz-
niT poeti am leqsSi legendur masalas imarjvebs. patriotuli ocneba da idea-
li aq warsulSi, SoreulSia gadatanili. leqsis legendaruli Sinaarsi, saocne-
bo ideals amaRlebuls, erTob poeturs xdis. Soreulis, legenduris gancdas aq
upiratesad gzas uxsnis sxvaTa Tqmebze, gadmocemebze miTiTebuli leqsika, maT-
ze dayrdnoba. leqsi gamoirCeva ilias mZlavri warmosaxviT Seqmnili xilvebiT.
`bazaleTis tbas~ safuZvlad daedo xalxuri legenda, ramac ganapiroba poetu-
ri saTqmeli xalxis ocnebis formiT gamoxatuliyo. aman igi farTo saxalxo
leqsad aqcia. xalxis wiaRSi warmoSobilad gvesaxeba is gulgautexeloba, ocne-
ba, optimizmi, didi molodinis grZnoba, riTac es brwyinvale leqsi xasiaTdeba.
rogorc iTqva, ilia WavWavaZis leqsebis erTi nawili poetis mrwamsis, misi
daniSnulebisa da misiis sakiTxs exeba. ocdaori wlis ilia WavWavaZes ekuTvnis
es udidesi pirovnuli ZaliT aRbeWdili sityvebi:
`RmerTTan misTvis vlaparakob,
rom warvuZRve wina ersa~
(`poeti~)
ilia WavWavaZemdec da ilias Semdegac bevri moazrovne da xelovani ara mar-
to aTavisuflebs poets sazogadoebrivi sazrunavisagan, aramed fiqrobs, rom
mxatvrul sityvas arc SeiZleba daekisros aseTi movaleoba, radgan, igi, mxatvru-
li sityva ar warmoadgens iseTi zemoqmedebis saSualebas, rom sazogadoeba da-
razmos an gardaqmnas. sabuTi adrec hqondaT da axlac meti energiulobiT varau-
doben, rom literaturaSi, miT ufro lirikul poeziaSi, calkeuli adamianis su-
lieri gancdebia mowodebuli, is, rac individualuria, xolo individualuri ar
SeiZleba iyos socialuri Tavisi gavrcelebis masStabiT. Tu gavrcelda, maSin da-
kargavs Tavis individualobas, e.i. misi mxatvruli Rirebuleba iqneba dabali...
da ai, ilia WavWavaZe principulad upirispirdeba am Tvalsazriss da poets
igi eris winamZRolobas akisrebs. esaa yvelaze mTavari da mniSvnelovani, rac am
didebul leqsSi gamoxata iliam.
rogorc miuTiTeben, leqsis striqonebSi
`misTvis ar vmRer, rom vimRero,
viT frinvelma gareganma,
ara marto tkbil xmaTaTvis
gamomgzavna qveynad cama~,

SesamCnevia parafrazi goeTes sityvebisa: `Ich singe, wie der Vogel singt~ (`vmReri ise,
viT frinveli~), anda puSkinis strofisa:
"Не для житейского волненья,
Не для корысти, не для битв,
43
Мы рождены для вдохновенья
Для звуков сладких и молитв."
isic cnobilia, rom arc goeTe, arc puSkini `wminda xelovnebis~ ideas ki ar
gamoxatavdnen, aramed Semoqmedebis Tavisuflebaze laparakobdnen.1
am ori didi Semoqmedis TavisTavad erTob faseul da momxibvlel azrSi
ilia WavWavaZes mniSvnelovani koreqtivi Seaqvs. ilias mixedviT, poeti sulac
araa frinveliviT Tavisufali erovnuli, sazogadoebrivi interesebidan, ufro
metic, igi eris rCeuli Svilia, misi winamZRoli da rogorc xelovani eris inte-
resebis gamomxatvelia, masTanaa tanjvaSiac da sixarulSic da Tavisufali sim-
ReriTac mxolod maSin imRerebs, roca ers tanjvis cremls moswmends. didi ili-
as azriT, marTalia, `poezia cis niWia, madlia da poetic am zegardmo madliT
cxebuli~, ciT daniSnuli, magram misi funqcia amqveyniuria, igi eris aRzrdilia
da misi interesebis gamomxatveli. ase gamoirCa qarTveli xelovani sxvaTagan.
ilia WavWavaZis leqsma `poeti~ mTeli epoqa Seqmna qarTul sinamdvileSi
poeziis mizandasaxulebis gansazRvris TvalsazrisiT; i. WavWavaZem a. wereTel-
Tan erTad gansakuTrebuli ZaliT azida poetis maRali misia.
raki eris winamZRoli unda iyo, Tvisebebic unda gqondes Zlieri pirovne-
bisa. poetic iseTi pirovnuli niSnebiT warmogvidgina iliam, romelic eris me-
Taurobas SeZlebda. pirovnebis siZliere mxolod dabrkolebaTa arsebobis Sem-
TxvevaSi irkveva... da ai, yvelaze upirvelesi dabrkoleba, romelic xelovans, vi-
Tarca pirovnebas, win uxvdeba, sakuTari Rirsebis Segnebaa. sxvas ki ar ahyve, imis
mixedviT ki ar imoqmedo, sxva ras gikarnaxebs, aramed Sen TviTon gqondes saku-
Tari Zala, sxvis mier Seqmnili Zala ki ar iyo, aramed TviTon warmoadgende Za-
las. aseT adamians ar sWirdeba sxvaTa waqezeba, taSi, mas sakuTari gza aqvs. esaa
pirvel yovlisa, gamoxatuli leqsSi `Cemo kalamo~.
ilia WavWavaZis pirovnuli siZlieris damadasturebelia misi siWabukis-
droindeli `dae Tund movkvde...~, aseTive xasiaTisaa misi leqsi `gavswordeT
bedo~. esaa xmalSi gamowveva bedisa, SeWideba masTan da damkvidreba pirovnuli
siZlieris rwmenisa. ase ukavSirdebian bunebrivad erTimeores ilia WavWavaZis
warmodgena xelovnebis rolis, misi daniSnulebis, misi misiisa da sakuTari pi-
rovnuli Zalebis TviTrwmenisa.
ilia WavWavaZes Seqmnili aqvs ramdenime satrfialo xasiaTis leqsi, romle-
bic Wabukobis xanaSia dawerili. maTgan gansakuTrebiT gamoyofen or leqss:
`risTvis miyvarxar~ da `gaxsovs turfav...~, romlebSic imden sifaqizes xedav-
dnen da imdenad popularulni iyvnen, rom simRerebad iqcnen da drosac gauZ-
les. pirveli maTgani im mxriv aris sagulisxmo, rom aq xazgasmulia siyvarulis
grZnobis mtanjveli xasiaTi da amave dros adamianis miswrafeba, rom am tanjvis
areSi moeqces; xolo meore leqsSi am grZnobis cvalebad xasiaTze da mis warmav-
lobazea laparaki.
lirikuli leqsi bevri ara, magram darCa ilia WavWavaZis werilebi Tavisi
satrfosa da SemdegSi meuRlis — olRa guramiSvilisadmi miwerili. es werilebi
sruliad cxads xdian da TvalsaCinod warmogvidgenen ilias araCveulebrivi ga-
tacebis adamianad. rogorc Cans, ilias sazogadoebriv samsjavroze ar gamohqon-
da iseTi grZnobebi, romelTac misi azriT sazogadoebrivi Rirebuleba naklebi
hqondaT.
ilia WavWavaZis leqsebis erTi jgufi yuradRebas iqcevs sinamdvilisadmi
midgomis TvalsazrisiT. es aris polemikuri xasiaTis satirul-iumoristuli
leqsebi. ilia WavWavaZe am leqsebis mixedviT uZlieres polemistad gvevlineba.
aq Cven mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs ilias leqsebi: `gamocanebi~ da `kidev gamocanebi~,

1
j . W u m b u r i Z e , qarTuli kritikis istoria, I, 1974, gv. 206-207.
44
`pasuxis pasuxi~ da a.S. i. WavWavaZis, rogorc polemikosis, dasaxasiaTeblad,
pirvel yovlisa, is unda iTqvas, rom mas SeeZlo mowinaaRmdegis gamowveva. es mniS-
vnelovani mxarea polemistis bunebisa. erTia, roca TavdasxmiT gaiZuleben xma ai-
maRlo Tavdasacavad. aseT SemTxvevaSi motivi kamaTisa mometebulad TviT mokama-
Tis gareT Zevs. sul sxvaa, roca Zala Segwevs mowinaaRmdege gamoiwvio, xeli Se-
uwyo sawinaaRmdego azris gadmoSlas, Tuki arsebobs igi.
ra Taviseburebebs gviCvenebs ilias polemikuri leqsebi sinamdvilisadmi
midgomis TvalsazrisiT? xSirad kamaTis dros gakicxva mowinaaRmdegisa emyare-
ba emociur safuZvels, e.i. imgvar gakicxvasTana gvaqvs saqme, romlis drosac ga-
kicxvis safuZvlianoba naCvenebi araa. aRniSnaven, rom akakis zogierTi polemi-
kuri leqsi, maT Soris iseTi, rogoricaa `xarabuza Renerals~, swored emociuri
xasiaTisaa. am leqsSi warmodgenilia Zalian mkacri, daundobeli gakicxva, magram
ZiriTadad dausabuTebeli gakicxva. gakicxvis sakmaris safuZvlad CaTvlilia
TviT akakis mimarTeba gr. orbelianisadmi (gr.kiknaZe). sxvagvaria ilia WavWavaZis
midgoma. iliasaTvis, pirvel yovlisa, sabuTianobaa damaxasiaTebeli. ilia gakicx-
visas iseT sabuTebs adgens, romlebic TavisTavad gvixasiaTeben obieqtis raobas.
aravisTvis saeWvo ar aris ilias leqsis `pasuxis pasuxis~ siZliere, misi didi ze-
moqmedebiTi Zala. xolo es STabeWdileba dapirobebulia, pirvel yovlisa, misi
argumentirebuli xasiaTiT. ilia maSinac, roca safuZveli aqvs Zlier Relavdes,
wonasworoba dakargos, sidinjes inarCunebs, TavSekavebulia. igi ar mihyveba emo-
ciebs. poeti leqsSi, pirvel yovlisa, uCvenebs TvalnaTliv adgens `mamebisa~ da
`Svilebis~ Rirsebebs cal-calke da erTmaneTs upirispirebs maT.
`pasuxis pasuxamde~, rogorc aRiniSna, iliam `gamocanebi~ da `kidev gamo-
canebi~ dawera. am satiruli xasiaTis leqsebSi bevri imdroindeli Zalian cno-
bili piri iyo gakicxuli. pirovnuli dacinvis magaliTebi polemikur planSi
ilia WavWavaZemdec arsebobda. am mxriv sakmarisia gavixsenoT besikisa da Wabua
orbelianis am xasiaTis leqsebi. besikisa da Wabuas leqsebi pirovnuli, sruliad
mouridebeli ganqiqebis mkafio magaliTebia, oRondac pirovnulis sazRvrebSi-
ve darCenili.
ilia WavWavaZis leqsebi ki, pirvel yovlisa, swored imiTaa sayuradRebo,
rom man pirovnul gakicxvas sazogadoebrivi fasi da mniSvneloba mianiWa. TiTo-
euli gamocanis obieqtis sazogadoebrivi fasi aqvs naCvenebi poets da es Zalzed
mkafiod aris miniSnebuli TiToeuli gamocanis bolos refrenad darTul sakma-
od magar gamoTqmaSi:
`qveyana da qveynis saqme
imas fexebze hkidia~.
aRniSnuli ki ilias mrwamsidan gamomdinareobs — igi yvelas da yvelafers
sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT afasebs. sxvagvari Sefasebis kri-
teriumi misTvis ar arsebobs. ilia WavWavaZe Tavis gancdebs mxolod sazogado-
ebrivi Rirebulebis TvalsazrisiT Semowmebis Semdeg miiCnevs gamoxatvisaTvis
Sesaferisad. Semowmeba TiTqmis yovelTvis gulisxmobs manZils gancdasa da mis
gamoxatvas Soris — ilias leqsebSi yovelTvis igrZnoba es manZili. igi Tavis
leqsebSi yovelgvar gancdebs ki ar gamoxatavs, aramed im gancdebs ixdis asaxvis
sagnad, romlebic uSualod pasuxoben, Seesabamebian poetis Tvalsazriss. ra
Tqma unda, poets aqvs Tavisi uaRresad intimuri samyaro, magram mas Tavisi Tavi-
saTvis neba ar miucia saaSkaraoze gamoetana, poeturi gamoxatvis sagnad eqcia
yovelgvari gancda. ilias ar miuCnevia poezia Tavisi aforiaqebuli sulis navsa-
yudlad, radgan es, misi azriT, daukargavda mas sazogadoebriv mniSvnelobas.
ilias lirikaSi is grZnobebi iCenen Tavs, romlebic mis mZlavr inteleqts ey-
rdnobian da garkveulobiT xasiaTdebian. am azriTac ilia WavWavaZis lirikaSi

45
iseTi Relvaa gamoxatuli, romelic TavSekavebulia. poets Seswevs Zala, moeri-
os, daeuflos Tavis grZnobebs. misTvis Sinagani mRelvarebaa damaxasiaTebeli.
literaturis istoriam icis bevri magaliTi imisa, roca poeti cdilobs Tavi
moaCvenos mkiTxvels, rom Zalian Relavs, roca igi Sinaganad araviTar Relvas ar
ganicdis. esaa yalbi Relvis nimuSi. ilias leqsebi ki gancdilis siRrmiT gamoir-
Cevian. uaRresad gancdilia, magram amasTanave uaRresad TavSekavebuli mis
TxzulebebSi gamoxatuli grZnoba. TviTdakvirvebasac emyareba ilias Semdegi
fraza: `WeSmariti marTali grZnoba ybedi rodia. piriqiT, imdenad TavdaWeri-
lia, imdenad sityvaZviria, ramodenadac ufro Zlieria da, Tu gnebavT, am sity-
vaZvirobaSia imisi mimzidveli Rirsebaca, imisi gulsawvdeni zemoqmedebac~ (V,
500).
roca ilias, rogorc poetis, mxatvrul SesaZleblobaTa daxasiaTeba poe-
tikuri analizis saxiT warmoebs, am dros Cveulebrivia daskvna, rom ilias axali
formebiT ar gaumdidrebia qarTuli leqsi, rom am mxriv misi Txzulebebi siax-
les ar gvidgenen. iliam gaimeora is formebi, romlebic qarTul poeziaSi manam-
de arsebobda. mag., erTi avtoris TqmiT, `ilias lirika formis mxriT nabijis win
gadadgmas ar warmoadgens aleqsandre WavWavaZis, grigol orbelianis da niko-
loz baraTaSvilis lirikasTan SedarebiT~.1 gasarkvevia am rigis msjelobis az-
ri. formis mxriT nabijis wingadaudgmeloba niSnavs Tu ara imas, rom axal Sina-
arss ver moeZebna Sesabamisi forma. Tu amas niSnavs, maSin aucilebelia garkveu-
li daskvnis gakeTeba ilias lirikis mxatvrul RirsebaTa Sesaxeb. Tu nabiji ar
aris gadadgmuli axali formebis mosapoveblad imitom, rom es arc iyo saWiro,
ar arsebobs amis Sinagani moTxovna, maSin ra azri da daniSnuleba aqvs am msjelo-
bas saerTod nabijis win gadadgmis Taobaze? garegnulad ilias TiTqmis arc ga-
mouxatavs gansaxierebis im saSualebaTa ukmarisoba, romlebic qarTul leq-
swyobas gaaCnda. mas ar uCvenebia Tavis axal ideebTan ukve cnobili leqswyobis
formaTa Seusabamoba. asea es, roca Cven ilias lirikas formalur siaxleTa
TvalsazrisiT vixilavT da es marto ilias lirikas rodi exeba. TiTqmis igive
iTqmis akaki wereTlis Sesaxebac. ilia da akaki umeteswilad adreul formebs mi-
marTavdnen. metic, isini sagangebod gaxazavdnen adre damkvidrebul popula-
rul formaTa gamoyenebis faqts. magram es araTu ar uSlida xels axali Sinaar-
sis mowodebas, aramed amkvidrebda am Sinaarsis siaxles.
ilias leqsebSi xSiria iseTi sityvebis dajgufeba, romlebic erTmaneTTan
mezoblobaSi myof bevr Tanxmovans Seicaven. rCeba STabeWdileba, rom igi qmnis
sityvaTaTvis arcTu Cveulebriv frazeologiur konstruqciebs. ilias frazis
amgvari uCveulobiT miRebuli STabeWdilebac iyo imis erTi mizezi, rom zogi-
erTi kritikosi mis leqsebs mZimed da gaumarTavad miiCnevda da daeWvebas ga-
moTqvamda ilias poetur SesaZleblobebSi. namdvilad ki es garemoeba misi poe-
ziis Taviseburebad da mis mxatvrul Rirsebad unda miviCnioT. ilia leqsebis
Txzvisas Tavisi bunebis Sesabamisad irCevs `mZime~ gamoTqmebs da qarTuli eni-
saTvis erTgvarad uCveulo formebs. amiT poeti TiToeul sityvas simyares ani-
Webs im gagebiT, rom TiTqos nela da dakvirvebiT gaatarebs maT mkiTxvelis cno-
bierebaSi maTi mniSvnelobis xelSesaxebad gagebis mizniT, sazogadod leqsis Si-
naarsobliv mxareze, azrze yuradRebis gadatanis mizniT... Semdegi poeturi
striqonebi: `da damiwyebsca siyvaruliT feTqvasa guli~, `Cven unda Cveni vSvaT
myoobadi~, `rasc maSin grZnobdi, yoveli sTqva mwuxarma Tvalma~, `ramdenadc
ufro mSvenieri xar, imdenad ufro mikvdeba guli~ da sxva `magari~ gamoTqmebia,
magram swored amgvari gamoTqmebiT aris xazgasmuli ilias leqsis Zalac. amgva-
ri gamoTqmebi cocxlad warmoadgenen azrs. amdenad, SeiZleba vilaparakoT

1
g . q i q o Z e , qarTuli literaturis istoria, XIX s. 1947, gv. 139.
46
sityvis energiulobaze ilias poeziaSi. ilias leqsis Zala mis energiulobaSi
Zevs. amitomac unda iTqvas, rom iliasTan gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs mi-
niWebuli calkeul sityvebs. simZimis centri mis leqsebSi frazis gamomsaxvelo-
bazea gadatanili. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom ilias leqsebSi dadasturebuli xSi-
ri ritmuli cvalebadoba swored am mizans, mkiTxvelis yuradRebis saTqmel Si-
naarsze gadatanas emsaxureba. poeti leqsis azrobriv mxareze yuradRebis gamax-
vilebas moiTxovs da ara melodiurobaze. amdenad, zogierTi kritikosis mier
ilias poeziis naklovanebad miCneuli `simZime~ namdvilad mis energiulobaze
metyvelebs da misi Taviseburebaa. ilia irCevs `mZime~ gamoTqmebs da amiT Tavisi
saTqmelis sidarbaisleze da gancdilis siRrmeze migvaniSnebs, mkiTxvelis yu-
radRebas aqeTken mimarTavs da saTanado emocias aRZravs masSi.
yvelaferi aRniSnuli Tumca srulebiT ver amowuravs saTqmelis Sinaarss, ma-
gram imaze ki miuTiTebs, rom ilia WavWavaZis grZnobebs mis poeziaSi napovni aqvs
Tavisi Sesabamisi forma — didaqtikuri, mqadagebluri, mebrZoli, dinji, TviTdar-
wmunebuli da, amasTanave, amaRlebuli forma. es ki niSnavs, rom ilia WavWavaZis mi-
zanswrafvas Tavisi Sesaferisi esTetikuri samosi aqvs da amitomac uweria mas uk-
vdaveba qarTveli xalxis cnobierebaSi.

ilia WavWavaZis poemebi. epikuri poezia erTi metad mniSvnelovani ubania


ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli memkvidreobisa. interesi am Janrisadmi imTaviTve ar-
sebobs. lirikuli Txzulebebis gverdiT, maTTan erTad iqmneba ilias pirveli
epikuri Txzulebebic. saerTod ki ilia WavWavaZe avtoria xuTi poemisa.
`aCrdili~. `aCrdili~ ilia WavWavaZis pirveli vrceli epikuri qmnilebaa.
iliam poema uZRvna Tavis megobrebs — ivane poltorackis da ilia winamZRvriS-
vils, Semdgom cnobil moRvaweebs. `aCrdili~ Tavisi SemadgenlobiTa da Janrob-
rivi xasiaTiT scildeba poemis tradiciul gagebas da Tanamedrove usiuJeto
poemebs uaxlovdeba. ilia WavWavaZem `aCrdili~, kerZod misi pirveli varianti
1859 wlis dasawyisisaTvis daamTavra, rodesac igi mxolod ocdaerTi wlisa iyo.
daaxloebiT amave droidan ilia Seecada poemis gamoqveynebas, magram moxerxda
erTi nawyvetis dastambva (V Tavi — `Cemo aragvo...~) Jurnal `ciskarSi~. ilia sa-
kuTari Tavisadmi Cveuli momTxovnelobiT agrZelebda muSaobas poemis srul-
qmnisaTvis. poemis saboloo varianti sruli saxiT 1881 wels gamoqveynda, roca
ilia ukve ormocdaoTxi wlisa gaxda. am dros mas dawerili hqonda yvela mniSvne-
lovani mxatvruli qmnileba, garda `gandegilisa~ da `oTaraanT qvrivisa~. igi Se-
moqmedebiTi simwifis asakSi iyo Sesuli. marTalia, am drois manZilze bevri ram
Seicvala `aCrdilSi~, magram ar Secvlila poemis ideur-Sinaarsobrivi mxare. pi-
riqiT, kidev ufro gaRrmavda da gafarTovda is, ramac ukve adreul variantSi
iCina Tavi. cvlilebebi ZiriTadad Seexo poemis mxatvrul mxares, gansakuTrebiT
mis kompozicias...
STabeWdileba, rac am nawarmoebis gacnobis Sedegad mkiTxvels rCeba, esaa
poemis zogadi, mimoxilviTi xasiaTi. aq, am poemaSi ara gvaqvs tradiciuli poemi-
saTvis damaxasiaTebeli siuJeti, ambavi, rac ganviTarebis garkveul safexurebs
Seicavs. ar moqmedeben tradiciuli poemisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli personaJebi.
poema lirikuli wyobisaa. igi warmoadgens avtoris lirikul gansjas, misi Sexe-
dulebebis, mosazrebebis gamoxatvas zogjer TviT avtoris, xolo mometebulad
poemis erTob poeturi personaJis — aCrdilis piriT gamoTqmuls, did, uaRre-
sad mniSvnelovan, Cveni qveynis TvalsazrisiT sasicocxlo sakiTxebze, romle-
bic poetis Relvis sagans Seadgenen. aq daxatulia saerTo, ganzogadebuli sura-
Tebi Cveni qveynis awmyodan da warsulidan. momavlisadmi poetis damokidebule-
bacaa naCvenebi da esec zogad planSi. magaliTad, ilia WavWavaZe am poemaSi exeba
socialurad mwvave, batonymobis, sakiTxs. gansxvavebiT sxva mwerlebisagan, rom-
47
lebic Cvens mwerlobaSi ilias Semdeg gaixdian am sakiTxs gansaxierebis sagnad, i.
WavWavaZe poemaSi batonymobis konkretul suraTs ar xatavs, aq ar arian warmod-
genili konkretuli batoni da misi yma. calkeulis daxatvis SemTxvevaSi SeiZle-
ba gaCndes sawinaaRmdego azri imis Sesaxeb, rom avtori faqtebs sworad ar asa-
xavs, anda iTqvas, rom nawarmoebSi gansaxierebuli sinamdvile gamonakliss war-
moadgens, es mebatone kia gulqva, magram sxvebi mas ar gvanan.1
ilia WavWavaZis `aCrdilSi~ naCvenebia, rom sazogadod batonymobis siste-
maa uvargisi da miuRebeli. poeti uCvenebs, rom calkeuli mebatonis Tvisebebi
ki araa arsebiTi, aramed TviT sistemis xasiaTi. TviT batonymuri wyobaa safuZ-
velSive dasagmobi, radgan igi xels uwyobs, badebs Seubraleblobas, sisastikes,
adamianis Zarcva-glejas, yidva-gayidvas. sakiTxisadmi amgvari midgoma, masalis
ase mowodeba ukve safuZvelSive spobs sxvagvari gagebis SesaZleblobas da amde-
nad didia misi socialuri Rirebulebac. ilia WavWavaZe sruliad garkveviT mo-
iTxovs socialuri wyobis Secvlas, Secvlis gzad ki mas revoluciuri gza miaC-
nia, gza Zveli sistemis ngrevisa da axlis Senebisa.
am poemaSi Tavisuflebazecaa laparaki da es sakiTxic zogadobis planSia
gancdili. konkretuli saxe Tavisuflebisa poemaSi naCvenebi araa. adamiani unda
ganTavisufldes da ganTavisufldeba kidec. is amaRldeba da gankacdeba, `war-
Tmeul niWTa kvlav moipovebs,~ sxvas ar Seaviwrovebs, `Zirs ar daswevs~ — aseTia
poemaSi gamoxatuli Tavisuflebis Sinaarsi.
ilia WavWavaZe am poemaSi sagangebod Cerdeba `Cveni xalxis erovnul Tavise-
burebebze, romelTac, misi azriT, gansazRvres am raodenobrivad patara xalxis
arseboba mravali saukunis ganmavlobaSi~.2 aq gadagvarebis is saSiSroebacaa mZaf-
rad danaxuli, rac Cvens qveyanas emuqreboda erovnuli Cagvrisa da socialuri
ukuRmarTobis pirobebSi. warsulisa da awmyos Sepirispirebis safuZvelze naCve-
nebia meoris ubadrukoba pirvelis gmirul sulTan SedarebiT. ilia WavWavaZes ar
SeuZlia Segueba arsebulTan, magram igi farTo TvalTaxedvis Semoqmedia. amitom
gadaulaxav sevdas ar eZleva. igi cildeba sevdis farglebs da imedis sferoSi ga-
dadis. am imedis niSnad aris aq daSvebuli cidan aqamdis arnaxuli cisartyela.
poema `aCrdilSi~ momavlis perspeqtivacaa danaxuli; momavlis safuZvels
poeti Tavisuflebis pirobebSi Tavisufal Segnebul SromaSi xedavs, SromaSi,
romelic damonebuli ki ar iqneba, Zaldatanebas ki ar daemyareba, aramed pasuxi
iqneba adamianis Sinagan moTxovnilebaze, mis arsebobas gaamarTlebs da Semoqme-
debiT xasiaTs SeiZens. qveynis sulieri bedniereba maSin iqneba uzrunvelyofi-
li, roca qarTveli `zogad cxovrebas gaikvlevs da mcnebis naTliT ze-aRzidul,
amaRlebuli WkviT ganWvrets sazogado cxovrebis denas~.
isic aRsaniSnavia, rom `mZlavri kavkasis~ xalxTa Tanaarseboba da maTi mya-
ri kavSiri miaCnia poets rogorc Cveni, aseve kavkasiis yvela xalxis saimedo mo-
mavlis sawindrad.
poema `aCrdilSi~ zogad formaSi gancdili da amave xasiaTis suraTebis sa-
xiT warmodgenili sakiTxebi Semdeg gaSla-gafarToebas, gaRrmavebas da sxvadas-
xva aspeqtiT konkretul gansaxierebas poulobs ilia WavWavaZis momdevno nawar-
moebebSi: `ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi yaCaRis cxovrebidam~, `glaxis naambo-
bi~, `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~, `mgzavris werilebi~; lirikul leqsebSi: `guT-
nis deda~, `elegia~ da a.S. es viTareba ki imazec migviTiTebs, rom `aCrdili~, ise-
ve rogorc prozauli `mgzavris werilebi~, ilias saprogramo xasiaTis nawarmoe-
bia.

1
amgvari damokidebuleba, rogorc cnobilia, kidec gaCnda d. WonqaZis `suramis cixis~ mimarT.
vgulisxmobT al. orbelianis werils `darTuls darTuli~, `ciskari~, 1959, 6, gv. 106, j. WumburiZis
publikacia.
2
g r . k i k n a Z e , metyvelebis stilis sakiTxebi, gv. 191.
48
ilia didi erudiciis xelovania da gasagebia, rom misi nawarmoebebis, ker-
Zod ki `aCrdilis~ Seqmnisas bevri literaturuli faqtic kvebavs poetis gone-
bas da warmosaxvas. mocemul SemTxvevaSi sainteresoa im mimarTebis gaTvaliswi-
neba, rasac ilia did goeTesTan da, kerZod ki, mis `faustTan~ unda amyarebdes.
ilia WavWavaZe, rogorc misi memkvidreobidan naTlad igrZnoba, goeTes safuZ-
vlianad gaecno. man didad Seuwyo xeli qarTveli sazogadoebisaTvis goeTes
mniSvnelobis gaTvaliswinebas, xolo, meore mxriv, iliam goeTes sakacobrio Si-
naarsis idealebTan qarTuli aspeqtiT misvla scada, rac gamoCnda kidec `aC-
rdilsa~ da `mgzavris werilebSi~. amiT, erTi mxriv, ilia WavWavaZe qarTuli mwer-
lobis Tvalsawiers afarToebda, msWvalavda ra mas zogadsakacobrio interese-
biT da qarTveli kacis Tvalsawiersac afarToebda. amas Cveni sazogadoebis, Cveni
literaturis winsvlisaTvis sasicocxlo mniSvneloba hqonda, radgan Tomas manis
sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `fausti~ aris tipuri poema germaneli xalxisa da mTeli
kacobriobisaTvis, romelsac gadaSli rogorc biblias da poulob masSi adamianis
sulis damamSvidebel da mZlavr gamoxatulebas~.1
fausturis filosofiuri Sinaarsi mudmivi da dauRleli winsvlisa, ilia
WavWavaZesTan gancdilia praqtikul-sazogadoebriv aspeqtSi da uaRresad socia-
luri Sinaarsi aqvs SeZenili. goeTeseuli cnobili azris — `mxolod dauRlel
moZraobaSi TavisTavs povebs adamiani~ axlebur ilustrirebas da socialur-po-
litikur enaze dasabuTebas vxvdebiT Cven `mgzavris werilebSi~ myinvarisa da
Tergis dapirispirebis saxiT. xolo Tavisufali miwis Tavisufali xalxiT dasax-
lebis faustur ideas i. WavWavaZe `aCrdilSi~ socialur niadagze afuZnebs `Sro-
mis sufevis~ saxiT da mas XIX saukunis tvirTad saxavs. cnobili adgili `aCrdili-
dan~ `Sromis axsnisa~ da `Sromis sufevisa~ uaxlovdeba zrunviT dabrmavebuli,
magram gonebis SuqiT ganaTebuli — moxuci faustis monologs.
ilia WavWavaZe `mgzavris werilebSi~ sagangebod msjelobs adamianis, eris
sicocxlis arsebiT niSanze. ra aris adamianis sicocxlis niSani, rogor vlinde-
ba igi? aseTia kiTxva, romelsac mwerali svams. ilias am kiTxvaze garkveuli pa-
suxi aqvs. igi adamianis, eris sicocxlis niSnad m o Z r a o b a s miiCnevs. `moZrao-
ba da marto moZraoba aris... qveynis Ronisa da sococxlis mimcemi~ — ambobs
ilia. `mgzavris werilebSi~ mwerali ar akonkretebs, Tu ra saxis moZraobas gu-
lisxmobs. misi azriT, mTavaria iyos moZraoba. adamianis moZraoba mizandaqvem-
debarebuli moqmedebaa. adamiani gonieri arsebaa da misi moZraobis Sinaarsi mi-
zandasaxuli S r o m a a, ramdenadac Sroma garkveuli produqciis Seqmnas gulis-
xmobs materialuri Tu sulieri Sinaarsisas. zemoTqmuli TavisTavad gulis-
xmobs, rom Sroma adamianis arsebobis formaa, misi sasicocxlo moTxovnileba.
magram Tu Sroma araa Tavisufali, Tu igi iZulebiTia, damonebuli, Zaldataneba-
ze dafuZnebuli, cxadia, arsebobac damaxinjebulia. aqedan aucileblad gamom-
dinareobs moTxovna `Sromis axsnisa~. maSasadame, `Sromis axsna~ umal niSnavs pa-
suxs adamianis biologiur moTxovnaze. Sroma unda Tavisufali gaxdes, Segnebu-
li, Zaldautanebeli. nayofieri mxolod is Sromaa, romelic adamianis sicocx-
lis (ara marto biologiuris) aucileblobasTanaa dakavSirebuli, romelic ada-
mianis WeSmariti bednierebis wyaroa, romelSiac vlindeba adamiani.
ase exmaurebian erTmaneTs `aCrdili~ da `mgzavris werilebi~. ase gadadis
azri da idea erTi nawarmoebidan meoreSi, ganmartavs, avsebs mas. faqtia isic,
rom am or nawarmoebze SemoqmedebiTi muSaoba 70-ian wlebSi erTdroulad mimdi-
nareobda.
ilia WavWavaZis `aCrdili~, iseve rogorc `mgzavris werilebi~, agebulia
`Tavisufali kompoziciis~ principiT. aRniSnuli ki imas gulisxmobs, rom am poe-

1
T . m a n i , Txzulebani aT tomad, t. X, gv. 47 (rusul enaze).
49
maSi ar aris gadmocemuli movlenaTa TanmimdevrobiT dakavSirebuli siuJetis
mqone ambebi.
poeti araa SezRuduli ambavTa Sinagani logikiT, Temis ganviTarebiT da
a.S. poemis lirikuli gmiri im sakiTxebze gvafiqrebs, rac mas erTob mniSvnelov-
nad miuCnevia erovnuli TvalsazrisiT. igi sruliad Tavisufalia am sakiTxebis
SerCevisas, maTi urTierTdakavSirebisas. nawarmoebis aseT arqiteqtonikaSi
uSualod aris gamJRavnebuli poetis Tavisufali neba, misi pozicia, misi damo-
kidebuleba ama Tu im sakiTxisadmi.
nawarmoebis kompoziciaze dakvirveba cxads xdis, rom `aCrdilSi~ erTmane-
Tis gverdiT urTierTdapirispirebuli faqtebi da movlenebi dganan. myinvari
ise `aRmoCnda mTebis zemoT,~ TiTqos `cis gasarRvevad aRmozidula,~ magram misi
srbola `gangebis ZaliT~ uecrad Seyenebula. myinvari risxviT dascqeris qveya-
nas, TiTqos unda, rom daamsxvrios, magram amindi wynaria, dila lamazi. bunebis
suraTi warmtacia, momxiblavi, magram goneba undoa da es silamaze ar itacebs. sa-
erTod kontrastis xerxis gamoyenebiT miimarTeba aCrdilis dialogi poemis li-
rikul gmirTan. aq erTmaneTTanaa dapirispirebuli gmiruli warsuli da ubadru-
ki awmyo, iyo ase, magram ase aRaraa... TavisTavad poemis fabulaSivea navaraudevi
kontrastuli wyoba — uaRresad poeturi xati saqarTvelos marad ukvdavi sulis
aCrdilisa da uaRresad prozauli sinamdvile. es garemoeba — erTmaneTisagan
mkveTrad gansxvavebul momentTa, saganTa, movlenaTa erTmaneTis gverdiT war-
modgena — maT mkafio aRqmasac uwyobs xels da nawarmoebis Sinagan dinamizmsac
apirobebs.
poema `aCrdilSi~ yvelaze srulad warmoCnda Wabuki poetis miswrafebebi
da idealebi, misi poeturi SesaZleblobebi.
socialur da erovnul sakiTxTa gaSuqebisas, ilia WavWavaZes uaRresad
konkretuli, mwvave moralisturi tendenciiT gamsWvaluli poemebic aqvs Seq-
mnili, rogoricaa: `qarTvlis deda~, `ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi yaCaRis
cxovrebidam~, `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~.
`qarTvlis deda~. `qarTvlis deda~ dramatuli poemaa. daiwera is 1860
wels, xolo sabolood masze muSaoba poetma 1871 wels daamTavra da gamoaqveyna
kidec. 80-iani wlebidan igi xSirad idgmeboda scenaze. yovelTvis, roca Cvens
Teatrs uWirda, qarTuli Teatris mesveurebi dedaqalaqsa Tu periferiaSi ili-
as poemas mimarTavdnen. didi iyo ilias sityvis momwodebluri Zala, igi mudam
afxizlebda Cvens xalxs. gansakuTrebiT gadamdeb xasiaTs iZenda ilias sityva
qarTuli laSqris simReraSi, romelic TviTon poetsac gansakuTrebiT moswonda.
ilia Tavis megobar petre nakaSiZes, romelsac uZRvna Tavisi poema, ase swerda:
`petre, gigzavni xelaxlad gadakeTebuls Sendami naZRvnevs Cems `qarTvlis de-
das~. Tu mogewonos, mieci nikolaZes dasabeWdaT. gTxov Seni pirmouridebeli az-
ri macnobo am patara Txzulebazed. kargad ki waikiTxe. me yvelazed ufro jaris
simRera momwons, glexur kilozed mowyobilia. Tu mogewonos dasabeWdaT, SenTan
mowerili ZRvnobis leqsic daabeWdine amasTan erTad. koreqtura SenTvis momin-
dvia. Seni ilia WavWavaZe~.
`qarTvlis dedaSi~ mamuliSviluri valis grZnobis is idealia mxatvrulad
gansaxierebuli dramatul formaSi, romelsac ilia momavlis ocnebad da amoca-
nad saxavda. epikuri gansaxierebisagan gansxvavebiT, romlis drosac gmiris xasi-
aTi ixsneba mTeli sisavsiT, gamovlenis mravalferovnebaSi, dramatuli perso-
naJis gamoxatvis SemTxvevaSi mTavaria `mkveTri konfliqti yovelTvis erTmxriv
mimarTul paTossa da mis sapirispiro vnebas Soris sruliad gansazRvruli are-
ebisa da miznebis sazRvrebSi~.1

1
h e g e l i , esTetika, t. III, 1971, gv. 449 (rusul enaze).
50
ilias TxzulebaSi swored mamulis winaSe valis grZnoba da Svilis siyvaru-
lis grZnoba ejaxeba erTmaneTs. aq qarTveli deda, davrdomili da dasneulebu-
li, Tavis erTaderT Svils, bolo nugeSs, mamulis ganTavisuflebisaTvis brZo-
laSi istumrebs.
`qarTvlis dedis~ mxatvruli Rirsebebis garkvevisaTvis unda gavixsenoT,
pirvel yovlisa, i. WavWavaZis mier mogvianebiT, 1890 wels, dawerili statia `axa-
li dramebis gamo~. Cvens yuradRebas axla gansakuTrebiT statiis is nawili iq-
cevs, romelic uSualod miemarTeba avqs. cagarlis dramas `qarTvlis deda~. am
statiaSi dramis Teoriis Rrma codnis safuZvelze ilia TvalnaTliv aCvenebs,
rom drama sruliadac ar gulisxmobs mxolod garegnuli formis dacvas, Txzu-
lebis weras monologebiTa da dialogebiT, scenebad da moqmedebebad dayofas
da `oriode alagas qalisa Tu kacis sikvdilis Cakerebas... garegani saxe dramisa
verasdros ver dafaravs Sinaganis carielobas, fuqsavatobas, araraobas... drama
usaTuod sulisa da gulis udides Zvraze unda iyos agebuli da aSenebuli, da es
udidesi Zvra sulisa da gulisa erTaderTi sagania dramisa, erTaderTi buneba
misi~ (V,499). rac Seexeba avqs. cagarlis dramis mTavar gmirs — qarTvlis dedas,
igi `raRac ugrZnobeli da gulqvavi ram aris. dedaSvilurs grZnobas, agre mosa-
lodnels, agre sasurvelsa da sapatios mis gulSi araviTari adgili ar uWiravs.
amitom mis mier SvilTa mamulisTvis gawirvas araferi fasi ara aqvs. gawirva ma-
Sin aris didsulovnebis saqme, roca gamwirveli TviTon dids rasme hkargavs
amiT, roca vxedavT, rom am gawirvam gulSi erTi umTavresi ZarRvi Caswyvita gam-
wirvelsa, erTi didi ram daaklo, Znelad gasawiri, Znelad gasametebeli, Znelad
dasaTmobi adamianisagan. am SemTxvevaSi gulTa Widili dedisa unda gamarTuli-
yo dedaSvilur da mamuliSvilur siyvarulisa gamo, romelnic am dramaSi erTma-
neTs Sexvdnen ise, rom an erTi unda gaiwiros, an meore. orive siyvaruli kanonie-
ria, bunebrivia da miT orive did grZnobas warmoadgens adamianis bunebaSi, Zne-
lad gasawirs, Znelad gasametebels da, ramodenadac an erTi, an meore, Znelad
gasametebeli, imodenad TviT ganwirva didia, sapatio da saxelovani~ (V, 503).
am SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovani isaa, rom im principebiT, romlebsac ilia Wav-
WavaZe Teoriulad warmoadgens 1890 wels daweril statiaSi, praqtikulad xel-
mZRvanelobs igi rogorc xelovani ocdaaTi wliT adre daweril dramatul poe-
maSi. `qarTvlis deda~ warmoadgens dramatul poemas ara garegnuli formiT,
imis gamo, rom rogorc ilia ambobs, dialogebisa da monologebisagan Sedgeba,
aramed Sinagani Tavisi xasiaTiT. aq patriotuli valis Segneba rTul dramatul
viTarebaSi vlindeba. TxzulebaSi naCvenebia, Tu ra didi Widilis fasad daZlevs
patriotuli valis grZnoba dauZlurebuli sneuli dedis gulSi dedaSviluri
siyvarulis tkivils erTaderTi Svilis mimarT, romelic `siberis misayrdomad
STenia~ mas, fasad im sulier ZalTa daZabvisa, romelsac emsxverpla kidec dedis
guli. imis gamo, rom advilad ver iZlia deduri siyvarulis grZnoba, ki ar fer-
mkrTaldeba, aramed, piriqiT, swored rom izrdeba mniSvneloba Tavganwirvisa,
ramdenadac TvalnaTlivia, Tu ra Zlieri grZnoba daZlia man. mamuliSviluri va-
lis, patriotuli grZnobis sidiadec imiT dasturdeba, rom igi fizikuri katas-
trofis fasad, magram mainc Trgunavs mSobliur siyvaruls. miuxedavad imisa,
rom deda misustebulia da sikvdili uaxlovdeba, miuxedavad imisa, rom aq aris
cremli, ar SeiZleba iTqvas, rom poemaSi sentimentaluri gadaxra gvqondes, ar
SeiZleba imitom, rom cremlianoba aq erTob dasabuTebulia da sadac mwuxareba,
cremli argumentirebulia, iq ukve sentimentalizmTan saqme ara gvaqvs.
`qarTvlis deda~ Tematikurad im erovnuli idealis konkretul mxatvrul
gansaxierebas warmoadgens, romelic imTaviTve, ilias samwerlo moRvaweobis da-
sawyisSive gamoikveTa. am azriT, motivTa gansaxierebiT igi uSualod ukavSirde-
ba poema `aCrdils~ da lirikul leqsebs `qarTvlis dedas~ da `nanas~, romlebic

51
win uswrebdnen mas. oda Tavisuflebisa, samSoblo qveynis ganTavisuflebis amo-
canis `mZlavr kavkasis~ ganTavisuflebis ideasTan dakavSireba saTaves, rogorc
iTqva poema `aCrdilSi~, iRebs da `qarTvlis dedaSi~ es idealebi poemis perso-
naJTa samoqmedo idealebad iqcevian. xolo dedis patriotuli valis grZnobis
lirikuli gancda, gamoxatuli leqsebSi `qarTvlis dedas~ da `nana~, poemaSi
dramatul gaazrebas Rebuloben.
`ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi yaCaRis cxovrebidam~. ilia WavWavaZes
`Tavidanve is azri hqonda SemuSavebuli, rom Tavis qveyanasTan, mis Wirsa da
lxinTan yvelaze metad dakavSirebuli iyo glexi. is amuSavebda Tavis miwas, is
Sescqeroda Tavis cas. swored am miwaze da am cis qveS cxovreba undoda mas. ami-
tom erovnul grZnobaTa gasaRviZebel yvelaze ufro noyier niadags iliasaTvis
glexkacoba warmoadgenda~.1 swored amitomac ilia WavWavaZem Tavis amocanad qar-
Tveli glexkacis cxovrebis, misi sulieri samyaros, asaxva da misi interesebis
dacva gaixada. am mizandasaxulebiT iqmneba ilias poema `ramdenime suraTi...~,
moTxroba `glaxis naambobi~ da mogvianebiT `oTaraanT qvrivi~. am nawarmoebebis
SeqmniT ilia WavWavaZem qarTuli literaturis TematikaSi Semotrialeba moaxdi-
na. aqamde poeziis, sazogadod literaturis sagani ar yofila mSromeli glexka-
cis cxovrebis Cveneba farTo planiT. iliam ki swored igi aqcia literaturis
mTavar sagnad. mSromeli xalxis warmomadgenlebi, maTi ocneba, sixaruli, tkivili
ilias nawarmoebebSi warmoCdnen da Rrmad erovnuli da saqveyno idealebis gamo-
xatva iTaves.
ilia WavWavaZe xedavda, rom arsebuli socialuri viTareba glexkacs mZime
mdgomareobaSi ayenebda, kacurad yofnis uflebas uspobda. qarTveli xalxis in-
teresebis dacva ki mSromelTa ganTavisuflebis, monuri Sromisagan maTi Tav-
daxsnis moTxovnasac ayenebda. poemaSi `ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi yaCaRis
cxovrebidam~ ilia WavWavaZem gaaanaliza is socialuri pirobebi, romlebic
mSromels aiZulebdnen xelSi iaraRi aeRo, Tavis ezo-kuTxes mowyvetoda, Suris-
Ziebis gzaze damdgari tyeSi yaCaRad gaWriliyo, aq Ria cis qveS martokas mxeci-
viT tyeSi Tavisufleba epovna.
Cveulebriv xalxur SemoqmedebaSi da mwerlobaSi iliamde da mis Semdegac
ganusaxierebiaT iseTi viTareba, roca adamianis gayaCaRebas safuZvlad edeba
ara usamarTlobiT aRSfoTeba, aramed pirovnuli motivi; roca TviTon adamians,
kerZo pirs miwvdeba usamarTloba uSualod, roca Tavad igemebs damcirebis sa-
Sinelebas, sayvareli adamianis gaubedurebas. swored pirovnuli nawvnevi aiZu-
lebs mas xelSi iaraRi aiRos, yaCaRad gavardes da SurisZiebis gzas daadges, aqe-
dan ki SeiZleba adamiani mivides saerTod usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolis
ideamde. amgvari viTareba xalxur `arsenas leqsSic~ aris warmodgenili, d.Won-
qaZis `suramis cixeSic~ da e. ninoSvilis `simonaSic~. erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba
mogveCvenos, rom amgvarsave viTarebasTan gvaqvs saqme i. WavWavaZis poemaSic.
rom aqac zaqro piradi SurisZiebis grZnobiT Sepyrobili gavarda tyeSi yaCaRad.
roca mama moukles rozgqveS, maSin ifeTqa masSi protestis grZnobam da kakos
gzas daadga. sinamdvileSi ki ilias poemaSi arsebiTad gansxvavebul mdgomareo-
basTan gvaqvs saqme. faqtobrivad mamis uRmerTod rozgqveS sikvdili zaqros-
Tvis sababia, ukanaskneli wveTia, romelmac sabolood daayena zaqro usamar-
Tlobis winaaRmdeg brZolis gzaze. zaqroSi usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli
didi xania mwifdeboda. misma ymawvilurma gulma Rrmad Caimarxa gulSi pirveli
naRveli — Tormeti wlisa rom saxls moaSores, ymawviluri sevda seravda bavSvis
guls, `sxvebi lxinobdnen~, mas ki Tvalze cremli ar Sreboda... marTalia zaqro
aseT yofas SeeCvia, bavSvi xom male gadiyris naRvels, kidec lxinobda, kidec

1
g r . k i k n a Z e , literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, gv. 273.
52
mReroda udardelad da tkbilad midioda TiTqos misi bavSvoba, magram mTavari
isaa, rom misi suli ukve sxvagvarad iwrToboda. im zRaprebsa da ambebSi, rom-
lebsac patara mwyemsis biWebi erTmaneTs uyvebodnen, zaqros yvelaze metad ar-
senas ambavi moswonda, `RviZl dedasaviT~ SeiTvisa, `arsenoba enatreboda~. kakos
saxelic gagonili hqonda, bevrjer uocnebia masTan wasvlaze, masTan erTad usa-
marTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolaze, magram Tu ram akavebda, kidev is, rom `saxl-ka-
ri enaneboda~, da roca saxl-karis saqmec ubedurad datrialda, zaqros aRara-
feri daakavebda miznis aRsrulebis gzaze. rogorc vxedavT, pirovnuli motivi
mxolod sababia sruliad momwifebuli protestis grZnobis gamosaxatavad. man,
rogorc iTqva, mxolod ukanaskneli wveTis roliRa Seasrula. kako yaCaRic si-
marTlisa da Tavisuflebis droSiT gamodis. am azriT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom poe-
maSi, faqtobrivad pirvelad Cvens literaturaSi, didi damajereblobiT arian
daxatulni glexkacobis Rirseuli warmomadgenlebi. `zaqro da kako xalxis oc-
nebis matarebeli gmirebia~.1 maT aseTebad aqcevs adamianuri uflebebis dacvi-
saTvis, adamianuri Rirsebis SenarCunebisaTvis brZola. am azriTac Rrmad erov-
nul Sinaarss atarebs es poema.
poema `ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi...~ imiTac aris mniSvnelovani, rom
faqtobrivad pirvelad Cvens sinamdvileSi swored aq warmoCnda uaRresad kon-
kretuli qarTuli soflis yofa, qarTuli garemo. qarTuli koloritiT aris av-
sebuli es poema — iqneba es mwuxris Jams Ramis simyudroveSi darxeuli meurmis
naRvliani simRera Tu mwyemsi biWebis sevdiani, magram mainc tkbilad mosagonari
cxovreba, gaxseneba marad cocxali arsenas saxelisa. am poemaSi moTxrobili
mwuxare ambebis garemo qarTuli bunebis konkretuli suraTebia. alaznis wynari
duduni da kudigoris tyis idumaleba akravT gars xalxis sayvarel gmirebs. yo-
velive es didad afarToebs poemaSi gansaxierebuli sakiTxis, suraTebis mniSvne-
lobas da maT zemoqmedebiT Zalasac apirobebs.
im daZabuli konfliqtis gamosaxatavad, romelic arsebobs adamianisa da im
sazogadoebriv viTarebas Soris, romelSic mas cxovreba uxdeba, i. WavWavaZe Ta-
vis poemas dramatul gaazrebas aZlevs da es viTareba Tavs iCens gansaxierebis
garegnul formaSiac, poemas leqsad dawerili piesis saxe aqvs SeZenili.
amrigad, poemaSi `ramdenime suraTi...~ i. WavWavaZem damajereblad amxila
socialuri wyobis — batonymobis damRupveli xasiaTi. uCvena, Tu rogor ryvnis
zneobrivad socialuri wyoba adamians, romelsac batoni hqvia da yvelafris uf-
leba aqvs miniWebuli; rogor aiZulebs glexobis saukeTeso warmomadgenlebs
SurisZiebiT anTebulebma sakuTari Rirsebis dasacavad iaraRi aiRon da tyeSi
yaCaRad gaiWran.
`mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~. samSoblo qveynis winaSe valis eTikuri Zalis
Cvenebas isaxavs miznad i. WavWavaZe Tavis poemaSi `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~. poe-
ma istoriuli xasiaTisaa. masSi mxatvrulad aris gansaxierebuli me-13 saukunis sa-
qarTvelos istoriis cnobili faqti.
istoriuli Temis mxatvrulad gansaxierebis sakiTxs i. WavWavaZe sagange-
bod exeba Tavis statiaSi `axali dramebis gamo~. ilias azriT, `istoriuli Jan-
ris Txzulebam unda Tvalwin gagvitaros an istoriuli kaci vinme av-kargiano-
biT, an TiTon cxovreba kerZo Tu sazogadoeburi, romlisame warsulis drosi da
epoqisa. gvaCvenos, ra azri, ra gulistkivili, ra swrafva sulisa, ra gonebagax-
sniloba, ra zne-Cveuleba xelT hqonia maSindelobas kerZo cxovrebis Tu sazo-
gadoeburis ase Tu ise warsamarTavad~. ilia ar iwynarebs iseT nawarmoebebs,
romlebic warmogvidgenen avtorTa mogonil `adamianTa erTmaneTzed iseT da-
mokidebulebas, romelic yovels drosa da Jams, yovels epoqas erTnairad mieCe-

1
s . C i q o v a n i , rCeuli werilebi, 1963, gv. 194.
53
meba~. istoriuli sinamdvilis asaxvis dros faqtebis sizustiT gadmocemis
moTxovna sruliadac araa mTavari. mweralma `dee, Tunda ambavi, araki dramisa
Tavis sakuTaris fantaziiT Seqmnas, xolo Tu surs istoriuli Rirseba mianiWos
Tavis dramas, usaTuod movalea, suli da guli epoqisa im ambavSi Canaskvos, Cah-
saxos da dramis svlaSi gadagvixsnas, gadagviSalos sagrZnoblad da dasanaxa-
vad~. ilias miaCnia, rom istoriuli xasiaTebis Sesaqmnelad sruliadac araa sak-
marisi `RvTiTmomadlebuli niWi~, rom aseT mwerals `win unda uZRodes didi
codna istoriisa, didi gonebagaxsniloba, didi ganaTleba~.
cnobilia, rom `aCrdilze~ muSaobisas poetma aRiara, xalxis zne-Cveulebe-
bis, fsiqikis gasacnobad Cveni istoriuli wyaroebi masalas ar iZleviano. aRniS-
nulis gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze sagulisxmoa, rom faqtobrivad ilia WavWa-
vaZem erTi istoriuli poema Seqmna — `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~ da miT dagva-
naxa, `maSindeli kaci ra azriT, ra fiqriT, ra grZnobiT, ra ZlierebiT... Sebmia
saqveyno saqmes da ra zne-Cveulebas utarebia droTa viTarebis gzaze~.
mainc ram gansazRvra poetis interesi mefe dimitris pirovnebisadmi, ra mo-
mentebi SearCia istoriuli masalidan Tavisi miznis gansaxorcieleblad? am mxriv
mniSvnelovan cnobas TviTon poeti gvawvdis, kerZod, avtobiografiaSi ilia mog-
viTxrobs, rom Tavis pirvel skolaSi soflis mTavardiakvanTan man moismina dimit-
ri Tavdadebulis ambavic, romelic Temad gamoiyena mravali wlis Semdeg. rogorc
mwerali gvamcnobs, pirvel maswavlebels didi gavlena mouxdenia bavSvis sulier
formirebaze. mis mier moTxrobil ambebs SeuZravs yrmis suli. am garemoebiTac Se-
iZleba aixsnas, rom sasuliero piris RvTiuri madliT ganaTebuli saxe mihyveba i.
WavWavaZis Semoqmedebas da ndobiT da rwmeniT msWvalavs yovelives irgvliv. gasa-
gebi da sacnobelia, rom `glaxis naambobSi~ daxatuli sworupovari maswavlebeli
sasuliero piria — mRvdelia.
ilia WavWavaZe — Semoqmedi seriozulad uyurebs eklesias, sasuliero pirs,
ramdenadac eris zneobrivi simtkicis erT-erT RerZad mas rwmenis Seulaxaoba
miaCnia. ilia WavWavaZisaTvis SemTxveviTi arc is garemoebaa, rom poema `mefe di-
mitri TavdadebulSi~ ambis saTxrobi asparezi eklesiis ezoa, swored aq, sadac
ca da miwa unda SeerTdes, ismenen `tvirTmZime da damaSvrali~ glexebi didi wi-
napris Tavganwirvis ambavs, aq xdeba erTgvari ganwmenda da amaRleba.
dimitri mefis ambavma yrma ilias guli aaZgera da Tavdapirvelad bavSvuri
mowonebiT, magram mainc sxvagvari ZaliT Caesaxa gulSi. Semdeg ki, roca igi da-
vaJkacda, misTvis TandaTan gaSinaarsda idea qveynis winaSe v a l i s a, idea
msxverplad Sewirvisa da mis suls daeufla. eris moWirnaxules, mis winamZRols
sakuTari Tavi samSoblos samsxverploze misatan zvarakad esaxeboda. es kargad
Cans ilias mTel SemoqmedebaSi da gansakuTrebiT ki mis lirikaSi.1 am ideis epi-
kur formaSi gansaxierebisaTvis erTob mniSvnelovani masala dainaxa poetma Cve-
ni qveynis istoriaSi mefe dimitris Tavganwirvis saxiT. es garemoeba, Cans, cno-
bili iyo ilias zogierTi axloblisaTvis da poetis am Sinagan impulss gareda-
nac aRvivebdnen. yovel SemTxvevaSi erTgvari roli am mxriv unda eTamaSa poetis
uaxloes megobars petre nakaSiZes. amas unda mowmobdes poetis minaweri poemis
xelnawerze: `Zmao petre, Sengan Cagonebuls Senve giZRvni~. amrigad, poema p.naka-
SiZes eZRvneba.
poemaSi, rogorc miuTiTeben, araerTgzis aris Sedarebuli mefis moqmede-
ba macxovris mowamebriv aRsasrulTan. mefes xatad da magaliTad `qveynis xsnis-
Tvis~ qriste RmerTis Tavganwirva aqvs dasaxuli. man, dimitrim, swored macxov-
ris gza unda gaimeoros Tavisi eris ara marto fizikuri, aramed pirvel yovli-

1
msxverplSewirvis ideaze i. WavWavaZis SemoqmedebaSi ix. g. kalandariSvili, Tavdadebis idea i. Wa-
vWavaZis SemoqmedebaSi, i. WavWavaZisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli, 1977, gv. 140-150.
54
sa, zneobrivi gadarCenisaTvis. mefe dimitris saqcieli rainduli saqcielia,
ramdenadac igi garkveuli ideisaTvis, rwmenisaTvis wiravs Tavs; mefe garkveviT
acxadebs, rom igi imitom ar midis urdoSi, TiTqos Tavis gadarCenis gza ar arse-
bobdes. igi nebiT eZleva mters:
`gana TiTon qriste-RmerTsa
gadarCena ar Zaledva,
ar ineba da qveynisTvis
RmerTi iyo da jvars ecva~.
rogorc miuTiTeben, qristes Zala ara mxolod misi moZRvrebis xasiaTSia
saZiebeli, aramed, pirvel yovlisa, imaSi, rom man Tavisi azrebis mixedviT icxov-
ra da adamianebs msxverplad sakuTari sicocxlis mitanis magaliTi misca, umaR-
lesi zneobrivi magaliTi. qristem `Tavisi moZRvrebis WeSmariteba gaamagra Ta-
visi sikvdiliT~.1 swored amitom aqcia Semdgomma xanam jvarcma qristianobis
qvakuTxedad.2
monRolTa batonobis xanaSi, rodesac eris sulieri mxneoba Seirya, qveyana
dacemisa da gadagvarebis safrTxis winaSe aRmoCnda. dimitri mefis raindul
Tavganwirvas eris rwmena, zneoba unda gadaerCina iseve, rogorc macxovarma ix-
sna kacobrioba.
istoriul masalaSi dadasturebuli mefis gautexeloba xiblavs poets da
Tavisi Semoqmedebis masalad swored Tavganwirvis moments irCevs. Tavganwirvis,
gautexelobis motivebi yovelTvis iyo ilias myari interesis sagani. magram, ro-
gorc cnobilia, `idealuri saxeebi... SinaarsiT gvevlinebian, saerTod rom
vTqvaT, eTikurad... nayofieri ki mxolod iseTi idealebia, romlebic pirvel
yovlisa, exebian namdvilad arsebul RirebulebaTa sferoebs~.3 i. WavWavaZem
swored samSoblo qveynis samsaxurSi piradi msxverplis gaRebasa da misTvis Tav-
ganwirvis mzaobaSi dainaxa WeSmariti mamuliSvilis sicocxlis azri XIX s. saqar-
TveloSi, maSin, roca qarTvel xalxs ruseTis koloniuri politika zneobrivi
dacemis safrTxis winaSe ayenebda. amitomac gaxda XIIIs. qarTul sinamdvileSi
momxdari faqti XIX s. qarTveli mwerlisaTvis erTob Rirebuli.
marTalia, i. WavWavaZis poema mefis saarako gmirobis ambavs gvamcnobs, poe-
mis centrSi mefe dgas. ilias poema am mxriv mihyveba klasikuri esTetikis nor-
mebs, magram poeti sruliad Segnebulad erTgvarad kidec uxvevs am moTxovnebi-
dan.
jer kidev Tavis droze lesingi miuTiTebda, `Tu gmirulma saxem gaoceba
unda aRZras~, mweralma zomiereba im mxrivac unda daicvas, rom grZnobebi ar `ga-
daxarjos~, roca daxatulia Tavganwirvamde misuli samSoblos siyvaruli, es
grZnoba erTi swored gmiruli sulis personaJis Tviseba unda iyos. Tu mis gver-
diT ixateba sxva personaJebic, romlebic aseve Tavganwirvis da imave gmirobis
CadenisaTvis arian mzad, rac erTma gmirma unda moimoqmedos, maSin Cveni gaoceba
da mowoneba `iyofa, nawildeba da gmiri qreba mis msgavsTa Soris~.4
Tu am moTxovnebidan davinaxavT ilias poemas, aRmoCndeba, rom poemaSi me-
fe dimitrisTan erTad wamoimarTeba saxe qarTveli glexkacisa, romelic ganasa-
xierebs qarTveli xalxis vaJkacur bunebas, sulier mxneobas, gautexlobas, pi-
rovnuli Rirsebis grZnobas.
ilia WavWavaZis Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare, es garemoeba sruliad gasa-
gebia. `erovnul grZnobaTa gasaRvivebel yvelaze ufro noyier niadags iliasaT-
1
h e g e l i , religiis filosofia, t. II, gv. 285 (rusul enaze).
2
m e n z i s i , religiis istoria, gv. 318 (rusul enaze); h a r n a k i , qristianobis arseba, krebulSi — ev-
ropis zogadi istoria, V, gv. 100 (rusul enaze).
3
n . h a r t m a n i , esTetika, 1958, gv. 398 (rusul enaze).
4
l e s i n g i , TxzulebaTa krebuli, t. IX, 1904, gv. 9 (rusul enaze).
55
vis glexkacoba warmoadgenda~ (gr.kiknaZe). roca poeti saTanado magaliTebs
`qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ ver xedavda, TviTon qmnida Tavisi mZlavri warmosaxviT
aseT gmirebs, aman ganapiroba, rom nawarmoebis centrSi dgas mefe — magaliTi
zneobrivi gmirobisa, magram mis gverdiT dgas mSromeli xalxis warmomadgeneli,
fizikurad dauZlurebuli, magram suliT mxne moxuci glexi — simbolo qarTve-
li xalxis siamayisa da gautexlobisa.
`gandegili~. ilia WavWavaZis epikuri poeziis gvirgvins warmoadgens poema
`gandegili~. is gamoqveynebisTanave moeqca kritikosTa da mkiTxveli sazogado-
ebis yuradRebis centrSi. bevri ram iTqva da daiwera poemis Sesaxeb. bevri er-
TmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli, urTierTgamomricxveli mosazrebebic ki gamoiTqva
poemis problematikis, misi mxatvruli Rirsebebis Sesaxeb. am poemis magaliTze
kidev erTxel dadasturda im azris WeSmariteba, rom SexedulebaTa sxvadasxvao-
bis sababad is Txzulebebi iqcevian, romelTa Rirsebebi nawarmoebis zedapirze
ar Zevs da warmavlobis niSniT ar arian daRdasmulni.
poema `gandegilSi~ poetma misTvis aqamde uCveulo legendur masalas mi-
marTa. rogorc TviTon poeti gvamcnobs poemis adreul variantSi, nawarmoebs
xalxSi gagonili legenda dasdebia safuZvlad. sazogadod, miTi, legenda, Tqmu-
leba, gansxvavebiT istoriisagan, garegnuli faqtebis sizustes ar gulisxmobs,
amdenad aseTi masala Tavisi gabeduli simboloebiT swored imas hfens naTels,
rac Tanadrouli xelovnebis interesis sagans Sedgens, Suqs hfens zogadkacob-
riuli masStabis filosofiur da fsiqologiur azrs. miTi, legenda maradadami-
anurs, WeSmarit mxares aTavisuflebs kerZoulis, umniSvnelosa da warmavalis
tyveobisagan. amdenad, legendur-miTiuri masala gansaxierebis udidesi SesaZ-
leblobebis gamomJRavnebis saSualebas iZleva. amgvari masala TavisTavad
zrdis mxatvruli qmnilebis emociur mxares, ramdenadac gardasuli, ZvelisZve-
li da araCveulebrivi SinaarsiT mkiTxvelis interess amZafrebs. am SemTxvevaSi-
ac ilia WavWavaZis mZlavri warmosaxviT sulCadgmuli legenda gaxda erTgvari
piroba mkiTxvelis interesis warsamarTavad. meore mxriv, isic aris mxedveloba-
Si misaRebi, rom ilias mier SerCeuli masala ar aris sakuTriv erovnuli kolo-
ritiT aRbeWdili, an, ufro sworad, am niSniT SemosazRvruli. Tavad es masala
atarebs sayovelTao xasiaTs, yvelasaTvis gasagebsa da mniSvnelovans. ilia Wav-
WavaZem amgvari masalis SerCeviTac, masze Tavisi safiqralis aRbeWdviT Cveni
mwerlobis sazRvrebi gaafarTova, `qarTveli kacis Wkua-gonebas didi gani da
siRrme misca~ da `kacobriuli wyurvilis mosaklav wyaros qarTvelic daawafa~.
ilia WavWavaZe poema `gandegilSi~ adamianis arsebobis azris, misi daniSnu-
lebis, misi adgilis maradiul problemas aSuqebs da Tanac misTvis, rogorc xe-
lovanisaTvis, mainc axleburi, filosofiuri aspeqtiT.
ilia WavWavaZis winaSe es sakiTxi aqamdec idga da mwerali mTeli Tavisi Se-
moqmedebiT im azrs aviTarebda, rom adamiani socialurad aqtiuri unda iyos,
cxovrebis SuagulSi trialebdes da wvlili Sehqondes mis winsvlaSi. ase ayenebs
am sakiTxs ilia-moralisti moTxrobebSi `mgzavris werilebi~, `kacia-adamiani?!~.
ilias mier daxatuli personaJebis moraluri Sefasebis aspeqti aseTia — ramde-
nad warmoadgenen isini sazogadoebis aqtiur wevrebs. ilias mkacri gakicxvis
obieqtia adamiani, romelic cuds, borotebas ar sCadis, magram arc arafers
kargs ar akeTebs, Tavisi arsebobiT sazogadoebas arafers ar matebs, mconareo-
baSi atarebs wuTisofels da ukvalod midis am qveynidan.
poema `gandegilSi~ iliam sxva aspeqtiT gaaanaliza es sakiTxi yvela droisa
da qveynis xelovanTaTvis mimzidvel gandegilobis masalaze.
poema `gandegilSi~ ilia xelovanis Tavisufali WvretiT Wvrets adamianis
garegan da Sinagan sauflos. swored aseTi SemoqmedebiTi interesebiT avsebuli,
Sinaganad gawonasworebuli poeti qmnis Tavis am didebul poemas. `gandegilSi~

56
ilia ganTavisuflebulia masalisadmi praqtikul-eTikuri interesebiT midgo-
misagan. ilia aq sakiTxis filosofiur da fsiqologiur safuZvlebs ixdis gamo-
saxvis sagnad, adamianis Sinagani samyaros uRrmes SreebSi Sedis da TvalsaCinod
gviCvenebs, rom adamiani araTu ar unda ganeridos sazogadoebas, araTu ar unda
gandges misgan, aramed adamians Turme arc ZaluZs ganudges sazogadoebas, uari
Tqvas masze, ramdenadac gandgoma adamianis arsebiT niSanze, adamianobaze uaris
Tqmas niSnavs; adamiani xom, upirveles yovlisa, socialuri arsebaa, misi adamianu-
roba swored adamianebTan urTierTobaSi mJRavndeba. `adamians ar SeuZlian kacTa
krebulis gareT icxovros calked da miukareblad~ (V,401). yovelgvari cda sazo-
gadoebidan, sawuTrodan gandgomis iluziaa, mxolod sxvagvari sazogadoebis
ndomis gamoxatulebaa, adamiani ki yovelTvis rCeba sazogadoebis aseT an iseT
wevrad. adamianis ganmartoeba, ra Tqma unda, imas ar niSnavs, rom igi axerxebs gan-
dgomas sazogadoebidan... Tu adamians saerTod wavarTmevT adamianur garemos,
movwyvetT adamianur pirobebs, igi moklebuli aRmoCndeba adamianuris gamovle-
nis saSualebasac da gadagvardeba kidec, e.i. daiRupeba rogorc adamiani. magram
rogorc ki Cndeba meore adamiani, e.i. rogorc ki adamians adamianur garemos vuq-
mniT, igi maSinve raRacnairi formiT gamoavlens adamianur bunebas, iqneba es az-
ris, rwmenis Tu biologiur sferoSi... aseTia am poemis mTavari problemis ganxil-
vis filosofiuri da fsiqologiuri plani, `gandegilis~ mTavari mxatvruli pla-
ni. erTi sityviT, Tu ilia Tavidanve imas qadagebda, rom adamiani namdvilad unda
adamiani iyos, `gandegilSi~ man ramdenadme sxva aspeqtiT ganixila igive sakiTxi da
gviCvena, rom sruliad amaoa sazogadoebisagan mowyvetis cda. `adamianobis Senar-
Cuneba `codvis sadguridan~ ganSorebiT ki ar miiRweva, aramed sadguris gardaq-
mnis gziT~.1
bunebrivia, sakuTriv asketizmis, misi formebis problema araa ilias Se-
moqmedebiTi interesis sagani. gandegili asketis cxovrebis masalis Suqze ilia
saerTod adamianis arsebobis, misi daniSnulebis zogadsayovelTao ideas das-
trialebs Tavs, e.i. Zvel masalas igi axali SinaarsiT avsebs. ilia swored aseT ma-
salas irCevs, ramdenadac asketuri arsebobis formaSi mkafiod iCens Tavs bune-
ba, arsi adamianisa. rogorc aRniSnaven, esec iyo piroba axali drois xelovanTa
Seunelebeli interesisa am masalisadmi. magram isic faqtia, rom ilias, rogorc
xelovanis, damokidebuleba SerCeuli masalisadmi cxadliv amJRavnebs mis damo-
kidebulebas qristes moZRvrebisadmi saerTod da kerZod ki gandgomilobisad-
mi, asketizmis gandegiluri formisadmi. mkvlevarTa erTi nawilis msjelobaSi
is azri gamosWvivis, rom ilia WavWavaZe qristianobis erTi umTavresi principis
asketizmis dagmobiT sazogadod upirispirdeba qristianobas, da es im dros, ro-
desac aravin sadaod ar ixdis im azrs, rom qristianobas i. WavWavaZe xelovani da
moazrovne ara marto udides istoriul mniSvnelobas aniWebs, aramed misi eTi-
kis sayrdeni swored qristes moZRvrebaa. mag., g.qiqoZe wers: ilia WavWavaZem
`gandegilSi~ `budistur-qristianul spiritikalizms da asketizms... daupiris-
pira elinizmidan da saqarTvelos erovnuli tradiciebidan momavali humanizmi
da bednierebis morali da am ukanasknels gaamarjvebina. am mxrivac ilia WavWava-
Zis azrovneba sruliad eTanxmeba dasavleT evropis XIX saukunis mowinave adami-
anebis azrovnebas, romelic am sakiTxSi saukeTesod Teofil gotiem gamoxata:
`qriste CemTvis am qveynad ar mosula da me warmarTi var, rogorc alkibiade.
golgoTis mwvervalze vnebis yvavilebi arasodes damikrefia da arc odesme im
mdinareSi mibanavia, romelic jvarcmulis mkerdidan mTel msoflios Tavs gada-

1
gr. k i k n a Z e , literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, gv. 263.
57
esxa. Cems amboxebul sxeuls surs sulis batonobis aRiareba, Cems xorcs ar swa-
dian Tavisi jvarcma~.1
v.kotetiSvilis sityvebiTac, `budasebur, anda qristesebur asketizms gan-
degilis saxiT mwyemsi qalis CvenebiT daupirispirda sicocxlis xalisianoba,
miwis sjuli da daamarcxa kidec am ukanasknelma~.2
sakiTxis naTelsayofad aq unda SemovifargloT asketizmis principebis
mokle daxasiaTebiT, romelic Sua saukuneebis qristianulma samyarom SeimuSa-
va.3 Sua saukuneebis saeklesio eTika daefuZna ara sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo
da egoistur miswrafebaTa Soris gansxvavebas, aramed miwier moTxovnaTa dapi-
rispirebas zeciurTan. winaaRmdegoba borotebasa da sikeTes Soris qristianu-
li metafizikis mier dayvanil iqna winaaRmdegobaze RmerTsa da qveyanas Soris.
mag. espaneli episkoposi isidore (gard. 633 w.) ambobda: `sikeTe aris swrafva
RmerTisaken, boroteba ki — swrafva miwieri sargeblobis, an warmavali didebi-
saken~. `RmerTsa da qveyanas Soris araferia saerTo, maT ejavrebaT erTmaneTi~,
— ambobda ekaterine sivnieli,4 amrigad, sulis cxovreba iwyeboda iqidan, roca
xorcis cxovreba mTavrdeboda. sicocxles imdenad hqonda fasi, ramdenadac igi
warmoadgenda momzadebas momavali cxovrebisaTvis. amdenad, igi unda yofiliyo
uwyveti monanieba, xolo gancda saerTo codvilianobisa — sulis myari ZiriTadi
ganwyobileba.
yvelaze ufro sruli gamovlena religiurma ideam am droisaTvis pova gan-
degilur da bermonazvnul cxovrebaSi. es ukanaskneli CaiTvala adamianis cxov-
rebis da misi srulyofis idealad.
cxadia, rom ilias gandegiliseul sawuTros uaryofas arsebiTad swored
Sua saukuneebSi SemuSavebuli principebi udevs safuZvlad. gandegili mwyemsi qa-
lis gaocebul kiTxvaze, Tu rogor moSorda qveyanas, pasuxobs:
`ra giTxra Svilo?
yvelaze metad suli tkbilia,
igi tyve aris wuTisoflisa
da eg yoveli mis borkilia~ da a.S.
gandegili swored im motiviT tovebs sawuTros, rom is aris `codvis sad-
guri~. mwyemsi qali aseT kiTxvas aZlevs gandegils:
`maS vinc qveynad varT,
yvela wavwydebiT,
veRar davixsniT verafriT sulsa?~
es ar aris SemTxveviTi kiTxva. am kiTxvis dasmas Tavisi didi safuZveli
aqvs. es kiTxva sazogadod mTeli Tavisi sigrZe-siganiT dgas religiuri asketiz-
mis winaSe, ramdenadac asketizmis sruli ganxorcieleba niSnavs kacobriobis
ganviTarebis SeCerebas da sazogadod STamomavlobis Sewyvetas. gasagebia, rom
am TvalsazrisiT eklesia garkveul daTmobaze wavida. eklesiam am winaaRmdego-
bidan religiur idealsa da grZnobad SezRudvebs Soris is gamosavali naxa, rom
dawesda garkveuli xarisxebi zneobrivi moqmedebisa. nebayoflobiTi uaris Tqma
qorwinebaze miiCneoda umaRles mdgomareobad, qorwineba ki ufro mdabal, mag-
ram mainc nebadarTul formad. xarisxobrivi srulyofilebis es gansxvavebulo-
ba arigebda or winaaRmdegobas — zegrZnobad idealsa da grZnobad sinamdviles.

1
g . q i q o Z e , rCeuli Txzulebani sam tomad, t. I, 1963, gv. 133.
2
v . k o t e t i S v i l i, rCeuli nawerebi or wignad, w. I, gv. 348.
3
asketizmis principebis mokle daxasiaTebisas ZiriTadad veyrdnobiT hainrix eikenis wigns, Sua
saukuneebis msoflmxedvelobis istoria da sistema (rusuli Targmani lindisa), 1907, gv. 275-287.
4
ix. hainrix eikenis dasax. wigni, gv. 278.
58
rogorc miuTiTeben, Suasaukuneobrivi asketizmi Tavis TavSi Seicavda wi-
naaRmdegobriv xasiaTs da igi sinamdvileSi warmoadgenda ara qristes moZRvre-
bis gamoxatulebas, aramed misgan srul daSorebas da nasazrdoebi iyo Sua sau-
kuneebis socialur-politikuri da kulturuli atmosferoTi.. eikenis sityve-
biT, Sua saukuneebis saeklesio dogmatikam sinamdvileSi mospo keTilSobiluri
adamianuroba qristes zneobrivi moZRvrebisa. saeklesio sistemis Sedegad igi
gadaiqca Tavis srul uaryofad...
Tu odesRac qriste aRudga Tavis `mes~ saamqveyno swrafvebs, xolo sxvaTa
mimarT qadagebda moTminebasa da siyvaruls, qristes mimdevrebma amqveyniuris
uaryofis umkacresi moTxovna sxvaTa winaaRmdeg mimarTes, xolo TavianTi moq-
medebis mimarT udidesi Semwynarebloba gamoavlines.1
cnobili rusi filosofosi vladimer soloviovi Suasaukuneobrivi msof-
lmxedvelobis Sefasebisas Tvlida, rom Tavdapirvel qristianobasa da Sua sau-
kuneebis msoflmxedvelobas Soris sruli winaaRmdegobaa. WeSmariti qristiano-
bis arsi mdgomareobda qveynisa da kacobriobis gardaqmnaSi qristianuli Tval-
sazrisiT: miwis sasufevlis cis sasufevlad gardaqmnaSi. Sua saukuneebis didma
moRvaweebma, romlebmac qristes moZRvreba dogmad ki ara, TavianT cocxal saq-
med aqcies, ver gardaqmnes da ver daixsnes garegnulad qristianuli da Sinaga-
nad warmarTuli sazogadoeba. maT arc SeeZloT xsna qristianuli samyarosi,
ramdenadac mcdarad hqondaT warmodgenili, rom SesaZlebelia da unda gadavar-
CinoT calkeuli sulebi. maT rac undodaT, imas miaRwies — gadaarCines TavianTi
suli da kidev bevri sxva sulic, xolo qveyana da sazogadoeba, romlisganac ga-
moiyvnen da gamoiqcnen, maTi moqmedebis gareSe darCa da Tavisi gziT wavida.
qristianoba, imave avtoris msjelobiT, Sua saukuneebis qristianma moRvaweebma
gadaaqcies raRac aRmosavlur dualizmad — materialuri bunebis, rogorc bo-
roti sawyisis, uarmyofelad.
borot sawyisad materialuri buneba TavisTavad ar SeiZleba miviCnioT. bu-
neba ama Tu im sawyiss Rebulobs, ramdenadac pasiuria da inertuli. Tu qristem
mariam magdalenelisagan Svidi eSmaki gandevna da igi Tavisi suliT aavso, Semdgom-
ma qristianebma qristes suli CamoaSores materialur bunebas, am sayovelTao mari-
am magdalenels, da masSi bunebrivad Casaxldnen boroti sulebi.2
magram marTla ar aris uaryofili saxarebis mixedviT amqveyniuri? saxare-
baSi aris Zalian cnobili adgilebi, romlebsac imowmeben, roca qristianul as-
ketizmze msjeloben da romlebic TiTqos sxvagvari axsnis safuZvels ar iZlevi-
an... magram sinamdvileSi qristes moZRvreba ar Seicavs asketur princips. amis
dasadastureblad, pirvel yovlisa, sagangebod miuTiTeben TviT saxarebiseul
qristes pirovnebaze, misi cxovrebis wesze. gansxvavebiT ioane naTlismcemlisa-
gan, qriste miwier cxovrebaze xels sulac ar iRebs da Rvinosac svams. qristes
cxovreba aravisze ar axdens gandegilis, gamdgari kacis cxovrebis STabeWdile-
bas. Cven mas vxvdebiT mdidarTa saxlebSi da RaribebTanac, qalTa sazogadoebaSic
da qorwilSic. mas dasaSvebad miaCnia, rom fexi dabanon da zeTi scxon. visac igi
naxulobs, Zlier morwmunes tovebs Tavis adgilas da utovebs mdgomareobas, su-
lac ar sTxovs mas, rom Seudges mis kvals. Cans, mas urCevnia, rom isini TavianTi
rwmeniT swored iq darCnen, sadac imyofebian, sadac RmerTma ineba maTi yofna. ie-
sos arc Tavisi mowafeebisagan Camouyalibebia raime beruli ordeni. mas ar miucia
darigeba mowafeebisaTvis, Tu ra unda eqnaT an ra ar unda eqnaT TavianT yofiT
cxovrebaSi. qristeSi Tavis mowafesac ar daunaxavT am qveynis uarmyofeli asketi.
maT ar ganudevniaT TavianTi mSoblebi Tu colebi. petre mociqulze hyvebian,

1
h . e i k e n i , dasax. wigni, gv. 657.
2
Собрание Сочинении Владимира Сергеевича Соловьева, t. VI, gv. 350.
59
rom samisionero mogzaurobis dros mas colic axlda. mociqulTa epoqaSic Cven
ver vxedavT swrafvas asketuri cxovrebisaken. qristologebi gansakuTrebul yu-
radRebas miapyroben imas, rom qristes qadagebaTa ZiriTadi ideebi: mowodeba
moTminebisa, codvaTa mitevebisa, moyvasis siyvarulisa, ra Tqma unda, imTaviTve
gamoricxavs yovelgvar asketizms.
qriste, marTlac, saubrobs adamianis sulis mterze — mamonaze, romelSiac
igi gulisxmobs miwier saunjes da qonebas, am sityvebis farTo gagebiT, amqveyni-
ur siames, rac cdilobs Cvenze gabatonebas; fuli, es xom potenciuri Zalauf-
lebaa pativmoyvareobaze. magram igi maTgan Tavdasaxsnelad am qveynidan gaqce-
vas ki ar qadagebs, aramed maT winaaRmdeg brZolas, maT daTrgunvas — es sibnelis
mbrZanebelni unda damarcxdnen.
ilia WavWavaZe poema `gandegilSi~ sxva did moazrovneTa darad qristianu-
li religiis umTavres mcnebas ki ar upirispirdeba, aramed swored qristianul
poziciaze dgomiT TvalsaCinod uCvenebs, rom Secdomaa qristianobaSi gandgomis
safuZvlebis Zieba. qristianobisaTvis SeuTavsebelia TviTizolacia, sxeulis moS-
Toba askezis gziT. ilia WavWavaZe mxatvruli damajereblobiT uCvenebs, rom gande-
gili cdeba, roca fiqrobs, rom TviTaRkvecaSi, sazogadoebidan ganridebaSia xsnis
gza. swored amitom aris aRsavse gandegilis saxe keTilSobiluri tragizmiT. ilia
arsad ar abiabruebs Tavis personaJs, arsad ar ucqeris mas niSnis mogebiT, ramdena-
dac ilias azriT, gandegili msxverplia da ara damnaSave. poets xiblavs kidec Tavi-
si personaJis rainduli erTguleba da Tavganwirva Tavis mier Tundac mcdarad ar-
Ceuli idealisadmi.
am TvalsazrisiT garkveul dazustebas saWiroebs mwyemsi qalis tradiciuli
interpretacia. mwyemsi qali miCneulia, Cveulebriv, bunebis Svilad, amqveyniuri si-
cocxlis simbolod, warmarTad da a.S. sinamdvileSi mwyemsi qali ara sakuTriv bune-
bis, aramed WeSmariti qristianuli rwmenis gamomxatvelia. swored am poziciidan
aris gasagebi, rom `giyvardes moyvasi Seni~ ar niSnavs ganridebas moyvasisagan, aramed
mis gverdiT yofnas. mwyemsi qalisaTvis gaugebaria RmerTma mouwodos adamians am
qveynis uaryofisaken, roca TviTon man Seqmna igi `uTvalavi feriTa~:
`vfiqrobdi, neta, maS risTvis morTo
ese lamazad wuTisofeli?
gana misTvis, rom adamianma
SeaCvenos da aiRos xeli?~
mwyemsi qalisaTvis, swored namdvili qristianuli poziciidan, romlis Ta-
naxmad RmerTi ar moiTxovs raime gansakuTrebuli garegnuli wesebis dacvas,
sruliad gaugebaria, `RmerTs raSi unda am yinulebSi yofna kacisa~. mwyemsi qa-
lisaTvis jansaR qristianul poziciaze dgomiT gaugebaria, ratom unda swyin-
des RmerTs, rom `kaci Sehxaris qveyanas, RvTiTve dabadebulsa~?
rogorc saTanadod cxadyofilia, bibliur qristianobas ar uaruyvia arc
es qveyana da arc xorci gamoucxadebia mas sulis sapyrobiled `anu ara uwyiTa,
rameTu £orcni ege Tquenni taZarni Tquen Soris sulisa wmidisani arian, romel-
ege gaqus RmrTisagan da ara xarT TaviT T¢siT~ (pavle, I korinT. 6,19). maSasadame,
amqveyniuri xorcieli ar uaruyvia qristes da arc mis mowafeebs da pirvel saek-
lesio mamebs, aramed maT aRiares, rom bevri sacduria amqveynad, xorcma SeiZle-
ba sacdurs Segvyaros, Tu mis moTxovnebs oden gavabatonebT, aseTia ilias pozi-
ciac `gandegilSi~.
erTi sityviT, mwyemsi qalis piriT avtori swored am pirvelqmnil qristia-
nul WeSmaritebebs gadauSlis gandegils da is suls amiT aryevs, TiTqos erTba-
Sad gamoafxizlebs mas.
aseTia zogierTi is sakiTxi, romlebic poema `gandegilis~ problematikis
sferos moicavs.
60
ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli proza. tradiciulad, ilia WavWavaZis
mxatvruli memkvidreobis yvelaze mniSvnelovan ubnad mis prozas miiCneven. mwe-
ralma Svidi dasrulebuli da kidev ramdenime daumTavrebeli moTxroba dagvi-
tova, romlebSiac man erTob Rrma interesebi gamoavlina.
am moTxrobebSi didi mwerali qarTul yofas asaxavs, yofas dastrialebs
Tavs; magram, ra Tqma unda, viwro yofiTi sakiTxebiT ar ifargleba. iliam Tavis
prozaul nawarmoebebSi didad gaafarTova mxatvruli xedvis are. ilias proza-
uli qmnilebebis namdvil Sinaarss Cveni qveynisaTvis, qarTveli erisaTvis er-
Tob aqtualuri socialur-politikuri sakiTxebi gansazRvraven. es sakiTxebi ki
mwerlis mier swored yofiT planSia dasmuli.
`mgzavris werilebi.~ ilia WavWavaZis yvela prozaul qmnilebas erovnul-
socialuri problematikis konkretuli gansaxierebis SemTxvevaSi yovelTvis
Tan axlavs ganxilvis zogadi aspeqti, magram, yvela sxva Txzulebisagan gansxva-
vebiT, mWevrmetyveluri prozis SesaniSnavi nimuSi `mgzavris werilebi~ yuradR-
ebas iqcevs swored Tavisi zogadi SinaarsiT.
jer kidev samocian wlebSi Seqmnili es Txzuleba ilia WavWavaZis mTeli Semoq-
medebisa da praqtikul-sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis programis uSualo asaxvaa.
swored am nawarmoebSia TavCenili pirvelad is sakiTxebi, is ideebi, romelTaTvisac
ilias mTeli Tavisi sicocxlis manZilze ar uRalatnia da romelTa gaSlas, gaRrma-
vebasa da gafarTovebas mis Semdgom TxzulebebSi vxvdebiT.
nawarmoebi, pirvel yovlisa, yuradRebas ipyrobs axalgazrda mwerlis in-
teresTa sifarToviT da sakiTxTa siuxviT. interesebi aq nairgvaria rogorc so-
cialur-politikuri, ise eTikur-esTetikuri xasiaTisa, xolo warmmarTveli
erovnuli idealebia. sakiTxTa ganxilvis erTaderTi aspeqtic erovnulia.
Txzulebis ideur-Tematikuri simdidre da nairferoba moTxrobis kompozi-
ciuri TaviseburebebiTac aris gansazRvruli. moTxrobis kompoziciur RerZs war-
moadgens axalgazrda qarTveli inteligentis ucxoeTidan Tavis qveyanaSi dabru-
neba da mis mier nanaxisa da gancdil-nafiqris gadmoSla. Txzuleba kerZod asaxavs
am mogzaurobis erT monakveTs vladikavkasidan fasanauramde. magram sivrcisa da
drois mixedviT am mcire monakveTis gavliT miRebuli STabeWdilebebi itevs mwer-
lis did saTqmels.
cnobilia, rom mogzaurobas uZvelesi droidanve didi mniSvneloba eniWe-
boda. rogorc erTgan TviTon ilia aRniSnavs, `amboben mgzavroba kacs Tvals ux-
ilebso, gonebas uxsniso~.1 aqedanac gamomdinare, mogzaurobis kompoziciur
RerZad gamoyeneba uZvelesi gzaa mxatvrul literaturaSi. am formas mimarTav-
dnen sxvadasxva literaturuli interesebisa da esTetikur-mxatvruli amocane-
bis realizebisas. aseTi Txzuleba kompoziciurad iZleva erTob farTo, faq-
tobrivad, SemousazRvrel SesaZleblobebs yofiTi, eTnografiuli aRwera-da-
xasiaTebis, xalxebis zne-Cveulebebis, cxovrebis wesis, erovnul Tavisebureba-
Ta daxasiaTeba-gadmosacemad, sakuTriv mwerlis dakvirvebebis, STabeWdilebe-
bis, mosazrebebis, ideebis gadmoSlis TvalsazrisiT. aseTi tipis Txzuleba xe-
lovanis SesaZleblobebis gamomJRavnebis TvalsazrisiT marjve sasinji qvacaa,
ramdenadac aseT TxzulebaSi mkafiod Cans mwerlis interesTa sfero, dakvirve-
bis unari, ganzogadebis unari da siRrme, gancdaTa da azrTa wyoba da a.S. yove-
live amis gaxsenebas axla is mniSvnelobac aqvs, rom davrwmundeT, Tu rogor
TvalnaTliv gamoCnda `mgzavris werilebSi~ ilia WavWavaZis brwyinvale SesaZ-
leblobebi — interesebis sifarTove, siRrme, dakvirvebisa da ganzogadebis una-
ri, didi erudicia, satirikosis mZlavri niWi.

1
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , Txzulebani oc tomad, t. II, gv. 566, `kacia-adamianis~ winasityvaobis mesame
varianti.
61
`mgzavris werilebi~ sruliadac araa ubralo Tavmoyra samgzavro Canawe-
rebisa, rogorc xSirad vxvdebiT literaturaSi. mwerali aq yvelafers ki ar aR-
wers, rasac xedavs da ganicdis, igi SerCevis aucileblobis winaSe dgas, e.i. ir-
Cevs asasaxav obieqtebs da sakiTxebs. am azriT mwerali Tavisufalia arCevanisas
— razec unda imaze mimarTavs Tavis yuradRebas. amdenad, mwerlis poziciis ga-
sarkvevad arsebiTia ara marto is, Tu ra Seaqvs mwerals nawarmoebSi, aramed
isic, rac mas ar miaCnia TxzulebaSi Setanis Rirsad.
Txzuleba faqtobrivad garkveuli epizodebisagan Sedgeba, romlebic er-
TmaneTTan dakavSirebuli arian mwyobri TvalsazrisiT. yoveli aseTi epizodi
garkveuli konkretuli azrisa da ideis matarebelia.
Txzulebis pirvel epizodSi aqamde Cvens literaturaSi arnaxuli ZaliTaa
wamoyenebuli realisturi literaturis aucileblobis moTxovna, moTxovna
iseTi mwerlobisa, romelic sasurvelsa da warmosaxuls ki ara, aramed obieq-
tur sinamdviles warmoadgens, mtkiced gausworebs Tvals arsebuls da wyluls
uwamlebs kidec. rusi mxatvrebi erTob poeturad, lamazad warmogvidgenen ili-
as mier ramdenime mZlavri StrixiT moxazul `pirdaubanel da Tavdauvarcxnel~
sqelkisera `iamSCikis~ briyvul saxes, imis `oyrayul sanaxaobas~, `imis midun-mo-
dunebul zlazvnas, uadamiano da pirutyvul mixvra-moxvras~. `ramodenadac su-
raTia kargi, or imodenad saZagelia namdvili~.
`mgzavris werilebSi~ didi TvalsaCinoebiTaa mowodebuli mefis ruseTis
teqnikuri CamorCenilobis, sruli ubadrukobis suraTi, naCvenebia ruseTis im-
periis mmarTvelobis sruli ugunureba da siClunge. ruseTis imperia, rogorc
mgzavris rus oficerTan saubriT irkveva, eyrdnoba gonebaClung, mouqnel ugu-
nur aparats. ruseTis imperiis Zala `Rvinosa da arayTan Zalian daaxloebuli~
samxedro aparatiTaa gansazRvruli, romlis imperiisadmi brma morCileba da
TviTkmayofilebac damyarebulia imperiul zraxvebze da Sovinistur instinq-
tebze — dapyrobil `velur~ qveynebsa da xalxebSi, romlebic mas sZuls, — rusu-
li ganaTleba da civilizacia Seitanos izleris baRis da iqauri kaxpa feriebis
kulturis saxiT. rus oficerTan Sexvedris epizodis mxatvruli Zala da mniS-
vneloba mis politikur gamiznulobasa da ganzogadebaSia. mweralma ruseTis
samxedro mmarTvelobis tipuri suraTi daxata.
`oficroba da Cinovnikoba bevri modis ruseTidan~ qarTveli Tu sxva xal-
xebis `gasanaTleblad~- es `ganaTleba~ ki izleris baRis `civilizaciaSia~ gan-
sxeulebuli, romelic Tavisi garyvnilebiT zneobrivad scems imperiaSi Semaval
qveynebs. es oficeri mwerlobaze da mecnierebaze debs Tavs. oficris uaRresad
cocxali saxe satiruli midgomiTaa Sesrulebuli. oficerTan saubris epizodeb-
Si mwerlis mier TvalsaCinod isicaa miTiTebuli, rom ruseTSi, Cveulebriv, qvey-
nis winsvlis saCveneblad cifrebs moixmoben, TiTqos raodenobrivi zrda iyos
ganmsazRvreli qveynis winsvlisa da progresisa. ruseTis imperiis stomaqSi yof-
nis samocdaaTi wlis manZilze saqarTvelos oci generali hyolia, Tu samocdaaTi
wlis manZilze amas kidev oci daemateba, oficris azriT, es saqarTvelos ueWveli
didi dawinaureba iqneba.
mwerali am epizodSi imasac gviCvenebs, rom adamiani aq imis mixedviTac fas-
deba, Tu ra Tanamdeboba uWiravs. sakmarisia oficers gaego, rom saqme aqvs ara
vinme sapatio Tanamdebobis pirTan, aramed daxlidarTan, rom myis Seecvala da-
mokidebuleba da Tavxedurad zemodan cqriT daewyo misi `damoZRvra-ganaTle-
ba~. xolo mwerali mgzavris am SeniRbvis xerxs imitomac mimarTavs, rom oficeri
arafriT ar SeizRudos da daubrkoleblad gadmoSalos Tavisi Tavi, mTeli Ta-
visi avladideba.
bevrma drom gaiara `mgzavris werilebis~ Seqmnidan, magram rusi oficris
saxe darCa, rogorc tipuri ganmasaxierebuli ruseTis imperiis samxedro moxe-

62
lisa. mas Zmebi gamouCdnen rogorc yofaSi, aseve literaturaSi (am mxriv Tun-
dac al. yazbegis naCalnikebi da generali rad Rirs). marTalia, icvleboda wyoba
da forma, magram ar icvleba imperiuli manqanis Sinaarsi.
rogorc adrec aRiniSna, myinvarisa da Tergis Sepirispirebis epizodSi
mwerali moZraobas, moqmedebas adamianisa da eris arsebobis namdvil Sinaarsad
aRiarebs. myinvarisa da Tergis Sepirispirebis aspeqtSi ganxilul sakiTxs avsebs
da afarToebs dRisa da Ramis Sepirispirebis epizodi. Rame yvelaferi mdumare-
bas eZleva. wydeba `adamianis morWmuli xmauroba~. sibnele aris saukeTeso dro
da asparezi `adamianis bedis SesaWedad~ borkilTa Wedvisa. sibnele aris xelSem-
wyobi `im xelobisa, romelsac TvalTmaqcobas eZaxian da romelic adamianis dam-
frTxal gonebas ubedurebas bednierebad aCvenebs xolme~, magram mwerals is
asuldgmulebs, rom kvlav gaTendeba da sicocxlec amad Rirs.
erovnuli interesebis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT yvelaze mniSvnelovan
epizodad TxzulebaSi moxele lelT RuniasTan mgzavris saubaria CaTvlili.
ilia WavWavaZe lelT Runias piriT qadagebs umaRles erovnul ideals, romel-
sac arasodes moakldeba Zala da xibli. mWevrmetyveluria lelT Runias saxe im-
denad, ramdenadac igi amaRlebulia mwerlis erovnuli koncefciis simaRleze.
nawarmoebis am epizodSi uCveulo enobrivi formiT da didi mWevrmetyveluri
ZaliT aris naCvenebi fasi erovnuli Tavisuflebisa, `roca avad Tu kargad Cven
Cveni Tavni Cvenadve gveyudnes~. moxeves Zveli dro moswons imitom, rom eri Ta-
visufali iyo. mgzavri ekiTxeba moxeves — `exla rom mSvidoba aris?~. es kiTxva
TiTqos gangeb daismis, ramdenadac adrec da ilias Semdgomac mZlavr argumen-
tad moCans azri mSvidobis Sesaxeb, romelic didi damarwmunebeli ZaliT aris
warmoCenili genialuri n. b a r a T a S v i l i s mier jer poema `bedi qarTlisaSi-
~erekle mefis sityvebis saxiT: `axla ki droa, solomon, roma mSvidoba naxos sa-
qarTveloma~ da Semdeg leqsSi `saflavi mefis iraklisa~:
`sadac aqamdis xmliT da ZaliT flobda qarTveli,
mun samSvidobo moqalaqis marTavs aw xeli~.
Zalze mniSvnelovania da mravlismTqmeli lelT Runias pasuxi: `rais vaqnev
carial mSvidabas carial stvamaqiT. rai arn mSvidaba? uxmar satevars Jangi da-
edvis, usrbolo wyalCi bayayni, Wia-Wuai, qvemZromi gamravldis. udegar, usvenar
TergCi ki kalmaxi icis! rai arn mSvidaba cocxval kacTaTvis? rai arn mteroba,
Tu eri erobs? carial mSvidaba miwaCic gveyofis~. erTi sityviT, lelT Runias
mixedviT, fasi ara aqvs mSvidobas, Tu eri Tavisufali araa. Tu n. baraTaSvilis
dros uamravi omebiT dauZlurebuli qveynisaTvis sasicocxlo mniSvneloba
hqonda mSvidobas, mosvenebas: radgan Tu `daakvirdeba kaci im saSinel garemoeba-
Ta, romelTac abezars moiyvanes Cveni eri... is ara gvgonia ise gakadnierdes, rom
am wyurvils dasvenebisas ukiJinos, xangrZliv SfoTebs Semdeg sveneba upriania,
rogorc calke kacisaTvis, isec mTeli erisaTvis. amas buneba iTxovs~ (V, 527),
ilia WavWavaZe ukve sul sxva ideals saxavda Tavisi droisaTvis. lelT Runias
piriT ilia axla 60-70-iani wlebisaTvis sxva azrs qadagebs: roca eri Tavisufa-
li iyo, `eri erobdis, guli gulobdis, vaJai vaJabdis, qalai qalabdis~... danebe-
bis, damorCilebis fsiqologia, pirvel yovlisa, ers sulierad cems da zneobri-
vad ryvnis: `awina eroba daiSalis, meZav-mruSobai Camovardnis... mtroba-bZarvai
gaxSirdnis... eri davardnil galaxul arn, vrdomil-krTomil. warxda qarTvel-
Ta saxeli, qarTvelTa wesT-wyobai~. axlandel mSvidobas egebis kidev is dro
sjobda, mteri rom dagvecemoda asaklebad. `mters...far-xrmaliT SeveTamaSiT,
vigeriebdiT... adrida mterTan brZolaCi, sworebis jobinobaCi, saxel vSaob-
diT~... axla ki, moxevis azriT, `mavale svamexi ufros gvawiokebs, ufros saxls
gviklebs~... Tu mters far-xmaliT davuxvdebodiT da movigeriebdiT, `svamexs

63
rai eyvis, ver mosageriebel, ver SesaTamaSebel... svamexTan vaJai rai saxels Ca-
morCebis~.
ilia am metad damafiqrebel azrs kidev sxva drosac miubrundeba. gaivlis oc-
daaTze meti weli da ilia dawers: `xmlianma mterma ver dagvaTmobina, ver wagvarTva
Cveni miwa-wyali, Cveni qveyana. xmlians mters gavuZeliT, gadavrCiT. qveyana da saxe-
li SevinaxeT, saxsenebeli ar amovikveTeT, SevirCineT, saqolavi aravis avagebineT.
xmliT moseulma mterma vera dagvaklo-ra, SromiT da garjiT, codniT da xerxiT
mosuli ki Tan gagvitans, fex-qveSidan miwas gamogvaclis, saxels gagviqrobs, gag-
viwyvets, saxsenebeli qarTvelisa amoikveTeba da Cvens mSveniers qveyanas, rogorc
upatrono saydars, sxvani daepatronebian~... (`ra giTxraT, riT gagaxaroT~). xolo
am brwyinvale publicistur werils 20 wliT win uswrebs ilias didebuli leqsi
`kiTxva-pasuxi~, sadac sxva formiT, sxva emociuri ZaliT igive gulistkivilia gad-
moSlili:
`kargi rama xar, Cemo qveyanav,
lamazad morTul da mokazmuli;
magram ramdenadc mSvenieri xar,
imdenad ufro mikvdeba guli...~
ilia ara mxolod mxatvrulsa da publicistur naazrevSi gamoxatavs Tavis
gulistkivils mosalodneli saSiSroebis Sesaxeb, aramed praqtikuli saqmiano-
biTac amyarebs, rom qveyana gayidvisagan daixsnas, qarTuli miwa-wyali gadaarCi-
nos... rogorc iTqva, amis erTi didi gamoxatuleba iyo ilias moRvaweoba bankSi.
`mgzavris werilebSi~ warmodgenili programis, ideebis ganxorcielebas
Sealia ilia WavWavaZem ara marto Tavisi mZlavri mxatvruli niWi, aramed mTeli
Tavisi sulieri da fizikuri Zala da energia. swored amitomac, rogorc aRiniS-
na, es nawarmoebi ara marto samwerlo, aramed ilia WavWavaZis praqtikul-sazo-
gadoebrivi saqmianobis programasac warmoadgens.
`glaxis naambobi.~ilia WavWavaZe Tavis pirmSod prozaSi socialurad
mZafr `glaxis naambobs~ Tvlida. prozaul TxzulebaTagan `glaxis naambobiviT~
xangrZlivad arc erTi Txzuleba ar utarebia ilias, vidre sabolood gamokveT-
da `SemoqmedebiT quraSi~. rogorc miuTiTeben, `XIX saukunis Cvens qarTul mwer-
lobaSi pirveli mwerali ilia WavWavaZe iyo, romelmac personaJis mTeli sulie-
ri mdgomareoba uSualod misi yofiTi viTarebidan gamoiyvana~.1 iliam uCvena,
rom socialuri viTareba xels uwyobs adamianSi amgvari Tu imgvari interesebis
gabatonebas da sabolood mis xasiaTsac gansazRvravs.
usaqmuroba, ufleba adamianebze ganusazRvreli batonobisa, ugulebelyo-
fa yovelgvari movaleobisa, erTi adamianis mier meoris viTarca nivTis, ukeTes
SemTxvevaSi, viTarca pirutyvis flobis ufleba adamianSi badebs da aRvivebs ul-
mobelobis, Seubraleblobis, Jinianobis midrekilebebs. mTlad uarsayofi da
ukusagdebi axalgazrda ar iyo daTiko, masSi ukeTesi Tvisebebic iCenda Tavs. bav-
Svi xom `Zalian niWieri da gonieri bunebisa~ iyo. raRac adamianuri, vaJkacuri, Se-
udrekelobis, Tavmowonebisa da siamayis grZnobebi, grZnoba sinanulisa, rogorc
moTxrobidan Cans, man bolomde SeinarCuna. magram igi rom batoni iyo, aman iTamaSa
gadamwyveti roli mis avkacobaSi. sazogadod TviTneba da jiuti usaqmobam, ganuzo-
melma uflebebma, movaleobis Seugneblobam velur instinqtebs daumona, avxor-
cul-pirutyvulma Jinma aitaca igi da bevri gaaubedura, bolos da bolos man ar
daindo ZmasaviT Sezrdili glexis Svili gabrieli, Jins daemona, yvelaferi dai-
viwya, sibralulic, sinanulic, rasac mohyva samudamo gaubedureba gabrielisac da
pepias ojaxisac.

1
gr. k i k n a Z e, literaturis, Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, gv. 294.
64
ilia WavWavaZis pozicia naTelia: mwerali gmobs daTikos warmomSob socia-
lur garemos, igi mis srul mospobas moiTxovs, adamianma Tavisi Rirseba unda daib-
runos. sulieri moRvaweobis, saTnoebisa da sikeTis gziT svla ar aris piroba, sa-
fuZveli bednierebisa, sayovelTao saTnoeba unda gaxdes piroba darRveuli mTe-
lis gaerTianebisa.
mweralma am moTxrobaSi qarTveli mSromeli kacis codna-ganaTlebis miRe-
bis udides saWiroebazec miuTiTa da TvalnaTliv cxadyo, Tu ra didi zemoqme-
debis Zala aqvs maswavleblis cocxal sityvas da pirad magaliTs. ilia WavWava-
Zis mier daxatuli mRvdeli rCeba saxalxo maswavleblis, sulieri moZRvris
mZlavr tipad.
rogorc iTqva, ilias Semoqmedebis da moRvaweobis safuZvels qristianuli
eTika warmoadgens. es kargad Cans mTel mis SemoqmedebaSi, magram konkretuli
gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT am mxriv pirveli vrceli Txzuleba, romelic yuradR-
ebas iqcevs, swored `glaxis naambobia~. erTia qristianuli principebis qadageba,
magram meorea, rodesac am principebis individualizacia da konkretizacia,
mxatvrul saxeebSi warmodgena xdeba grZnobad-esTetikur planSi. swored am
mxriv aris mRvdlis STambeWdavi saxe gansakuTrebuli zemoqmedebis ZaliT aR-
beWdili. gamoTqmulia azri, romlis Tanaxmadac, ilia WavWavaZis mRvdeli viq-
tor hiugos `sabralonis~ episkopos mirielis gavleniT unda iyos Seqmnili.1 bu-
nebrivia, vifiqroT, rom ar SeiZleba arsebobdes hiugos `sabralonis~ zemoqme-
debis kvali `glaxis naambobze~ im ubralo mizezis gamo, rom v. hiugos `sabralo-
ni~ gamovida 1862 wels, e.i. swored im wels, roca sabolood dasrulda `glaxis
naambobis~ pirveli eqvsi Tavi, romelSiac mRvdeli da gabrielis ganswavlis
wlebi mTlianad aris aRwerili. gacilebiT ufro marTebuli Cans is mosazreba,
romlis Tanaxmadac ilias `glaxis naambobs~ safuZvlad daedo realuri faqtebi
mwerlis cxovrebidan, rom erTgvarad soflis mTavardiakvnis STagonebiT unda
iyos Seqmnili `glaxis naambobis~ mRvdeli. marTlac, `glaxis naambobis~ bevri pa-
saJi ilias yrmobis da siWabukis mogonebebiT, gancdiliTa da nanaxiT aris nakve-
bi da Rrma poeturobiTac gamoirCeva. am mxrivac aris saintereso nawarmoebis
eqspoziciuri nawili da gabrielis ganswavlis amsaxveli Tavebi. erTgvarad ami-
Tac aixsneba, rom iliasaTvis moucilebeli da Zvirfasia, saamayoa is, rasac igi
moTxrobaSi exeba da asasaxav masalad ixdis. es im werilebidanac kargad Cans, ra-
sac am moTxrobis SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT Tavis meuRles da Tavis megobrebs —
kirile lorTqifaniZes da niko nikolaZes swers. yovelive aRniSnuli am moTxro-
bas gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs CvenTvis.
`kacia-adamiani?!~ ilias prozis mSvenebas warmoadgens axalgazrdobis
Jams Seqmnili satiris ukvdavi nimuSi, moTxroba `kacia-adamiani?!~.
Tematikuri TvalsazrisiT aqac iseve, rogorc `glaxis naambobSi~, baton-
ymuri urTierTobaa asaxuli. Cveulebriv, mwerlebi batonymur urTierTobas
asaxavdnen, rogorc saSinel sisastikes, gulqvaobis gamovlenas-adamians abamen
kevrSi pirutyvsaviT da sulsa xdian, adamians mwevarSi cvlian an qor-Savarden-
Si, ymis Rirsebas Telaven, namuss xdian da a. S. aseTi viTarebaa asaxuli d. Wonqa-
Zis `suramis cixeSic~, ilias `aCrdilSic,~ `ramdenime suraTSic....~ da `glaxis na-
ambobSic~ ... araferi amis msgavsi ar xdeba `kacia-adamianSi?!~. aq arc sisastikea,
arc yidva-gayidva, arc namusis axdaa naCvenebi. luarsabsa da darejans arc ara-
vin SeubamT kevrSi da arc aravin gauyidniaT. aba yma-glexis gaupatiurebis av
zraxvas luarsabi gulSi rogor gaivlebs. mere rogor Sexedavs Tavis erTgul
darejans TvalebSi. marTalia, saRamo xans bolTis sacemad gamosuli luarsabi
1
ase fiqrobs k. abaSiZe. aseve fiqrobs n. uruSaZe, ix. misi statia — ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebis
paralelebi franguli literaturidan — ilia WavWavaZisadmi miZRvnil saiubileo krebulSi, 1939,
gv. 275.
65
`erTi-orjer msunagsaviT macduris TvaliT~ ki gadmoxedavs moxdenil glexis
patarZals, romelic meveleebis mier daWerili kameCis gaSvebas sTxovs qalba-
tons, `luarsabi miTam da samacdurod gaiRimebs~ da `Taviseburad kbilebs sia-
movnebis niSnad kidec daakraWunebs~, magram es aris da es, amaze iqiT ar midis mi-
si `danaSauli~. luarsabis `sisastike~ mouravisadmi mimarTul sayvedurSi Tu
gamoixateba, ratom 15 sabegro uremi ar gagzavna man, Tumca aTi sabegro urmis
meti Tavis dReSi ar Sebmula.
kneina darejanis mrisxaneba ki imaSi gamoixateba, rom `iq mujluguns wah-
kravda sakeravze mTvlemare wirplian gogosa, aq TavSi Cautyapunebda ZonZebSi
gaxveul patara murian biWsa... aq imas gauwyreboda — raze? TiTon kneinamac ar
icoda, razed, aq imas gamogilanZRavdaT, risTvis, arc es icoda kneinama~. luar-
sabisa da darejanis es da amgvari moqmedeba SeZrwunebas ki ar iwvevs, aramed Ri-
mils, ramdenadac dacinvis sagania es maTi usaqmuri saqmianoba. ilia WavWavaZem
am moTxrobaSi gviambo adamianTa moSvebulobisa da mconarobis, maTi cxovelu-
ri yofis, sulieri sicarielis istoria. gansxvavebiT `glaxis naambobidan~, ro-
melSiac, marTalia, batonymobaa gakicxuli, magram midgoma mwerlisa sinamdvi-
lisadmi seriozulia, `kacia-adamianSi?!~ Tavidan bolomde gamomJRavnebulia
satiruli midgoma, romelic ZiriTadad ironiis gziT xorcieldeba.
iliam am moTxrobaSi TvalnaTliv uCvena, rom gareSe yovelgvari sisastiki-
sa da mxecuri instinqtebis gaRvivebisa, Tavisi raobiT batonymuri urTierToba
TavisTavad aris damRupveli, ramdenadac igi abatonebs usaqmurobas, adamians
adamianis saxes ukargavs, adamiani cxovelis doneze dahyavs; sazogadoebriv aq-
tivobas aclis.
ilia WavWavaZe batonymuri urTierTobis Sefasebisasac, iseve rogorc yve-
la sxva SemTxvevaSi, xelmZRvanelobs erovnuli TvalTaxedviT. igi, ra Tqma un-
da, sruliadac ar fiqrobs, rom batonymobas sazogadoebis erTi fenisaTvis —
glexebisaTvis moaqvs ubedureba, ilia fiqrobs, rom ukeTes dReSi arc isini ari-
an, visac batonebi hqvia da visac ymebis nivTiviT flobis ufleba aqvT miniWebu-
li. daRupulni arian batonebic, ramdenadac saxeze gvaqvs maTi zneobrivi dace-
ma, gadagvareba, cxovelur doneze daSveba da, xSir SemTxvevaSi, gavelurebac. ba-
tonymuri wyoba sazogadod ukargavs adamians adamianis saxes imis miuxedavad,
batonia igi Tu yma. ilias sruliadac ar warmoudgenia viTareba ise, rom Cagru-
li fena TiTqos mxolod angelozebs warmoadgenen, zneobrivad srulqmnilT da
ucodvelT. batonymobas maTSiac Cauklavs adamianuri, sacodav cxovelebs dam-
sgavsebian isinic. ufro marjveni da moxerxebulni pirmoTneobisa da cbierebis
gzas dadgomian. ilia fiqrobs, rom batonymoba damRupvelia ara romelime feni-
saTvis, aramed saerTod sazogadoebisaTvis, erisaTvis. sazogadoeba gaTiSulia
or sruliad sxvadasxva nawilad, romelTa Soris araferia saerTo, iTeleba ada-
mianis pirovnuloba. ilias pozicia naTelia — mxolod batonymuri institutis
mospobis gziT, jansaR erovnul ZalTa gaerTianebiT, roca adamiani daibrunebs
warTmeul adamianur uflebebs da Rirsebas, socialur ZalTa urTierTTanam-
Sromlobis miRwevaSi aris qveynis WeSmariti xsnis gza.
`oTaraanT qvrivi~. Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobis mogviano xanaSi
ilia WavWavaZem Seqmna didebuli `oTaraanT qvrivi~. am moTxrobaSi mweralma mis-
Tvis Cveuli sidinjiT ganixila xidCatexilobis, wodebaTa Soris urTierTobis
problema.
rogorc viciT, es problema iliasaTvis axali ar iyo da igi mTeli misi Se-
moqmedebis manZilze iCenda Tavs. idga igi `glaxis naambobSi~ da mTeli simwvavi-
Tac. magram `glaxis naambobisagan~ gansxvavebiT, aq problema axali socialuri
urTierTobis fonze ganixileba, gaRrmavebulicaa, ganxilvis aspeqtebic gafar-

66
Toebuli. pirvel yovlisa, es imasac mowmobs, rom ilia WavWavaZis saxiT socia-
lurad gamZafrebuli xedvis uaRresad fxizeli xelovani hyavda Cvens qveyanas.
mweralma `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ dagvanaxa, rom, Tu adre, batonymobis piro-
bebSi xidis gadeba sxvadasxva sazogadoebrivi fenis warmomadgenelTa Soris
principulad SeuZlebeli iyo, rac ar unda siaxlove yofiliyo batonsa da ymas
Soris, mainc sruli gaugebroba da ufskruli yofda maT, batonymobis gauqmebis
Semdeg axali socialur-ekonomikuri urTierTobis dros wodebaTa, adamianTa
Soris iuridiuli Tanasworoba iqna aRiarebuli, ramdenadac adamiani iuridiu-
lad ganTavisuflda, magram, rogorc irkveva, iuridiuli Tanasworuflebianoba
da Tavisuflebis aRiareba sruliadac ar niSnavs faqtobrivad TanabarRirebu-
lebis ganxorcielebas. socialur wodebebs Soris TavCenili fsiqoligiuri, in-
teleqtualuri da kidev sxva saxis jebirebi, gaugebroba maT Soris, aseTi Tanas-
worobis siyalbes mowmobs. gaugebroba exeba ara azrebis, ideebis sferos mxo-
lod, aramed iseT sferos, sadac TiTqos yovelgvari jebirebi adamianebs Soris
moxsnili unda iyos. `Sengan mefe monas eymoso~ — acxadebda aleqsandre WavWava-
Ze, roca siyvarulis yovlisSemZleobaze saubrobda Tavis didebul leqsSi. saq-
me swored siyvarulis grZnobas exeba. ilia WavWavaZem mxatvruli argumentebiT
cxadyo, rom siyvarulis sferoSic sruli gaugebrobaa. rogorc arCili eubneba
kesos, laparaki TanagrZnobas ki ar exeba — SesaZloa ar moswoneboda da ar eTa-
nagrZno qals vaJisaTvis da aq gvariSvilobis `cxraklite~ arafer SuaSi yofili-
yo. magram saqme isaa, rom `Rirsebis Tayvaniscemas~ viRa Civis, keso verc ki miux-
vda siyvaruls, kaci Turme Tavs evleboda, `wminda Suqi mSvenieris sulisa amaod
da uqmad-Ra javarsaviT efineboda~ da efineboda `civs kedels~.
ilia WavWavaZe faqizad aanalizebs ara marto Cveni qveynis da ara marto
ilias drois TvalsazrisiT erTob mtkivneul promlemas da misi gadawyvetis
perspeqtivasac Zalian frTxilad, poetur-figuraluri suraTis saxiT warmog-
vidgens. am mxriv aris gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo da-Zmis, arCilisa da kesos sa-
ubari Txzulebis im TavSi, romelsac `dasawyisi ganTiadisa~ hqvia.
mwerlis upirvelesi da erTaderTi amocanac is aris, rom TvalnaTliv gva-
grZnobinos sinamdvile, is, rac aris; misi amocana araa gvaCvenos is, rac unda
iyos. Tu mweralma sinamdvile gvagrZnobina da SegvZra, amiT igi Tavis amocanas
maqsimalurad ganaxorcielebs. amdenad araa marTebuli mxatvrul qmnilebaSi
socialur-politikuri programa veZeboT. mxatvruli metyveleba Taviseburi fe-
nomenia da misi pirdapiri Targmani ekonomikur-politikur enaze sruliad dauS-
vebelia. erTi sityviT, araa marTebuli ilia WavWavaZisagan moviTxovoT pasuxi
iseT kiTxvaze, romelzec damakmayofilebeli pasuxi praqtikulad vera socia-
lur-politikurma programam ver gasca mTeli moazrovne kacobriobis masStabiT.
miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, aq erTi ram mainc SeiZleba iTqvas. jer kidev n. ni-
kolaZisaTvis iyo cnobili, rom ilia WavWavaZe wodebaTa faqtobrivi daaxloe-
bis, maT Soris arsebuli zRvaris Semcirebis erT-erT saimedo safuZvlad maTi
sulier-inteleqtualuri daaxloeba miaCnda. am SemTxvevaSi gadamwyveti sityva
unda eTqvas aRzrda-ganaTlebas. roca ilias mTel Semoqmedebas viTvaliswinebT
da ara marto mis `oTaraanT qvrivs~, es mosazreba safuZvlianad gvesaxeba.
jer kidev k. abaSiZis droidan isic cnobilia, rom xidCatexilobis proble-
mas `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ aqvs sxva aspeqtic — aspeqti adamianTa urTiergaugebro-
bisa pirovnul planSi, ufro sworad, sazogadod adamianis martoobis aspeqti,
rac sosia mewisqvilis tragediis saxiTac iCens Tavs, pirvel yovlisa, da oTara-
anT qvrivis, viTarca dedis, tragediis saxiTac. mwerlis azriT, es `saWirboro-
to da wyevlakrulviani~ sakiTxic dgas `am uTavbolo da uswormasworo wuTiso-
felSi~.

67
`sarCobelazed~. `oTaraanT qvrivis~ Seqmnamde rva wliT adre daiwera Se-
saniSnavi moTxroba `sarCobelazed~, romelSiac sazogadoebisa da misi calkeu-
li wevris urTierTobis, danaSaulisa da sasjelis, uflebisa da movaleobis ma-
rad mtkivneul sakiTxebzea yuradReba gamaxvilebuli da sadac iliam mxatvru-
li sityvis sferoSi pirdapir gailaSqra sikvdiliT dasjis winaaRmdeg. ilia Wav-
WavaZem aq, am moTxrobaSi, cxadyo, rom sazogadoeba srul gulgrilobas da upa-
suxismgeblobas iCens Tavisi calkeuli wevrisadmi da ukve amiT faqtobrivad
adamians danaSaulisaken ubiZgebs. sazogadoeba damnaSavis gazrdas uwyobs xels,
raTa Semdeg gulgrilad dasajos igi. faqtobrivad sazogadoebam uari Tqva Ta-
vis umTavres funqciaze — iyos dainteresebuli Tavisi calkeuli wevris bediT,
radgan igi, sazogadoeba, wevrebisagan Sedgeba, xolo uaris Tqma umTavresze niS-
navs saerTod sazogadoebis moSlasa da gadagvarebas. aRniSnuli ise ar unda ga-
vigoT, TiTqos ilia mxolod sazogadoebas debs brals, xolo calkeul adamians
aTavisuflebs pasuxismgeblobisagan. iliasaTvis rom moraluri pasuxismgeblo-
bis sakiTxi erTi umTavresia, es misi `kacia-adamianis?!~ mixedviTac kargad Cans da
`glaxis naambobis~ mixedviTac. i. WavWavaZis azriT, adamiani, ra Tqma unda, agebs
pasuxs Tavis saqcielze, moqmedebaze, oRond mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mas
arCevanis SesaZlebloba aqvs. luarsab TaTqariZe, daTiko ageben pasuxs TavianT
saqcielze, radgan maT SeeZloT sxvagvarad ecxovraT, sxvagvarad moqceuliyvnen,
magram es maT ar indomes; xolo Tu adamians Tavisufali arCevanis SesaZleblobas
movuspobT, Tu mis win mxolod erTi gza da gamosavali iqneba, bunebrivia, igi
verc agebs pasuxs Tavis saqcielze.
Tu nawarmoebSi dasmul problemebs kidev ufro CavuRrmavdebiT, maSin gan-
sakuTrebul yuradRebas aq is faqti ipyrobs, rom mwerali maincdamainc adamia-
nis CamoxrCobis faqts gulubryvilo glexis, petres TvaliT gvayurebinebs. aq,
am nawarmoebSi, viTareba isea warmodgenili, rom araTu sazogadoebis aSkarad
gamokveTili damnaSave Zalebi — Zmebis, maminacvlis, dedis, mosamsaxure gogo-
biWebis, usulgulo adamianebis saxiT — amzadebdnen Zmebis danaSauls, aramed
faqtobrivad isinic xelSemwyobad gamodiodnen, visac Zmebi, `marTla, ecodebo-
daT~, magram SveliT ki verafers Svelodnen. amiTac aixsneba sruli ukompromi-
soba gaavebuli Zmebisa, romlebic `yvelas gadaemternen — maminacvals, dedas,
avsa da kargsa~. `patarebi viyaviT, — wers beJanis umcrosi Zma petres, — yvela xe-
davda, rom TvalnaTliv gvZarcvavdnen, aravin ar gamogvesarCla, aravin mogveS-
vela, aravin xma ar amoiRo, Cveni codva yvelam daido kisrad. maminacvalma ki
ara, Tqven yvelam gagvZarcveT Cven, Tqven yvelam mogviReT bolo...~
rogorc miuTiTeben, petre Zveli yaidis sofleli glexia, mas Tavisi Tavi
jer ar ugrZnia sazogadoebis wevrad, igi jer bunebasTan mWidro kavSirSia, vid-
re socialur RirebulebebTan. petre `sazogadoebis yvelaze pasiur wevrTa
ricxvSia. amdenad misi `danaSauli~ Tanacxovrebis kanonebisadmi yoveli calke-
uli adamianis winaSe aseve minimaluria da `pasiuri~. magram moxucma petrem esec
ar icis. igi udanaSaulod grZnobs Tavs, rogorc bunebis erTi natexi~.1 marTa-
lia, petrem ymawvilis gulSi maSin `tkbili naRveli Casaxa~, misma `gulkeTilo-
bam moinadira~, magram, — agrZelebs umcrosi Zma, isic gaqreba, vici. gana Sen ki
amxanagi ara xar Cemis maminacvlisa! gana Sen ki ar damirCe erTaderTi Zma! gana
Sen ki ar miiyvane is sarCobelamde~.
pasiuri, aramebrZoli sikeTec saboloo jamSi danaSaulis xelSemwyobad
gamodis da sinamdviles sasikeTod ver cvlis — ase SeiZleba gavaSinaarsoT is
mkacri ganaCeni, rac CamoxrCobilis Zmam SeZrwunebul, Tavzardacemul petres
gamoutana.

1
g . k a n k a v a , literaturuli werilebi, 1980, gv. 19.
68
`nikolooz gostaSabiSvili~. ilias moTxrobaTagan erTgvarad gamocal-
kevebiT dgas patara saSobao moTxroba nikolooz gostaSabiSvili. es moTxroba
yrmobisdroindel STabeWdilebebTan mibrunebas, maT gacocxlebas warmoadgens
da amasTanave rainduli suliskveTebiTaa aRbeWdili.
ilia WavWavaZe qarTul mwerlobaSi momZlavrebuli im tendenciis sawina-
aRmdegod, romlis Tanaxmadac viTareba ise ixateba, rom Cveni qveynis `mterni ka-
cismWamelni arian, qarTvelebis sisxlis msmelni, yovels adamianobaze xelaRe-
bulni da qarTvelebi ki yovlis adamianobiT srulni, erTi qarTveli aT da oc
momxdurs umklavdeba iolad~, iseT viTarebas xatavs, roca qarTvel vaJkacs
mteric Rirseuli vaJkaci Sexvdeba. nikolooz gostaSabiSvilis sulgrZelobiT
aRsavse saqciels — damarcxebuli mtris Rirsebis Seulaxaobas, Seurcxvenlobas
da sicocxlis Cuqebas mteric, agreTve vaJkaci, saTanado RirsebiT Rebulobs:
`mec sicocxles Tu visganme viCuqebdi, marto SenisTana vaJkacisagano~-, eubneba
igi gamarjvebul qarTvels.
am moTxrobis mTavari personaJi nikolooz gostaSabiSvili Tavisi maRali
SegnebiT, mtris vaJkacobis danaxviT da aRiarebiT rainduli gagebis mwvervalze
adis.

ilias prozis Tematikuri aqtualoba. ilia WavWavaZis moTxrobaTa didi


nawili TiTqos uaRresad konkretuli socialuri garemos, konkretuli socia-
luri wyobis kritikas isaxavs umTavres amocanad, xolo es garemo, socialuri
wyoba ki iyo da aRarasodes gameordeba. miuxedavad amisa, ar SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom ilia WavWavaZis Txzulebebma Tematikuri aqtualoba dakarges, rom am mxriv
isini CvenTvis aRar arian sagulisxmoni, rom Tanamedrove mkiTxvels isini am
mxriv saazrovno sazrdos ar awvdidnen. ratom xdeba mainc ase?
rogorc cnobilia, ilia WavWavaZe calkeul TxzulebaSi gansaxilvelad
iRebs erT umTavres sakiTxs da ara sakiTxTa wyebas da amas igi sruliad garkveu-
li mizniT mimarTavs. erTi mxriv, aseTi nawarmoebi aRsaqmelad ufro advilia da
mkiTxvelis interesic ufro mobilizebuli. ilias, rogorc mwerlis, amocana im-
TaviTve iyo sisadave da sicxadis Setana yvelaferSi, ise rogorc es CveviaT did
xelovanT, romelnic TavianT Txzulebebs mkiTxvelis aRzrdis funqciasac akis-
rebdnen. naTqvams adasturebs Tundac mwerlis muSaobis gaTvaliswineba moTx-
robebze `glaxis naambobi~ da `kacia-adamiani?!~. Tavdapirvelad mwerals Cafiq-
rebuli hqonda erTi moTxrobis dawera, romelic gaaerTianebda orive moTxro-
bis siuJetur xazebs. Semdgomi muSaobisas iliam es adrindeli Canafiqri or
moTxrobad daSala, or damoukidebel nawarmoebad. man ar miiCnia mizanSewoni-
lad erTbaSad ramdenime Temis erTad mowodeba. am dros naklebia mkiTxvelis mi-
er TiToeulis gaazrebis siRrme, yuradReba gadanawilebulia ramdenimeze.
amrigad, erT TxzulebaSi erTi umTavresi problemis dasmaa damaxasiaTebe-
li iliasaTvis, magram am problemas igi mravalmxriv gansjis, mravalmxriv aana-
lizebs. `mravalplaniania ilias TxzulebaTa umravlesoba. misi midgomis mra-
valplanianoba ar SeuzRudavs da Seukvecia mis naTelsa da garkveul mizan-
swrafvas, rogorc es TiTqosda mosalodneli iyo. es uTuod imiT aixsneba, rom
farToa ilias gaazreba da xedva. yvelafris yovelmxriv gamomkvlevia is da amiT
icilebs igi Tavidan SesaZlo calmxrivobas~.1 mivmarToT magaliTisaTvis ilias
ukvdav `kacia-adamians?!~. rogorc miuTiTeben, aq satirul formaSia gakicxuli
batonymuri urTierToba da esaa nawarmoebis mTavari Sinaarsi, magram, cxadia,

1
g r. k i k n a Z e, literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, 1978, gv.274.
69
rom `kacia-adamianis?!~ mTavari Sinaarsi amiT ar mTavrdeba. es rom ase yofili-
yo, am moTxrobas Tavisi istoriuli funqcia Sesrulebuli eqneboda da axla
mxolod literaturis istoriis TvalsazrisiT Tu iqneboda saintereso. aseT
Txzulebebsac xom uamravs icnobs literaturis istoria. magram cxadia, rom
luarsab TaTqariZis cxovrebis istoria ar eZleva daviwyebas, luarsabi Cvengan
moucilebeli personaJia, mudam Cveni Tanamdevi.
am moTxrobis gamZleobas, pirvel rigSi, isic apirobebs, rom mxolod erTi
socialuri wyobisaTvis specifikur urTierTobebze, adamianTa qcevebze da moq-
medebebze ar amaxvilebs mwerali yuradRebas. iliam am moTxrobaSi Tavisi asaxvis
obieqtad gaixada Rrmadmdebare adamianuri Tvisebebi da mankierebebi — mconaro-
ba da uqnaroba, sizarmace da gonebis mTvlemareba, gaumiznavi Surianoba, qiSpoba
da Widili maxlobelTa Soris, udardeloba da pirmoTneoba. es Tvisebebi ki arc
batonymobas moutania da arc mas gahyolia Tan. isini yvela xelsayrel pirobebSi
SesaZloa xelaxali ZaliT wamotivtivdnen.
`risTvis movidnen da risTvis wavidnen?~ — kiTxulobs mwerali da es ukve is
kiTxvaa, romelic gvaiZulebs davfiqrdeT. erTi sityviT, am nawarmoebSi mkafi-
od dgas problema adamianis arsebobis azris, misi umTavresi misiis Sesaxeb.
moTxrobaSi yofiTi wvrilmanebis momarjvebiT, maT safuZvelze, sruliad
CveulebrivSi, erTferovansa da yoveldRiurSi aRmoaCina ilia WavWavaZem uaR-
resad mniSvnelovani erovnuli satkivari da safiqrali.
marTalia, didi xani gavida mas Semdeg, rac istorias Cabarda is socialuri
instituti, romlis RviZli Svilebic iyvnen moTxrobis personaJebi da romlis
gaSiSvlebac iyo mwerlis erTi didi amocana, magram isic xom faqtia, rom moTx-
robas ar daukargavs, Tu ar moumatnia mxatvruli Rirseba da mniSvneloba Cvens
gulSi da es imitomac, rogorc iTqva, rom ilia gamZle adamianur Tvisebebze,
urTierTobebze amaxvilebs yuradRebas, romelnic raRacnairi formiT yovel-
Tvis arseboben da romelTa win wamoweva, gabatoneba `TaTqariZeobis~ gamococx-
lebis saSiSroebas yovelTvis aCenen...
ilia WavWavaZe dResac gvafrTxilebs da socialuri sifxizlisa da aqtivo-
bisaken mogviwodebs, es momentic apirobebs am Txzulebis Tematikur aqtualo-
bas.
aseve sadReisodac gvafiqrebs moTxroba `sarCobelazed~. yvela droSi sagu-
lisxmo iqneba sakiTxi sazogadoebisa da misi calkeuli wevris uflebebisa da mo-
valeobebis Sesaxeb, danaSaulisa da sasjelis Sesaxeb. Tu sazogadoeba araa ubra-
lo jami adamianebisa, aramed moraluri erTeulia, maSin igi pasuxismgebelia misi
calkeuli wevris winaSe da wevrisaTvis. sazogadoeba ar SeiZleba gulgrili iyos
calkeuli wevris bedis mimarT. mxolod aseT SemTxvevaSi aqvs sazogadoebas uf-
leba moiTxovos calkeuli wevrisagan, pasuxi agos Tavis moqmedebaze.
sanamde adamians sanetaro naRvels auSlis yrmobis suraTebis gaxseneba, sa-
namde bavSvobis wlebis gaxsenebis survili da xalisi Seswevs, manam ar SeiZleba
ar aaRelvos igi ilias saSobao moTxrobam. xolo vin ar daisaxavs idealad, ro-
mel droSi SeiZleba ar iyos siamovnebis momgvreli is siCauqe da rainduli si-
maRle qarTveli kacisa, rac Rirseuli mowinaaRmdegis dandobasa, misi vaJkaco-
bis danaxvasa da aRiarebaSi gamoixateba.
`glaxis naambobis~ mRvdelTan ziareba, misi swavlebisa da namoqmedaris
gancda-gaSinaarseba xom yoveli drois axalgazrdobas aamaRlebs sulierad da
`pirad aRdgomas adResaswaulebs~, rogorc ambobda didi pedagogi iakob goge-
baSvili.

70
gana `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ dasmuli sakiTxebia darCenili da mijaWvuli mxo-
lod mecxramete saukunesTan? `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ dasmul sakiTxTa wyeba da
grZnobebi CvenTvisac Zvirfasia da moucilebeli. adamianTa TanabarRirebule-
bis sakiTxi, adamianis Sinagani Rirsebebis danaxva da aRiareba yovelTvis iqneba
gansjisa da mowonebis obieqti. mainc romelma drom, romelma moZRvrebam gadaW-
ra adamianTa Soris uTanabrobis problema, gana sxvadasxva socialuri fenis,
adamianTa erTianobis, eris erTianobis problema araa Cveni drois umwvavesi
problema? Sromis didebuli himni, rac am moTxrobaSi oTaraanT qvrivis daxasia-
Tebis aspeqtSic da giorgis daxasiaTebis planSic rom JRers da saxierdeba, Ta-
vis fassa da Rirebulebas, bunebrivia, arc CvenTvis kargavs. veraviTari agita-
cia da moralizeba ver Seenacvleba mas Sromis fasisa da Zalis Cvenebis Tvalsaz-
risiT.
dedaSviluri grZnobis iseTi niuansebia aq warmodgenili, dedaSvilobis
grZnobis iseTi RaRadisi ismis, rom igi arc erTi drois mkiTxvels ar datovebs
gulgrils da SeZravs, ramdenadac am grZnobas Caqroba ar uweria.
erTi sityviT, ilias TxzulebebSi yvela faqtsa da movlenas axlavs gan-
xilvis moraluri plani, rac yvela droisaTvis mniSvnelovnad da aqtualurad
aqcevs maT. ase icileben droiT SemosazRvrulobis samoss ilias qmnilebebi, ase
maRldebian drozec da garkveul socialur viTarebazec.

ilia WavWavaZis prozis mxatvruli mxare. rac ar unda zogadsa-


yovelTao Sinaarsisa da aqtualobisa iyos saTqmeli Sinaarsobrivad, sabolood
igi mainc ver gansazRvravs Txzulebis Rirsebas da misi gamZleobis sazomad ver
gamodgeba. nawarmoebis gamZleobas, pirvel yovlisa, misi mxatvruli Rirsebebi
gansazRvraven. mainc ra mxatvruli Taviseburebebi gamoarCeven ilias qmnile-
bebs. ra arsebiT niSan-Tvisebebze SegviZlia axla gavamaxviloT yuradReba?
pirvel yovlisa, am mxriv yuradRebas iqcevs ilias prozaul TxzulebaTa
masala. ilia WavWavaZemde Cvens sinamdvileSi ZiriTadad mweralTa yuradReba ga-
maxvilebuli iyo gamogonili, ucxo da ucnauri ambebisadmi. TavisTavad cxadia,
rom aseTi masala nakleb atarebda erovnul xasiaTs. ilia WavWavaZem uari Tqva
ucxosa da gamogonilze, ucnaursa da Soridan momdinareze. man Tavis nawarmoe-
bebSi qarTveli kacis erovnuli Taviseburebebis Cveneba daisaxa miznad. iliam
sruliad Segnebulad uari Tqva TvalismomWrelsa da damainteresebelze; man
Cvens literaturaSi daamkvidra sruliad Cveulebrivi, yofiTi masalisadmi in-
teresi. mis moTxrobebSi asaxulia yovlad Cveulebrivi Cveni mosawyeni cxovre-
bis erTferovneba da masSia danaxuli mwerlis mier erTob seriozulica da mniS-
vnelovanic. swored yofis prozaulobaSi aRmoaCina man uaRresad erovnuli
satkivari da es aqcia Tavisi asaxvis sagnad. ilias mier asaxuli sinamdvile yve-
las Tvalwin mimdinare movlenebia, magram ara yvelasaTvis SesamCnevi. amas mxo-
los didi mwerlis maxvili Tvali amCnevs da CvenTvisac SesamCnevs xdis.
ilia WavWavaZem qarTveli mkiTxvelis gemovnebis gardaqmna da xelaxali aR-
zrda moindoma da gaakeTa kidec.
iliam Tavisi Txzulebebis sayrdenad ambebi ar aiRo, faqtobrivad, man uari
Tqva yovelgvar saintereso, gamarTobel ambebze. rogorc aRniSnaven, ilia Wav-
WavaZis dainteresebas sruliad ubralo ambavi iwvevs, radgan iq xedavs igi yve-
laze mniSvnelovans. sruliad umniSvneloze, TiTqos wvrilman ambebze aago ili-
am Tavisi ukvdavi `kacia-adamiani?!~. am moTxrobaSi araferi xdeba iseTi, ramac
SeiZleba ambis TvalsazrisiT daZabos mkiTxveli. mTeli nawarmoebi erTi qar-
Tveli Tavadis ojaxis uazro cxovrebas mogviTxrobs, col-qmris yoveldRiuri
71
saubrebis, maTi garemos daxasiaTebas warmoadgens. ilia aq dascinis kidec sent-
imentaluri, saintereso ambebisadmi mimarTuli gemovnebis mkiTxvels da Tavis
mimarTebas masalisa da asasaxi obieqtebisadmi Zalian mkafiod warmoadgens.
ilia WavWavaZe — mwerali rom dainteresdes, usaTuod siuJeti sruliad sada da
ubralo unda iyos. ambavi ar ganagebs `kacia-adamianis?!~, `oTaraanT qvrivis~
Txrobas. es Txzulebebi agebulia personaJTa cxovrebis mxolod ramdenime epi-
zodze, romlebic arsebiTia am personaJTa ragvarobis gasaTvaliswineblad da ag-
reTve Zalze mniSvnelovanis — qarTuli cxovrebis arsebiT momentebze misaTiTeb-
lad. ilia swored am momentebs uRrmavdeba, maT aanalizebs sxvadasxva mxridan da
ase aqcevs maT mkiTxvelisTvisac Zalze mniSvnelovnad, ahyavs igi esTetikuri aR-
qmis sruliad axal safexurze.
sagangebod miTiTebulia da daxasiaTebulic iliaseuli detalizaciis ma-
Ralmxatvruloba. ilia movlenebis dasaxasiaTeblad, dasaxatavad iseT detalebs
irCevs, iseT detalebs ixdis dakvirvebis sagnad, iseT niuansebs amCnevs, romlebic
sxvisTvis SeumCnevelia, anda romelTa mxatvruli Rirebuleba iliamde sxvaTaTvis
cxadi sruliadac ar iyo. ilia WavWavaZem swored aseT wvrilmanebs mianiWa arsebi-
Tis gamoxatvis funqciac, swored am umniSvnelom da sxvaTa mier SeumCnevelma Sei-
Zina iliasTan udidesi Rirebuleba. ilias mTeli yuradReba swored aseT wvrilma-
nebzea gadatanili. aRniSnulis TvalsaCino dadasturebaa `kacia-adamiani?!~ da gan-
sakuTrebiT ki luarsabis saarsebo garemos vrceli aRwera-daxasiaTeba. es detale-
bi, wvrilmanebi iliasTan udides Tvisebriv datvirTvas iZenen, metad mniSvnelova-
nis mimTiTeblad gamodian. swored wvrilmanebi miuTiTeben ilias mier daxatul
personaJTa, movlenaTa namdvil Sinaarsze da namdvil bunebaze.
mxatvruli nawarmoebis ZiriTadi Sinaarsi adamiania. Txzulebis ideur-Te-
matikuri simdidre, misi dakvirvebisa da analizis unari, sazogadod mwerlis
mxatvruli SesaZleblobebi umal personaJTa miseul gansaxierebaSi iCens Tavs.
ilias mier daxatuli personaJebi mkiTxvelis warmosaxvaSi Rrmad iWrebian da
mere misgan moucilebeli xdebian. naTqvami vrceldeba ilias mier daxatul yvela
personaJze. Znelia daxatva iseTi personaJisa, romelic tipis myari niSan-Tvisebe-
biT gamoirCeva. bevr mwerals vicnobT, romelTac an saerTod ar dauxatavT tipi,
Tumca bevri weres, an daxates TiTo-orola. i. WavWavaZis mier daxatuli personaJe-
bi, rogorc miuTiTeben, uklebliv yvela tips warmoadgenen. tipia luarsabic, da-
rejanic, lamaziseulic da mouravi daToc, `iamSCikic~ da rusi oficeric, oTara-
anT qvrivic da arCilic... ilia WavWavaZis mier daxatuli tipebi mxolod literatu-
rel Rirebulebebs ar warmoadgenen, aramed maT Rrma socialuri datvirTvac aqvT,
socialuri gamZleobaa maTi arsebiTi niSani.
i. WavWavaZe ar gaixdis Tavisi asaxvis obieqtad imgvar movlenas an arsebas,
romelsac socialuri mniSvneloba ara aqvs. SemTxveviTi ar aris ilia WavWavaZis
dakvirvebisa da asaxvis sagani. misTvis amasTanave niSandoblivia, rom persona-
Jis daxatvisas mis arsebiT niSnebze amaxvilebs yuradRebas, niSnebze, romelTac
misi, am personaJis, socialuri raobis Cvenebis funqcia ekisreba. Tanac ilia mi-
iswrafvis, rac SeiZleba meti sisruliT, meti niSniT warmoaCinos igi.
i. WavWavaZisaTvis, rogorc xelovanisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT misi Semoqmede-
bis adreul safexurze niSandoblivia konkretuli garegnuli portretebis mo-
wodeba. Tanac portreti, ise pirdapir da sruladaa gansaxierebuli, rom mkiTx-
vels warmodgena eqmneba masze, mis warmosaxvas TiTqmis arafris damateba aRar
sWirdeba. amasTanave, ilias bevri personaJi imTaviTve warmoCndeba sulieri
ragvarobiTac. mwerali e.w. pirdapiri daxasiaTebis gzas adgas am SemTxvevaSi.
CvenTvis personaJi misi xasiaTis TvisebebiT imTaviTve gamokveTilia, Semdgom
da Semdgom masze mkiTxvelis warmodgena mdidrdeba mxolod faqtobrivi masa-
liT.
72
i. WavWavaZe personaJis daxasiaTebis mizniT farTod, detalurad mimarTavs
misi saarsebo garemos Cveneba-daxasiaTebas. garemo organuli nawilia personaJis
portretisa. amitom ilias mier aRwerili garemos gaTvaliswineba arsebiTad ti-
pis portretis gaTvaliswineba da misi warmodgenaa. swored am mxrivaa mniSvnelo-
vani luarsab TaTqariZis kar-midamos farTo detaluri daxasiaTeba. rogorc mi-
TiTebulia, luarsabis kar-midamos srul antipods warmoadgens oTaraanT qvri-
vis saxl-kari da isic pirdapir personaJis portretze mimTiTebelia. garegnuli
portretizaciis gzas mihyveba mwerali Tavis adreul TxzulebebSi da ramdenadme
Semdegac. magram ilia, rogorc didi xelovani, ar ifargleba mxolod gansaxiere-
bis aseTi pirdapiri gzis gamoyenebiT. ilia WavWavaZem Tavisi ukvdavi `oTaraanT
qvriviT~ daamtkica, rom misTvis gansaxierebis sxvagvari gza araa ucxo. ilia Wav-
WavaZem arc erTi garegnuli niSniT ar migviTiTa oTaraanT qvrivis portretze,
magram ise mZlavria am personaJis xasiaTis gaSla, rom mkiTxvels araviTari ukma-
risobis grZnoba ar uCndeba, TiTqos garegnuladac kargad icnobs mas. TviTon sa-
xelic ki ar icis mkiTxvelma misi. arc kesos, giorgis garegnuli portretebi dau-
xatavs mwerals. isinic naTlad aRimarTebian mkiTxvelis warmosaxvaSi da es mxo-
lod maTi sulieri Tvisebebis, moqmedebisa da qcevis TvalnaTliv daxasiaTebis
xarjze xdeba.
rogorc aRiniSna, ilia WavWavaZis bevri personaJis xasiaTi imTaviTve war-
modgeba, nawarmoebis Semdgomi msvlelobis manZilze mxolod masalobrivad iz-
rdeba, xolo personaJTa meore nawilis xasiaTi TandaTanobiT iSleba da izrdeba
nawarmoebis ganviTarebis manZilze. isini nawarmoebis dasasruls aRweven Tavis
gamokveTilobas. am TvalsazrisiT aris saintereso gabrieli da daTiko, oTara-
anT qvrivi da giorgi; maSin, roca luarsabis, darejanisa da daTos xasiaTebi imTa-
viTvea mocemuli.
ilia WavWavaZe personaJTa Sinagani samyaros, gancdebis, sulieri mdgoma-
reobis gadmosacemad sxvadasxva gzas mimarTavs, magram misTvis gansakuTrebiT
niSandoblivia garegani moZraobebis, moqmedebebis aRwera. am moqmedebebiTa da
moZraobebiT mwerali uSualod miuTiTebs personaJTa Sinagan Tvisebebze. maSa-
sadame, iliasaTvis safuZveli adamianis moqmedebaa da masze dayrdnobiT aris
gaSlili adamianTa gancdebi. mwerali ki ar mogviTxrobs, ras ganicdis misi gmi-
ri, aramed TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs mis gancdas.
nawarmoebis kompoziciuri daxasiaTebis TvalsazrisiT sazogadod cnobi-
lia, rom nawarmoebis umniSvnelovanes nawilebs Seadgenen misi dasawyisi da da-
sasruli.
ilia WavWavaZis moTxrobaTa dasawyisebze dakvirveba cxads xdis, rom ilia
ambis Txrobas iwyebs arsebiTis CvenebiT, umTavresis Tvalwin dayenebiT, raTa Sem-
deg TandaTanobiT gadmogviSalos am mTavris Casaxvis pirobebic, ganviTarebac da
dasasrulic. erTi sityviT, gaaanalizos igi. rogorc aRniSnulia, `ilia WavWavaZes,
rogorc mwerals, Zalian emarjveba konstruqtuli motivis gamokveTa, e.i. gamokve-
Ta imisa, rac misTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovania. ra mizniTac yvelaferi danarCeni
aris gadmocemuli. am konstruqtul motivs ilia Weds mkiTxvelis gonebaSi~.1
rac Seexeba ambavTa dasasruls, ilia WavWavaZis moTxrobaTa umravlesoba
SekiTxviT mTavrdeba. SekiTxviT mTavrdeba `kacia-adamianis?!~ ambavi — `risTvis
movidnen da risTvis wavidnen?~; SekiTxva ismis moTxroba `sarCobelazed~ bolo-
Si — `marTla-da Cveni beberi petre ra SuaSi unda iyos?~. faqtobrivad aseve Se-
kiTxviT mTavrdeba `oTaraanT qvrivi~ — `marTla ro codoa... magram sxva vin ar
aris codo? erTic es aris saWirboroto da wyevlakrulviani sakiTxavi am uTav-
bolo da uswormasworo wuTisofelSi~. Tu imasac miviRebT mxedvelobaSi, rom

1
g r . k i k n a Z e , ilia WavWavaZe rogorc xelovani, wignSi `ilias krebuli~, I, 1998, gv. 55.
73
ritorikuli SekiTxviTve mTavrdeba axalgazrdobisdroindeli `mgzavris weri-
lebi~, aRmoCndeba, rom mwerali aiZulebs mkiTxvels, isic dafiqrdes, masac Ta-
visi problemebis rkalSi iTrevs. xolo hiugos sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `SegeZlos
aiZulo, rom ifiqros, es iSviaTi unaria, es rCeulTa niWia~.
ilia WavWavaZis moTxrobaTa kompoziciuri Taviseburebebis gasaTvaliswi-
neblad didi mniSvneloba eniWeba imis Cvenebasac, Tu ra adgili uWiravs aq bune-
bas da rogor aris igi gansaxierebuli. Tu gavixsenebT `mgzavris werilebs~, aq
bunebis farTo suraTebia aRwerili. bunebis suraTebi aq sazogadoebrivi cxov-
rebis, adamianuri cxovrebis analogons warmoadgens. buneba mwerlis mier soci-
alur enazea Targmnili da radgan mwerlisaTvis mTavari socialur-politikuri
sakiTxebia, buneba am sakiTxebis gansaxilvelad, am sakiTxebze misaTiTebladaa
moxmobili. `ra didebuli ramaa myinvari!~ — ase ambobs mwerali, es Cveni gancdac
aris. Cvenc amis msgavsi grZnoba dagveufleba myinvaris danaxvisas. magram mwer-
lis Semdgomi aRwera myinvarisa ukve sakuTriv ilias grZnobisa da poziciis ga-
moxatulebas warmoadgens. `glaxis naambobis~ dasawyisSi `nadirobis trfialis~
vrceli aRweraa mocemuli, xolo am aRweras is mniSvneloba aqvs, rom swored na-
dirobasTan aris dakavSirebuli mTxrobelis Sexvedra glaxasTan, moTxrobis
mTavar gmirTan da, garda amisa, es nawili erTgvari miniSnebacaa moTxrobis mTa-
vari laitmotivisa.
sazogadod buneba ilias TxzulebaTa kompoziciaSi mtkicedaa Casmuli da
igi aucilebel elements warmoadgens nawarmoebis Semdgomi gaSla-gaRrmavebi-
saTvis. amitom bunebis suraTebi ilias moTxrobebSi ZiriTadad mokledaa moWri-
li, mwerali did dros ar uTmobs mas; Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, es suraTebi ar
aris moklebuli damoukidebel cxovelmyofelobasac, xasiaTdebian TvalsaCi-
noebiT, radgan isini erTob TvalsaCino, dinamizmiT savse formiT warmodgebian.
aRniSnuli ki imasac gulisxmobs, rom ilias bunebis sxvagvarad xilvac SeuZlia,
mas bunebis mSvenierebiT TavisTavadi tkbobis unaric aqvs, magram Tu ar eZleva
amgvar grZnobas, sazogadod amgvari suraTebis mowodebas, mxolod imis gamo,
rom mas sul sxva saTqmeli aqvs mkiTxvelisaTvis — didi da seriozuli da bune-
biT tkbobisaTvis adgils ar itovebs. es rom marTlac asea, ilias rom Tavisuf-
lad SeuZlia bunebis TavisTavadi mSvenierebiT datkbes, mis winaSe gairindos,
kargad Cans, magaliTad, `oTaraanT qvrivis~ im Tavebidanac, romlebic asea dasa-
Taurebuli `javri dedisa~ da `eZaxis~.
ilia WavWavaZis TxzulebaTa kompoziciuri Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswine-
ba imis garkvevasac gulisxmobs, Tu rogor mTxrobelTan gvaqvs saqme misi saxiT.
ilia WavWavaZe, rogorc amboben, faqtebis mweralia, magram igi faqtis do-
neze arasdros ar rCeba. igi am faqtebs saguldagulod aanalizebs. ilia WavWava-
Ze — mTxrobeli — yovelTvis Cans Tavis nawarmoebebSi. igi Tavdapirvelad yo-
velTvis gvamzadebs ambisaTvis. mkiTxvelsa da ambavs Soris garkveuli manZili
arsebobs, am manZilis arseboba mwerals aucileblobad miaCnia. ilia mkiTxvels
uSualod gadasawyvetad ar utovebs sakiTxs, TviTon warmarTavs mkiTxvelis
fiqrTa dinebas. ilia ara marto aRwers Tavisi gmirebis qcevebsa da moqmedebebs,
aramed gansjis kidec. igi srul kmayofilebas, rogorc xelovani, maSin aRwevs,
roca Tavis mimarTebas gamoxatavs. ilia msjavrmdebeli xelovania. amdenad aris
gasagebi ilia WavWavaZe satirikosi da moralisti.
roca ilia WavWavaZis Txzulebebs vkiTxulobT, Cven yovelTvis vgrZnobT
sityvis uCveulo Zalas. ZarRviania da gamZlea ilias sityva. frazis siaxlisa da
sinedlis gancda ar gvtovebs ilias kiTxvisas. sruliad Cveulebrivi sityvebic
ki masTan uCveulo konteqstSi eqcevian da axlebur sicocxles, axlebur Sina-
arss iZenen. es garemoeba ki ilias did niWzec miuTiTebs, frazis grZnobazec da
mis did pirovnul Zalazec.

74
ilia WavWavaZis publicistika. SeuZlebelia ilia WavWavaZis Semoq-
medebaze raime garkveuli warmodgenis Seqmna misi mdidari publicisturi mem-
kvidreobis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe.
arc erTi mxatvruli qmnileba rom ar daewera ilia WavWavaZes, igi mainc darCe-
boda qarTul literaturaSi, rogorc didi mwerali, didi reformatori qarTuli
sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisa, axali qarTuli saliteraturo enisa.
mxatvruli Semoqmedeba, rogorc aRiniSna, mxolod erTi ubania ilias Semo-
usazRvreli memkvidreobisa. meore did ubans warmoadgens Rrma filosofiur-
socioligiuri, socialur-ekonomikuri, literaturul-esTetikuri, iurispru-
denciuli, istoriuli... interesebiT gamsWvaluli peblicistika. rogorc ambo-
ben, ar darCenila marTlac arc erTi ubani qarTuli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebi-
sa, qarTveli xalxis sazrunavisa da satkivarisa, romelsac ilias publicisturi
kalami ar Sexebodes da Tavisi arsebiTi sityva ar eTqvas.
cnobilia, rom publicistikas literaturis sxva gvarTagan gamoarCevs Ta-
namedroveobis mtkivneuli, aqtualuri sakiTxebiT daintereseba. am azriT, pub-
licistika yvelaze TvalnaTliv uCvenebs garkveuli drois, epoqis, momentis
moTxovnebsa da sazrunavs. publicistika, rogorc miuTiTeben, am azriT Tanad-
roulobis istorias warmoadgens. publicistikis umTavres amocanas ki Seadgens
sazogadoebriv azrze, sazogadoebriv cxovrebaze uSualo da pirdapiri zemoq-
medebis moxdena. garda amisa, `WeSmariti publicistikis qmediTi Zala Seudareb-
lad ufro Zlieria da efeqturi sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis asamaRleblad,
vidre azrovnebis raginda ra sxva formisa~ (i. evgeniZe).
rogorc istoria gviCvenebs, publicisturi literaturis gansakuTrebuli
gamococxleba, wina planze wamosvla iseT epoqebSi xdeba, rodesac sazogadoeba
didi kataklizmebis, gaWirvebis, an aRmavlobis gzaze dgeba. XIX saukuneSi, Cveni
qveynisaTvis garkveulad mZime pirobebSi, roca qveyanas uSualod daemuqra erov-
nuli gadagvarebisa da dacemis safrTxe, swored publicistika aRmoCnda litera-
turis is ubani, romelic didma mwerlebma, didma mamuliSvilebma eris mtkivneul
sasicocxlo sakiTxebze msjelobisas eris gamosafxizleblad, sazogadoebriv
cxovrebaze zemoqmedebis mosaxdenad gamoiyenes.
amgvari viTarebiTac iyo dapirobebuli, rom SemoqmedebiTi simwifis asakSi
myofma iliam sruliad Segnebulad uari Tqva mxatvrul Semoqmedebaze da mTli-
anad publicistikas mimarTa. qveynis moWirnaxules da did moralists miaCnda,
rom swored publicisturi sityva iyo im qmediTi Zalis mqone, rac axla qarTve-
li eris Rirsebebis dacvis saqmes sWirdeboda.
rogorc ukve aRniSnulia, `ilias erTi didi damsaxureba imaSi mdgomareobs,
rom qarTul sinamdvileSi man Cauyara mtkice safuZveli publicistikas — am sity-
vis farTo da saukeTeso gagebiT. marTlacda, ilia WavWavaZemde Cven ver davasaxe-
lebT verc erT moRvawes, romlis statiebsa da gamosvlebs ase Tu ise TvalsaCino
kvali daetovebinos Cveni mwerlobis am dargis ganviTarebaSi. publicistikas ilia
WavWavaZem moupova sruli moqalaqeobrivi ufleba qarTul mwerlobaSi da manve
aiyvana igi iseT simaRleze, romelsac ver wvdeba da ver Seedreba verc erTi publi-
cisturi gamosvla mTeli XIX saukunis manZilze~.1
miuTiTeben, rom publicistika yovelTvis aris an faruli an Ria brZola
garkveuli poziciis, mosazrebis dasamkvidreblad. amdenad, publicistikisaTvis
niSandoblivia tendenciis pirdapiri gamoxatva, polemikuri xasiaTi. ilia WavWa-
vaZe Cvens sinamdvileSi iyo nimuSi mebrZoli publicistisa. ilias publicisturi
sityvis udidesi Zala azris erTob naTlad gamoxatvaSi mdgomareobs. ilia wvdeba
mowinaaRmdegis azris arsebiT mxares da Seuvali logikiT TandaTanobiT gamok-

1
g r . k i k n a Z e , qarTuli satirisa da iumoris ganviTarebis istoriisaTvis, 1972, gv. 308.
75
veTs mis srul usafuZvlobas, uazrobas. xSirad ilias midgoma satirulia gansaqi-
qebeli obieqtisadmi, am dros mis SesaZleblobebs sazRvari ara aqvs. gansakuTre-
biT niSandoblivia misTvis gakicxvis ironiuli gza. ilia marjved iyenebs cnobil
xalxur gamoTqmebs, andazebs, cnobil gavrcelebul striqonebs mxatvruli na-
warmoebebidan da maT iseT konteqstSi aqcevs, rom sruliad axlebur Sinaarss ani-
Webs...
ilia WavWavaZis publicisturi sityva gansakuTrebiT mZafria, roca igi
Cveni qveynis Rirsebas icavs gareSe Tu Sinauri mtrebisagan, roca ilia Tavs es-
xmis Cveni istoriis gamyalbeblebs, icavs qarTveli xalxis wmidaTawmidas, erov-
nul saunjes — qarTul enas, mis uflebebs.
gansakuTrebiT iCina Tavi ilias publicisturma SemarTebam rusifikatoruli
politikis Semotevis Jams — 80-90-ian wlebSi, roca araTu qarTuli ena gamoacxades
kanonis gareSe, aramed sityva `saqarTvelos~ xmarebac ki akrZales. aseT mZime piro-
bebSi ambobda ilia gadamwyvet sityvas. ilia Tavganwiruli mebrZoli iyo. marTalia,
am brZolaSi ilias ar aklda sifrTxile da taqti, magram sifrTxile momdinareob-
da erovnuli saqveyno saqmis interesebidan — TviTon saqveyno saqme ar dazianebu-
liyo aCqarebuli mouzomeli nabijiT — ai, ra azriT xelmZRvanelobda ilia.
ilia brZolaSi Seupovari iyo. igi Cveni qveynis mtrebis mimarT daundobe-
li iyo da pirgamexebuli. bevria amisi magaliTebi, romelTagan gansakuTrebiT
gamoyofen ilias galaSqrebas reaqciuli gazeTis `moskovskie vedomostis~ re-
daqtor katkovis winaaRmdeg, roca am gazeTSi eris abuCad amgdebi statia dai-
beWda; statia, romelSiac daufaravad iyo gamJRavnebuli zizRi Cveni xalxis,
Cveni qveynis warsulis mimarT. saqme is iyo, rom qarTul TeatrSi daidga d. eris-
Tavis drama `samSoblo~. patriotulma warmodgenam xalxi aRtacebaSi moiyvana, me-
tadre maSin, roca scenaze qarTuli droSa gaSales. es ambavi myisve acnobes mos-
kovSi katkovs da isic maSinve amxedrda. misi gazeTi Tavxedurad urCevda qarTve-
lebs — miatoveT Tqveni sizmrebi, Tavi daanebeT bodvas da rotvas raRac warsul-
ze. rac Seexeba Tqvens droSebs, girCevT axlave CaabaroT godfruas cirks, iq jam-
bazebi da takimasxarebi ukeT gamoiyeneben, vidre Tqveni Teatrio.
iliam Cveuli simZlavriT da simZafriT gasca pasuxi katkovs. marTalia, zne-
dacemul katkovs ver moarjulebda ilias mrisxane pasuxi, magram, i. mansvetaSvili-
sa ar iyos, qarTvels ki imedi Caunerga, agrZnobina, rom gaWirvebaSi marto ar iyo,
rom mas hyavda eris gambedavi winamZRoli.
aseve iyo maSinac, roca qarTveli enis dauZinebelma mterma, ganaTlebis
mzrunvelma ianovskim ganizraxa, skolebSi qarTuli enis swavleba moespo. qarTve-
lebma maSinac ilias miapyres Tvali. ilia WavWavaZem saqmis mTeli arsis gaTvalis-
winebiT, didZali pedagogiuri literaturis damuSavebisa da gaazrebis safuZ-
velze dawera iseTi werili, rom TviT specialistebic ki gaakvirva.
ilia WavWavaZe yvelas ar Tvlida pasuxis gacemis Rirsad. iliasTan polemikis,
misi gakenwvlis mosurne bevri ireoda mis garSemo, magram igi xmis amaRlebas mxo-
lod maSin CaTvlida saWirod, Tu metoqe angariSSi Casagdebi iyo da sakiTxic sazo-
gadoebrivs, erovnuls Seexeboda, erovnuli Rirseba Tu ilaxeboda nebsiT Tu uneb-
lieT.
ilia sagangebod awon-dawonida, gansjida sakiTxs da mxolod amis Semdeg
daeZgereboda mowinaaRmdeges. igi Rrmad iyo darwmunebuli Tavis simarTleSi
da amitomac iyo udreki da uSiSari.
rogorc iTqva, publicistika Tanadroulobis problemebiTaa gamsWvaluli;
amdenad, igi mainc lokalur drosTan da garemoebebTan aris mijaWvuli da garkve-
uli drois gasvlis Semdeg Tavis fersa da elvarebas kargavs, radgan Zveldeba
masSi dasmuli problemebi da, bolos da bolos, literaturis istorikosis inte-
resis obieqtiRa rCeba. TiTqos ilia WavWavaZis publicistikac am ulmobel kanon-

76
zomierebas unda daqvemdebareboda, TiTqos drois msaxvral xels misTvisac unda
waerTmia Tavdapirveli aqtualoba, magram es ar moxda... da imitomac, rom ilias
publicistika yvelaze TvalnaTliv gviTvaliswinebs XIXs. saqarTvelos sazrunav-
sa da safiqrals. am azriT, ilias publicistika aris mecxramete saukunis donis
gamomxatveli. mas arc sadReisod mohklebia aqtualoba da ara marto imitom, rom
ilias droindeli bevri satkivari isev sazrunavad da satkivarad rCeba saqarTve-
los, aramed imitomac, rom ilias problematika Cveni qveynis, eris sasicocxlo amo-
canebs ukavSirdeba da momavlis safiqralsac gviTvaliswinebs. yvela droSi mimar-
Taven ilias naazrevs; yovelTvis eqneba did ilias uaRresad sagulisxmo saTqmeli
gulisyurmipyrobili qarTveli mkiTxvelisa da aramarto qarTveli mkiTxveli-
saTvis.

77
akaki wereTeli

(1840-1915)

akaki wereTeli axali qarTuli literaturis udidesi warmomadgenelia. man


Seqmna Seudarebeli mxatvruli Sedevrebi lirikis, eposisa da dramaturgiis
dargSi. masve ekuTvnis brwyinvale narkvevebi, feletonebi, memuarebi, publi-
cistur-kritikuli werilebi, statiebi literaturismcodneobis, Teatris, is-
toriis, xalxuri Semoqmedebis, qarTuli enis, swavla-aRzrdisa da sxva sakiTxeb-
ze. Tavis umdidres SemoqmedebaSi akaki wereTelma gamoxata epoqis mowinave ide-
ebi, xalxis saukeTeso fiqrebi, miswrafebebi, mebrZoli suliskveTeba da momav-
lis mtkice rwmena.
poetis mTeli mxatvruli memkvidreoba STagonebulia xalxis saukeTeso ide-
alebiT. SoTa rusTavelis Semdeg TiTqmis arc erT qarTvel poets ar Rirsebia
iseTi Zlieri siyvaruli da sxivmosili popularoba, rogoric, ilia WavWavaZes-
Tan erTad, wilad xvda akaki wereTels. akakim iliasTan erTad XIX s. meore naxev-
ris qarTul literaturaSi erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli brZola daukavSira
mSromelTa ganTavisuflebis ideas.
akaki wereTlis Semoqmedeba xasiaTdeba mebrZoli patriotizmiT. poeti da-
undoblad ebrZoda crupatriotebs, Sovinistebs da umReroda xalxTa Soris me-
gobrobas da siyvaruls. akakis rwmeniT, adamianma yvelaferi, TviT sicocxlec
ki unda Seswiros samSoblos.
`vinc mamuls sulsac ar swiravs, imas ar hqvia mamuliSvili~, qveynisTvis Tav-
ganwiruli gmiri ukvdavia, igi `sikvdilSi poebs sicocxles da is iqneba TviT uk-
vdaveba~ — werda akaki.
ganuzomelia akakis damsaxureba axali qarTuli literaturis ganviTarebis
saqmeSi. Tavisi mowinave SexedulebebiT man, iliasTan erTad, mtkice safuZveli Cau-
yara Semdgomi periodis qarTuli literaturis ganviTarebas.
akakisa da ilias saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli saerToerovnuli axali qarTuli sa-
literaturo enis ganviTareba, qarTul literaturaSi kritikuli realizmis dam-
kvidreba.
akaki wereTelma aamaRla qarTuli mxatvruli sityva, ganaviTara poeturi
gamosaxvis formebi. man sabolood daamkvidra xalxisaTvis gasagebi, misawvdomi,
namdvili saxalxo mwerloba, romelsac axasiaTebs naTeli, gamWvirvale saxeebi,
klasikuri sisadave, Rrma ideuroba, maRali ostatoba. SemoqmedebiT muSaobas
poeti nayofierad uTavsebda udides sazogadoebriv-saxalxo moRvaweobas. ar
yofila CvenSi arc erTi sayuradRebo amocana, romlis gadawyvetaSi akakis aqti-
uri, xelmZRvaneli monawileoba ar mieRos.

cxovreba da moRvaweoba

akaki wereTeli daibada 1840 wels, 9 (21) ivniss zemo imereTis erT-erT ula-
mazes sofel sxvitorSi, saCxeris maxloblad. am soflis Sesaxeb TviTon poeti
wers: `sofeli sxvitori daba saCxeris nawilia da mdebareobs mdinare Cixuris pi-
rad, gaRma-gamoRma gorakebze~. am kekluc sofels dahyurebs maRal kldeze age-
buli Zveli cixe `modinaxe~, romelic akakis daxasiaTebiT, `cixeT-cixe, amayi ci-
xea~, mtrebis winaaRmdeg qarTveli xalxis gmiruli brZolebisa da mravali mware
droebis mowme.
STamomavlobiT akaki warCinebul feodalTa gvareulobas ekuTvnoda. wereT-
lebi cnobili Tavadebi iyvnen. saqarTvelos saistorio wyaroebsa da mxatvrul
literaturaSi xSirad gvxvdeba am gvaris gamoCenil pirTa saxelebi. cnobilia we-
reTelTa saCxerisa da sxvitoris Sto. akakis mama — rostom rostomis Ze wereTeli
sxvitoreli wereTlebis STamomavali iyo, erTaderTi memkvidre Tavisi mSoblebi-
sa. mamis adre gardacvalebis gamo saTanado swavla-ganaTleba ver miuRia. dedi-
serTa oboli bavSvi mometebulad Sin izrdeboda da ZiriTadad Sinauri swavla-ga-
naTlebiT dakmayofilebula. rostom wereTeli sakmaod Wkviani, gonebamaxvili da
moswrebuli mosaubre yofila, Wadrakis kargi moTamaSe. akaki igonebs: `mamaCemi,
Zlieri gonebis kaci iyo, moswrebuli da enamWevri, Tumca ki xSirad enamwarec. de-
daCemi ityoda xolme: `am Cems Svilebs mamamisis ena gamohyvaT daxurdavebulio~.
rostomi ojaxis saqmeebSi ar ereoda. miuxedavad misi axirebulobisa da gulficxi
xasiaTisa, sasaxleSi is qalbatonze ufro hyvarebiaT. gareSeebic siyvaruliT eq-
ceodnen Turme rostoms da `mTavrobac did pativsa scemda~.
akakis deda — ekaterine iyo cnobili feodalis ivane abaSiZis asuli. man mTeli
sicocxle qmar-Svilis erTgulebas Sealia. ekaterine metad gamrje, bejiTi, Wkvi-
ani da Sromismoyvare adamiani yofila. ojaxis mTel saqmes is ganagebda. dilidan
saRamomde gamudmebiT Sromobda. ekaterines didi Rvawli miuZRvis Svilebisa da,
kerZod, akakis gonivrul aRzrdaSi. igi ar anebivrebda Svilebs xSiri alersiTa da
xvevna-kocniT. ekaterine didad dainteresebuli yofila qarTuli literaturiT.
igi student Svils avalebda axali wignebis gamogzavnas. akaki mTeli sicocxlis
manZilze saTuTad atarebda dedisadmi Rrma pativiscemasa da usazRvro siyvaru-
lis grZnobas.
Zveli Cveulebis Tanaxmad, patara akaki aRsazrdelad ZiZas miabares maxlo-
bel sofel savaneSi. aq izrdeboda akaki ZiZis, glexis qalis, farsadan yanCavelis
meuRlis — mano saduniSvilis ojaxSi. glexis ojaxSi gabarebam udidesi roli Se-
asrula momavali poetis fizikur, zneobriv aRzrdasa da gonebriv ganviTareba-
ze. savaneSi akaki mTel dReebs atarebda glexebTan yanebSi, tyeSi saqonlis mov-
laSi. akaki Zlier afasebda soflad glexis ojaxSi mSromelTa SvilebTan gata-
rebul cxovrebas, laRi bunebis wiaRSi `pirveli Skolis gavlas.~ `ar SemiZlia ar
gamovtyde, rom Tu ki ram darCa CemSi keTili da kargi, ufro imis wyalobiT, rom
me sofelSi viyavi gabarebuli da glexebis SvilebTan erTad vizrdebodi.~
eqvsi wlis akaki mSoblebma ZiZas moaSores da mamis saxlSi daabrunes. sasaxleSi
akakis sruliad axali cxovreba unda daewyo. savaneSi glexis biWebTan cxovrebas
miCveul bavSvs sasaxleSi Tavdapirvelad moswyinda. dedam bavSvs glexis biWebi miu-
Cina gasarTobad. patara akaki dedis meTvalyureobiT aqac glexis biWebTan atareb-
da dros.
ufrosma dam, anam, patara akakis Seaswavla qarTuli wera-kiTxva. bavSvi xarbad
daewafa qarTuli wignebis kiTxvas, mas ramdenjerme gadaukiTxavs `vefxistyaosa-
ni.~
1850 wels akaki quTaisis gimnaziaSi miabares. maSindeli gimnaziebis mizans
ruseTis imperiis erTguli qveSevrdomebis aRzrda Seadgenda. saswavlebelSi ga-
mefebuli iyo fizikuri dasja, dasmena, mliqvneloba da saswavlo masalis uaz-
ro, meqanikuri dazepireba. akakize mZime STabeWdileba moaxdina saswavleblis
cxovrebam. miuxedavad amisa, akaki, rogorc gamorCeuli niWis axalgazrda, beji-
Tad swavlobda da klasidan klasSi qebis furclebiTa da sxvadasxva jildoTi
gadadioda.

79
gimnaziis meSvide, damamTavrebel klasSi yofnisas akakim gadawyvita saswav-
leblidan gamosvla da samxedro saswavlebelSi Sesvla. es azri poetma miiRo mi-
si sayvareli maswavleblis, poloneli rodzieviCis gavleniT. rodzieviCs aka-
kisTvis gaucvnia didi poloneli klasikosis, adam mickeviCis poemis Tavganwi-
ruli gmiri — konrad valenrodi da misi saarako ambavi. konradi mtris banakSi
gadavida, daeufla samxedro saqmes, uebro mxneobiT da gmirobiT maTi ndoba da-
imsaxura da xelT igdo mTavarsardloba da, bolos, moxerxebulad gamoiyena Ta-
visi mdgomareoba — Suri iZia mterze da misi jarebi gaanadgura, samSoblos ki
Tavisufleba moupova. akaki gaitaca samxedro samsaxurSi Sesvlis survilma da
valenrodiviT Tavisi qveynis daxsnis mizanma. mamam Svils samxedro saswavle-
belSi Sesvlis ganzraxva mouwona da akakimac gimnaziis daumTavreblad peter-
burgs miaSura, sadac samxedro samsaxurSi imyofeboda misi Zma iliko.
peterburgis qarTvel studentTa zegavleniT da gamoCenili qarTveli mec-
nieris general petre bagrationis rCeviT, akakim gulidan amoiRo adrindeli
ganzraxva da sabolood gadawyvita universitetSi Sesvla. igi Tavisufal msme-
nelad Cairicxa peterburgis universitetis aRmosavlur enaTa fakultetze. am
periodSi peterburgis universitetsa da sxva umaRles saswavleblebSi ramdeni-
me aTeuli qarTveli studenti swavlobda, maT Soris ilia WavWavaZe, niko RoRo-
beriZe, besarion RoRoberiZe da sxv. erTi wlis Semdeg peterburgSi Cavida aka-
kis siyrmis megobari kirile lorTqifaniZe, xolo 1861 wels qarTvel studen-
tTa wres Seematnen niko nikolaZe, giorgi wereTeli da sxv. qarTvel studentTa
meTauri da ideuri xelmZRvaneli ilia WavWavaZe iyo. studentobis wlebSi akaki
energiulad mecadineobda.
1861 wels peterburgSi daiwyo studentTa gamosvlebi. am moZraobaSi monawi-
leobas iRebda qarTveli studentobis mowinave jgufi. bevri maTgani daapatim-
res. kerZod, n. nikolaZe, k.lorTqifaniZe, g. wereTeli, b.RoRoberiZe da sxv. sapa-
timrodan ganTavisuflebis Semdeg zog maTgans aukrZales peterburgSi cxovreba,
maT Soris n. nikolaZes. peterburgSi aralegalurad mcxovreb n. nikolaZes TavSe-
safari akaki wereTelma misca.
peterburgis periodi metad nayofieri aRmoCnda akakis safuZvliani ganaT-
lebis, erovnuli TvalTaxedvis ganmtkicebis da poeturi kulturis amaRlebis
saqmeSi. akaki pirdapir damswre iyo ruseTis mowinave moazrovneTa gamosvlebi-
sa, azrTa mZafri Widilisa, romelsac 60-ian wlebSi adgili hqonda peterburgSi.
akaki wereTlis ideuri da politikuri kulturis Semdgomi ganviTarebis
saqmeSi garkveuli roli Seasrula peterburgis mowinave qarTvel studentTa
literaturul SemoqmedebiTma wrem. studentebis am wreSi poeti xSirad kiTxu-
lobda Tavis nawarmoebebs.
1862 wels akakim daamTavra sauniversiteto kursi da waradgina sakandidato
Sroma, dRevandeli gagebiT sadiplomo Sroma, `vefxistyaosnis~ originalobis
Sesaxeb. universitetma moiwona es naSromi, magram akakim ver waradgina gimnaziis
damTavrebis mowmoba, ris gamo man verc universitetis damTavrebis diplomi mi-
iRo.
akaki daqorwinda moskovSi da amis Semdeg dabrunda samSobloSi da Seudga
metad rTul da nayofier sazogadoebriv da SemoqmedebiT muSaobas.
eris interesebisaTvis mebrZolma poetma iaraRad kalami moimarjva da pirdapir
daudga aboboqrebul cxovrebas.
poeti ar daTanxmda Sesuliyo iseT samsaxurSic ki, romelsac cnobili qar-
Tveli moRvaweebic ar gaurbodnen. magaliTad, erT dros quTaisis saadgilmamu-
lo bankis sazogado krebam akakis erTxmad SeaZlia bankis direqtoroba, magram
poetma kategoriuli uari ganacxada am erTgvarad sapatio Tanamdebobis dakave-
baze. madlobis Semdeg krebas Tavisi uari Semdegnairad dausabuTa: `me rom di-

80
reqtoroba vikisro, sakuTrad me moxeleobas unda daudva guli da eg iqneba Cem-
Tvis borkili. Tumca oqros borkili CemTvis piradad sasargebloa, magram mainc
borkilia da im saqmeSi xelisSemSleli, romelsac me amdeni xani vemsaxurebi~.
akaki wereTeli samudamod darCa profesiul poetad. arsad samsaxurSi ar Se-
sula. mTeli sicocxle erovnuli Cagvrisagan samSoblos ganTavisuflebas da so-
cialuri usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolas Seswira.
da, marTlac, akaki friad nayofier SemoqmedebiT muSaobasTan erTad udides
sazogadoebriv da kulturul moRvaweobas eweoda. ar darCenila CvenSi im dros
arc erTi RirsSesaniSnavi Tu naklebad mniSvnelovani saqme, romelSic Tavisi
mniSvnelovani wvlili sityviT Tu saqmiT ar Seetanos: akakim uaRresad princi-
puli brZola Caatara cxovrebis konservatuli formebis da Zveli yofis winaaR-
mdeg. am SemTxvevaSi igi gverdiT edga meore did samocianels — ilia WavWavaZes.
man didi da nayofieri muSaoba gaswia mTel rig kulturul-saganmanaTlebo da-
wesebulebaTa dafuZnebisa da ganviTarebis saqmeSi.
akaki wereTels didi Rvawli miuZRvis axali qarTuli realisturi Teatris
ganaxlebasa da ganviTarebaSi. rusuli mmarTveloba yovelmxriv aviwroebda qar-
Tul kulturul-saganmanaTleblo da saswavlo-saaRmzrdelo dawesebulebebs,
maT Soris Teatrsac, romelsac ar hqonda sakuTari Senoba, saTeatro mowyobi-
loba, ar hyavda msaxiob-reJisorTa da dramaturgTa kadrebi. Tavis mogonebaSi
poeti werda: `erTxel ilia Semovida CemTan da miTxra: daviRupeTo!... Teatri xe-
lidan gamogvacales da ase kargad dawyebuli saqme unda SevaCeroT am sezonSi da
es xom daRupvaao!... mec Cemi guldawyveta gamovucxade. mere momibrunda da
miTxra, modi erTi Sen mohkide xeli am saqmeso~... ilias winadadebiT akakim ikisra
dasis direqtoroba, samxatvro nawilis xelmZRvaneloba. daiqirava Senoba, Semo-
ikriba msaxiobebi da gamarTa warmodgenebi. Semdeg wels iliasa da akakis inicia-
tiviT daarsda `qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoeba~, romelic mravali wlis man-
Zilze xelmZRvanelobasa da materialur daxmarebas uwevda qarTul Teatrs. aka-
ki am sazogadoebis gamgeobis Tavmjdomaris moadgiled airCies (Tavmjdomare
ilia WavWavaZe iyo).
akakis daxmarebiT qarTul scenas SeeZina mravali RirsSesaniSnavi moRvawe,
maT Soris gamoCenili msaxiobi mariam safarova, qarTuli Teatris reformato-
ri kote marjaniSvili da sxvebi. Tavisi mravali dramatuli TxzulebiT akakim
gaamdidra Teatris repertuari da qarTuli literatura.
gansakuTrebiT nayofieri muSaoba gaswia akaki wereTelma qarTuli periodu-
li presis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. poetis energiuli mxardaWeriT da monawileo-
biT daarsda im dros TiTqmis yvela Jurnal-gazeTi. akaki Tavisi SesaniSnavi
mxatvruli produqciiT, feletonebiT, publicisturi werilebiT, xalxuri Se-
moqmedebis nimuSebiTa da istoriul-literaturuli narkvevebiT asazrdoebda
qarTul presas. poeti TanamSromlobda iseT organoebSi, rogoric iyo: `ciska-
ri~, `droeba~, `krebuli~, `iveria~, `Temi~, `kvali~, `jejili~, `Teatri~ da sxv.
scemda Tavis sakuTar Jurnals — `akakis Tviuri krebuli~.
akaki wereTelma axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTarebis, srulyofi-
sa da damkvidrebis istoriul saqmeSi didi roli Seasrula. poeti Rrma principu-
lobiTa da TavdadebiT ibrZoda uniWobis moZalebis winaaRmdeg literaturaSi,
xalxisaTvis gasagebi, saerTo erovnuli literaturuli enis ganviTarebisa da
dacvisaTvis.
akaki wereTels saWirod miaCnda qarTuli literaturuli enis Sevseba, misi
gamdidreba saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi Semonaxuli sityvebiT da gamoTqme-
biT, magram im pirobiT, Tu aseTi enobrivi masala deda enis kanonebis Tanaxmad
iqneboda aRmocenebuli da mSobliuri enis bunebriv, kanonzomier ganviTarebas

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xels Seuwyobda. amasTanave, akaki gabedulad icavda mSobliur enas rusifikato-
ruli politikis mkacri Semotevisagan. poets Rrmad swamda, rom
`enaSi aris Zalac
saidumlo gonebis!
vinc dahkargavs, gaxdeba
wera sxvisi monebis~.
akaki wereTels yovelTvis izidavda xalxuri Semoqmedeba. mTeli sicocxlis
manZilze igi dauRalavad iRvwoda xalxuri sityvierebis Segrovebisa, Seswavli-
sa da gamocemisaTvis. `zepirsityvaoba, — werda poeti, aris sarke Cvenis warsu-
lis, rogorc xorcielis, ise sulieris cxovrebisa. imis dakargva, daviwyeba Cve-
ni sikvdilia da Tu sikvdili ar gvinda, unda male miveSveloT da SevagrovoT...
da bevrs margalits SeviZenT saSviliSvilod xelixel sagogmanebels~. akakis
iniciativiT daarsda folkloris Seswavlis specialuri fondi. garda amisa, Ta-
vis JurnalSi — `akakis Tviuri krebuli~ — man pirveli adgili folkloris beW-
dvas dauTmo.
akaki wereTeli iyo erT-erTi iniciatori `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis ga-
mavrcelebeli sazogadoebis~ daarsebisa, `qarTuli wignis gamomcemelTa amxana-
gobis~ da sxva kulturul-saganmanaTleblo sazogadoebaTa Seqmnisa. poeti
bevrs muSaobda `vefxistyaosnis~ saredaqcio komisiaSi.
akaki metad did da nayofier muSaobas eweoda sajaro leqciebisa da salite-
raturo saRamoebis CatarebaSi. akaki xalxis sayvareli leqtori, mxatvruli, ga-
mometyvelebiTi kiTxvis didi ostati da literaturuli saRamoebis mSveneba
iyo.
akaki sistematurad mogzaurobda saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi, qalaqebsa
da soflebSi, safuZvlianad swavlobda xalxis cxovrebas, mis miswrafebebs. akaki
qarTlis, kaxeTis, samegrelos, afxazeTis, guriisa da sxva kuTxeebis xSiri stumari
iyo. poetma triumfaluri mogzauroba Caatara raWa-leCxumSi da erTxel ewvia sva-
neTsac.
1908 wlis dekemberSi qarTvelma xalxma didi zeimiT gadaixada sayvareli po-
etis samwerlo-sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis ormocdaaTi wlis iubile. akaki we-
reTlis saxelovani moRvaweobis iubile saxalxo dResaswaulis niSniT Catarda
da ruseTis kolonialuri politikis winaaRmdeg protestis demonstraciad ga-
daiqca. TbilisSi zeimze saqarTvelos yoveli kuTxidan Camovidnen delegaciebi.
zeimSi monawileoba miiRes sxva xalxebis warmomadgenlebma. sayovelTao aRtace-
ba gamoiwvia scenaze didi vaJas gamoCenam da misma momxibvlelma leqsma, rome-
lic ase bolovdeboda:
`madlobeli var guliTa,
SoTais sulis lxenama,
samSoblos samsaxurisTvis
Cangi gikurTxos zenama~.
akakis saiubileo saRamoebi saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela qalaqsa da sofelSi
Catarda. didi sazeimo saRamoebi gaimarTa baqoSi, moskovsa da peterburgSi.
bolo dros akaki avadmyofobda. 1909 wels igi samkurnalod gaemarTa pariz-
Si. parizis gazeTebma gulTbili werilebi uZRvnes didebul qarTvel poets da
misi samSoblos gmirul istorias. safrangeTidan dabrunebuli akaki peterbur-
gsa da moskovSi imyofeboda da ruseTis orive did qalaqSi mas sagangebo Sexved-
rebi mouwyves.
1914 wlis bolos akakis dambla daeca. mis sanaxavad sxvitorSi sistematurad
modiodnen qarTveli sazogadoebis mowinave warmomadgenlebi. 1915 wlis 25 ian-
vars avadmyofs kvlav Caeqca sisxli tvinSi da Ramis pirvel saaTze akaki garda-

82
icvala. qarTvelma xalxma sayvareli poeti uRrmesi mwuxarebiTa da pativisce-
miT waasvena sxvitoridan Tbiliss da didi gloviT dakrZala mTawmindaze qar-
Tvel mweralTa da moRvaweTa panTeonSi.

akaki literaturisa da xelovnebis Sesaxeb . akaki wereTeli esTe-


tikis Teoretikosi ar yofila, magram werilebSi, recenziebSi, mxatvrul Semoq-
medebasa da sxva saxis nawerebSi araerTxel gauSuqebia da Camouyalibebia Tavisi
esTetikur-literaturuli Sexedulebani; gamouTqvams sayuradRebo mosazreba-
ni mwerlisa da mwerlobis daniSnulebis, misi mniSvnelobis, xasiaTis, mimarTu-
lebis, specifikisa da ideur-mxatvruli Rirsebis Sesaxeb. akakis kritikulma we-
rilebma, recenziebma, calkeulma statiebma, mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi gamoT-
qmulma Sexedulebebma da uaRresad mdidarma SemoqmedebiTma moRvaweobam udi-
desi roli Seasrula gasuli saukunis meore naxevarSi qarTuli esTetikuri az-
rovnebis ganviTarebisa da kritikuli realizmis damkvidrebis did istoriul
saqmeSi.
qarTuli literaturis Tavisebureba gasuli saukunis 60-ian wlebSi ganapi-
roba erovnuli da socialuri Cagvrisagan qveynis ganTavisuflebisaTvis brZo-
lis istoriulma procesebma. samSoblos siyvarulma, adamianis daCagrulma
mdgomareobam, `mTa-barobam uswormasworo cxovrebisa~, mSromelTa idealebis,
maTi `sanatrebisa~ da miswrafebebis, maTi glovisa da sixarulis, Wirisa da lxi-
nis, Zulebisa da siyvarulis aSkarad danaxvam da saxeobrivma gamoxatvam farTo
gasaqani pova realistur mxatvrul mwerlobaSi, xelovnebasa da publicistika-
Si, gamoiwvia qveynis samsaxurSi Cadgomis Zlieri miswrafeba, rameTu, samocia-
nelTa azriT, xalxia cxovrebis mamoZravebeli Zala, fesvi erovnebisa, fuZe
qveynisa da erovnebis didebisa. amitom aRiarebul iqna mwerlobis Rrma moqala-
qeobrivi da mebrZoli xalxurobiT STagonebuli paTosi. am periodSi gansakuT-
rebiT gamdidrda da gamravalferovnda literaturisa da xelovnebis Tematika,
sinamdvilis asaxva daiwyes Rrma ideuri, revoluciur-demokratiuli Tvalsaz-
risiT.
qarTvel samocianelTa SemoqmedebaSi erovnuli da socialuri motivebis
urTierTmWidro kavSirSi, koloniuri Cagvris gamwvavebis gamo, farTod aisaxa
nacionalur-ganmaTavisuflebuli brZolis motivi, koloniuri Cagvris winaaR-
mdeg brZolis paTosi, samSoblos siyvarulisa da mebrZoli patriotizmis su-
liskveTeba. es STagoneba samocianelTa TviTmyobadi Tvisebaa, maTi esTetikuri
mrwamsis ganxorcielebis qvakuTxedia. demokratiulma, mebrZolma, WeSmaritad
patriotulma idealebma ganapiroba mxatvruli literaturis Rrma ideuroba,
aamaRla misi sazogadoebrivi da politikuri funqcia. amis gamoa, rom samocia-
nel moRvaweebs mwerloba did saxalxo, qmediT Zalad miaCndaT. erovnuli da so-
cialuri Cagvris winaaRmdeg brZolaSi akaki wereTeli mTavar iaraRad mwerlobas
Tvlida. igi aRiarebda poeziis sabrZolo paToss: `kilo Cemis mwerlobisa, — acxa-
debda akaki, — sul sxvagvari iqneba: iseTs, iseTs davyef, rom kurdRlebi Cirgveb-
Si akankaldnen da mxecebi soroebidan gamoviyvano. gamoval RreniT Saragzazed
da vinc Rirsi iqneba, kunTebs gamovglej... vici, bevrjer mesvrian qvas... bevrje-
rac damitataneben, magram me mainc, sanam cocxali viqnebi, Cemsas ar moviSli: pata-
ra xel-fexis mslaqvel finiasaviT sxvis kalTaSi Tbilad wolas da nebivrobas Sa-
ra-gzazed yefis dros sikvdili mirCevnia.~
akaki wereTeli sazogado moRvawisagan, mwerlisagan moiTxovda SekavSirebu-
li ZaliT brZolas qveynis keTildReobisaTvis. am brZolaSi igi gansakuTrebul
mniSvnelobas aniWebda simarTlis mqadagebel mebrZol mxatvrul sityvas.
akaki wereTeli mwerals upirveles amocanad usaxavda sazogado saqmeze we-
ras, xalxis interesebis gamoxatvas da ara kerZo, sapirado xasiaTis sakiTxebi-
83
sadmi gamodevnebas. `is rom vTqvaT, — werda akaki, — romelime mazris ufrosi anu
msajuli ras sWams, ras svams, ras icvams an ras ixuravs, es, rasakvirvelia, kerZo
saqme iqneba, magram Tu ki isini sxvas staceben lukmas da ise sWamen, xalxs atyave-
ben da miT tans imosaven, amazed rom xma amoviRoT, es sazogado saqme iqneba da
ara sapirado da arc gvmarTebs morideba~. akaki sazogado moRvawisagan moiTx-
ovda Seupovarsa da piruTvnel moqmedebas, simarTlisaTvis Tavdadebas, msxver-
plis gaRebas.
akaki, rogorc TviTmyofadi xelovani, sxva qveynis moazrovneTa Sexedule-
bebs kritikulad swavlobda da SemoqmedebiTad iyenebda Tavis mdidar da mra-
valferovan SemoqmedebaSi. poeti gmobda brma mimbaZvelobas, literaturasa da
xelovnebaSi sxvaTa azrebisa da tradiciebis uniadago wamxedurobiT gadmotanas,
erovnuli cxovrebisagan mowyvetil literaturasa da xelovnebas. misi azriT, na-
sesxebi Tu originaluri ideebi da poeturi qmnilebani `mSobliuri xalxis dar-
jakSi~ unda iyos gatarebuli, mwerlis mier Rrmad Sesisxlxorcebuli, sakuTar
poetur quraSi gamowrTobili, sakuTari grZnoba-gonebiT awonili, sakuTari sis-
xliT nasazrdoebi da gazrdili. uamisod akakis SeuZleblad miaCnda namdvilad
TviTmyofadi erovnuli da sakacobrio mniSvnelobis literaturisa da xelovne-
bis WeSmariti ganviTareba.1
akaki, rogorc TviTon acxadebda, gmobda `wminda xelovnebas~ da masTan erTad
xelovnebis uarmyofel nihilistebs. akakis Sua gza hqonda arCeuli. yvelaze kolo-
ritulad Tavisi adrindeli esTetikuri Sexedulebani axalgazrda akakim gamoTqva
1865 wels `ciskarSi~ dabeWdil recenziaSi `raodenime sityva `Canguris~ Sesaxeb~,
romelic kirile lorTqifaniZis mier peterburgSi gamocemul qarTvel poetTa
leqsebis krebuls — `Congurs~ mieZRvna.
aRniSnuli werilis pirveli striqonebidanve igrZnoba axalgazrda Semoqme-
dis esTetikuri Sexedulebebis ZiriTadi Sinaarsi, misi azri xelovnebis daniS-
nulebis Sesaxeb. igi gmobs mwerlebis mier unayofo ocnebiT gatacebas, usagnod
cis laJvardSi mimofrenas, xalxis cxovrebisagan mowyvetas, usargeblo `tkbil-
xmovnebisadmi~ gamodevnebas. akaki aRiarebs sinamdvilis, yoveldRiuri WeSmari-
tebis asaxvas, mSromeli xalxis cxovrebis, misi yofis, sulis, fiqrebisa da mis-
wrafebebis gamoxatvas. amitomaa, rom poeti aRfrTovanebiT miesalma `Congurs~
da aRniSna: Canguri aris pirveli wigni, romelsac asxia qarTuli xorci, udgia
qarTuli suli, stiris da kvnesis qarTvelebis kvnesiT da maS raRa saeWvoa, rom
yovel rigian qarTvelT naTesavTaTvis sasixarulo iqnebao misi gamocema.2
am werilSi akakim `wminda xelovneba~, moZRvreba `xelovneba xelovnebisaT-
vis~ da am TeoriaTa mixedviT formis TviTmiznad aRiareba realuri cxovrebisa
da sazogadoebrivi interesebis nacvlad, usagno, ganyenebuli, Sinaarsisagan
daclili `tkbilxmovnebis~ gamodevneba Seadara bulbulis galobas, SaSvis
stvenasa da mercxlis WikWiks. yurs am frinvelTa galobac atkbobs da, maS, abso-
luturi xelovnebis mimdevrebma Citebic poetebad unda aRiarono, ironiulad
dasZenda recenzenti.
sagulisxmoa da mravlismetyveli, rom akakis Zalzed moswonda ilias sap-
rogramo leqsi `poeti~ da samarTlianad miiCnia igi didi azris, Rrma ideebis
Semcvelad. ilia am leqsiT mkacrad ilaSqrebda uideo, `tkbilxmovani Txzule-
bebis winaaRmdeg. akakim aRtacebiT miuTiTa leqsis Zalasa da STambeWdaobaze da
aRniSna: ai, ras niSnavs kacoba da ara bulbulobao~.
aRsaniSnavia, rom axalgazrda akaki am recenziaSi nawarmoebis mxatvrul mxa-
res TiTqos ver afasebs. igi ise gaitaca `wminda xelovnebis~ Tvalsazrisis kri-

1
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli 15 tomad, t.XIII, gv.356.
2
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli 15 tomad, t. XI, gv. 20.
84
tikam, rom ilia WavWavaZis leqsebis Sefasebisas dauSva erTgvari nihilisturi
xasiaTis Secdoma. igi werda: `Tu WavWavaZis leqsebSi marto xelovnebas mivaq-
cevT yuradRebas, maSin mis leqsebs ar eqneba didi Rirseba, magram Cven marto xe-
lovnebas ar veZebT... Cven veZebT Wkvian azrebs da amas kidevac vpoulobT WavWa-
vaZis leqsebSi~. amave werilSi ki akaki didad afasebda ilias da aRniSnavda: `ba-
raTaSvili da WavWavaZe swored erTs taxtzed sxdomis Rirsebi arian, erTis ga-
uwyvetelis jaWviT gadabmulebi erTi meorezed~.
akakis nihilisturma recidivebma Tavi iCina besikisa da zogierTi sxva qar-
Tveli mwerlis Semoqmedebis Sefasebisasac, roca poetma maTi leqsebi moclili
kacis sasmenelTa damatkbobel saSualebad miiCnia.1
mogvianebiT poetma Tavisi pozicia da damokidebuleba zogierTi mwerlis
mimarT gadasinja da gulwrfelad aRiara: mesamoce wlebSi ruseTidan dabrune-
bulebs nihilistobis safuari cotad Tu bevrad yvelas gvqonda modebuli da
mitomac gagviZnelda xalxis daaxloeba ise male, rogorc Cven gvindoda da gve-
gonao.2
Tavisi Semoqmedebis mTavr sagnad akakis erovnuli da socialuri Tematika
miaCnda, xolo brZolis maxvil iaraRad ki — mwerloba. didi patrioti litera-
turasa da xelovnebas udides politikur, socialur da erovnul-moqalaqeob-
riv funqcias akisrebda da es kredo man praqtikuli SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobiT
ganaxorciela kidec. poetis rwmeniT, literaturam realuri cxovreba unda asa-
xos Tavisi mravalferovnebiT, gamoavlinos adamianTa urTierTobis manamde miC-
qmaluli aspeqtebi da Sexedos samyaros ara rogorc erTxel da samudamod moce-
mulsa da dadgenil statuss, aramed, rogorc ganviTarebadsa da cvlads. aqedan
gamomdinare, gasagebia, rom akaki mwerlisagan moiTxovda ara marto cxovrebis,
xalxisa da sazogadoebriv urTierTobaTa mxatvrul asaxvas, aramed am movlenaTa
axsnasac, Sefasebas, msjavris dadebas, aqtiuri rolis Sesrulebas cxovrebis gar-
daqmnaSi.
aRiarebda literaturis ideuri sisavsis aucileblobas, magram poeti amave
dros gadaWriT uaryofda mxatvrulad mdare da sinamdvilis ubralo fotogra-
fiul aRweras; meqanikuri gadaReba yovelive imisa, rac cxovrebaSi xdeba, kriti-
kuli realizmi rodia. poeti acxadebda: `zogierTebi sazogadod im azrisa ari-
an, rom realizmi moiTxovs mwerlobaSi mxolod protokolur aRwerilobas
umet-naklebod, ise rogorc xedavs da esmis mwerals. ase rom, iq Tavisi ar unda
gaurios rao... es rom ase iyos, maSin fotografiul suraTebs upiratesoba eqne-
bodaT xelovnebiT mxatvrobaze da ubralo fotografi emjobineboda gamoCe-
nil mxatvars rafaels, magram es ase ar aris. marTalia, fotografia sworad aR-
wers, erT fiorsac ar daaklebs, magram ganmaxorcielebel suls ver Caudgams
imas, rasac mibaZviT uaxlovdeba da xelovani mxatvari ki imisTana ram damaxasia-
Tebel niSans aiRebs, SeurCevs misTana wams grZnoba-gonebis gamomxatvelobisasa,
rom suls Caudgams da ganaxorcielebs naxats. amaSia misi Semoqmedebis saidum-
lo Zala, romelsac ufro swrafgadamRebi, magram usulo fotografi ver mis-
wvdeba~. `poeti konkretulad saubrobs mwerlis movaleobaze, mis mxatvrul Se-
saZleblobebze. `niWierma mweralma stenografiulad ki ar unda gadaiRos yve-
laferi, rac gaigona da naxa, aramed Caweros, ara asisa, aTasi sityva-frazisagan
unda airCios masalebi, romelnic ukeT daaxasiaTeben misgan aRebul sagans, ra-
sakvirvelia, SemoqmedebiTi ZaliT~. am mosazrebaTa mixedviT akaki samarTlian
moTxovnebs uyenebda samoRvaweo asparezze gamosul mwerals: igi dajildoebu-
li unda iyos poeturi STagonebiT — `niWi unda hqondes~, saWiroa iyos `naswavli

1
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet tomad, t. XI, gv. 25.
2
iqve, gv.22.
85
da ganviTarebuli~, Rrmad icodes da `Seswavlili hqondes is ena, romelzedac
apirebs weras~, unda axasiaTebdes gulwrfeloba, xalxis siyvaruli, `Tavis Tavs
ise unda uyurebdes, rogorc mociqulsa da qveynis moZRvars~, iyos uSiSari,
principuli, obieqturi, Seupovari, `rasac xalxs eubneba, is unda guliswmindiT
iyos naTqvami... piradoba Seswiros sazogados da mzad iyos, rom gaWirveba da
usamarTloba aitanos~.1
akaki fiqrobda, rom sityvakazmul mwerlobaSi maRal gemovnebas unda Seer-
wyas zomierebis grZnoba, azrma unda Seiguos gamoxatvis forma. mSobliuri enis
leqsikuri Semadgenlobis Rrma morevidan saWiro da moxdenili sityvebis SerCe-
vasTan erTad mweralma unda zomierad gamoiyenos da sizustiT moargos saT-
qmels idiomuri Tqmebi. mTavaria, — fiqrobs poeti, — pirvel mcnebad gaixados
yvela mweralma azrisa da sityvis zusti Sesabamisoba; zedmeti sityva mwerloba-
Si, ise rogorc zedmeti xazi mxatvrobaSi, miuRebelia. `gaberili, gabrtyelebu-
li da bundovani~ sityvebi da gamoTqmebi amaxinjebs mxatvrul nawarmoebs. akakis
miaCnia, rom mweralma urTulesi azri martivad da sadad unda miitanos mkiTxve-
lamde. amiT izomeba mwerlis Zala da ostatobis xarisxi. yoveli faqizi niuansi-
saTvis saTanado sityvaTa jgufis an sintagmis SerCeva, `sityvis umetnakleboba
niWierebis saswor-sazomia. niWiereba ori-sami sityviT gamoTqvams imas, rasac
Zaldatanebuli, viTom niWieri ramdenime striqons moandomebs. zomiereba iq Se-
Cerdeba, sadac uniWoba Tavs ver Seikavebs da gaaWianurebs saubars~.2 sityvaTa
brZnul, niWier da genialur SerCeva-gamoyenebisa da azris mokled, lakoniu-
rad, STamagoneblad da dinamikurad gadmocemis etalonad akaki SoTa rusTa-
vels asaxelebs da mas mweralTa misabaZ magaliTad saxavs. akakis Rrma rwmeniT,
Txzuleba `utyuari... umetnaklebo, sworxazi unda iyos~. `WeSmariti lakonuro-
ba ak. wereTels xelovnebisa da literaturis erT-erT mTavar niSnad da Tvise-
bad miaCnda~.3
poetis azriT, leqsi xalxis STamagonebelia, `poezia RvTis cecxliTa da uk-
vdavebis wyaroTi momzadebuli sazrdoa. igi adamianis grZnoba-gonebis gasavi-
Tareblad, maTze zemoqmedebis mosaxdenad, aRfrTovanebis Semqmnel Zalad ga-
moiyeneba. `leqsi ra leqsia, Tu rom guls ar daesoba~. xelovnebas, `leqss aqvs
Tavisi kanonebi da Tavisi saidumlo~. madliani poeturi sityva mkiTxvelsac imas
unda ganacdevinebdes, rac avtors ganucdia da ugrZvnia. `mweralma Tu Tavisi
grZnoba sxvasac agrZnobina da Tavis mRelvarebiT sxvac aaRelva — kmara, meti
raRa unda mas~.4 xelovnebis `momxiblavma Zalam~ unda gaitacos yvela.5 poeti mi-
uTiTebs, rom `namdvili da niWieri mwerali is aris, romelic Zalauneburad, Ta-
visTavad ikvlevs gzas mkiTxvelis gulisaken da gulis ficarze dauviwyar asoe-
biT ibeWdeba, imitom, rom nawerSi yovelgvari kanonia mwerlobis daculi~.6 nam-
dvilad momxiblavi da STambeWdavi nawarmoebi ise umetnaklebod unda iyos Ses-
rulebuli, rogorc `oboli margaliti Tanasworad asxmul yelsabamad~.7 poeti
sastikad ebrZvis arabunebriv, gazviadebul, uferul xelovnebas, realisturi
xelovnebis miucilebel Tvisebad racxs formis sisadaves, bunebriobas, misaw-
vdomobasa da sinatifes. arabunebrivi mokazmuloba da Seferadeba ucxoa WeSma-
riti xelovnebisaTvis: `xelovneba TavisTavad, martivad mSvenierebaa da Zlie-
reba, rogorc mzeTunaxavs ar eWirveba fer-umarili da morTva-mokazmva, ise arc

1
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIII, gv. 325.
2
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIV, gv. 444.
3
d . g a m e z a r d a S v i l i , narkvevebi qarTuli realizmis istoriidan, t. II, 1967, gv. 5 8 0 .
4
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIII, gv. 350.
5
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIV, gv. 442.
6
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIII, 446.
7
iqve, gv. 447.
86
xelovnur nawarmoebs — zedmeti sityva-kazmuloba da gacveTili azrebiT gael-
fereba. es ubralo WeSmaritebaa~. akakis rwmeniT, Rrmaazrovani da formiT
srulyofili `xelovneba mSvenierebaa da mSvenierebis Tayvaniscema upirvelesi
locvaa kacisaTvis~, xolo WeSmariti mwerali xalxis moZRvaricaa da mkurna-
lic: `es ori Zala da Rirseba, werda poeti, rogorc mkurnalisa, ise moZRvari-
sac, erTad unda hqondes SeTvisebuli mwerals. erTsa da imave dros umoZRvreb-
des da samkurnalo wamalsac aZlevdes xalxs. unda daufaravad amxeldes mis avsa
da kargs sazogadoebas... visac es ar SeuZlian, is nurc gamodis sazogado aspa-
rezzed~.
sainteresoa akakis azri mecnierebisa da xelovnebis erovnuli Tavisebure-
bebisa da TviTmyofobis Sesaxeb. `mecnierebasa da xelovnebas arc sazRvari aqvs
da arc sakuTreba ician, yvelas sazogadod ekuTvnian, magram samSoblo ki aqvT
da es ukanasknelia sasaxelo saerTod~. cxadia, poeti xelovnebisa da mecniere-
bis miRwevebs msoflio sakuTrebad miiCnevs, kacobriobis kulturuli saganZu-
ris kuTvnilebad aRiarebs. namdvili xelovneba erovnul sazRvrebs gadalaxavs
da moemsaxureba mTel msoflios. magram es imas rodi niSnavs, rom xelovnebasa
da mecnierebas sakuTari samSoblo ar gaaCndeT, piriqiT: xelovnebas aqvs garkve-
uli samSoblo da amiT xdeba igi sakacobrioc. literaturasa da mecnierebas Tu
samSoblo ar gaaCnia, eris geniisa da cxovrebis niadagze ar warmoSobila, eris
suliT, miswrafebebiTa da idealebiT ar aRzrdila, igi msoflio Sedevric ver
gaxdeba. WeSmariti xelovneba, upirveles yovlisa, `garkveuli eris geniis Sedev-
ria, misi xalxis sulieri saunjea~. `TiToeul ers Tavisi sakuTari, erTi meori-
sagan gansxvavebuli saxe aqvs da maT literaturasac, rogorc sarkes ama Tu im
erisas, gansakuTrebuli elferi unda edvas. Cveni mwerlobac utyuari sarke un-
da iyos qarTvelobisa: Sig unda isaxebodes saqarTvelos mravalferovani buneba
misi miwa-wyaliT, mTa-bariT, tye-veliT da sxvani. qarTvelis grZnoba-goneba
xorcSesxmulad unda moZraobdes Sig umetnaklebod, zomierad; awmyo warsuls
unda eTanxmebodes da orive erTad ki momavlisaken miiwevdes. Tu es ar iqneba,
Cveni mwerlobac umniSvnelo iqneba, rogorc ubralo ram usaxo landi~. Semdeg
iqve agrZelebs akaki, rom literaturas `Tavisi mSobliuri sarCul-sapire eWir-
vebao~.1 akaki mkacrad ekideba yvelas, vinc ver amCnevs, an ar surs dainaxos erov-
nuli literaturis TviTmyobadi damaxasiaTebeli da specifikuri Tavisebure-
bani, erovnuli safuZveli da mniSvneloba msoflio literaturis ganviTareba-
Si. ugvartomo kosmopolitebis winaaRmdeg poeti amtkicebda, rom nacionaluri
literatura SeuZlebeliao aRorZindes eris specifikuri pirobebis, misi suli-
eri cxovrebis Seswavla-asaxvis gareSe. eris cxovreba da miswrafeba literatu-
ris sarCul-sapirea da erovnuli TviTmyobadi literatura SeuZlebelia arse-
bobdes am `sarCul-sapires~ gauTvaliswineblad. am garemoebis ugulebelyofiT
mwerloba Tavis saxes dakargavs, igi `umniSvnelo iqneba, rogorc ubralo ram
usaxo landi~. poeti aRiarebda aucileblis, progresulis, kargisa da sasargeb-
los sistematurad Seswavlas, kritikul aTvisebas, Segnebul `gadmoyvanasa~ da
`gadmonergvas~ mowinave qveynebidan, magram, poetis rwmeniT, `am Sromasac Tavisi
Sesaferisi wesrigi da kanoni aqvs: jer niadagi unda moumzadoT, Torem umisod
nergi ar ixarebs~.2 cnobilia, rom b. belinski mwerals mTeli sazogadoebis idu-
mal fiqrTa mpyrobelad Tvlida.3 akakis azriTac, mwerali mTeli xalxis moZRva-
ri, aRmzrdeli da mwvrTnelia: mwerals, rogorc qveynis did moZRvars, yurs ug-
deben aw da maradis da amitomac misi movaleoba da sarbieli didia. mweralma saku-
Tari piradoba sazogados unda Seswiros, radganac `ciuri niWi qveynis samsaxu-
1
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t.XIV, gv. 29-30.
2
iqve, gv. 30
3
b . b e l i n s k i , rCeuli Txzulebani, t. III, 1948, gv. 792.
87
rad aris gaCenili da ara sapiradod~. akakis aRniSnuli Sexeduleba uaRresad
amaRlebs mwerlisa da mwerlobis avtoritets, mis udides mniSvnelobasa da fun-
qcias xalxis cxovrebaSi.
mxatvruli nawarmoebis Seqmnisas poetis erT-erTi ZiriTadi `mizani misawvdo-
mi, gasagebi da naTeli xatis SeqmnaSi mdgomareobda da swored es misawvdomoba da
sicxade aris akakis xatovanebis uZiriTadesi niSan-Tviseba~.1 akaki gmobda naCqa-
rev, daumuSavebel da moumwifebel azrsa da grZnobamoklebul Txzulebebs; am-
gvar nawarmoebs igi adarebda bavSvisTvis gakeTebul saTamaSo sastvens da usul-
gulo xelovneba, xelovnebis aCrdilad, usargeblo drois kargvad miaCnda. poets
swamda, rom WeSmaritad mxatvruli ram jer mwerlis arsebaSi mwifdeba, gadaixar-
Seba, mwerlis SemoqmedebiTs brZmedSi SemuSavdeba da bolos da bolos guliT
didxans natarebi, grZnobasa da gonebaSi Rrmad damuSavebuli ibadeba. `rasac da
razedac wers mwerali, — acxadebs akaki, — Tu is gulSi didxans ar utarebia, saku-
Tari grZnoba-gonebiT ar usazrdoebia da Tavis droze ar warmouSobavs, garegnu-
lad mSvenieric rom iyos, sruli mainc ar eTqmis~.2 mwerali sakuTari Semoqmedebi-
Ti praqtikiT iZleoda imis naTel magaliTs, Tu ra didi Tavdadeba, titanuri ru-
duneba, Rrma codna, farTo ganaTleba da SemoqmedebiTi wvaa saWiro WeSmariti
mwerlobis warmoqmnisaTvis.
am moTxovnebs akaki uyenebda yvela mwerals: `rac ufro didi niWis patronia
kaci, ufro meti Sroma, swavla, ganaTleba da Tavdadeba sWirdeba Tavis samwer-
lo moRvaweobis pirnaTlad SesrulebisaTvis. ra aris marto niWi, Tu Tanve ar
exleba Sromismoyvareoba da gulwrfeloba~. poetis azriT, niWiT dajildoebu-
li mweralic ver Seasrulebs Tavis mowodebas, Tu ar eqna dauRalavi Sromis una-
ri, udidesi pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba, patriotuli Tavdadeba, Rrma codna da
farTo erudicia. `zogierTebs gaugoniaT, rom mwerlisaTvis zegardmo STagone-
baa saWiro da is aRar ician, rom imasac kibe eWirveba maRliT Camosasvlelad da
es kibe aris, niWis garda swavla, codna da Sromismoyvareoba~.3 akakis es Sexedu-
leba uaRresad principuli da safuZvliania, igi arasodes dakargavs Tavis did
mniSvnelobas. damwyeb poetebs akaki garkveviT eubneboda: `niWi getyobaT, magram
ganviTareba gakliaT da gauwvrTnelad niWi ra gamosadegia? xom gagigoniaT: uW-
kuo, magram naswavli da ganviTarebuli — maRla-maRla mfrinavi kaWkaWiao, Wkvia-
ni, magram uswavleli da uvici — jaWviT dabmuli lomio~.4 sxva SemTxvevaSi ki po-
eti acxadebda: `ganuviTarebeli niWi frTaSekvecili Sevardenia, romelic maR-
la veRara hfrens da dabla siarulsac ver axerxebs~, da dasZenda: `rogorc yva-
vili uciurnamod, ise niWi usulier-sazrdod sWkneba da nayofi veRar moaqvs~.5
poeti mkacrad akritikebda da mwared dascinoda im crurwmeniT gabruebul mo-
leqseebs, romlebic darwmunebulni arian, rom maTTvis swavla-ganaTleba da
grZnoba-gonebis ganviTareba sruliad saWiro ar aris, radganac isini zegardmo
CagonebiT arian gamsWvalulni da RmerTi elaparakeba maT! . . sakvirvelia, — das-
Zens poeti — `naxevar saukuneze metia, rac me leqsebs vwer, sxva xeloba ara maqvs
da erTxelac ar maxsovs, rom RmerTi damlaparakebodes!~.6 zemoaRniSnuli `poe-
tebis~ didi Secdoma is gaxldaT, rom isini gulubryvilod afasebdnen poeziisa
da poetis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb adre gavrcelebul warmodgenebs, ar uwevdnen
angariSs axali epoqis Sexedulebebs da uaryofdnen swavla-ganaTlebasa da poe-
ziaSi sakuTari mimarTulebis saWiroebas. marTalia, ilia mimarTavda gamoTqmas:

1
g r . k i k n a Z e , literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, 1978, gv. 314.
2
a . w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sr. krebuli, 1961, t. XIII, gv. 355.
3
iqve, gv. 31.
4
iqve, gv. 326.
5
a . w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sr. krebuli, 1961, t. XV, gv. 194.
6
a . w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIV, gv. 565-566.
88
`RmerTTan misTvis vlaparakob”, `me ca mniSnavs” da sxv. da amasTanave ilia da
akaki erTad acxadebdnen: poezia `ciuri niWia” da sxv. magram isini Sors idgnen
mwerlobis mistikuri da `romantikuli idealizmis gagebisagan” da, rogorc kri-
tikuli realizmis did mesveurebs, `Tavisi drois literaturuli vulgariza-
torebisagan gansxvavebiT... esmodaT, rom poezia Tavisi warmoSobiT, Tavisi bu-
nebiT aris adamianis maRali sulieri moTxovnilebis, misi SemoqmedebiTi geniis,
misi amaRlebis, mSvenierebisadmi, idealurisadmi swrafvis gamosxiveba~.1 maT
swamdaT, rom `poetsa xalxi dahbadavs da xalxis cxovreba ZuZus awovebs~.2
bunebamdidar kacs, rac ufro meti niWi aqvs, ufro meti masala eWirveba
grZnoba-gonebis gasaxurveblad, rom aenTos, midamos Suqi mohfinos, gaanaTos
da garemos siTbo ar gamoulioso — dasZenda akaki, magram namdvili mwerlisaT-
vis es yvelaferi rodia! WeSmariti xelovanis Tvisebad akakis miaCnda maRali
ideuroba, swori mimarTuleba, poeturi STagoneba, talanti, gulwrfeli Sinaga-
ni wva. xelovani unda iwvodes, rogorc patruqi, vinaidan `rac ar iwvis, ar ana-
Tebs~. amas rom werda, akaki qvecnobierad Tavis Tavs gulisxmobda: igi xom wmin-
da sanTlad enTo misi xatis — samSoblos winaSe da Suqs saxatesac — mTel qveyni-
erebasac hfenda.

akaki wereTlis mxatvruli Semoqmedeba. akaki wereTelma mdidari


SemoqmedebiTi memkvidreoba dagvitova. mis kalams ekuTvnis mravali origina-
luri, gadmokeTebuli da naTargmni Txzuleba.
akaki wereTeli axal qarTul literaturaSi kritikuli realizmis udidesi
warmomadgenelia. ilia WavWavaZesTan erTad man umaRles safexurze aiyvana mecx-
ramete saukunis meore naxevris qarTuli mwerloba.

akaki wereTlis lirika. akaki wereTeli, pirvel yovlisa, didi lirikosia. mi-
si lirikuli Sedevrebi Rrmad erovnuli da sakacobrio mniSvnelobisaa. `akakis
leqsebi gverdSi amoudga msoflio mwerlobas~ (al.xaxanaSvili). poetma Tavisi Se-
moqmedebiTi cxovreba lirikuli poeziiT daiwyo da imTaviTve miipyro xalxis yu-
radReba. gasuli saukunis samocian wlebSi erTbaSad cxadi gaxda, rom qveyanas moev-
lina sruliad axali poeturi samyaro, romlis fuZemdeblebi ilia da akaki iyvnen.
akakis lirikiT moxiblulma xalxma zepirad daiswavla poetis Sedevrebi, didi ga-
tacebiT aqcia isini tkbil simRerebad da momavlisaTvis brZolaSi win gaimZRvara.
lirika akakis stiqiaa. poetis mTel SemoqmedebaSi: poemebSi, moTxrobebSi, drama-
tul nawerebSi, publicistikaSi uxvadaa CarTuli lirikuli grZnobiT savse mRel-
vare leqsebi, rac kidev ufro amdidrebda mis memkvidreobas momajadoebeli li-
rizmiT.
akakis mTeli Semoqmedeba da maT Soris lirika STagonebulia maRali moqala-
qeobrivi interesebiT, qveynis erovnuli da socialuri Cagvris winaaRmdeg brZo-
lis idealebiT, samSoblosa da xalxis Rrma siyvaruliT, xalxurobiT, demokra-
tizmiT, mebrZoli humanizmiTa da optimizmiT. akakis leqsebSi pirvelad aisaxa
mSromeli glexobisa da samSoblos amaRelvebeli realisturi suraTebi. maTSi
didi mxatvruli ostatobiT da maRalemociurobiT asaxulia qarTveli xalxis mo-
winave miswrafebani, sibrZne, daucxrobeli mebrZoli suli, didi tradiciebi, gmi-
roba da vaJkacoba, sixaruli da aRtaceba, mwuxareba da tanjva, risxva da imedi.
akakis lirika samSoblos Tavisuflebis, misi bednieri momavlis, sicocxlis, si-
naTlis, silamazis, siyvarulisa da ubiwoebis didebuli himnia, xolo borotebis,

1
g . a s a T i a n i , vefxistyaosnidan baxtrionamde, 1974, gv. 200-201.
2
i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. III, gv. 45.
89
sibnelis, Cagvris, simaxinjisa da biwierebis mrisxane laxvari da mowamluli isaria.
akakis lirika WeSmariti politikuri lirikis nimuSia. igi momavlis daucxromeli
simReraa.
akakis lirika gamoirCeva maRali ideuri sisavsiT, didi mxatvruli ostatobiT,
iSviaTi simsubuqiT, naTeli plastikuri saxeebiT, trfoba-siyvaruliT gamTbari
alersiani, guliTadi wminda xalxuri melodiebiTa da sagalobeli kilo-intonaci-
ebiT. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia mdidari metrika, momxiblavi riTmebi, sisadave, moq-
nili, ankara wyarosTvaliviT spetaki sufTa da gamWvirvale poeturi stili, mdida-
ri ena. akakis lirikis saerTo xasiaTs savsebiT Seesabameba poetis sityvebi: poezia
ucnauri ciuri xma da locvaa (`ocneba Tarze~), xolo qveynis orgulTaTvis Sxam-
naRveli da Zirmwarea.
qarTul literaturismcodneobaSi akaki samarTlianadaa aRiarebuli, ro-
gorc fuZemdebeli axali realisturi poetikisa, man `mTebi dasdga margalitebis~
(galaktioni). didma iliam `eris rCeuli~ uwoda akakis, romlis leqsebis qnari at-
kbobs xalxis grZnoba-gonebas. gamoCenilma pedagogma iakob gogebaSvilma akaki
daaxasiaTa, rogorc `ialbuzi qarTuli poeziisa~, xolo artur laistis azriT,
akaki TviTmpyrobeli meufe iyo poeziisa. didma mecnierma eqvTime TayaiSvilma
akakis `poeziis qurumi~ uwoda. gamoCenilma mkvlevarma vaxtang kotetiSvilma Ta-
vis droze aRniSna: akakis poezia `es rekaa alionis zarisa, mzisken miaxloebas rom
maxaroblobs;~ xolo cnobilma poetma aleqsandre abaSelma akakisadmi miZRvnil
leqsSi (`akakis~) aRniSna: `sdgas saqarTvelo oqros TasiviT, Seni leqsebis neqta-
riT savse~. akakis lirika qarTuli poeturi geniis mSvenebaa. igi maradiuli mov-
lenaa, erisa da kacobriobis mxatvruli sityvis uWknobi ganZia.
akakim bavSvobidanve daiwyo Sairebis gamoTqma. Tormeti wlisam dedis pativ-
sacemad ezos auzis qvis magidaze daawera akrostiquli leqsi. Semdeg, Wabukobi-
sas, ukve `ciskarSi~ aqveynebda leqsebs: `gabrwyindi Cemo kandelo~, `p.w,~, `Cems
veneras~, `navi~ da sxv. maTSi poeti erTgvar xarks uxdida romantikosTa gar-
kveul tradiciebs da cxovrebis ukuRmarTobis mimarT gamoxatavda sevdasa da
mwuxarebas. mas aRelvebs sikvdil-sicocxleze dafiqreba, iswrafvis cxovrebaSi
tkboba-siamisaken da gamoxatavs mSobliuri qveynis siyvaruls. leqsSi `gab-
rwyindi Cemo kandelo~ xanmokle, wamieri sicocxlis simbolod gamoyenebulia
anTebuli sanTeli, Ramisa da sibnelis damTrgunveli naTeli, sinaTle, gabrwyin-
vebuli kandeli, romelic `iwvis da TandaTan sdneba~. analogiuri saxeebi ufro
amaRlebul formebSi xSiria akakis SemoqmedebaSi, mag., `xatis win~ da sxv. TiTqos
poeti ar emorCileba swrafwarmavali cxovrebis bneleTs, ukuRmarT xvedrs da
acxadebs:
`gabrwyindi, Cemo kandelo,
minaTle bneli Ramisa!...~
amgvari ganwyobilebiT Wabuki poeti TiTqos exmaureba n. baraTaSvils.
leqsi `p.w~ daTariRebulia 1858 wlis 7 seqtembriT, xelmowerilia inicia-
liT `w~ da dabeWdilia Jurnal `ciskarSi~ 1859 w. 3. `ciskris~ amave nomerSi, aka-
kis leqsTan erTad daibeWda ilias leqsi: `mec Sav Tvalebs~.
friad nayofieri iyo akakis poeturi SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweoba studento-
bis periodSi. misi leqsebi xSirad ibeWdeboda `ciskarSi~. am drois leqsebma aka-
kis didi popularoba moutana da 20-22 wlis Wabukma erTbaSad uniWieresi poetis
saxeli, sayovelTao aRiareba da siyvaruli daimsaxura. am drois leqsebidan gan-
sakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia `saidumlo baraTi~, `qarTvlis salami~, `Zvel samefos~,
`amao Zebna~, `dedam rom Svili gazardos~, `salamuri~, `muSuri~, `sabralo guli~,
`lodini~, `apelaciis mcodne~, `futuro~, `fariseveli~ da sxv. mokrZalebuli po-
eti adre Tavis leqsebs avtoris xelmouwerlad, inicialebiT beWdavda, ar surda

90
Tavisi saxelisa da gvaris gamJRavneba, magram misdauneburad da Seutyoblad ma-
inc aSkara gaxda avtoris vinaoba. pirveli leqsi, romelic avtoris saxelisa da
gvaris xelmoweriT gamoqveynda, iyo `saidumlo baraTi~. `saidumlo baraTi~ akakis
lirikis erT-erTi Sedevria. igi trfobis mwveli grZnobiT gamTbari leqsia, tkbi-
li emociebiT aRsavse. dawerilia msubuqi, sada da gulSi Camwvdomi poeturi xil-
viT, suraTovania. amitom dabeWdvisTanave iqca igi sasimRero leqsad, satrfialo
himnad. saerTo mowonebasTan erTad arqaistebi iwunebdnen leqsis `mdabio, raRac
soflur enas~ da sTxovdnen poets `darbaisluris eniT wereo~.
ase daiwyo da gaiSala poetis didi SemoqmedebiTi muSaobis gza poeziis
mwvervalebisaken.
akakis mTeli Semoqmedeba, da kerZod lirika, mravalferovania. masSi, ro-
gorc iTqva, gansaxierebulia epoqis mwvave problemebi, erovnuli da socialuri
motivebi, mebrZoli patriotizmi, mSobliuri enisa da xalxTa Soris megobrobis
sakiTxebi, poetis da poeziis daniSnulebis sakiTxi, qalis, silamazis da siyvaru-
lis Taviseburi saxe, xasiaTi, funqcia da sxv.
akaki wereTelma realisturi Sexedulebebi mwerlisa da mwerlobis daniSnu-
lebis Sesaxeb gamoxata ara marto mraval publicistur-kritikul werilsa, sa-
jaro gamosvlasa da sityvaSi, aramed, upirveles yovlisa, Tavis lirikul leq-
sebSi: `poeti~, `Canguri~, `zRvao, aReldi, aReldi~, `pasuxi~, `poetis programa~,
`rCeva~ da sxv. akaki mwerlisagan moiTxovda brZolas qveynis keTildReobisaT-
vis. am brZolaSi igi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebda simarTlis mqadage-
bel mxatvrul sityvas:
`sityva igiv Tesli aris,
norCi guli miwa-xnuli
da abibin-amwvandeba,
rom mouva gazafxuli~.
magram akaki yovelgvar sityvas ar aniWebda Rirsebas, igi ebrZoda usagno
mwerlobas da moiTxovda drosa da cxovrebis pirobebTan Sefardebul mebrZol
sityvasa da qmediT saqmes.
`mwerloba zneobiTi da gonebiTi mesarkeobaa. nawerSi, rogorc sarkeSi, naT-
lad unda isaxebodes mwerlis Tanadrouloba misi siswor-simrudiT; rom sais-
torio suraTebi gadaeces momaval droebas da rogorc sarkeSi is ixateba, rac
mxolod mis garSemoa da rac mas gulSi Cahyurebs, ise poetis nawerSiac imas unda
vxedavdeT, rac mis guls, rogorc xalxis Tanaziars mohxvedria, da maSasadame,
mwerals neba ara aqvs, rom yoveldRiur saerTo movlinebas, ragind wvrilmanic
iyos, Tvali aaridos. rac ufro niWieria poeti, ufro Zlierad eqvemdebareba am
zemomoyvanil pirobebs~.
akakis azriT, poeti `garemoebis sayviria~. es Sexeduleba poetisa da poeziis
Sesaxeb man mkafiod gamoxata leqsSi `poeti~, romelSic igi werda:
`es guli, sarked qceuli,
bunebis naTavxedia,
mxolod mis saxes giCvenebT,
rasac Sig Cauxedia;
enac mas ambobs, rac smenas
sxvisagan gaugonia,
an Tvals unaxavs da Wkuas
gauzom-auwonia!~
akaki wereTels swams, rom poeziis ZiriTadi daniSnuleba simarTlisadmi sam-
saxursa da mowinave, wminda azrebis ganmtkicebaSi mdgomareobs:
`me Canguri misTvis minda,
rom simarTles msaxurebdes,
91
ganamtkicos azri wminda,
guls siwmindiT axurebdes!~
(`Canguri~)
poets kargad esmoda, rom misdroindel sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi simar-
Tlis damcveli, marTlis mTqmeli, realuri sinamdvilis kritikulad amsaxveli,
xalxis keTilSobiluri miswrafebebis ganxorcielebisaTvis mebrZoli mwerali
sastik damcirebasa da tanjvaSi Cavardeboda: unda icodes mweralma, rom mas mo-
elis mtroba, SurisZieba da devna....patiosani da namdvili mwerali yovelTvis
unda moelodes risxvas, lanZRvas, ginebas, gaTrevas — werda poeti. akakis ar eSi-
noda devnisa da mtkiced acxadebda:
`gamiqvavdes maSin ena,
Tu rom vismes mivefero
da gamixmes es marjvena,
Tu simrudiT simT vaJRero!...
ragind bediT viyo kruli,
saSinelic meqnes bolo,
ar Sedrkeba Cemi guli,
ginda qviTac daviqolo!~
(`Canguri~)
akaki wereTels poeziis funqciad mCagvrelis ganadgureba da Cagrulis nu-
geSiscema miaCnda: daCagruli, romlis samsaxuric akakis mwerlobis ZiriTad da-
niSnulebad miaCnda, aris koloniuri Cagvris marwuxebSi moqceuli samSoblo da
socialuri usamarTlobis mZime uRelSi gabmuli mSromeli xalxi.
mxatvruli literaturis Rirsebas akaki mis mebrZol, revoluciur sulis-
kveTebaSi xedavda. igi gmobda usicocxlo poezias da umReroda mebrZol sulis-
kveTebas. myudroebaSi CaZiruli yovelgvari ganZi qveynisaTvis usargeblo da
dafarulia: mxolod mrisxane brZolis gziT SeiZleba saunjis salaro gaixsnas
da xalxis, qveynis sasargeblo da xelmisawvdomi gaxdes:
`margalitebis salaro
Seni ufskruli gulia,
myudroebis dros is ganZi
qveynisTvis dafarulia.
mxolod rodesac mrisxaneb,
guls uxsni mze da mTvaresa,
im margalitebs Sestyorcni
Sens Semkvrels aremaresa.
poeto, nurc Sen ekrZalvi
mrisxane gulis Relvasa! . .
Zilis dros quxils nu moSli
da sibnelis dros elvasa!~
(`zRvao, aReldi, aReldi~)
amrigad, akaki wereTeli literaturas sazogadoebriv funqcias akisrebda.
mas sinamdvilis kritikul-mxatvruli asaxva mwerlobis sagnad, xolo mwerali
xalxis moZRvrad, mkurnalad, qveynis interesebisaTvis Seudrekel mebrZolad
miaCnda.
samSoblos mZime mdgomareoba Zlier awuxebda poets da am niadagze mas zog-
jer mwvave naRveli da sevda eufleboda. mgosani mwuxarebiT moTqvamda samSob-
los tanjul bedze. akakis sevda erovnuli, sazogadoebrivi xasiaTisaa. am
grZnobis gamoxatvas poetma miuZRvna lirikuli poeziis Sedevrebi: `Siqasta~,
`Cemo Tavo, bedi ar giweria~, `muxambazi~, `aRmarT-aRmarT mivdiodi me nela~,
`axali weli~ da sxv. 1863 wels dabeWdil leqsSi `Siqasta~ axalgazrda poeti naT-
lad aRiarebda, rom misi tragikuli gancdis, naRvliani cremlisa da sevdis sa-

92
fuZveli kerZoobiTi xasiaTis ki ar aris, aramed misi obieqtia samSoblos mware
xvedri:
`nurvin scdilobs, im cremlebSi
naxos kerZo siyvaruli!
iq iqneba saidumlo
gulgamxeTqi, dafaruli!
yovel wuTSi tanjvas naxavs
saqarTvelos gamomxatvels
da mwaresa nakadulSi
grZel moTxrobas, gulis damwvels~.
1872 wels gamoqveynebul leqsSi `muxambazi~ poeti miuTiTebda:
`ras miqvian piradi mwuxareba?
mokvdes kaci, Tu pirutyvs edareba?!
viRas axsovs Tavisi satkivari,
Tu satrfo hyavs im dros mas cocxal-mkvdari?~
sevdiani ganwyobileba da dramatizmiT aRsavse sulieri mwuxareba poetma ga-
moxata leqsSi `Cemo Tavo~... samSoblos mZime mdgomareobiT Sewuxebuli, avbedi-
viT guldamwvari mgosani naRvlianad uCivis avbedobas, mwvaved ganicdis mware gu-
lisZgeras da sevdianad gamoTqvams:
`Cemo Tavo, bedi ar giweria!
Cemo Cango eSxiT ar giJReria!
Cemo gulo tkbilad ar giZgeria,
radgan vxedav, satrfo Cemi mteria! ...~
satrfo-samSoblos mZime xvedriT gamwarebuli poetis gulSi tanjvis mZaf-
ri cecxli anTia da marad iwvis mwuxarebis aliT.
sulieri tanjviT mRelvare poets yvelgan mware naRveli da Sxamiani gveli
eCveneboda, igi ganapirebulad grZnobs Tavs, Zmurad aravin uwvdis xels, aravin
anugeSebs. Rrmad Sewuxebuli poeti swyevlis ukuRmarT sofels da naRvlianad
acxadebs:
`aRara aqvs bolo am Cems satanjvels,
arvin maZlevs sanugeSod Zmurad xels,
Cems SarbaTSi naRvels vsvWvret da vardSi gvels,
misTvis vwyevli da vemduri am sofels,
romlisganac me gzebi ameria!.. ~
sevdiani poeti sabolood guls mainc ar itexs, mters ar axarebs da imedia-
nad acxadebs: `Tu xalxSi var, ZaliT Rrubels vadareb da mowyeniT Cemzed mters
ar vaxareb...~ sulis simtkiciT anTebuli lirikuli gmiri Tavisi mwuxarebiT aR-
savse guliTa da masTan erTad momavlisaTvis Tavdadebuli ZalisxmeviT aRvi-
vebda xalxSi mebrZol suliskveTebas.
leqsSi gamoyenebuli mxatvruli ganmeorebani: `Cemo Tavo, Cemo Cango, Cemo gu-
lo~ da masTan dakavSirebuli sevdiT aRvsili formebi: `ar giweria, ar giJReria, ar
giZgeria~ da sxv., agreTve yoveli strofis Semdeg ganmeorebiT warmodgenili taepe-
bi: `Cemo Tavo...~ vidre `Cemi mteria~, dabolos pirveli strofis mTlianad refrenad
gamoyeneba aZlierebs lirikul gancdas, emociur da azrobriv STabeWdilebas, mwvave
sulier mRelvarebasa da dramatizms.
leqsi dawerilia oTx- da xuTtaepiani strofebiT da gamarTulia TerTmet-
marcvlovani metriT, riTac gaZlierebulia intonacia, melodiuroba, keTil-
xmovaneba da musikaloba. leqsis saerTo xasiaTi da mexuTe taepebis daboloeba-
ni: `oxeria~, `ameria~, `gamiSveria~, `mtveria~ da sxv. muxambazur stils uaxlov-
deba.

93
1872 wels daibeWda leqsi `muxambazi~ (`naxevari cxovrebis gza gavlie~). leq-
sis lirikul gmirs ar Sordeba mwuxareba, radgan misi satrfo — samSoblo saRaTas
Zils miscemia da mtrisgan dabeCavebuli cocxal-mkvdar mdgomareobaSia. akaki aR-
niSnavs, rom misi satrfo, misi mwuxarebisa da sevdis obieqtia damonebuli, gaZar-
cvuli:
`magram iciT, Cemi satrfo vin ari?
Zveli turfa, dRes mkvdariviT mZinari!
fexSiSveli, Tavzed leCaqmoxdili,
ugrZnoblad xdis sawyals saRaTas Zili!~
samSoblos damcireba, dauZlureba da abuCad agdeba mwuxarebiT avsebda da
tanjvis cecxliT wvavda poets. cecxlmodebuli mgosani Tavs evleba momakvdav
satrfos da mware cremls Rvris, magram mtrebis Tvalis asaxvevad Wiris cremls
malavs da icinis: `ar mSordeba mwuxareba da Wiri, magram mainc sul vicini, ar
vstiri~, — wers igi. guldaTuTquli poeti sabolood imeds ar kargavs da elo-
deba mZinari satrfos gaRviZebas, mis qorwils, gamarjvebis did zeims:
`mxolod amis gaRviZebas me vucdi,
Tu lodinSi udrovod ar movxucdi!
moveswrebi, rom gamifrTxos man Zili
da mimReros misi turfa qorwili!~
leqsi dawerilia xalxur melodiur hangze da xalxuri motivebis saxieri ga-
moyenebiT. igi dabeWdvisTanave iqca saxalxo simRerad.
sevdian poets arc axali wlis mosvla axarebs, radgan mas cxovrebam bevri
Sxam-naRveli Seasva, daukarga trfobis taxti, dauketa samoTxis kari da waarTva
tkbili momavali. ukmayofilo poeti naRvlianad acxadebs:
`maS nu milocavT me axal wels!
CemTvis erTia `axali~, `Zveli~,
Tu SarSan vsvamdi mwaresa naRvels,
am sasmels welsac veli da veli!~
(`axali weli~)
`aRmarT-aRmarT mivdiodi me nela~.... dawerilia 1876 wels. poetis sevda, Rrma
mwuxareba, naRveli da mwvave tkivilebia gamoxatuli am brwyinvale SedevrSi. leq-
sis dasawyisSi avtori gviziarebs im did sulier aRfrTovanebas, romelic mas miani-
Wa mSobliuri bunebis aRqmam. mSobliurma bunebam poets sixaruli mohfina, STabera
mas sicocxlis cxovelmyofeli Zala da sikvdilis SiSi daaZlevina:
`aRmarT-aRmarT mivdiodi me nela,
serze Sevdeq, Wmunvis ali menela,
mzeman sxivi momafina maSina,
sicocxle vgrZen, sikvdilma ver maSina~.
aRfrTovanebul mgosans moevlina poeturi STagoneba tkbili Cangis asaJRe-
reblad, magram sazeimo netareba xanmokle aRmoCnda. poeti mwared Caafiqra sam-
Soblos bedma da dainaxa, rom misi satrfo `sxvas hmonebda~ da `alersiT
mTvrals ver uxilavs isari~. motyuebulma da mtrisagan moxiblulma satrfom
ar usmina mwuxarebiT guldamwvar poets. sevdiT aRvsilma da sasowarkveTilma
poetma mwared amoikvnesa:
`Cemo Tavo, veRar gkurnen wamaliT!
daRmarT-daRmarT dauyevi, wa maliT!
iq CabrZandi, sad gelian lodebiT!
bariT, niCbiT, kuboTi da lodebiT!
daiviwye, vinc gaxsovda maradis
xeldakrefiT ganisvene maradis!~

94
leqsisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia majamuri forma, mosazRvre daqtiluri riT-
ma, simboluri da alegoriuli saxeebi, naRvliani, elegiuri kilo da intonacia,
rac aZlierebs lirizms da sevdian ganwyobilebas.
akaki gmobda pesimizms, uimedobas, umoqmedobas da didebiT umReroda Tavi-
suflebas, momavals, aqtiur moqmedebasa da brZolas. magram amasTanave optimis-
ti poetisaTvis ucxo rodia xalxis avbedobiT gamowveuli mwuxarebisa da sevdis
gamoxatva, piriqiT, igi mas bunebriv movlenad miaCnda da kicxavda kubosTan mom-
Rerals.
xalxis Wir-varamiT guldamwvar mgosans bevrjer ukvnesebia `guli wyluli~,
`suli kruli~, `Tvalni cremliT anatiri~ da misi mgrZnobiare mebrZoli lirika
araerTxel aJRerebula xalxis kvnesiTa da godebiT, misi mwuxarebiTa da sev-
diT, misi sasoebiTa da momavlis rwmenisa da mebrZoli suliskveTebiT. misi Cangi
STagonebulia Wmunvisa da sixarulis maRali grZnobiT da momavlis didi miswra-
febiT. igi werda:
`sad aris Cveni Canguri,
qveynis Wiri da lxinio,
samSoblos sisxli da xorci,
misive naRvel-tvinio?~
(`Temur-lengis tyve~)
an kidev:
`Cveni samSoblos sicili
da misi mware kvnesao. . .
orive — erTad simebma
Sig gulSi Caikvnesao~
(`Temur-lengis tyve~)
poetma Tavis sevdanarev lirikaSi asaxa mgrZnobiare gulis kvnesa, mRelvare
sulis tkivilebi, imis gamo, rom mas samSoblos ubedurebam mware Sxami Seasva da
cxovreba samsalad uqcia (`gaTxoveba~), rom, vidre misi satrfo ar ganTavisufle-
bula, misi `guli mkvdaria~, rom `sicili bevrjer cremlze mwarea~ (`muxambazi~),
rom poets wilad xvda sicocxlis mTels manZilze mxolod simware, tanjva da Wi-
ri, rom igi samSoblos mZime mdgomareobis gamo moklebulia Svebasa da bedniere-
bas, rom mas `vin aRirsebs sasufevels, jojoxeTi uZevs gulSi~ (`saRamo~), rom is
`jojoxeTs~ marad guliT atarebs da amis gamo Sewuxebuli poeti acxadebs: `aRara
aqvs bolo am Cems satanjvels...~, rom cxovrebam mas gza-kvali auria da mwuxare
sityvebi warmoaTqmevina, magram mebrZoli poeti mudam gmirobis trubaduria, igi
STagonebulia brZolis paTosiT, revoluciuri optimizmiT. akakis damaxasiaTebe-
li Tvisebaa sinamdvilis SegrZneba, misi mxileba, dagmoba, mis mimarT siZulvilis
grZnobiT gamsWvalva da momavlis brZolis gaRviveba. amitom savsebiT gasagebia
poetis sityvebi: damWknari vardi cremlebiT ar ganeldeba.... arao! da WirSi tiri-
li ver uzrunvelyofs ubedurebisagan Tavis daRwevas. amitom, — acxadebs poeti,
— ar unda vitiroT, radgan `vaJkacsa ar Svenis cremliT glovani!...~
akaki momavlis didi momReralia. imedis SaravandediT mosil poets ver aSi-
nebda mozRvavebuli risxva da cxovrebis ukuRmarToba. optimizmiT STagonebu-
li poeti acxadebda:
`gavkaJebivar Sav bedsa,
davdivar Seupovari!
ver SemaSinebs risxviT ca,
Wirzeda Wiris mTovari!~
(`gamofxizleba~)

95
akaki gadmogvcems, rom gulis ficarze nemsis yunwis odena adgilic ver vi-
pove, rom ekliT ar yofiliyos naCxvletio. miuxedavad amisa, mis guls yovel-
Tvis amxnevebda momavlis rwmena. poeti werda: `Sua gulzed ewera didis asoebiT
`imedi~, marjvena kuTxiT `gamarjveba Sromas~, marcxniv: `qeba gambedaobas~. akaki
STaagonebda xalxs: uimedoba, usasoeba da `gulis gatexa codvaa~.... dRes Tu aqa-
iq dasusxul yvavilebsa vxedavT, momaval nayofs gviCvenebs damwifebulsao da
gatacebiT umReroda diad momavals, mis simbolur xats: amirans, satrfos,
vards, cisartyelas, ganTiads, ciskris varskvlavs, gazafxuls, sinaTles,
mxsnel gmirebs da sxv. gmirulad ibrZoda erovnuli da socialuri Cagvris wina-
aRmdeg da mzad iyo sisxliT moerwyo brZolis veli:
`SevstrfiT, SevgalobT momaval vardsa,
aRarad vimCnevT dRevandels ekals!...
dee, gagvkawros! . . sxvebis saniSnod
sisxliT da ofliT movrwyavT gza da kvals~.
poets Rrmad swamda xalxis uSreti Zala, misi momavali da amitomac misi tan-
jva da sixaruli WeSmaritad saxalxo xasiaTs atarebda da STagonebuli iyo xal-
xurobiT, humanizmiT, demokratiulobiT da momavlis rwmeniT.
igi darwmunebuli iyo, rom boroteba damarcxdeboda, simarTle da sinaTle
gaimarjvebda, gaiRviZebda da ganikurneboda miZinebuli samSoblo, gamofxiz-
ldeboda xalxi, gaswyvetda jaWvs amirani, moispoboda Cagvra. am rwmeniT daje-
rebuli poeti, didi `trubaduri xalxis imedebisa~,1 alegoriul leqsSi `avad-
myofi~ naTlad gamoxatavda Cauqrobel imeds:
`ar momkvdara, mxolod sZinavs
da iseve gaiRviZebs!...
vinc Senatris imis sikvdils,
umal masve daamiwebs!~
sastiki reaqciis periodSi gamoqveynda akakis alegoriuli leqsi `RmerTo,
wvima moiyvane~ (1882 w.), romelic momavlis rwmenisa da revoluciuri brZolis
namdvil mowodebad iqca. leqsis alegoriuli saxeebi naTeli da savsebiT gasage-
bia; igi mimarTulia carizmis winaaRmdeg da gamoxatavs brZolis paToss:
`RmerTo, wvima moiyvane
wiTeli da Sxapunao,
rom gavideT samuSaod
da davsZaxoT `hopunao!~
RmerTo wvima moiyvane,
miwis gamalbobelio,
rom gaswyvitos Wia-Wua,
qveynis damamxobelio!~
leqsis aSkara politikur xasiaTze garkveviT migvaniSnebs poeti im werilSi,
romelSiac CarTulia igi (`cxel-cxeli ambebi~). aq akaki werda: `maRlidan sicxe
gvaWers, Zirs dedamiwa ixrakeba da garSemo tyeebs cecxli ukidia... vidagebiT!..
vin dagvinelebs im cecxls, romelic Semoparebulad jadoqariviT gviberavs da
Zirs gvinaxSirebs?~, — kiTxulobs poeti da Tavad pasuxobs: `imas Cveulebrivi
wvima veRaras uSvelis... misTvis saWiroa is wvimebi, nugzar erisTavis dros rom
yofilan, sisxlis wvimebi~; `wiTeli wvima~, `Sxapuna wvima~, `sisxlis wvimebi~2
xalxuri metaforuli saxea da masTan erTad ukavSirdeba istoriul ambebsac.
sxva adgilas poeti dasZenda: ekals, borotebas `Ziri amovugdoT, sisxliT vRe-

1
p . i n g o r o y v a , axali qarTuli literaturis fuZemdebelni, 1975, gv. 341.
2
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani, t. XII, gv. 188.
96
boT mTa da velio~ (`gogia meCongure~). leqsi dawerilia xalxur hangsa da kilo-
ze, rac kidev ufro Zlier STabeWdilebas axdens mkiTxvelze.
momavlis rwmena da ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis idea mkveTradaa gamoxatu-
li alegoriul leqsSi `WaRara~ (1893 w.). mebrZoli, gautexeli, bnelSi imediT mkve-
seli poeti ar epueba mCagvrelTa risxvas. cxovrebam mas usazRvro tanjva miayena,
didZali Sxami Seasva: `aRmevso guli wveT-wveTad naRveliTa da SxamiTa... var bevri
`vais~ mnaxveli da bevri `uis~ gamgone~. mgosani gmirulad xvdeba gasaWirs, guls ar
itexs da Zlieri poeturi xmiT umReris momavals:
`magram imedi, cis niWi
rom gamielvebs glax gulsa,
Tavi tariel mgonia,
ocnebiT garemoculsa.
vuxmob fridons da avTandils,
mxari mxars mivceT, xeli-xels,
nestan-darejan qajebs hyavT,
moelis turfa gamomxsnels~.
poetma kargad icoda, rom xalxis sulieri amaRlebisa da gmirobisaTvis di-
di mniSvneloba hqonda genialuri `vefxistyaosnis~ da istoriul gmirTa saxee-
bis mxatvrul gamoyenebas da xSirad mimarTavda maT samagaliTo xatebs. imedis
didi rwmenisa da brZolis Rrma gamoxatulebaa sityvebSi:
`ra vuyoT, TeTri merios?!
sisxliT SevRebav WaRaras
da sul sxva xmaze davukrav
am Cems dafsa da naRaras~...
imedis mTesveli poeti qveynis mxsnel, meTaur gmirs elodeba da acxadebs:
`ara, ayvavdes imedi!...
guls ver gamitexs WaRara!...
gmirebs uZaxis, uyivis
Cemi dafi da naRara!...~
ufro adre (1881 w.) akakim mkveTrad gamoxata momavlisadmi rwmena da brZo-
lis suliskveTeba:
`is danaSTen sicocxleSi
ar natrobs mets aRarasa,
rom samSoblos mtris sisxliTa
iRebavdes WaRarasa!...~
(`ukanaskneli natvra~)
mogvianebiT (1893 w.) akakim sxva situaciaSi kvlav gamoxata brZolis medgari
suliskveTeba da momavlis rwmenisadmi erTguleba:
`poetis guls, gaxurvebuls
sadac elavs, Relavs grZnoba,
ras daaklebs TviT WaRara?
ras daaklebs xnovanoba?~
mebrZoli optimizmi bolomde mihyveba akakis Semoqmedebas.
sastiki reaqciis wlebSi poeti momavlis rwmeniT amxnevebda xalxs da eubne-
boda: `is niadagi, is xalxi, romelmac warmoSoba didi mouravi, mTawmindelebi,
petriwi, rusTaveli da sxva msoflio gmirebi... kidev warmoSobs imisTana gmi-
rebs, romelic Tqven geWirvebaT da moeliT... me ver moveswrebi im momavali gmi-
ris mirqmas, magram gulSi imedebiT ki Caval saflavSi da Cemi ukanaskneli simRe-
ra iqneba: ar momkvdara, mxolod sZinavs-meTqi~.

97
samSoblos usazRvro siyvaruli akakim gansakuTrebuli siZlieriT Semosa
leqsSi `ganTiadi~. didebulma mgosanma didi gulwrfelobiTa da iSviaTi mxat-
vruli ostatobiT umRera `ca-firuz, xmeleT-zurmuxtovan~ samSoblos siyva-
rulis unazes grZnobas, misTvis Tavdadebis gmirul ideas:
`ca-firuz, xmeleT-zurmuxto,
sulis Camdgmelo mxareo,
Seni var, SenTvis movkvdebi,
Senzedve mgloviareo!...~
`ganTiadi~ poetma uZRvna cnobili qarTveli moRvawis — dimitri yifianis xsov-
nas. amas adasturebs leqsis striqonebSi moxsenebuli `Tavdadebuli~, `raindsa,
urCsa mtrisasa~, romelic gulisxmobs veragulad moklul qarTvel moRvawes, xo-
lo `saSviliSvilo samare~, `Tavdadebulis saflavi~, romelsac `mnaTobi sxivebs
maRliT hfens~, `mdinare nanas umReris~ da `mTawminda gulSi ixutebs~ — dimitri yi-
fianis saflavs. leqsis dasawyisSi asaxulia mSobeli qveynis buneba da misi dedaSvi-
luri zrunva samSoblos erTguli Svilisadmi. mTawminda Cafiqrebuli Sehyurebs
ciskris mokaSkaSe varskvlavs, cis mnaTobebi sxivebs hfenen Tavdadebuli gmiris
saflavs. mSobliuri bunebisa da samSoblos unazesi siyvarulis gamo grZnobamore-
uli mgosani Tavis gulispasuxs umReris turfa saqarTvelos:
`ca-firuz, xmeleT-zurmuxto,
Cemo samSoblo mxareo,
sneuli davbrunebulvar,
mkurnalad Semeyareo!...
ver avitane obloba,
sisxlis cremlebi vRvareo;
wamZlia sulma da gulma,
Sens naxvas daveCqareo...~
leqsSi Caqsovilia samSoblosadmi usazRvro siyvarulisa da Tavdadebis
idea.
msoflio literaturaSi iSviaTia meore iseTi didi poeti, romelsac akakis
msgavsad emReros samSoblos keTilSobilur siyvarulze. didi mgosani ganuSo-
reblad Tavs dastrialebda mSobel xalxs da gulSi samaradisod Camwvdomi ufa-
qizesi grZnobiT umReroda:
`mSveniero, Sen getrfi
Seni mona erTguli!
SenTvis suldgmuls, Senganve,
SenTvis miZgers es guli!~
didi STagonebiT, warmtaci ferebiTa da aRmafreniT, ganumeorebeli sisada-
viT da uSualobiT umReroda deda samSoblos poeti leqsSi `suliko~:
`sayvarlis saflavs veZebdi,
ver vnaxe, dakarguliyo!...
gulamoskvnili vCiodi:
`sada xar, Cemo suliko!~
ekalSi vardi SevniSne,
oblad rom amosuliyo,
gulis fancqaliT vkiTxavdi:
`Sen xom ara xar suliko!...~
niSnad Tanxmobis kokobi
cvar-margalitiT ciuri
dabla cremlebiT dahyara... ~ da sxv.
es leqsi qarTvelma xalxma akakis sxva leqsebTan erTad sasimRerod aitaca
da mas axla msoflios mravali xalxi aRtacebiT mReris.

98
`akakim es maradiuli satrfo konkretul xatad aqcia, Tan iseT xatad, rome-
lic konkretulobasTan erTad didi ganzogadebis SesaZleblobebiT dajildoe-
buli aRmoCnda~.1
samSoblos siyvarulis satrfos siyvarulad simbolur-alegoriuli gamo-
xatva damaxasiaTebelia saerTod qarTuli literaturisaTvis. magram es xerxi
gansakuTrebuli sxivmosilebiT uaRresad farTo masStabiT ganaviTara da iSvia-
Ti mravalferovnebiT gamoiyena akaki wereTelma. poetma mas mianiWa naTeli gam-
Wvirvaleba da silamaze. Zveli mwerlobisagan gansxvavebiT, siyvaruls akakim da-
umkvidra realuri, konkretuli da mimzidveli Sinaarsi, mianiWa axali moqalaqe-
obrivi, politikuri funqcia. akaki wereTeli iseTi gatacebiT, imgvari grZno-
biT da vnebianobiT xatavs Tavis satrfialo sagans, rom zog SemTxvevaSi Zneli
gasarkvevia, namdvilad xorciel satrfos umReris poeti Tu satrfo-samSob-
los. akaki wereTlis patriotul lirikaSi samSoblos siyvarulis grZnoba gansa-
kuTrebul xasiaTs atarebs. mijnuroba, satrfos siyvaruli aq realur da ama-
Relvebel xasiaTs iRebs. igi ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis paToss STaagonebs
mkiTxvels.
akaki wereTlis patriotizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia humanizmi da gul-
wrfeli pativiscema da aRiareba sxva erTa Rirsebisa. amitom iyo, rom poeti ga-
nasxvavebda erTmaneTisagan ruseTis biurokratias, ruseTis xelisuflebis im-
periul, Sovinistur miswrafebebs da rus xalxs. akakis patriotizmi xalxTa me-
gobrobis ideiT aris gaSuqebuli.
akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel ideasTan aris
dakavSirebuli socialuri Cagvris mospobis idea. poeti medgrad ibrZoda ba-
tonymuri urTierTobisa da TviTmpyrobelur-memamulur-burJuaziuli wyobi-
lebis winaaRmdeg. akaki TanagrZnobiT da gulisxmierebiT ekideboda mSromeli
xalxis interesebs. poetma Tavisi Cangi imTaviTve uZRvna glexis beds, misi gan-
Tavisuflebis ideas. erovnuli da socialuri ganTavisuflebisaTvis brZolis
idea akaki wereTlis Semoqmedebis qvakuTxedi iyo. poeti gamoxatavda xalxis mis-
wrafebebsa da Tavisuflebis ideebs.
akakim Tavis poeziaSi gviCvena batonymuri uRlis qveS daCagruli ymisa da
Semdeg naymevi glexis tanjuli cxovreba. man ilia WavWavaZesTan erTad mkveT-
rad gailaSqra batonymobis winaaRmdeg da asaxa yma glexis uuflebo da autane-
li mdgomareoba. 1861 wels daweril leqsSi `muSuri~ poetma gamoxata yma glexis
ubeduri, tanjuli cxovrebis SemaZrwunebeli suraTebi:
`marto CvenTvis ar vmuSaobT,
sxvisac gvmarTebs samsaxuri:
batoni gvyavs, varT sawyali
upatrono, ubeduri~.
akakis daxasiaTebiT, yma glexisaTvis ar arsebobda samarTali. mas yvela Cag-
ravda da devnida. misi cxovreba gabmuli tanjva iyo. batonymuri wyobilebiT
sastikad devnili yma glexi mwuxarebiT acxadebda:
`Sindis wknelebze weria
Cveni saxeli da gvari. . .
ganvagrZoT, Zmebo, muSuri,
Cveni sevdis ganmaqari!~
(`muSuri~)
poeti moeloda, rom `reformebis~ Semdeg glexi ganTavisufldeboda Cagvri-
sa da tanjvisagan, moipovebda garkveul adamianur uflebas swavlisa da cxovre-
bisaTvis, amitom man leqsiT `imeruli nanina~ 1864 wels miuloca yma glexis ax-
1
g r . k i k n a Z e , literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, 1978, gv. 324.
99
alSobil Svilebs momavali Tavisufleba. magram akaki wereTeli xedavda, rom
`reformebiT~ xalxis namdvili miznebi ar miRweula, amitom igi pawawina glexis
Svils afrTxilebda: `nu gZinavs!... gaiRviZe, ican qveyanao! Senc Seitye ama sof-
lis cru gamocanao!~ kargad iswavle, gaerkvie cxovrebis Rrma movlenebSi, `Seni
daCagruli Zmebi Sen unda ixsnao~. poetis samarTliani SexedulebiT, xalxTa gan-
TavisuflebisaTvis warmoebuli brZola `reformebiT~ ar damTavrebula. poeti
darwmunda, rom mefis mier Catarebuli `reformebi~ sruliadac ar aumjobeseb-
da mSromelTa mdgomareobas. sinamdvileSi TviTmpyrobelobis mier Catarebul
glexTa `ganTavisuflebas~ mSromelTa cxovrebis gauareseba mohyva. poeti kar-
gad amCnevda, rom batonymoba faqtobrivad kvlav ZalaSi darCa. `gagvibatonda
burJua, gamtkicda batonymobao~, — werda akaki. mSromeli xalxis amgvari auta-
neli mdgomareoba Zlier awuxebda akakis: igi Tavs dastrialebda glexkacis mwa-
re beds, `cud droSi danabadi~, `jojoxeTis saxnisiT~ guldaRaruli poeti Ta-
nagrZnobiT mimarTavda glexebs:
`mimxvdari aris eg Tqveni
SeubRalavi goneba,
rom pirutyvsaviT ar Svenis
mSromel kacs sxvisi moneba!~
(`muSebs~)
akakis swamda, rom adamians mxolod Sroma akeTilSobilebs da Sromaa misi bednie-
rebis wyaro, cxovelmyofeli Zala, Sroma adamianis udides gardamqmnel saSualebad
miaCnda poets. amitom mraval leqsSi (`simRera mkis dros~, `muSis natvra~, `muSuri~
da sxv.) umRera patiosan Sromasa da gamrje glexobas, romelsac uyvars Sroma, Sroma-
sa da saqmianobaSi Weds momavals, mtkice xasiaTsa da gamZleobas.
poeti gulwrfelad aqebda glexis Sromismoyvareobas, ubraloebas, gulkeTi-
lobas, amtanobas, maxvilgonierebas, pirdapirobasa da gamWriaxobas. sasikvdilo
sarecelze mwolare poetma glexebisagan naCuqari xonCa moiTxova da, rodesac Ca-
aTvaliera zed warwerili sityvebi: `gaumarjos akakis~ — Tavi veRar Seimagra, qvi-
Tini daiwyo. akaki wereTels mSromeli miaCnda momavali cxovrebis fesvad, glexo-
baze amyarebda xalxis ganTavisuflebis imeds.
ruseTis TviTmpyrobelobis winaaRmdeg brZolis wyurviliT aris gaJRenTi-
li akakis leqsi `xanjals~. igi dawerilia 1882 wels. gasuli saukunis 80-ian
wlebSi, Savi reaqciis mZvinvarebis dros es leqsi aRafrTovanebda xalxs mtris
winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad.
leqsi `xanjals~ TiTqmis meoTxedi saukunis manZilze aralegalurad, xelna-
weris saxiT vrceldeboda da mxolod 1905 wels moxerxda misi dabeWdva.
akaki wereTeli xedavda, rom yovelgvari Tavisuflebis mosapoveblad auci-
lebeli iyo ruseTis imperiis winaaRmdeg iaraRiT brZola. poeti samSoblos ga-
moxsnis imeds xanjalze, brZolis basr iaraRze amyarebda. galesili xanjali mas
miaCnda usamarTlod daCagrulis Semwed da megobrad:
`Seni Wirime xanjalo,
rkinao xvarasnisao,
Sen, erTaderTo imedo,
mtrisagan gamoxsnisao~.
xanjals evaleba mtris umowyalod ganadgureba, umarTlod daCagrulis gankur-
neba, mtris gulTan mociquloba.
cxovrebis maxinj movlenaTa da usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi akaki we-
reTeli uxvad iyenebda satirasac. poeti dauzogavad amaTraxebda yvelas, vinc
aferxebda erovnuli ganTavisuflebis saqmes. igi `gesliani isriT~ gabedulad
ebrZoda xalxis mtrebs. akaki satiras gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebda.

100
satirul leqsSi `apelaciis mcodne~ akakim gakicxa biurokrati moxele, Can-
Curas Svili, vinc tyavs aZrobda xalxs, sCadioda aTasgvar usamarTlobas, meq-
rTameobas:
`amboben: — qrTami sZulso, ar iZRvnis arc qaTamsa,
mxolod maSin ar iwyens, Tu msuqani vacia.
magram es zvarakia! amas vin etyvis qrTamsa,
sxvam rom hqmnas, is sxva aris! es swavluli kacia!~
Tavisi satira akaki wereTelma mimarTa agreTve carizmis nasufraliT gamok-
vebili `finiebis~ winaaRmdeg. poeti iSviaTi moxdenilobiT amxelda amgvar pir-
Ta sasacilo moqmedebas:
`misi yefa mxolod marto Suria...
vis aSinebs sasacilo muria?!
magis xerxi erTi lukma puria:
gadaugdeb, gaCumdeba muria.
vinc gaaZRebs, misi Sinauria,
imas hmonebs da kuds uqnevs muria~
(`patara muria~)
akakim gakicxa TviTmpyrobelur-biurokratiuli reJimi. poetis moxdenili
daxasiaTebiT, TviTmpyrobelur-memamulur sazogadoebaSi Wkuas, guls da saer-
Tod yvela keTilSobilur grZnobas cvlis kuWi, sicrue, cbiereba, angareba. poe-
ti uSiSrad aaSkaravebs mefis xelisuflebis sibriyvesa da veragobas:
`qurdebi sWrian samarTals,
marTlebs uyrian borkilsa,
da qveynis mteri iuda
dascinis mamuliSvilsa.
briyvi da uswavlelebi
TavSi udgia Wkvianebs...
gahqres es Jami baremRa,
netavi ras igvianebs?!~
mourideblad amxelda poeti carizmis TvalTmaqcobas da borotmoqmedebas:
`Tvals mixveven, enas mglejen
da magdeben sakireSi!
urcxvad Svid-Svid paraskevsa
miTvlian me erT kviraSi~
(`Tvals mixveven, enas mglejen~)
es gonebadakarguli egoistebi mxolod piradi keTildReobisaTvis iyvnen
gatacebuli da xalxi, qveyana arafrad miaCndaT:
`mec is minda mec iq Seval,
sadac tkbila, sadac Tbila!
Torem, Tu me ar viqnebi,
qva qvazedac nu yofila!~
(`didi vinme~)
Tavisi drois arc erTi gasakicxi movlena ar gamorCenia poets, yvelas xvdeboda
misi mebrZoli satiris maxvili.
akakis lirikuli poezia uaRresad emociuri da STambeWdavia. masSi ostatu-
radaa gamoyenebuli mravalsaukunovani da mravalferovani tradiciebi da ma-
namde ucnobi poeturi xerxebi da formebi. akakis leqsebs axasiaTebs didi xe-
lovnebiT gamoyenebuli mxatvruli simboloebi, alegoriuli, igav-arakuli Jan-
ri da narTauli formebi. akakis poeziaSi gamoyenebulia mqadagebluri, mWev-

101
rmetyveluri, ritorikuli, mimarTvis, energiuli mowodebis, vedrebis, aRtace-
bisa da sxva poeturi formebi da intonaciebi.
akaki didi polemistia. igi Tavisi ideuri poziciis da miswrafebaTa mkafiod
gamoxatvisa da dacvis mizniT Tavis poeziaSi xSirad mimarTavda polemikas. misi
poeturi polemikisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia ukompromiso, naTeli, argumentire-
buli, energiuli, mebrZoli paTosi. akakis polemika gvaocebs Tavisi enamoswre-
bulobiT, enawylianobiT, gonebamaxvilobiT, didi emociurobiT. akakis `Sxamna-
rev da Zirmware~ kalams, mis gamkenwlav `akakur enas~ yvela ekrZaleboda, uf-
rTxoda.
akakis poezias amSvenebs misTvis damaxasiaTebeli mxatvruli gamosaxvis mra-
valferovani da sulis SemZvreli saSualebebi. misi poezia uxvadaa nasazrdoebi
xalxuri masaliT, saxeebiT, versifikaciiT, riTmiT, erovnuli simRera-galobis im
musikaluri kiloTi, romelic, akakis azriT, `arc sxvisi eniT gamoiTqmis, arc kal-
miT aiwereba. imisi mxolod grZnoba SeiZleba~. igi eris `saunjea~ da vai im xalxs,
romelsac is grZnobis saunje, is kilo daekargeba.

akaki wereTlis istoriuli poemebi. mowinave idealebi, erovnuli Cagvrisa-


gan xalxis ganTavisuflebisadmi didi miswrafeba poetma gamoxata Tavis isto-
riul poemebSic. akaki wereTlis istoriuli poemebi, ise, rogorc mTeli misi Se-
moqmedeba, Rrma ideurobiTaa STagonebuli da maRali mxatvruli ostatobiT
Sesrulebuli. akaki wereTlis istoriuli poemebi qarTuli literaturis mSve-
nebaa.
gasuli saukunis samociani wlebidan gansakuTrebuli interesi gamoiwvia
qarTveli xalxis istoriuli cxovrebis Seswavlis, mwerlobaSi mSobliuri war-
sulis Tematikis gamoyenebisadmi farTo miswrafebam da realisturi poemebis
ganviTarebam. qarTveli samocianelebi didad afasebdnen qveynis istorias, misi
Seswavlis aucileblobas da mniSvnelobas awmyos gagebis, momavlis ganWvretisa
da xalxze zemoqmedebis saqmeSi.
warsuli cxovrebis Seswavlis mniSvnelobis Segneba, misi dafaseba, xalxis Si-
nagani ganviTarebis kanonebis gaTvaliswineba da mwerlobaSi istoriuli Tema-
tikis gamoyeneba gansazRvravda qarTveli xalxis mravalsaukunovani istorii-
sadmi akaki wereTlis damokidebulebas, mis politikur, mxatvrul-esTetikur
interess. xalxis Zvel namoqmedars qmediTi Zala aqvs, Tu mas SemoqmedebiTad
aviTvisebT da gonivrulad gamoviyenebT. akakis rwmeniT, gamocdileba da sasaxe-
lo tradiciebi keTili momavlis interesebs unda emsaxurebodes. Tu erma yo-
velgvari kavSiri gawyvita warsulTan, dakarga warsulis xsovna da samudamo da-
viwyebas misca istoriuli cxovrebis gamocdileba da yovelive is, rac sasargeb-
loa sazogadoebis ukeTesi mermisis damkvidrebisaTvis, aseTi eri, — akakis rwme-
niT, — daiRupeba.
akaki wereTeli Rrmad swavlobda Cveni qveynis warsuls, mis mdidar litera-
turas, xalxur Semoqmedebas, matianeebSi moTxrobil ambebs, Cveni qveynis warsu-
lis istoriuli cxovrebis amsaxvel rogorc qarTul, ise ucxour wyaroebs. am
masalebis gamoyenebis safuZvelze poeti xatavda warsulis realistur saxeebs...
akaki, rogorc realisti mwerali, movlenaTa realistur asaxvas ar aigivebda
protokolur aRwerilobasTan. igi realisti mwerlisagan moiTxovda aRebuli
sagnis `SemoqmedebiTi ZaliT~ daxatvas. SeiZleba dabejiTebiT iTqvas, rom saer-
Tod akakis istoriuli poemebis ZiriTadi siuJetebi agebulia istoriul wyaro-
ebSi dacul cnobebze. xandaxan akaki mimarTavs poetur gamonagonsac da moxdeni-
lad qargavs mas Txzulebis mxatvrul qsovilSi, magram es gamonagoni didi osta-
tis xeliT sinamdvilis fonzea mxatvrulad gamokveTili da Seesatyviseba war-
suli istoriuli cxovrebis garkveul viTarebas.

102
akaki wereTeli istoriul Tzxulebebs or jgufad yofda: namdvil istoriu-
lad da `viTom istoriulad~ anu `istoriul gvarad~. orive saxis nawarmoebi po-
ets saerTod istoriuli xasiaTis Txzulebad miaCnda. `sazogadod istoriuli
Txzuleba, — werda akaki, — ueWvelia, WeSmaritebazed unda iyos damyarebuli;
magram aris erTgvari Txzulebac, Tumca ara namdvilad istoriuli, magram `vi-
Tom istoriuli~, anu `istoriuli gvari~, rodesac TxzulebaSi, rogorc moqme-
deba, ise moqmedi pirebic gamogonilia ganZraxviT; magram ise namdvilad ki, rom
im drois, ra drosac ekuTvnis, xasiaTsa da viTarebas namdvilad gvixatavs, da
rac ambavi moxdeboda, swored ise unda momxdariyo, rogorc avtori gvixatavs
da ara sxvagvarad~1. poetis es Sexeduleba savsebiT naTelyofs istoriuli
Txzulebisadmi misi damokidebulebis xasiaTs.
akaki wereTlis istoriuli poemebidan gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva `bagrat
didi~, `naTela~, `kikolas naambobi~ da `Tornike erisTavi~. aRniSnuli poemebiT
daimkvidra akakim istoriuli poemebis didostatis ukvdavi saxeli. akakis es po-
emebi qarTuli literaturis mdidari saganZuris SesaniSnavi SenaZenia.
akaki wereTlis istoriuli poema `bagrat didi~ Seiqmna 1875 wels. cnobilia,
rom poema `bagrat didis~ fabula agebulia saqarTvelos istoriis erT-erT me-
tad mRelvare epizodze. nawarmoebSi asaxulia qarTveli xalxis gmiruli brZo-
la Temur lengis winaaRmdeg. am uTanasworo Tavganwiruli brZolis suraTebSi
daxatulia bagrat didis datyvevebis, misi garegnulad gamahmadianebisa da sam-
SoblosaTvis Tavdadebis didi istoriuli movlenebi. rogorc viciT, veragi yae-
nis, mrisxane Temur-lengis Semoseva udides ubedurebad daatyda Tavs qarTvel
xalxs. saqarTvelos manamdec didi gaWirveba unaxavs agresorebis ZaladobiT,
magram Temur-lengis SemoseviT gamowveuli aoxreba umagaliTo iyo. misma Semo-
sevebma `qveynis aoxrebiTa da didZali xalxis daRupviT saqarTvelo ise daasus-
ta, rom Cvenma qveyanam saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi gamokeTeba veRar SeZlo~.2 Te-
mur-lengi didZali jariT gamoemarTa saqarTvelos dasapyrobad. 1386 wels Te-
muri `nacadi rCeuli jariTurT uecriv... saqarTvelos dedaqalaqs Tbiliss mo-
adga, sadac TviT mefe bagrati imyofeboda~. mefe cixeSi gamagrda. daiwyo sasti-
ki brZola. qarTvelebi gmirulad ibrZodnen da zRva sisxlis fasad icavdnen de-
daqalaqs... Temur-lengi gars Semoertya cixes da brZaneba gasca, radac ar unda
dajdomodaT, SeemusraT cixesimagre. qarTvelTa gmiruli brZolis miuxedavad,
ricxvmravalma mterma aiRo Tbilisi. mterma bagrat mefe Tavisi ojaxiTa da ama-
liT tyved Caigdo. datyvevebul mefes yaenma gamahmadianeba mosTxova. qarTuli
da somxuri istoriuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, bagratma, Temurisagan Tavis daRwevi-
sa da samagieros gadaxdis mizniT, garegnulad mahmadianoba miiRo. Temurma uxvad
daasaCuqra qarTveli mefe. bagratma yaens aRuTqva mTeli saqarTvelos dapyroba
da gamahmadianeba. gaxarebulma Temurma 12000 rCeuli meomriT gamoistumra igi
saqarTveloSi. rodesac bagrat mefe mouaxlovda saqarTvelos sazRvrebs, man wi-
naswar gafrTxilebuli Svilis, giorgis meoxebiT mTlianad gaJlita Temur-len-
gis jari da amiT Suri iZia mterze.
aRniSnul istoriul movlenebze da gadmocemebze aago akaki wereTelma `bag-
rat didis~ fabula. poemaSi asaxuli movlenebi, rogorc aRvniSneT, ZiriTadad
istoriul wyaroebzea damyarebuli. mTavari personaJebic: bagrat didi, leng-
Temuri da mefis Ze giorgi istoriuli pirebi arian. TxzulebaSi arsebiTad da-
culia istoriuli simarTle. aq istoriuli movlenebis SemoqmedebiTad asaxvas-
Tan erTad didi poeturi ostatobiT isea gamoyenebuli `mxatvruli gamonagoni~
da `poeturi Sevseba~, rom isini savsebiT bunebrivad da kanonzomierad Seesaty-

1
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani, t. XII, gv. 138.
2
n . b e r Z e n i S v i l i , i v . j a v a x i S v i l i , s . j a n a S i a , saqarTvelos istoria, 1946, gv. 284.
103
visebian namdvil istoriul viTarebas. am poemaSi gardasuli drois mxatvrul-
SemoqmedebiTi asaxva STagonebulia qveynis ukeTesi momavlis ganxorcielebis
idealebiT, erovnuli Cagvris mospobisaTvis xalxSi nacionalur ganmaTavisuf-
lebeli brZolis gaRvivebis miswrafebiT. qarTveli xalxis tragikuli istoriu-
li epoqis, samSoblos TavisuflebisaTvis yovelgvari piradis gawirvis mxat-
vruli gansaxierebis safuZvelze poeti mZafrad akritikebda Tanadroulobas
da xels uwyobda xalxSi gamarjvebis imedis ganviTarebas.
poema `bagrat didis~ ideuri sidiade imaSic mdgomareobs, rom masSi samSob-
los siyvaruli, misTvis Tavdadeba, misi dafaseba da pativiscema, umaRles
mwvervalzea ayvanili. TxzulebaSi didi STagonebiT gatarebulia is azri, rom
adamianma yvelaferi unda Seswiros samSoblos keTildReobas. saWiro SemTxvevaSi
mamuliSvilma samSoblosaTvis unda daTmos ojaxi, colic, Svilic, yovelgvari
maRali mdgomareoba da TviT sicocxlec ki. pirovnulis uyoymanod gawirva sa-
zogadosaTvis, samSoblosaTvis — bagratisa da isak moZRvris dialogsa da mTel
poemaSi garkveviT xazgasmulia es uaRresad keTilSobiluri ideali:
`colis damkargvi sxva cols SeirTavs,
mkvdar Svils uqarvebs meore Svili,
magram magiers ki veRar poebs
kaci, Tu ar hyavs mas deda tkbili~.
aq `deda~ — samSoblos simboloa.
is azri, rom samSoblos da xalxis interesebs yvelaferi unda davuqvemdeba-
roT da, saWiro SemTxvevaSi, unda SevwiroT kidec sakuTari dideba, ojaxi, su-
lic da sicocxlec, warmoadgens poemis wamyvan ideur Sinaarss.
poemaSi xazgasmulia qarTveli xalxis gmiroba da simamace, misi qeduxreli
brZola mravalricxovan agresorTa winaaRmdeg. akakis daxasiaTebiT sastiki gan-
sacdelis Jams mxneobiT aRWurvil qarTvelebs `gulSi ar edoT SiSi~. poemaSi aR-
niSnulia, rom saqarTvelos bedma `mohfina viTa kalia, mZvinvare, mxecqmnili
mongolTa Zala!~qvemoT poeti dasZens: Temur-lengma `rom simxniTa verra ga-
awyo, man moindoma rom sZlios ricxviT~. magram mravalricxovan uTanasworo
brZolebSi qarTvelebi ar Sedrknen da saarako gmiroba gamoiCines. Zlieri sa-
xelmwifoebis dapyrobiTa da miwasTan gasworebiT galaRebuli da Tan auracxe-
li jaris imediT gaTamamebuli Temur-lengi darwmunebuli iyo, rom qarTveleb-
sac advilad daimonebda, magram motyuvda. gmirma qarTvelma xalxma bevrjer
agema mters damarcxeba. qarTvelebis es gamarjvebani TbilisisTvis brZolaSi
unda momxdariyo. Tbilisis garSemo didi brZolebisa da qarTveli jaris Seupo-
vari gmirobis Sesaxeb `qarTlis cxovreba~ mogviTxrobs: rodesac Temur-lengi
uricxvi jariT saqarTvelosken gamoemarTa `viTarca Relvani zR¢sani ganZ¢ne-
bulni~, gardmovlo aboci, TrialeTi, sabaraTiano, `saSinelebiTa da zariTa~
sastikad aaoxra dasaxlebuli mxareebi. amis mcnobi bagrati ar SeuSinda mZvinva-
re mters, gaamagra Tbilisi. Temur-lengi amas ar moeloda. igi `egreT hgonebda
T¢T mis lvasa da morCilebasa mefisa bagratisa, viTarca morCil eqmna aTabagi da
sxuanica mravalni~.1 brZolis velze gamovida mefe bagrat qarTveli jariT da
mtris urdoebs Seutia da `iqmna brZola Zlieri imier da amier, da moisrna or-
kerZove simravleni spaTani da ufrosRa mravalni moswyvides spani lang-Temu-
risani~.2 poeti poemaSi istoriuli simarTliT, realisturad xatavs qarTvelTa
gmirobas da moZalade mtrisadmi Seurigeblobas. akaki Temur-lengis sityvebiT
qarTvelebs ase axasiaTebs:

1
`qarTlis cxovreba~, t. II, 1959, gv. 449. teqsti dadgenilia yvela xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiS-
vilis mier.
2
iqve, gv. 450.
104
`...gana ar vici, raa qarTveli?
mis Sesadari arsad minaxavs,
Tumc aziisa var me momvleli!
suliT maRali da guliT mtkice!..
misi ganzraxva uzakvelia
da, sanam pirSi suli udgia,
mis damonebac ufiqrelia~.
qarTvelTa amgvari Tvisebebis win wamoweviT poeti nergavda Tanadroul sa-
zogadoebaSi xalxis Zalebisadmi rwmenas, aRvivebda erovnuli TviTSegnebis
grZnobebs da xels uwyobda ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis ganviTarebas. xalxis
uWknobi sibrZniT aris STagonebuli poemis Semdegi striqonebi:
`cocxal monaze umjobesia
Tavisuflebis ZebnaSi mkvdari!
imisi saqme STamomavlobas
bnels gaunaTebs rogorc lampari~.
monur cxovrebasTan SedarebiT Tavisuflebis ZebnaSi sikvdilis upirateso-
bis aRiareba savsebiT gamoxatavs xalxis gmirul, mebrZol suliskveTebas, mis qe-
duxrelobas. TavisuflebisaTvis daRupuli gmiris `saqme STamomavlobas bnels
gaunaTebs, rogorc lampari~, aseTia poemaSi gamoxatuli suliskveTeba.
rogorc aRiniSna, poemis mTavari personaJebi bagrat didi da Temur-lengi
istoriuli pirovnebebia. bagrat mefe (bagrat V) giorgi brwyinvalis Zis, davi-
Tis Svili iyo da mefobda meToTxmete saukunis meore naxevarSi, daaxloebiT
1360-1393 wlebSi. qarTul, somxur da berZnul saistorio wyaroebSi bagrati
moxsenebulia, rogorc `didi mefe~, `mefeT-mefe~, `usaxelovanesi mxedarTmTa-
vari~, `Zlevamosili da Zlieri~. poetic bagrats axasiaTebs aseve, rogorc `sa-
xelganTqmul, dRemde svian~ mefes, gulads, gmirs. bagrats samSoblosaTvis `of-
li da sisxli erTad uRvria~, ver aSinebs ubedureba, igi gulmagari, mxne da lom-
guli gmiria. mzad aris `tkbil deda samSoblos~ yvelaferi Seswiros. bagratis
rwmeniT, vinc samSoblos gawiravs da dakargavs, `is saukunod ukunisamde nuRa
moelis keTilsa bolos~. samSoblos gareSe mas arad uCns samefo gvirgvini, saxe-
li, dideba da piradi brwyinvaleba. bagrati Wkviani da moxerxebulia. man gareg-
nulad miiRo mahmadianoba da miT motyuebul Temur-lengs miuzRo samagiero.
saerTod istoriulad cnobili pirebi akakim, Tavisi mxatvruli amocanebis
Sesabamisad, umTavresad ise daxata, ra saxiTac iyvnen isini daxasiaTebuli da war-
modgenili ZiriTad saistorio wyaroebSi. poetma mdidari mxatvruli gamonagoni-
sa da mravalferovani istoriul-literaturuli masalis mxatvrul-Semoqmedebi-
Tad gamoyenebis saSualebiT poeturad Seavso, gaacocxla da garkveuli mizniT
warmarTa Txzulebis personaJTa urTierTobani, amasTanave uzrunvelyo saxeTa
istoriuloba da Tanamedroveobis mwvave problemebTan maTi dakavSireba.
poemis personaJi ioseb (berobaSi isak) moZRvari istoriulad cnobili pirov-
neba ar aris, igi `mxatvruli gamonagonia~, magram savsebiT Seesabameba istoriul
sinamdviles. did poetur quraSi gatarebuli istoriuli masalebi da garkveuli
koncefciiT daxatuli saxe isak moZRvrisa da masTan dakavSirebuli situaciebisa
warmoadgens iseT `mxatvrul gamonagons~, romelic savsebiT Seefereba epoqas da
simarTliT warmogvidgens iseT personaJs, romelic `ra drosac ekuTvnis, xasiaTsa
da viTarebas namdvilad gvixatavs~. igi savsebiT bunebrivad da mTeli uSualobiT
eqsoveba `bagrat didis~, rogorc istoriuli Txzulebis, saerTo mdinarebas. aseTi
tipebi namdvilad cocxloben Cveni xalxis cxovrebasa da warmodgenaSi. Txzuleba-
Si iosebis saxe warmodgenilia, rogorc didi patrioti, samSoblosa da qveynisaT-
vis Tavdadebuli, qeduxreli gmiri. iosebi mTeli siamayiT acxadebs:

105
`Cemi col-Svili, Cemi saxl-kari,
amqveyniuri me netareba,
yvela Sevwire tkbil samSoblosa,
mindoda misi bedniereba!~
iosebi mozRvavebuli mtris winaaRmdeg brZolaSi `sisxlze sisxls~ umateb-
da da, miuxedavad mravali avbedobisa, bolomde inarCunebda Rrma optimizms. is
bagrats moagonebs:
`TeTri ara maqvs Tavze imdeni,
ramdenic tanze mtrisgan Wriloba~
ar Semdrekia arodes guli,
miT davimtkice qarTvlisSviloba~.
TxzulebaSi es personaJi kalmis ramdenime mosmiTaa Sesrulebuli. igi er-
Tgvari epizoduri saxiTaa naCvenebi, magram iseTi poeturi STagonebiTaa Cafiq-
rebuli da iseTi aspeqtebiTaa gansaxierebuli, rom mkiTxvelze waruxocel STa-
beWdilebas axdens. am personaJis saxiT poetma gamoxata qarTveli xalxis sib-
rZne, gautexeloba, mtrisadmi Seurigebloba, moZaladisadmi daumorCilebloba.
mis dialogSi mefesTan igrZnoba xalxis didi rwmena, rom mtrisagan aoxrebuli
qveyana kvlav ayvavdeba, `gmiruli misi saxeli ukunisamde ar daaviwydeba~ da
`samSoblos maRal didebas~ adamianma yovelive piraduli unda Seswiros.
poemis pirvel karSive asaxulia lang-Temuris mier Tbilisis aRebisa da bag-
rat didis datyvevebis epizodebi. ZiriTadad aq aris mocemuli Txzulebis eq-
spozicia. meoreSi ki warmodgenilia datyvevebuli bagrat didisa da misi moZR-
vris, isakis dialogi. orive gmiri mzadaa sakuTari interesebi da TviT sicocx-
lec ki anacvalon samSoblos interesebs, misi Tavisuflebis saqmes. am keTilSo-
biluri miznis misaRwevad Tavdapirvelad maT erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli gza
aqvT arCeuli: isaks —simtkice, aSkara brZola da qeduxreloba, bagrats ki — xer-
xis gamoyeneba, sarwmunoebis garegnulad Secvla, miT veragi lang-Temuris mo-
tyueba da Semdeg SurisZiebiT samSoblos ganTavisufleba. mamuliSvilebi bo-
los gaugeben erTmaneTs, isakic bagratis mier arCeul gzas daadgeba. arsebiTad
am karSi inaskveba nawarmoebis siuJeturi kvanZi. mesame karSi lang-Temurisa da
bagratis dialogSi asaxulia movlenaTa iseTi Semdgomi kulminaciuri ganviTare-
ba, romliTac sabolood uzrunvelyofilia gmir qarTvel patriotTa sabrZolo
meTodebis ganxorcieleba — Temuri aZlevs 12000 jariskacs bagrats, gzavnis sa-
qarTvelos dasapyrobad. bagratis xerxma gaWra. ukanasknel meoTxe karSi qarTvel
gmirTa ocnebis ganxorcielebaa daxatuli. bagratma Temuris jarebi viwro xeoba-
Si moaqcia da igi winaswar gandobili Svilis — giorgis daxmarebiT sul erTianad
gaJlita. aq movlenaTa siuJeturi ganviTareba mTavrdeba da finali aSkaraa.
saerTod poema kompoziciurad Sekrulia da TiTqmis sruliad Tavisufali
zedmeti xlarTebisagan. aRsaniSnavia, rom TxzulebaSi personaJebi Zalze gansazR-
vruli raodenobiTaa warmodgenili. amasTanave, maTi xasiaTebi araa sisruliT gaS-
lili. poema Tavisi ideuri mizandasaxulebis Sesabamisad Sesrulebulia xan liri-
kuli, xan paTosiT aRsavse intonaciiT. istoriuli ambis sidiadisa da siRrmis gad-
mosacemad poets aurCevia ZiriTadad aTmarcvlovani leqsis zoma. aRniSnuli gare-
moebis gamo poema erTgvarad moklebulia ritmul mravalferovnebas, magram sama-
gierod miRweulia warsulis tragikuli movlenebis kolorituli asaxva da mopo-
vebul gamarjvebaTa sazeimo STamagonebeli gadmocema. TxzulebaSi TiTqos ig-
rZnoba poema `bedi qarTlisas~ erTgvari qrola (bagratisa da iosebis dialogi,
mwvave paeqroba, bolos Serigeba da sxv.).
samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia azri, rom poema `bagrat didi~ aka-
kis cnobil poemebTan SedarebiT mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT ver dgas Tavis si-

106
maRleze~.1 poemaSi `ar igrZnoba is simsubuqe da uSualoba, rac ase SesamCnevia
mis sxva nawarmoebebSi~.2 aRniSnuli mosazrebebi gasagebia, Tu poema `bagrat di-
dis~ mxatvrul Taviseburebebs marTlac SevafasebT akakis sxva, ufro maRal-
mxatvrul poemebTan Sedarebis TvalsazrisiT. magram samarTlianoba moiTxovs
isic aRiniSnos, rom calke aRebuli es nawarmoebi xasiaTdeba saintereso mxat-
vruli TaviseburebebiT. igi, rogorc akakis pirveli dasrulebuli istoriuli
poema, Tavisi RirsebebiT garkveul yuradRebas imsaxurebs. poema TavisTavad
moklebuli ar aris lirikul sifaqizes, paToss, kompoziciur Sekrulobas da si-
uJetur simaxviles. poemis ena sada da xalxuria. amasTanave isic unda aRiniSnos,
rom poemas aklia erTgvari damuSaveba, ris gamoc garkveuli strofebi da situa-
ciebi yovelTvis ar JReren akakisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli poeturi xmiT.
poemis daxasiaTebisas isic saTqmelia, rom am poemis Seqmnisas, garda erovnu-
li niadagisa da erovnuli istoriisa, erTgvari impulsi gaxda jer kidev gimna-
ziaSi swavlisas akakis maswavleblis — poloneli rodzieviCis saubrebi da didi
poloneli poetis, adam mickeviCis poema `konrad valenrodis~ gacnoba.
akakis `bagrat didisa~ da adam mickeviCis `konrad valenrods~ Soris garkve-
uli msgavsebis elementebi aSkarad SeiniSneba. akaki moswavleobidanve iyo gata-
cebuli didi poloneli mwerliT da misi gmiriT da roca saqarTvelos istoria-
Si valenrodis gmirobasTan damsgavsebuli faqti aRmoaCina, mas siamovnebiT mis-
wvda.
poema `kikolas naambobi~ dawerili unda iyos 1885-1886 wlebSi. arsebobs az-
ri, TiTqosda kikola sxvitoris axlomdebare sofel orRulis mkvidri kikola
kalmaxeliZea. akaki am glexis ambavs gascnobia mezobeli glexebis meSveobiT.
cxadia, poemis dawerisas akakim gamoiyena sxva masalebic, kerZod xalxuri gad-
mocemebi, qarTuli Tu sxva istoriuli wyaroebi, krwanisis omis momswre-monawi-
leTa monaTxrobebi an maT STamomavalTa mier gadmocemuli cnobebi. `kikolas
naambobs~ gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs akakis istoriul poemebSi. Tu sxva
TxzulebebSi mTavar personaJebad ZiriTadad mefeebi da didebulebi arian war-
modgenili, `kikolas naambobSi~ ZiriTadi moqmedi gmiria xalxis dabali fenidan
gamosuli yma glexi kikola. avtoris mizans Seadgenda SaravandediT Seemosa sam-
SoblosaTvis Tavdadebuli saxalxo gmiri — glexi kikola da masTan erTad mSro-
meli mosaxleobis is razmi, romelmac saarako gmiroba gamoiCina Semoseuli
mtris winaaRmdeg sastik brZolaSi.
aRa-mahmad-xanma qarTl-kaxeTis samefos kvlav kategoriulad mosTxova
`iranis uzenaesobis cnoba... qarTl-kaxeTis mowinave wreebma da mefem civi ua-
riT gaistumres aRa-mahmad-xanis mociquli~.3 maT ruseTTan hqondaT xelSekru-
leba dadebuli da pirobas ar uRalatebdnen. amas mohyva veragi Sahis didZali
jariT Tavdasxma saqarTveloze. mteri Tbilisis karibWes moadga. krwanisis vel-
ze unda gadawyvetiliyo qveynis bedi. dadga qarTveli xalxis yofna-aryofnis
sakiTxi. poemis ZiriTadi siuJeti am tragikul movlenazea agebuli. am brZolaSi
qarTvelTa mxedrobam erekle meoris xelmZRvanelobiT kvlav uCvena kacobrio-
bas Tavisi gmiruli SemarTeba, samSoblosTvis saarako Tavdadeba.
am istoriul simarTles rom asaxavs akaki wereTeli, iqve gviCvenebs qarTvelTa
damarcxebis mizezsac. mZafri guliswyromiT aris mxilebuli gadagvarebuli feoda-
lebis veragoba, batoniSvilTa urTierTSuRli da gautanloba.
Tavdapirvelad naCvenebia qarTl-kaxeTis samefos mZime saSinao da sagareo
mdgomareoba. brZolebSi gaWaRaravebuli erekle uCivis xandazmulobas, amas-

1
am b e r k i g a C e C i l a Z e , akaki wereTeli, 1949. gv. 93.
2
S . r a d i a n i , a xali qarTuli literatura, 1954, gv. 329, Sdr. guram asaTiani, vefxistyaosnidan
baxtrionamde, gv. 305-306.
3
i. c i n c a Z e , aRa-mahmad-xanis Tavdasxma saqarTveloze, Tb., 1963, gv. 3.
107
Tan, siberis Jams RmerTs movsZuldio, — acxadebs gvirgvinosani. swored aseT
dros moiSala Sinagani erTianoba da gareSe mtrebmac axla moices Zalao. amas
zed isic daerTo, rom batoniSvilebs Soris Tanxmoba aRar aris, isini erTmaneTs
hglejen kalTas, sxvadasxva mxriv miiweven. momravldnen moRalateebic. swored
amiT isargebles gareSe mtrebmac da qveyanas Tavs daatyda sparselTa Tavdasxma.
poemis es eqspoziciuri nawili mrume ganwyobilebas qmnis miT ufro maSin, roca
mkiTxvelis winaswar Sesamzadeblad avtori aviTarebs eris konsolidaciis ide-
as. aq mkafiod aris Tqmuli:
`mas Semdeg, rac saqarTvelo
or nawilad gayofila,
mSvidoba da mosveneba
aRarc erTSi ar yofila.
gvaviwydeba, rom Zmebi varT,
erTmaneTis ganayari;
erTis sisxliT morwyuli gvaqvs
mindori, tye, mTa da bari~.
kikolasaTvis warmoudgenelia ZmaTa Soris uTanxmoeba. igi Tavs erTiani
qveynis moqalaqed grZnobs da tomobrivi gankerZoeba misTvis iseve ucxoa, ro-
gorc mamulis Ralati. es aris glexTa wridan gamosuli WeSmariti mamuliSvili.
kikolas kontrastuli saxea misi Zma, batonis yurmoWrili mona-morCili, vinc
daemorCila sakuTari mebatonis gulisTqmas da ar gahyva meomrebs mamulis dasa-
cavad. TviT kikolas dedac wyevlis kikolas umadur Zmas. deda kikolas mimar-
Tavs: Svilo, dRemde giglovdi, Senze vicvamdi Savsao, dReidan vigloveb im Sens
Zmas, moRalates da avsao~.
zurab wereTlis saxe — es aris moRalate feodalis saxe, romelic `yizilbaSu-
ri~ medidurobiT zians ayenebs saqarTvelos. zurabi istoriuli piria. istoriu-
lad mas didi wvlili miuZRvis imereTis samefos ruseTTan dakavSirebaSi, magram
akaki mas yvelgan uaryofiTad gvixatavs. zurabs, rogorc mefis pirvel saxlTuxu-
cess, samefo karze didi gavlena moupovebia. mefec ki `umisod veras hbedavda~. igi,
rogorc mebatone, sastiki da daundobelia. man sastiki mopyrobiT Suri iZia kiko-
lasa da mis ojaxze, ar daindo xalxis sayvareli mkurnali oTar TurmaniZe, xolo,
rodesac mefem saTaTbirod miiwvia qarTl-kaxeTis daxmarebaze, uaryofiTi rCeva
misca mefes. saerTo-saxalxo saqme man imereTisaTvis Soreul da saziano saqmed ga-
moacxada. gamTiSveli politikis mimdevarma ase ganacxada: `raT daviwyluloT sxvi-
saTvis guli, roca isari Cven ar gvesobao~. es zviadi feodali veragulad atyuebs
mefe erekles, radgan daaimeda igi, Caaba sastik omSi da TviTon ki imereTisaken gab-
runda... poemis mixedviT, moRalate wereTelma muxanaTurad daRupa mefe solomo-
nic, risTvisac xalxi mas wyevla-krulviT ixseniebda.
poemaSi mravali istoriuli movlena simarTliT aris warmosaxuli, magram imis
aRniSvna, rom TiTqos solomonsa da zurab wereTels krwanisis omSi monawileoba
ar mieRoT, istoriul WeSmaritebas ar gamoxatavs. aRniSnulis irgvliv azrTa sxva-
dasxvaobaa. zogi wyaro uaryofs imerTa mxedrobis — solomon mefisa da zurab we-
reTlis monawileobas am brZolaSi, zogi ki aRiarebs. rogorc Cans, poeti `kikolas
naambobis~ werisas emyareboda rusi avtorebis — butkovisa da dubrovinis tenden-
ciur monacemebs. maSindeli qarTuli istoriografiis dabali done da problemaTa
Seuswavleloba akakis aiZulebda dayrdnoboda oficiozur cnobebs, aman ki isto-
riuli simarTlis damaxinjeba gamoiwvia mis poemaSi. mogvianebiT poetis mimarT say-
veduris werilebic daibeWda, akakic Caeba kamaTSi, magram problemis gaSuqebaSi
gardatexa maSin ar momxdara.
rac Seexeba poemaSi asaxul qarTvelTa gmirobas, obieqturi sinamdvilea da
ara poetis fantaziis nayofi.

108
poema saerTod maRalmxatvruladaa Sesrulebuli. leqsi moqnili da elas-
tikuria. yoveli mxatvruli saxe naTeli da gamWvirvalea. moqmedeba dinamiku-
ria. poeti gvevlineba epikuri Txrobis didostatad. nawarmoebSi uxvadaa gamo-
yenebuli xalxuri leqsika, brZnuli Tqmebi, hiperbolebi, Sedarebani da sxva.
akaki wereTeli mTel Tavis SemoqmedebaSi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uT-
mobda erovnuli konsolidaciis, qarTveli xalxis mtkice erTianobis, sruliad
saqarTvelos mTlianobis ideas. poema `naTela~ swored am sakiTxs exeba. poema
pirvelad daibeWda 1897 wels. TxzulebaSi gadmocemulia qarTvelTa patriotiz-
mi. samSoblosaTvis Tavdadeba da gmiruli paTosi erTmaneTs erwymis. gmir qar-
Tvel mamakacebTan erTad aq daxatulia gmiri qarTveli qalis patriotuli saxe.
poeti gviCvenebs Cveni qalebis siwmindes, zneobriv ubiwobas, ojaxisa da qmris ga-
nuzomel siyvaruls. akakis azriT, Cveni qalebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT patriotiz-
mia damaxasiaTebeli.
poema `naTela~ istoriul Temazea agebuli. masSi SemoqmedebiTadaa gamoye-
nebuli mematianeTa cnobebi, qarTul da ucxour enebze arsebuli saistorio
wyaroebi, mxatvruli literatura da folkloruli masalebi, poemis siuJeti
gamdidrebulia poeturi gamonagoniT. poemaSi asaxulia qarTveli xalxis avbe-
doba monRolTa Semosevisas da amer-imerTa imdroindeli aSliloba, Ralati da
sisxlisRvra. damxobili Zmobisa da erTobis daSlis niadagze `dadga bneli, sa-
zareli dro mxecebis sanavardo!... mzis sxivebis veRar mWvreti gaxma ia, daWkna
vardi~. amiT isargebles agresorTa urdoebma da Savi dRe gauTenes qveyanas: yo-
veli mxriT gaismoda sulTambrZoli `vai, viSi~ da dacemul qarTvelobis aRar
hqondaT mis mtrebs SiSi~. moZaladeebma qveyana gaanadgures, `mTa da bari gaas-
wores, SeaerTes zRva da vake~.
poemaSi didi simZafriTaa dagmobili samefoTa da tomTa Soris Ralati da
daundobeli brZola. aq xazgasmulia, rom mZime viTarebaSi saqarTvelos moevli-
na kidev ufro didi ubedureba: ZmaTa Soris Suri, gautanloba, undobloba da
sisxlisRvra. separatizmis, urTierTqiSpis, Ralatis niadagze adre ZlierebiT
ganTqmuli saxelmwifo dauZlurda da daeca, gadagvarebisa da gadaSenebis dro
daudga. `naTelaSi~ daviT guramiSvilis cnobili striqonebis gamoyenebiT, akaki
xatavs amereTsa da imereTs Soris arsebuli uTanxmoebis suraTs:
`mama-papis waRma xnuli
SviliSvilTa daRma farcxes!
da amereT-imereTmac
erTmaneTi daamarcxes~.
jer kidev 1867 wels gaz. `droebis~ furclebze akaki miuTiTebda: `Sav-ukuR-
marT droebisagan daTesili ZvelTaganve uTanxmoeba ubedurad moimko saqar-
Tvelom, rodesac is, saqarTvelo, ganawilda ramdenime samefod da samTavroe-
bad... Zmuri kavSiri gawyda maT Soris da mizezic es iyo saqarTvelos dacemisa da
gaoxrebisa~. poeti kargad xedavda mecxramete saukuneSi qarTveli xalxis erov-
nuli konsolidaciis process da imediTa da sasoebiT Sehxaroda am mniSvnelovan
movlenas.
poemis personaJi, samegrelos mTavari cotne dadiani istoriulad cnobili
pirovnebaa. is iyo erisTavT-erisTavis, Sergil dadianis vaJi da cxovrobda XIII
saukuneSi. mematieneni mas didi pativiscemiT ixsenieben da axasiaTeben rogorc
saTno, warCinebul da brZolaTa Sina saxelovan kacs. sxva adgilas JamTaaRmwere-
li cotnes Sesaxeb wers: cotne dadiani iyo `saTnoeba maRali da gansaTqmeli,
saqme sakvirveli da yovlisa qebisa Rirsi~. misi gmirobis ambavi Taobidan Taoba-
ze gadmodioda. cotne dadiani monawileobda monRolTa batonobis winaaRmdeg
mowyobil koxtas Tavis SeTqmulebaSi. igi sruliad saqarTvelos patriotebTan
erTad amer-imerTa erTiani sabrZolo SekavSirebiT lamobda qveynis gaTavisuf-
109
lebas. Sendobilebma gadawyvites ajanyebis mowyoba da droc daTqves. manamde
unda ezrunaT jaris Sekrebaze. cotne gaemarTa Tavis samTavroSi laSqris sawve-
vad. saubedurod, SeTqmuleba gamJRavnda. monRolebma gandobilni Sepyrobilni
waiyvanes qalaq anisSi da noinis brZanebiT Seudgnen maT saSinel wamebas — xel-
fexSekrulni, gaSiSvlebulni daawvines mzeze. cotnem gaigo ra SeTqmulTa Sepy-
roba, vaJkacurad gaiziara maTi bedi. noinma didad gaikvirva dadianis amgvari
qceva. am gmirobiT aRfrTovanebulma gaaTavisufla qarTvelni.
saistorio wyaroebze dayrdnobiT akakim warmosaxa cotnes STambeWdavi saxe.
man SemoqmedebiTad gaiziara JamTaaRmwerlis cnobebi. amasTan, poemaSi CaurTo sa-
intereso, momxibvleli epizodebi, gaamdidra igi poeturi gamonagoniT: adidebuli
mdinaris (yvirilas) vaJkacurad gadalaxva (sxvaTa Soris, es xerxi akakis sayvareli
xerxia. gavixsenoT glaxa baqraZis mier adidebuli aragvis gadalaxva moTxrobaSi
`baSi-aCuki~), naTelasTan gamocxadeba, patriotuli davalebis miReba, pirobis Ses-
ruleba, qorwili xopSi, sxvadasxva mxridan patriotTa sasaxlis aRwera, tyved-
pyrobil SeTqmulTa werili, cotnes saubari noinTan, naTelasTan Sexvedra urdo-
Si da sxv. am poemaSi akakisaTvis ufro damaxasiaTebelia zogadi StrixebiT persona-
Jis gamokveTa. cotnes daxatvisas avtori iyenebs folklorul personaJTa damaxa-
siaTebel niSnebs, `vefxistyaosnis~ mZleTamZle personaJebis zog Tvisebas.
poemis ideuri Sinaarsis gaSlis TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovani personaJia mo-
dinaxes cixis mflobelis, qveli wereTlis asuli naTela. am saxis Seqmnisas aka-
kis fantazias asazrdoebda Cveni qveynis istoriuli cxovrebis cnobili movle-
nebi, mxatvruli literatura da xalxuri Semoqmedeba. qarTul saistorio wya-
roebsa da folklorSi mravali gmiri qalis saxe gvxvdeba, romelnic Semkobilni
arian Rirseuli TvisebebiT. wlebis manZilze xalxi umReroda, qeba-didebas as-
xamda patriot qalebs, xolo xalxur mTqmelebs da mematianeebs ar aviwydebodaT
maTTvis saTanado adgilis miCena. akakimac marjved waatana xeli masalebs da maT
Targze aago naTelas saxe. poeti gmir qals axasiaTebs, rogorc qarTveli xalxis
erovnuli erTianobisaTvis mebrZol patriots, visTvisac umTavresia samSob-
los momavali. mas Tavi ubedurad manamde miaCnia, sanam qarTvels monRolis uRe-
li adgas, guls uklavs is viTareba, rom `lixs iqiT moZme qarTveli ymad gauxdia
monRolebs~, misTvis Zvirfasia imgvari davalebis micema satrfosaTvis, rome-
lic qveynis ganTavisuflebis saqmes emsaxureba. am mxriv igi nestan-darejans Ca-
mohgavs. akaki poeturi aRmafreniT xatavs qalis saxes. modinaxes cixis patroni,
qveli wereTlis asuli oblobaSi gazrdila, `ciT mowyvetili varskvlavi edemSi
rguli vardia... odnav upoben lal-bageT kbilebi margalitisa, Tan axlavs ena
bulbulis da moWikWike Citisa~. naTelas sulieri sidiade misi momxibvleli ga-
regnobis sruli adekvaturia. garegnul portrets avtori did yuradRebas uT-
mobs. `tanadoba aqvs alvis xis da Tvaladoba mTvarisa, Rimili ciskris var-
skvlavis, sxivosan moelvarisa~. cisferTvaleba naTela `samoTxis Camsaxvelia,
koWebamde scems xuWuWi, Savi ukuni bnelia~. naTelas momxibvlelobiT mravali
vaJkaci dainteresebula, magram `vefxistyaosnis~ gmir qalTa darad masac guli-
dan ar scildeba Segoneba `sjobs, sayvarelsa uCvenne saqmeni sagmironia!~ da na-
Telac swored imas igulvebs saqmrod, vinc samSoblos mtrebs risxvad moevli-
neba. akaki mravalnair xerxs iyenebs personaJis bunebis ukeT warmosaCenad. naTe-
las simRera `Congurs simebi gavubi~ saqarTvelos mTlianobis ideiTaa STagone-
buli da sruliad saqarTvelos erTobis, eris konsolidaciis gamomxatveli him-
nia. naTelas simRera xalxma aitaca da sayvarel simRerad aqcia:
`Conguri saqarTveloa,
simebi Cven varT yvelao,
sxvadasxva kuTxis mcxovrebni
odela-dela, delao!.

110
erTi maTganic rom gawydes,
maSinve unda Svelao,
rom ar gafuWdes Conguri
odela-dela delao...~
akakis mouSoreblad awuxebda eris konsolidaciis problema. am motivTan da-
kavSirebiT man 1876 wels gaz. `droebaSi~ gamoaqveyna feletoni `Canguri~. aq akaki
werda: `saqarTvelo es aris Conguri, romlis simebsac Seadgenen: qarTli, kaxeTi,
imereTi, guria, samegrelo, afxazeTi, svaneTi, aWara, lazistani da sxv. TiToeuls
amaTgans Tavisi sakuTari xma aqvs, magram kerZod TavisTavad arc erTs ara aqvs Za-
la, Tu erTmaneTs ar SeuTanxmdnen~. es motivacia mgosanma mravaljer gaimeora.
kerZod `vefxistyaosanze~ wakiTxul leqciaSic ki. xolo dasrulebuli kompozici-
is leqsis saxiT warmoadgina poema `naTelaSi~.
akaki wereTlis epikur TxzulebebSi gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva poema `Tor-
nike erisTavi~. igi xasiaTdeba ubadlo mxatvruli ostatobiT da Rrma ideuro-
biT. am nawarmoebiT poetma SemoqmedebiTad ganaviTara da gaamdidra axali qar-
Tuli literaturis Zvirfasi saganZuri. aRniSnul poemaSi akaki wereTelma didi
poeturi xedviT asaxa Cveni qveynis gmiruli warsulis didi istoriuli movlene-
bi, xalxis sibrZne, saxelovani tradiciebi, gautexeli mxneoba, uSreti Zliereba,
humanizmi, maRali idealebi da didi mxatvruli ZaliT daayena igi Tanadroulo-
bis interesebis samsaxurSi.
poemis siuJeti agebulia meaTe saukunis meore naxevris istoriul movleneb-
ze. aRniSnuli epoqa metad saintereso xanaa qarTveli xalxis cxovrebaSi. am pe-
riodSi, ramdenadac es im dros SesaZlebeli iyo, safuZveli Caeyara saqarTve-
los gaerTianebas, `erovnulad dakuwuli sxeulis gamTelebas~,1 qveynis politi-
kur Zlierebas, ekonomikur aRmavlobas da kulturul-literaturuli cxovre-
bis warmatebas. am xanaSi sakmaod momwifda da ganviTarda qarTveli xalxis erov-
nuli TviTSegneba. im dros saqarTvelo tols ar udebda mezobel xalxebs, qar-
Tvelebi agebdnen kulturis centrebs TviT bizantiaSic da Tavdadebulad iR-
vwodnen qarTuli mecnierebisa da kulturis ayvavebisaTvis, mSobliuri enis
ganviTarebisa da misi Rirsebis dacvisaTvis. imdroindeli saqarTvelo axlo ur-
TierTobaSi imyofeboda msoflios Zlier da mowinave saxelmwifoebTan. qarTve-
lebs Zala SeswevdaT daxmarebodnen Zlier saberZneTs da daexsnaT igi barda
skliarosis darbevisagan.
saistorio wyaroebidan cnobilia, rom bizantiis samefos aujanyda sardali
barda skliarosi. mojanyem zedized daamarcxa bizantiis keisris — basilis ja-
rebi, miadga sataxto qalaqs da lamobda mis aRebas. SeSinebulma, udao damarcxe-
bis saSiSroebis winaSe mdgarma basilma, daxmarebisaTvis mimarTa tao-klarje-
Tis mefe daviT kurapalats. daviTma miaSvela keisars Tormeti aTasi qarTveli
Tornike erisTavisa (Tornike im dros berad iyo Semdgari aTonis mTaze) da jo-
jikis mTavarsardlobiT. qarTvelma meomrebma sastikad daamarcxes barda skli-
arosi da saberZneTi gadaarCines darbevas. cnobilia, rom barda skliarosis
ajanyeba daiwyo 976 wels da grZeldeboda 979 wlamde. ufro sworad, Tornikem
skliarosis jarebi sabolood daamarcxa 979 wlis 24 marts2.
poeti Txzulebis pirvelsave taepebSi gvacnobs qarTveli xalxis gmirobasa
da vaJkacobas. poets Rrmad swams, rom qarTveli eri kvlav cocxalia, ar mom-
kvdara da gvasuldgmulebs ukeTesi momavlis imedi:
`naSTi Zveli didebisa
ar gamqrala jerac yvela...

1
k. k e k e l i Z e , Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, t. I, 1951, gv. 44.
2
k. k e k e l i Z e , etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, t. II, gv. 224.
111
dResac misi SaravandiT
niSans gvaZlevs cisartyela!...
Svid samTavros mogvagonebs
moelvare is Svidferi
da gvimRerebs ar momkvdara,
gaiRviZebs isev eri~.
poemaSi asaxuli mTavari movlenebi, ZiriTadad istoriuli faqtebi qveynis
cxovrebis sinamdvilidanaa aRebuli. nawarmoebis mTavari personaJebi: daviT
kurapalati, ioane da Tornike erisTavi, bizantiis imperatorebi konstantine da
basili, dedofali Teofania, barda skliarosi, moqis Tavadi afraniki da sxv. is-
toriuli pirebi arian. yvela maTganis mxatvruli saxe mdidar istoriul wyaro-
ebsa da xalxur gadmocemebs eyrdnoba. poetma mdidari istoriuli faqtebi, masa-
lebi istoriuli simarTliT aametyvela, mianiWa maT maradiuli poeturi ukvda-
veba. `Tornike erisTavi~ namdvilad istoriuli, saxalxo heroikuli poemaa.
poeti aRniSnavda ra winaparTa did damsaxurebas qveynisa da msoflios, gan-
sakuTrebiT saberZneTis winaSe, miuTiTebda, rom Cven valdebuli varT Seviswav-
loT Cveni warsuli, gavicnoT Cveni mama-papebi da maTi Rvawli, rom Cvenc maTis
mibaZviT, droisa da adgilis Sesaferad awmyoSi momavlisaTvis viSromoT.
akaki wereTlis mier `Tornike erisTavSi~ qarTveli eris istoriuli damsa-
xurebis xazgasmas udidesi mniSvneloba hqonda qarTvelebis erovnuli siamayis
grZnobis gaRvivebisaTvis, misdami pativiscemis, misis avtoritetis aRiarebisa
da zrdis saqmeSi. amiT poeti xalxSi aRvivebda patriotizmis suliskveTebas, ko-
loniuri Cagvris winaaRmdeg brZolis miswrafebas.
saistorio wyaroebSi gakvriT aris moxsenebuli zemoqveynebis qarTlisaT-
vis gadmocemis Sesaxeb. akakim am cnobas sagangebo mniSvneloba mianiWa, rogorc
did erovnul da saxelmwifoebriv movlenas. es aris xazgasmuli Tornike eris-
Tavis sityvebSi mefesTan da kaTalikosTan saubarSi:
`samagierod qarTls hpirdebian
zemo qveynebis dabrunebasa;
mxolod amisTvis me daveTanxme
imaT survils da imaT nebasa~.
saistorio wyaroebiT dasturdeba, rom zemoqveynebi adre marTlac qarTve-
lebs ekuTvnodaT (sabinini), xolo skliarosis damarcxebis Semdeg bizantiis ke-
isarma is dapirebis Tanaxmad daubruna saqarTvelos. poemaSi aRniSnulia, rom,
brZolis velidan gamarjvebuli qarTveli jaris dabrunebisas, Tornike eris-
Tavma mefes gadasca upirvelesi da gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo saCuqari — ze-
moqveynebis dabrunebis sigeli. es suraTi iSviaTi sazeimo STagonebiTaa poemaSi
daxatuli.
am sakiTxis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos istoriis wignSi aRniSnulia: `madlierma ba-
silma am daxmarebis sanacvlod daviTs didi miwa-wyali aCuqa: karinis anu erzeru-
mis olqi, mezobeli basianis olqi (amJamad paseni), harqisa da apahuniqis olqebi,
metad mniSvnelovani cixe xaldo-ariWi da klisura (zekari) mTavar gzaze erzeru-
midan trapizonisaken da sxv.~.1 cnobilia, rom bizantia am droisaTvis msoflioSi
saxelganTqmuli qveyana iyo Tavisi ganviTarebuli kulturiT, mdidari mwerlobi-
Ta da swavla-ganaTlebiT. am kulturiT dainteresebuli iyo saqarTveloc. igi yo-
velTvis cdilobda `bizantiis kulturis centrSi SeWras~ (k.kekeliZe) da es miswra-
feba ganaxorciela kidec barda skliarosis damarcxebis Sedegad miRebuli alafis
gamoyenebiT — aTonis mTaze iveriis monastris agebiT. es istoriuli cnoba mTeli
mxatvruli simarTliT da didi poeturi ZaliT daxata akakim Tavis poemaSi.

1
n. be r Z e n i S v i l i , iv. javaxiSvili, s. janaSia, saqarTvelos istoria, 1946, gv. 158.
112
poemaSi asaxulia mravali vnebebis, miswrafebis, aqtiuri moqmedebisa da wrfe-
li grZnobis Semcveli xasiaTebi... am mxriv gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva qarTveli sar-
dlebis: orbeliZis, jojikis, javSaniZis da lomkac savarsamiZis epizoduri saxeebi.
aRniSnuli personaJebi ZiriTadad istoriulad an gadmocemebiT cnobili pirebi
arian.
Txzulebis pirvel TavSive gviCvena avtorma sardal orbeliZis SesaniSnavi
saxe da misadmi simpatiuri grZnobiT Sepyrobili mkiTxveli nawarmoebis bolom-
de ganicdis mis mdgomareobas, Sestrfis mis vaJkacobas, wuxs misi avbedobiT da
Seuwyveteli, didi interesiT adevnebs Tvalyurs masTan dakavSirebul movle-
nebsa da situaciebs.
poemaSi daviT kurapalati daxatulia im amaRlebuli saxiT da momxiblao-
biT, rogoric Seefereboda mis istoriul rolsa da saqveyno avtoritets. davi-
Ti gamoCenili istoriuli pirovnebaa, igi saqarTvelos, ufro zustad, tao-
klarjeTis Zlieri mefe iyo, saqarTvelos erTian saxelmwifod SekavSirebis fu-
Zemdebeli. daviT kurapalati TxzulebaSi iSviaTad gamoCndeba xolme, igi epi-
zodur CarCoebSia moqceuli, magram yoveli misi gamoCena did STabeWdilebas ax-
dens mkiTxvelze.
Tornike erisTavi, rogorc viciT, istoriuli pirovnebaa. poetma Tanamed-
roveobis progresuli ideebis Suqze asaxa igi `istoriuli sunTqviT~. Tornikes
mxatvruli saxe scildeba epoqis CarCoebs da Tavisi keTilSobiluri Tvisebe-
biT, moraliT, moqalaqeobrivi idealebiT exmaureba Tanamedroveobis, mowinave
kacobriobis suliskveTebas. Tornike erisTavis Sesaxeb wyaroebSi SedarebiT
mcire cnobebi moipoveba. giorgi mTawmindelis TxzulebaSi `cxovreba iovanesi
da efT¢mesi~ mxolod ramdenime Strixia warmodgenili am didi mxedarTmTavris
cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis Sesaxeb. aq aRniSnulia, rom `didi Tornik T¢isa que-
yanasa monazon iqmna~. Tornikes aTonSi misvlisas `friadi sixaruli iqmna monas-
tersa Sina mas dResa, rameTu arca didi aTanasi umecar iyo Tornikis saqmesa da
warCinebulobasa da `axovanebasa~.1 xolo amave TxzulebaSi sxva adgilas naTqva-
mia: `....didi Tornik wyobaTa Sina aRzrdil iyo da salaSqroTa saqmeTa... ubnoba
da hambavi uyuarda~.2
Txzulebis siuJetur ganviTarebaSi poeti TanmiyolebiT amdidrebs Tornike
erisTavis saxes. skliarosis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi naCvenebia qarTveli mxedar-
TmTavris didi gamocdileba, uswrafesi mosazrebuloba, razmTawyobis ubadlo
xelovneba, saomari moqmedebis brZnuli strategia da taqtika.
barda skliarosTan SedarebiT Tornike erisTavi erTgvarad kontrastuli
saxea. skliarosi, marTalia, frTxili da gamocdili sardalia, magram amasTanave
igi brazmoreuli, nerviuli da mousvenaria: `kbilebs ilesavs brazmoreuli, arc
dRe, arc Rame aRar aqvs Zili~; Tornike erisTavi ki dinji, auRelvebeli, winda-
xeduli, SorsmWvreteli, brZeni, iSviaTi gulisxmieri, uaRresad energiuli da
didi taqtis sardalia. mxcovanebis miuxedavad, axasiaTebs Wabukuri simxne. gan-
sakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia Tornike erisTavis mebrZoli humanizni. mtrebTan omSi
dauzogvels, mxnes utex mxedarTmTavars damarcxebuli mtris mimarT udidesi
pativiscema da gulisxmiereba axasiaTebs. mas amoZravebs rainduli suliskveTe-
ba. damorCilebuli mtris mimarT SurisZieba damamcirebel, Seuracxmyofel
grZnobad miaCnia.
`vaJkacs rom bedi sxvas daamonebs,
dasatanjavad isic eyofa!~

1
g i o r g i m T a w m i n d e l i , cxovreba iovanesi da efT¢mesi, 1946, gv. 17.
2
iqve, gv. 29.
113
— aseTia Tornikes pozicia. mtris banakidan tyved Cavardnil meomarTa Rirsebis
dasacavad sardali Tavisianebs ubrZanebs: nurvin gabedavs datyvevebulebs, rom
miayenos Seuracxyofao. kacTmoyvareobis maRali grZnobiTaa gamTbari gamar-
jvebuli mxedarTmTavris sityvebi: `sikvdili yvelas aTanasworebs: Tvisians,
ucxos, mters da moyvares!~. gmiri qarTveli mxedarTmTavris omis Semdeg gace-
muli brZaneba aseTia: `gaurCevelad, qarTveli iyos, ginda sparseli, ginda ber-
Zeni, ginda somexi, sul erTianad mohkideT xeli!... vecadoT yvelam da nu davak-
lebT daWrilebs movlas da mkvdrebs samares~.
amrigad, Tornike erisTavis saxe samSoblosa da xalxis diadi sagmiro saqmee-
biT, misi sibrZniT, mdidari grZnobebiT, saukeTeso miswrafebebiT aris STagone-
buli. amitomaa, rom igi qarTvel gmirTa gundSi ise brwyinavda, rogorc gvir-
gvinSi pirveli Tvali~.
poema `Tornike erisTavi~ didi mxatvruli ostatobiTaa Sesrulebuli. igi
gamoirCeva iSviaTi poeturi saRebavebiT, sada, daxvewili saxeebiTa da ambavTa
saintereso ganviTarebiT. poemis mxatvruli Taviseburebebi pasuxoben epopeis
ideur mizandasaxulobas. Txzulebis fabula, kompozicia, siuJeti personaJTa
daxatvis ostatoba, poeturi gamosaxvis saSualebaTa SerCeva-gamoyeneba, bune-
bis suraTebi, ena da mxatvruli asaxvis sxva saSualebebi savsebiT emsaxureba na-
warmoebis ideis srulyofilad STamagoneblad gadmocemis amocanas.
poeti didi ostatobiT xatavs batalur scenebs, brZolis suraTebs. uaRre-
sad STambeWdavad aris aRwerili brZolis yvela epizodi:
`kiJina, kvnesa, wyeva, muqara
da Caxa-Cuxis xma gulsazari
areulia da fexiT gaaqvT
cxenebs daWrili da cocxal-mkvdari~.
gansakuTrebiT did eqspresiulobas da mxatvrul uSualobas aRwevs poeti
omis Semdgomi suraTis daxatvaSi. poemis es Tavi STagonebulia Rrma humanizmiT,
sastiki protestiT kacTa borotnamoqmedaris, adamianTa xocva-Jletis, kacob-
riobis gamanadgurebeli omebis winaaRmdeg. SeuZlebelia mRelvarebis gareSe wa-
ikiTxos adamianma tragizmiT aRsavse striqonebi, romlebic gvisuraTeben mTva-
riT ganaTebuli naomari velis suraTs:
`gaanaTa da gamoaCina
dasanaxavi gulSesazari,
TiTqos undoda eCvenebina
kacisTvis borotnamoqmedari.
sul daWril mkvdrebiT mofenilia
xeoba, Rele, tye da mindori!
visic sicocxle dilas hyvaoda,
axla Seqmnila leSi da mZori~.
poeti uWknobi SaravandediT mosavs im mamuliSvilis ukvdav saxels, romel-
mac `Tavis samSoblo qveynis xsovnaSi samaradisod daxuWa Tvali~:
`dedis cremlebis man sapasuxod
aq brZolis velze sisxli daRvara...
da Seasrula miT Rirseulad
mamuliSvilis ukvdavi vali,
Tavis samSoblo qveynis xsovnaSi
samaradisod daxuWa Tvali!~
uaRresad faqizad aris poetis mier Sesrulebuli Wabuki gmiris erTgvari
datireba. Wabuks did saqveyno movaleobasTan erTad guls uxurvebda sxva faqi-
zi grZnobac. magram sikvdilma yvelaferi ferflad aqcia, ganuxorcielebeli
datova bevri misi ocneba:
114
`vin icis, radara saidumlo
man saiqios Tan waitana?
Sors sadme qarTlSi dedam gamoscnos,
an gulis satrfom es gamocana!~...
es striqonebi da aRwerili epizodebi saerTod TavianTi didi mxatvruli STa-
gonebiT aRviveben xalxSi omebis, kacTa xocva-Jletis winaaRmdeg mimarTul pro-
tests.
poemis mxatvrul RirsebaTagan gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs leqsis
simsubuqe, misi maRali poeturi aRmafrena. poemaSi umTavresad gamoyenebulia
aTmarcvlovani leqsi da rvamarcvlovani Sairi. literaturuli da xalxuri
formebi, andazebi da aforizmebi, Tqmulebebi (amirani), brZnuli Tqmebi gabneu-
lia mTel poemaSi. amiranis leqsis CarTviT poetma ufro naTlad da aSkarad ga-
nasaxiera Tavisi erovnuli idealebi.
poema `gamzrdeli~. `gamzrdeli~ akakis poeturi muzis brwyinvale mwverva-
lia. igi Tavisi SinaarsiT, TematikiT, problemaTa aqtualobiT, ideuri mizanda-
saxulobiTa da mxatvruli ostatobiT axali qarTuli literaturis erT-erTi
mSveneba da gvirgvinia.
poema pirvelad gamoqveynda 1898 wels da swrafad gavrcelda xalxSi. iTar-
gmna mraval enaze.
poema miZRvnilia pedagogebisadmi (saTauris qveS miniSnebulia: `namdvili
ambavi. vuZRvni Cvens pedagogebs~).
`gamzrdeli~ mravalplaniani nawarmoebia. masSi asaxulia sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis aqtualuri problemebi: axalgazrdobis aRzrdis, aRmzrdelis roli-
sa da pasuxismgeblobis problema, adamianis harmoniuli aRzrdis, zneobriv-mo-
raluri da maRalmoqalaqeobrivi Tvisebebis gamomuSaveba-ganmtkicebis auci-
lebloba, WeSmariti, wminda siyvarulis mniSvneloba da Zala adamianis cxovre-
baSi da sxv.
poemis eqspozicia ixsneba moqmedebis adgilis aRweriT:
`mTis mwvervalze, cis maxloblad,
mercxlis buded raRac moCans,
TvalT isari Senatyorcni,
ver arCevs mis sigrZes da gans~.
am Tvaluwvdenel simaRleze dgas patara facxa, romelic gvxiblavs Tavisi
ubraloebiT. es ubralo `sadgomi~ Tavisi siturfiT aWarbebs didebul nagebo-
bebs. es haerovani facxa samyof savaned aurCevia axalgazrda afxazs — baTus. ba-
Tus cxovrebis sakuTari filosofia amoqmedebs. misi cxovrebiseuli pozicia
naTelia: mas surs Tavisufali, laRi, tkbili da bednieri cxovreba, xolo umTav-
resi da gadamwyveti xibli da gataceba baTus STagonebisa aris wminda da erTgu-
li siyvaruliT gamTbari, bednieri trfobisa da mSvenebis madliT aRvsili neta-
reba. poemis dasawyisSive SuqfeniT asaxulia baTusa da nazibrolas wminda siyva-
ruli. baTum da nazibrolam mTlianad, mtkiced da mTeli arsebiT daukavSires
erTmaneTs TavianTi sicocxle. samegrelos asuli nazibrola saarakod momxib-
lavi sulieri silamaziT da `xorcieli niWiT~ iyo damSvenebuli. igi, poetis da-
xasiaTebiT, `mowyvetili cis varskvlavi, edems alvad asulia~. poeti aRtacebiT
amkobs nazibrolas silamazes:
`elferobiT vardi aris,
sinaziT ki morcxvi ia...
trfobisaTvis jer pirvelad
gulis kari gauRia~.

115
poetis azriT, col-qmris maRali zneobrivi siwminde da fizikuri mSvenebiT
momadlebuli `sulTa kavSiri~ burjia saocnebo ojaxis `salocavi taZrisa~ da
`eris siyvarulisa~. amitom Sehxaris mgosani baTusa da nazibrolas wminda siyva-
ruls da laR netarebas:
`netavi maT, maT siyvaruls
da maT uxmo aRsarebas!...
erTad grZnoben am qveynadve
sasufevlis netarebas...
siyvarulis wminda grZnobam aamaRla baTusa da nazibrolas adamianuri Rir-
sebani da SeaZlebina maT `mTis mwvervalze~, `cis maxloblad~ nivTierad ubralo
cxovreba amaRlebul netarebad ganecadaT. eqspoziciis bolo strofiT poeti
migvaniSnebs tragikul situaciaTa moaxloebaze:
`magram xangrZliv es sofeli
gaaxarebs vismes gana?
TaflSi urevs mware naRvels!
mtrisas misi gamocana!..~
poemis Semdegi siuJeturi ganviTareba xasiaTdeba erTimeoreze moyolebuli
mZafri tragikuli movlenebiT, Rrma sulieri tkivilebiTa da mZime gancdebiT.
tragizmiT aRsavse situaciebis asaxvas win uZRvis bunebis sastiki mZvinvarebis
suraTi. aseT mZime viTarebaSi baTus estumra Zmadnafici mordu safar-begi,
romlis stumrobasac aRfrTovanebiT egebeba.
safar-begma ZiZiSvils auwya Tavisi gasaWiri. igi mouxiblavs silamaziT gan-
Tqmul zia-xanums. am `jadoqarma~ trfobis safasurad daavala: `Tu giyvarvar da
xar Cemi mogvareo, inalifas lurji cxeni am sam dReSi momgvareo~. safar-begs
erTaderTi gza aqvs inalifas cxenis xelSi Casagdebad — moparva. baTum mordus-
Tvis Tavi gawira da ikisra am metad saxifaTo saqmis Sesruleba:
`Sen eg saqme me momande,
me vizam Sens magivrobas:
an mogiyvan im cxens, an Tavs
Sevwirav Sens megobrobas!~
facxaSi marto darCenili safari sZlia cdunebam da gamousworebeli codva
Caidina. baTus Tavzari dasca erTguli da saTayvano meuRlis agre ganadgure-
bul mdgomareobaSi xilvam, `da rom krintic ar dauZravs, iqve uxmod Caikeca~. aq
gamoCnda kidev erTxel baTus sulieri simaRle, man anugeSa tanjuli nazibrola:
`Cu, nu stiri genacvale!
rac ginaxavs, sizmaria,
daiviwye isev male!..
me da Seni siyvaruli
wminda aris, viT lampari~.
baTu namdvili raindia. gamoirCeva iSviaTi moTminebiT, nebisyofis simtkiciT,
ubadlo TavSekavebiT. igi gvaocebs sulieri wonasworobiTa da vaJkacobiT. uaRre-
sad mwvave tkivilebis gancdisas baTu TavSekavebuli, `mSvidi saxiT~ da RimiliT aR-
viZebs codvil stumars. stumars Tavisi guliswyroma maspinZelma mxolod mas Sem-
deg acnoba, rac ojaxidan karga manZilze gaacila: `safar-bego, pirSaoba Seni vici,
Semityvia!.. da dReidan Cven ors Sua mociquli aris tyvia!~ baTus Rrma rwmeniT,
morduoba rjulze umtkicesi da xelSeuxebelia. ragind didi Secodeba da danaSau-
li miuZRodes, mas ZiZiSvili mainc ver Seexeba.

116
safar-begis ZiriTadi ubedureba nebisyofis sisusteSia, mas ara aqvs TavSe-
kavebis unari, gadaWarbebiT emociuria da vnebaTaRelvis amyoli, kontrols ver
uwevs sakuTar moqmedebas da qcevas.
poemaSi safar-begi calmogvad ar aris daxatuli. poeti mis saxes warmogvid-
gens SedarebiT rTuli formiT, gviCvenebs rogorc uaryofiT, ise dadebiT Tvi-
sebebsac. igi ar aris umecari, gamoucdeli da jabani, icnobs cxovrebas, aris Se-
upovari da uSiSari vaJkaci. safar-begi grZnobs Cadenil mZime danaSauls da
mwvaved ganicdis sindisis qenjnas. igi gulwrfelad aRiarebs Tavis codvas da
gulwrfeladve iTxovs sikvdilis fasad gamoisyidos danaSauli, sikvdiliT ga-
imrTelos sindisi. man Seigno Tavisi umsgavso saqcielis biwiereba da morCile-
biT uCvena gulmkerdi haji-usubis mier SemarTul dambaCas. magram yvelaferi
dagvianebuli iyo. misi uzneo saqcielis gamosworeba aRar SeiZleboda. igi mor-
duobis gamtexia da `Cveulebis gadamgdebi~, xalxisa da aRmzrdelis Semarcxveni.
marTalia, is borotebis Cadenis winaswari ganzraxviT ar misula ZiZiSvilis
ojaxSi, magram, rac ar unda iyos, man upatiuri saqcieli Caidina. aRsaniSnavia,
rom saxelovani qalebi mijnurisa da saqmrosagan moiTxovdnen saqveyno saqmi-
saTvis Tavdadebas, gmirul-patriotul Tavganwirvas, safar-begi ki daemorCila
zia-xanumis ukadris survils. marTalia, Zlieri patronisagan bedauris motace-
bas erTgvari vaJkacoba da SemarTeba sWirdeboda, magram es saqveyno saqmed ar
iTvleba. safar-begi am SemTxvevaSic erTgvari sulmokleobis da ganusjeli ga-
dawyvetilebis mimyoli gaxda.
poemaSi sagangebodaa aRbeWdili gamzrdelis roli da misi maRali pasuxis-
mgebloba adamianis aRzrdis metad sapatio saqmeSi. poeti did pativs scemda WeS-
marit maswavleblebs da pedagogiuri moRvaweoba xalxis cxovrebis erT ukeTes
da umaRles sarbielad miaCnia. pedagogikis klasikosTa msgavsad, poeti aniWebda
ra aRzrdas udides mniSvnelobas, aRmzrdelis movaleobas uaRresad keTilSo-
bilur da friad sapasuxismgeblo movaleobad Tvlida.
aRmzrdelis rolis, pasuxismgeblobisa da mniSvnelobis problema didad
ainteresebda da ainteresebs yovel xalxs, msoflio sazogadoebas. aRniSnuli
problemis Sesaxeb imTaviTve gamoiTqva mravali saintereso azri. gansakuTrebu-
li paeqrobisa da mecnieruli msjelobis sagani gaxda amjerad CvenTvis sainte-
reso problema:
a) bavSvis suli, cnobiereba aris dauwereli sufTa qaRaldi (Whita paper), anu
laTinurad, aristoteledan momdinare, Tabula rasa — sufTa dafa. mecnierebi uar-
yofdnen Tandayolil ideebs da aRiarebdnen, rom aRmzrdels SeuZlia nebismie-
ri sasargeblo Tvisebebi daweros bavSvis sufTa gulze, aRzardos igi garkveu-
li mimarTulebiT. aRzrda yovlisSemZlea da garemo wre udides zegavlenas ax-
dens mozardisa da ymawvilebis xasiaTze, Tvalsazrisze da sxv. (jon loki).
b) sapirispiro azris mixedviT, bavSvis suli da cnobiereba ar aris sufTa da-
fa. mas Tan dahyveba memkvidreobiTi, bunebrivi monacemebi — STamomavlobis ge-
nebi, rasac angariSi unda gaewios adamianis aRzrdis procesSi, romelTa Tanaar-
seboba garkveul SemTxvevaSi arTulebs an aadvilebs aRzrdas. yovel SemTxveva-
Si, mZime Tandayolili Tvisebebis gasworeba zogjer SeuZlebeli xdeba.
aRzrdis Sesaxeb uamravi socialur-politikuri, istoriul-filosofiuri,
pedagogiur-fsiqologiuri, humanitarul da sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa
miRwevebiT warmoqmnil mimarTulebaTa, principTa, SexedulebaTa, Teoriul da
praqtikul gamocdilebaTa mier dagrovil masalaTa Soris akaki angariSgasawev
faqtorad miiCnevda bunebriv, garemo wris, Tandayolil memkvidreobiT monace-
mebsac da acxadebda:

117
`magram marto wvrTna ras izams,
Tu bunebamc ar uSvela~.
amis gamo safar-begis sruli, yovelmxrivi aRzrda SeuZlebeli gaxda, miuR-
weveli Seiqna misi bolomde sasurveli aRzrda, misi fsiqo-fiziologiuri xasia-
Tebisa da TvisebaTa mTlianad gardaqmna. miuxedavad amisa, rogorc iTqva, akaki
adamianis aRzrdis mTel pasuxismgeblobas aRmzrdels akisrebs. yovel SemTxve-
vaSi, poema `gamzrdeli~ STagonebulia keTilSobiluri idealiT, rom aRmzrde-
li Tavis moRvaweobas ise unda afasebdes, rogorc sakuTar sicocxles. cudad
Tu kargad aRzrdilis pasuxismgebloba pirvel rigSi aRmzrdelma unda gaizia-
ros da pasuxi agos sakuTari Tavisa da xalxis winaSe. amgvari aRmzrdeli imsaxu-
rebs xalxis did siyvaruls, ndobas da pativiscemas.
akakim erTi kalmis mosmiT gaacocxla brZeni, idealuri aRmzrdelis saxe. ha-
ji-usub `cnobilia mxolod WkuiT da gonebiT~, igi ganaTlebuli pirovnebaa:
`zRva da xmeli movlili aqvs, mnaxvelia ca da qveynis~. cxovrobs xalxis WiriTa
da lxiniT. yvelasaTvis misabaZi, brZeni moZRvaria, `sadac kia gvariSvili, yvela
misi aRzrdilia~. am olimpiur xats aciskrovnebs saqmisadmi usazRvro pasuxis-
mgebloba da gmiruli Tavganwirva. igi safar-begs eubneba:
`Sen sikvdilis ra Rirsi xar!
sasikvdilo me var mxolod,
rom kacad ver gamizrdixar!~
didma moZRvarma `safeTqelSi miiWeda cxeli tyvia!~..
`Caikeca sulTambrZoli,
wamlis kvamlSi gaexvia...~
gamzrdelis saxis CvenebiT poetma Taviseburi naTeli sxivi Seitana pedago-
gikis arsis sakacobrio problemaTa gadawyvetis saqmeSi.
`gamzrdeli~, ise rogorc poetis sxva mxatvruli Sedevrebi, gvxiblavs Tavi-
si uaRresad naTeli warmtaci da sada poeturi formebiT. poemis yvela saxe Ta-
visi Rrma dramatizmiT, mZafri sulieri gancdebiT izidavs da ajadoebs mkiTx-
vels.
Txzuleba Sesrulebulia lakoniuri, dinamikuri stiliT. aq yoveli poetu-
ri sityva da gamoTqma isea SerCeuli da Casmuli mxatvrul qsovilSi, rom sityva-
Ta minimumiT miRweulia azrisa da gancdis erTianoba.

akaki wereTlis mxatvruli proza. sazogadod, gavrcelebuli Sexe-


dulebis mixedviT, akaki wereTlis mxatvruli Semoqmedebis stiqia lirikaa, mag-
ram amasTanave dabejiTebiT unda aRiniSnos, rom akaki mxatvruli prozis didi
ostatia. man Tavis SesaniSnav prozaul TxzulebebSi farTod gamoiyena am Janris
saxelovani tradiciebi da, ilia WavWavaZesTan erTad, xeli Seuwyo axali qarTu-
li prozis Semdgom ganviTarebas. leqsebisa da poemebis werasTan erTad, akaki
nayofier SemoqmedebiT muSaobas eweoda prozaSi. SedarebiT mcire moculobis
prozauli nawarmoebebis gverdiT poetma mogvca ufro farTo mxatvrul-proza-
uli tiloebi — `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ da `baSi-aCuki~, romlebSiac asaxa epoqis
mwvave problemebi. akaki wereTlis mxatvruli prozis ZiriTadi motivebi igivea,
rac poetis mTeli SemoqmedebiTi memkvidreobisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. akakim
ramdenime aTeuli patara da ori farTo moculobis moTxroba dagvitova. misi
mcire moTxrobebis saTanado Seswavla praqtikulad mxolod am bolo dros da-
iwyo. SedarebiT meti yuradReba eTmoboda mis or mniSvnelovan moTxrobas — `Ce-
mi Tavgadasavali~ da `baSi-aCuki~.

118
`eSmakebi~. akakis dRemde cnobili yvelaze adrindeli prozauli nawarmoe-
bia `eSmakebi~ p. ingoroyvas azriT, igi dawerilia 1865-1868 wlebSi. `eSmakebi~ sa-
Tavgadasavlo Janris nawarmoebs warmoadgens~.1 moTxrobaSi asaxuli unda iyos
avtoris cxovrebis erTi epizodi. ambavi Tavidan bolomde pirveli piris Txro-
biT miimarTeba. zafxulis sicxisagan Sewuxebuli mTxrobeli peterburgidan sa-
agarakod gaemgzavra qalaqis maxloblad mdebare sofel pargolovoSi. aq mas ga-
daxda sakmaod mZime usiamovneba. Txzulebis erT-erTi gmiris, lidia ivanovnas
mijnurma, Savwverebianma kacma, romelsac ucxoeTSi uswavlia TvalTmaqcoba,
isargebla soflis mcxovrebTa crumorwmuneobiT da eSmakuri maqinaciebiT dai-
kava erTi glexis sacxovrebeli saxli. yvelas swamda, rom am saxls dapatrone-
bodnen eSmakebi, romelTa gaZeveba SeuZlebeli iyo. eSmakebi saxlSi aravis ane-
bebdnen cxovrebas. maTi SiSiT soflelebi axlosac ver ekarebodnen im adgil-
samyofels. saagarakod Camosulebic, raki gaigebdnen saqmis viTarebas, uars acx-
adebdnen am saxlSi cxovrebaze. Txzulebis mTavari gmiri ar SeuSinda `eSmake-
bis~ TvalTmaqcobas da daiwyo cxovreba swored am saxlSi. misma am gabedulma
moqmedebam yvela gaakvirma. pirveli Rame `ucnaurma~ mdgmurma normalurad gaa-
Tia saxlSi, magram meore Ramidan mas Tavs daatyda mravali usiamovneba da SiSi.
TvalTmaqcobaSi daxelovnebuli Savwverebiani kaci RamiT `eSmakebis~ saxiT ev-
lineboda moagarakes da saSinel SiSs, tanjvas da faTeraks ganacdevinebda. mag-
ram ganawameb mdgmurs erT Rames moulodnelad gamoecxada didi xnis unaxavi
mijnuri da yvelaferi gairkva. mZime saTavgadasavlo SemTxvevebi Tavidan moici-
la. natanji gmiri Tavis mijnurTan erTad axal binaSi gadavida da amieridan saa-
mo dasvenebas mieca, xolo mis mier adre daqiravebuli saxli ki Savwverosan kac-
sa da mis mijnurs darCaT. am martiv fabulaze agebul TxzulebaSi akaki gakvriT
sakmaod saintereso sakiTxs Seexo. poetma mwvave satiriT gakicxa loToba, alko-
holizmiT daavadebuli adamianebi da miuTiTa glexobaSi am mavne Cveulebis war-
momSob socialur pirobebze. akakis azriT, glexobaSi loToba inergeboda xal-
xis usazRvro Cagvraze damyarebuli policiuri reJimis gamo. am seniT daavade-
buli adamiani, miuxedavad imisa, rom mwvaved ganicdis Tavis ubedurebas, mainc
Tavs veRar aRwevs mas. moTxrobaSi gamaTraxebulia carizmis moxeleebi, romle-
bic sargebloben ganuzomeli uflebiT da mourideblad Zarcvaven glexobas.
TxzulebaSi mkveTradaa naCvenebi socialuri ukuRmarTobis gamo dabeCavebuli
glexebis CamorCeniloba, SezRuduloba da crumorwmuneoba, agreTve kerZo in-
teresebiT gatacebuli zogierTi inteligentis gaiZveroba.
specialuri literaturidan cnobilia, rom `eSmakebi~ Sesrulebulia nove-
liseburi maneriT. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia sxarti, mokveTili, sada da dina-
mikuri Txroba. moTxrobis siuJeti swrafad da metad sainteresod viTardeba.
mkiTxvels Zlier itacebs moxerxebulad ganviTarebuli fabula, mtkice kompo-
ziciuri mTlianoba, moqnili da lakoniuri dialogebi, movlenaTa swrafi mdina-
reba, personaJTa cocxali da mimzidveli saxeebi.
akakis poeziisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli satirul-iumoristuli midgoma sinam-
dvilisadmi mkveTrad aisaxa akakis prozaSic. `rogor Temazec ar unda iyos dawe-
rili akaki wereTlis prozauli Txzuleba, TiTqmis yvelgan Cans mwerlis satiru-
li da iumoristuli tendencia. movlenisadmi aseT damokidebulebas amJRavnebs
mwerali yovel SesaZlo SemTxvevaSi — iqneba es Tanamedrove sazogadoebrivi viTa-
reba, epizodi Cveni istoriuli warsulidan, Tu romelime SemTxvevaSi misi piradi
cxovrebidan~.2

1
l . a s a T i a n i , cxovreba akaki wereTlisa, 1953, gv. 229.
2
g r . k i k n a Z e , qarTuli satirisa da iumoris ganviTarebis istoriisaTvis, 1953, gv. 362.
119
moTxroba `eSmakebi~ umTavresad iumoristul xasiaTs atarebs. masSi asaxuli
sinamdvile ZiriTadad mwerals komikuri gaazrebiT aqvs warmodgenili. aq sava-
lalo, samwuxaro da gansakuTrebiT SiSis momgvreli movlenebis gverdiT vxvde-
biT Rimilis momgvrel situaciebs, romlebiTac kidev ufro naTlad da garkve-
viT warmovidgenT movlenaTa srul saxes, personaJTa xasiaTs. udavod, Rimilis
momgvrelia akakis mier daxatuli mTvrali glexis suraTi. mTxrobelis SekiTx-
vaze: `ramdeni xania mas ukan, rac Tavisufleba gamoacxadeso~, glexi upasuxebs:
`muxins rom Zroxa daexrCo, maSin~; an kidev saxlis mepatrone glexis mimarTva
mdgmurisadmi: `ar SeiZleba, rom sul axlave miboZoT? vin icis rom rame agite-
xon eSmakebma, CamogaxrCon Tqvenc im nemeciviT, mere vinRa gadamixdis danaSTen
fulebs? rac dagrCebaT, imasac sxvebi waiReben, Tqveno brwyinvalebav!~. diliT
gamoRviZebuli msaxuri xmamaRla, seriozulad ekiTxeba oTaxSi myof batons:
`Tqveno brwyinvalebav! CamogaxrCven eSmakebma, Tu isev cocxali brZandebiTo?~.
personaJTa amgvari miamiti damokidebuleba movlenebisadmi da msjeloba uTu-
od Rimils iwvevs.
TxzulebaSi didi ostatobiTaa gamoyenebuli moulodnelobisa da saidum-
loebis xerxi, rac metad aZlierebs mkiTxvelis interess. aq gvxvdeba zRapruli
elementebi. mag., revolveridan gasrolili eqvsi tyviis acileba moCvenebis mi-
er, civi tyviebis saTiTaod msrolelisaTvis dabruneba da sxv. saidumloeba-mo-
ulodnelobis xerxebis ostaturi gamoyenebiT mwerali moxdenilad aRwevs
Txzulebis siuJeturi xazis saintereso gaSla-ganviTarebas. mkiTxveli mouT-
menlad elis gasaidumloebul ambavTa Sinaarsis da saidumloebiT moculi situ-
aciebis gaxsnas, xolo movlenaTa moulodneli gaxsnis Sedegad miRweulia mxat-
vruli emociurobis Semdgomi mZlavri aRmavloba.
`Cemi Tavgadasavali~. akaki wereTlis prozaSi moTxroba `Cemi Tavgadasava-
li~ gamoirCeva Tavisi Janrobrivi TaviseburebiT. igi ZiriTadad avtobiografi-
uli xasiaTis mxatvruli nawarmoebia.
aRniSnul TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze SeiZleba samarTlia-
nad miviCnioT qarTul literaturul kritikaSi `Cemi Tavgadasavlis~ Sesaxeb ga-
moTqmuli azri: `CvenSi amgvari mwerloba ar aris ganviTarebuli. am mxriv SeiZ-
leba akaki wereTeli novatoradac CaiTvalos. es novatoroba ki mniSvnelova-
nia~.1 marTlac, msoflio literaturaSi farTodaa cnobili avtobiografiuli
xasiaTis Txzulebebi, is CvenSic gavrcelda. sxvas rom Tavi davaneboT, sakmarisi
iqneba davaxasiaToT d.guramiSvilis `daviTianis~ zogierTi adgili, giorgi we-
reTlis `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~, al. yazbegis `namwyemsaris mogonebani~ da sxv.
am aRniSnul TxzulebebTan SedarebiT akakis `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ Tavisebu-
ri nawarmoebia. igi Tavisi mxatvruli ostatobiT, siuJetur-kompoziciuri in-
dividualobiTa da arqiteqtonikiT, movlenaTa danaxvisa da Sefasebis Tvalsaz-
risiT garkveviT gansxvavdeba miTiTebuli Txzulebebisagan da warmoadgens
axal, novatorul specifikur avtobiografiul mxatvrul nawarmoebs, romelSi-
ac avtobiografiul masalasTan erTad ostaturadaa Caqsovili mogonebebi, bi-
ografia da daxasiaTebani cnobili qarTveli moRvaweebisa da sazogadoebrivi
movlenebis Sesaxeb. mTeli nawarmoebi, romelSic asaxulia erTimeorisagan gan-
sxvavebuli mravali masala da cxovrebis metad saintereso movlenebi, gaerTia-
nebulia ZiriTadi moqalaqeobrivi motivis — mowinave erovnuli da socialuri
idealebis garSemo. igi xasiaTdeba garkveuli mTlianobiT; gadmocemis erTiani
mxatvruli stiliT. mwerali didxans muSaobda am nawarmoebis Seqmnaze. erTi fe-
letoni saTauriT `fareSoba~, romelic garkveuli cvlilebiT `Cems Tavgadasa-

1
v. k o t e t i S v i l i , qarTuli literaturis istoria (XIX s.), d. gamezardaSvilis redaqciiT, 1959, gv.
397.
120
valSi~ Sevida, poetma gamoaqveyna gazeT `droebaSi~ jer kidev 1877 wels. cxadia,
akaki didxans atarebda gulSi Tavis Canafiqrs, xolo 90-ian wlebSi dawyebuli
intensiuri meSaobis Sedegad Txzulebis pirveli nawilis pirveli Tavi ukve da-
beWda `kvalSi~, xolo pirveli nawili mTlianad gamoaqveyna Tavis `krebulSi~
1897-1899 wlebSi. meore nawilis pirveli Tavi akakis 1908 wels unda daemTavrebi-
na. amrigad, `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ drogamoSvebiT, sul mcire, 15-20 wlis ganmav-
lobaSi uweria.
Txzuleba avtors farTo gegmiT hqonia gaazrebuli. masSi asaxuli unda yo-
filiyo poetis mier nanaxi da sarwmunod gagonili, namdvili sarke qarTveli
xalxis naxevarsaukunovani cxovrebisa. igi mravaltomiani mxatvruli nawarmoe-
bi unda yofiliyo. amis Sesaxeb pirveli nawilis calke gamocemasTan dakavSire-
biT akaki sazogadoebas auwyebda: `am TxzulebaSi yvelaferia moxsenebuli, rac
ki naxevari saukunis ganmavlobaSi minaxavs da sarwmunod gamigonia... aq arian
moxsenebuli: 1. Cveni moRvaweebis werilebi, magaliTad: gabriel episkoposis,
dimitri yifianis, iakob gogebaSvilis, giorgi wereTlis, niko nikolaZis, vano
maCablis da sxvaTa mravalTa, visi werilic ki sazogado saqmes Sexebia, 2. biogra-
fia sazogado moRvaweebisa da Cemi piradi Sexeduleba maT Sesaxeb, 3. bankebis da-
arseba CvenSi, wera-kiTxvis sazogadoebis, Teatrisa da maT gamo gamowveuli ar-
Cevnebi, zedmoyolebuli avan-CavaniT, 4. batonymobis ambavi, 5. Zveleburi zne-
Cveulebani, 6. maTi gadavardna da samagieros SemoReba, 7. saistorio anegdotebi
da sxvani.... erTi sityviT, Cemi SeZlebisadagvarad, namdvili sarke naxevari sau-
kunisa! es nawarmoebi, romlis xelmZRvanelobas TviT me vkisrulob, rom Cemda
gunebisad gamoices, mravaltomiani iqneba. da radganac erTad maTi gamocema ar
moxerxdeba, jer unda gamoices pirveli tomi, romlis beWdvasac am ianvridan Se-
vudgebi~.1
rogorc vxedavT, mwerals ver ganuxorcielebia farTo gegmiT mofiqrebuli
am mravaltomiani Txzulebis Seqmna. marTalia, bevr im sakiTxze, romlebic winas-
war ganzraxul gegmaSia navaraudevi, akakis xSirad gamouTqvams Tavisi azri da
maTTvis saqveynod cnobili leqsebi, statiebi, feletonebi, Tu sxvadasxva nar-
kvevic ki miuZRvnia, magram erTiani stiliT, mTliani Sinagani kavSiriT Sekruli
mravaltomiani Txzulebis Seqmna, rogorc es gegmiT hqonia ganzraxuli, mainc ga-
nuxorcielebeli darCa. Semdeg poets ucdia `savsebiT~ gamoexata Tavisi cxovre-
bis istoria leqsis formiT, magram am mizniT wamowyebuli Txzuleba `Cemi Tavga-
dasavali~ (leqsad) daumTavrebeli aRmoCnda. yoveli es aSkarad miuTiTebs, rom
akaki wereTeli udidesi SemoqmedebiTi miswrafebiT iRvwoda miTiTebuli mxat-
vruli CanafiqrebisaTvis xorci Seesxa, magram, rogorc vxedavT, am SemTxvevaSic
Tavisi ganzraxva bolomde ver miuyvania.
cnobilia, rom ugrZnoblad, usulod da zerelad Seqmnili nawarmoebi akakis
namdvili xelovnebis aCrdilad miaCnda. `rasac da razedac wers mwerali, Tu is
sakuTar grZnoba-gonebiT ar usazrdoebia, didxans gulSi ar utarebia da Tavis
droze ar warmouSobavs garegnaT mSvenieric rom iyos, sruli mainc ar eTqmis~.2
akakis am esTetikuri Sexedulebis Suqze naTeli xdeba, Tu ratom afasebda
igi ase didad `Cems Tavgadasavals~ da ratom uyvarda igi gamorCeuli siyvaru-
liT. am grZnobas poeti aSkarad gamoxatavda Tavis cnobil gancxadebaSi: `erTa-
derTi Cemi TxzulebaTagani, romelic gansakuTrebiT miyvars da gasaoxreblad
menaneba, aris `Cemi Tavgadasavali~. naTqvamia: `yvavsac Tavisi baxala moswonso~.
SeiZleba didi ar iyos-ra, magram me ki wminda guli da wrfeli suli maqvs Sig Ca-
debuli~.3
1
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani TxuTmet tomad, t. XIV, gv. 163.
2
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani TxuTmet tomad, t. VIII, gv. 14.
3
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani TxuTmet tomad, t. XIV, gv. 163.
121
`Cemi Tavgadasavali~ Taviseburi mxatvruli nawarmoebia. masSi, rogorc aR-
vniSneT, avtoris TavgadasavalTan erTad asaxulia metad mniSvnelovani sazoga-
doebrivi cxovrebis movlenebi da daxasiaTebulia gamoCenili qarTveli moRva-
weebi.
Txzulebis mTavari gmiris cxovreba daxatulia farTo sazogadoebrivi yo-
fis fonze. nawarmoebis siuJeti namdvil ambebzea agebuli. am TxzulebaSio, wer-
da akaki, yoliferia moxsenebuli, rac ki minaxavs da sarwmunod gamigoniao. mwe-
rali Rrmad flobs aRebul masalas, mas garkveviT aqvs warmodgenili asaxvis
obieqti, adamianTa yofa-cxovrebisa da sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis movlene-
bi.
avtori gamsWvalulia rwmeniT, rom `yoveli arsi, sulieri Tu usulo, xilu-
li Tu uxilavi erTsa da imave msoflio kanons eqvemdebareba: daibadeba, izrde-
ba, daberdeba, kvdeba!~. cxovrebis mimdinareobis am sayovelTao kanons emorCi-
leba bunebisa da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yoveli movlena da masTan erTad
adamianic. amitom cxovrebis evoluciis Sesacnobad aucilebelia movlenebis
dasabamidan, warmoSobidanve gaTvaliswineba. am mizniT poeti Tavgadasavals
iwyebs gmiris (TviTon mwerlis) dabadebidan da mis ganviTarebas gviCvenebs far-
To sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis asaxvisa da ganxilvis rTul situaciebSi. nawar-
moebSi asaxuli movlenebi da situaciebi gaerTianebulia am ZiriTadi magistra-
luri xazis garSemo. upirveles yovlisa, poeti xatavs mSromelebs, rogorc
cxovrebis mamoZravebel mTavar Zalas; gaxazulia dabali fenebis moralur-zne-
obrivi sispetake da cxovelmyofeloba. akaki kicxavs batonymur wyobilebas, fe-
odaluri urTierTobis dromoWmulobas, mebatoneTa gaunaTleblobas da Ca-
morCenilobas. am movlenaTa asaxvis fonze uaRresi pativiscemiT xatavs glexo-
bis cxovrebas da gansakuTrebiT afasebs glexis ojaxSi gatarebul bavSvobas.
cnobili sityvebi: — ar SemiZlia ar gamovtyde, rom Tu ki ram darCa CemSi kargi
da keTili ufro imis wyalobiT, rom me sofelSi viyavi gabarebuli da glexebis
SvilebTan erTad vizrdebodio, — mWevrmetyvelurad RaRadebs glexobisadmi poe-
tis mier uaRres pativiscemas. sainteresodaa naCvenebi glexobis brZola siko we-
reTlis usamarTlo moqmedebis winaaRmdeg da sxv.
TxzulebaSi sagangebodaa xazgasmuli xalxuri Semoqmedebisa da TamaSobaTa
udidesi roli adamianis keTilSobiluri aRzrdis saqmeSi. TxzulebaSi didi
uSualobiTa da sada, bunebrivi mdinarebiT aris asaxuli bavSvis fsiqologia, mi-
si gancdebi, sulieri mdgomareoba da Cvevebi. dauviwyaria mkiTxvelisaTvis pa-
tara akakis gancdebi — gamowveuli kurdRlis daWeris, `wiTeli wuwki~ Roris da-
marcxebis, nesvis moparvis, Saqris namcecebis akrefis da sxv. saerTod am Txzu-
lebaSi poeti gvevlineba bavSvis sulieri cxovrebis mxatvruli asaxvis didos-
tatad. yuradRebas iqcevs Zveli skolis uaryofiTi mxareebis aRwera. mwerali
udidesi xelovnebiT axasiaTebs gasuli saukunis ormocdaaTiani wlebis skolaSi
gamefebul swavlebis sqolastikur meTodebsa da aRzrdis CamorCenil wesebs.
igi udidesi guliswyromiT amxels moswavleTa fizikur dasjas, mSobliuri enis
devnas, gimnaziis Savrazmel, biurokrat maswavleblebs. mwerlis xatovani daxa-
siaTebiT maSindeli gimnazia sazarel bneleTs warmoadgenda. nawarmoebSi asaxu-
lia mowinave maswavlebelTa mimzidveli portretebi (rodzieviCi, troe). akakis
mier daxatuli Zveli skolis cxovrebis suraTebi, swavlebis miuRebeli wesebi
da meTodebi iseTi mxatvruli sinamdviliTaa daxatuli, rom igi gamoyenebulia
pedagogikur mecnierebaSi Zveli skolis dasaxasiaTeblad.
gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs TxzulebaSi moTxrobili akakis studento-
bis periodis ambebi da peterburgis universitetSi moswavle qarTvel studen-
tTa garkveuli jgufebis daxasiaTeba. samocianelTa Soris akaki pirveli mwera-
lia, romelic diferencirebulad miudga qarTveli studentebis Sefasebas da

122
maTSi mosawon TvisebebTan erTad aSkarad xedavda uaryofiT movlenebsac. poe-
ti sastikad gmobda studentTa Soris gavrcelebul orpirobas, gautanlobas,
cilismwameblur moqmedebas da sxv., ris gamoc erTgvari devnili poeti yvela
maTgans CamoSorda, garda orisa — erTi maTgani iyo kirile lorTqifaniZe da me-
ore — niko nikolaZe. am wreSi kiTxulobda akaki studentobis periodSi daweril
Txzulebebs. didi mniSvneloba aqvs ruseTis kulturuli cxovrebis, literatu-
ruli brZolebis, didi rusi moazrovneebis: CerniSevskis, dobroliubovis, pisa-
revis, zaicevisa da peterburgis universitetis Sesaxeb moTxrobil epizodebs
maSindeli ruseTis sazogadoebriv-kulturuli cxovrebis gasaTvaliswineblad
da akakis SexedulebaTa Sesaswavlad.
metad mniSvnelovania nawarmoebis bolo nawilSi warmodgenili gamoCenil
qarTvel moRvaweTa Taviseburad da sainteresod Sesrulebuli portretebi. aq
Cven gvaqvs mxatvruli sityvis ubadlo ostatis mier erTi xazis mosmiT Sesru-
lebuli cocxali da metad mimzidveli suraTebi, romelTa STambeWdavad daxat-
viT qarTveli xalxis iseT gamoCenil moRvaweebze, mwerlebze, rogorebic arian:
grigol orbeliani, dimitri yifiani, al. orbeliani, ivane kereseliZe, lavrenti
ardaziani, giorgi wereTeli, niko nikolaZe, sergei mesxi da aleqsandre yazbegi
— TiTqmis sruli STabeWdileba grCebaT.
`Cemi Tavgadasavali~ STagonebulia patriotuli idealiT. misi avtori
mkiTxvelebs mouwodebs qveynis keTilReobisaTvis Tavdadebuli, principuli
brZolisaken. Tavisi poeturi cxovrebis sazogadoebriv-istoriuli movlenebis
fonze daxatviT akaki wereTeli STaagonebs mkiTxvels, rom adamianma unda iaros
win da piradi interesebi sazogadoebrivis samsxverploze unda miitanos. `pira-
dobaze xelaRebuli viyavi... mxolod sazogado maxalisebda da Seupovrad da ga-
bedviT mivdiodi Cemi gziT momavlis molodinSi~, — wers akaki.
avtori gmobs umoqmedobas, inertulobas da mouwodebs moZraobisa da brZo-
lisaken. yvelaze ufro metad afasebs Wabukur gatacebas da amitom guli Wabu-
kobisaken miuwevs, rac, misi gagebiT, uSreti energiis, dauRalavi da Tavganwiru-
li brZolis simboloa. akaki ilia WavWavaZiseburi gagebiT etrfis giJmaJ xevis
wyals — Cixuras, rogorc daucxromeli moZraobis gamoxatulebas.
rogorc specialur literaturaSia aRniSnuli, `Cemi Tavgadasavali~, ise
rogorc akakis zogierTi sxva moTxroba, gamoirCeva Txrobis lirikuli formiT.
gadmocemis aseTi forma avtors saSualebas aZlevs Tavisi gancdebisa da Sexedu-
lebebis meti sisruliT gamosaxatavad, movlenebisa da situaciebis meti momxib-
laobiT gadmosacemad. miuxedavad imisa, rom `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ Tavisi poetu-
ri formiT, mxatvrul TaviseburebaTa mixedviT ar aris agebuli erT uwyvet si-
uJetur qargaze, igi mainc mTliani, erTiani Sinaarsis matarebeli nawarmoebis
STabeWdilebas tovebs. kompoziciuri Sekruloba aq miRweulia avtoris poetu-
ri cxovrebis gadmocemiT sazogadoebriv movlenebTan kavSirSi, an kidev, sazo-
gadoebrivi cxovrebis qargaze poetis Tavgadasavlis asaxviT.
nawarmoebi sruliad Zaldautaneblad da bunebrivi mdinarebiT viTardeba. mim-
zidveli ferebi, sada metyveleba, movlenaTa asaxvis maRali ostatoba, avtoris go-
nebamaxviloba, moxdenili iumori pirdapir momajadoebelia.
`baSi-aCuki~. istoriuli moTxroba `baSi-aCuki~ mecxramete saukunis qarTu-
li prozis mSvenebaa. am TxzulebaSi mkafio gamoxatuleba pova Cveni xalxis is-
toriis erTma metad dauviwyarma xanam: meCvidmete saukunis movlenebma. kerZod
ki kaxeTis 1659 wlis ajanyebam. am tragikul periodSi qarTvelma xalxma gamoav-
lina Tavisi saukeTeso erovnuli Tvisebebi, maRali patriotizmi da kaxeTis saq-
me mTliani saqarTvelos saqmed miiCnia.
moTxrobis wera akakim 1896 wels daamTavra. pirvelad igi daibeWda. `kvalSi~.

123
nawarmoebis istoriuli garemos gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia misi mxatvru-
li faqturisa da ideuri mizandasaxulobis ukeT gasarkvevad. amitomac saWiroa
aRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos cxovrebis aRniSnuli xanis suraTebi gulmodgineT
SehqondaT qarTvel JamTaaRmwerlebsa da mematianeebs TavianT foliantebSi.
akaki wereTeli uxvad sargeblobda am moRvaweTa naSromebiT.
akakis did daxmarebas uwevda literaturuli tradiciac. jer kidev grigol
orbelianma miaqcia yuradReba aRniSnuli epoqis gmirebs — ajanyebis meTaur bi-
Zina ColoyaSvils da mis TanamebrZolebs — elizbar da Salva qsnis erisTavebs.
es adamianebi `sadRegrZeloSi~ didebis SaravandediTaa Semosili. giorgi eris-
Tavma `osuri moTxroba~ anu `zare da yanimaTSi~ kaxeTis ajanyebis momwyobTa
gmiroba asaxa, xolo anton fucelaZem poemaSi `wyaloba~. arc vaJa fSavelam da-
tova uyuradRebod es Tema. poema `baxtrionSi~ warmosaxulia epoqis umniSvne-
lovanesi momenti.
aRsaniSnavia, rom miTiTebul TxzulebebTan SedarebiT akakis `baSi-aCuki~
Sinaarsobrivad ufro farTodaa mofiqrebuli da gadawyvetili. kaxeTis ajanye-
ba aq danaxulia mTeli saqarTvelos wmidaTawmida saqmed, qarTveli eris didebi-
sa da saxelis saqmed. `baSi-aCukSi~ kaxeTis gaTavisuflebisaTvis warmoebul
brZolaSi qarTl-kaxeTis, TuS-fSav-xevsureTisa da mTiul-moxeveebTan erTad
gamoyvanilia dasavleT saqarTvelos warmomadgenlebic.
Txzulebis mravalplanian siuJetSi yuradRebas iqcevs gare politikuri vi-
Tarebis amsaxveli movlenebis logikuri, mwyobri dalagebis akakiseuli manerac.
mravalsaukunovani, uTanasworo brZolebiT dauZlurebul qveyanas mosvenebas
ar aZlevda sparseTi da osmaleTi. aRmosavleTis es ori veSapi lamobda qarTve-
li xalxis srul damonebasa da mospobas. sparseTis Sahis cbieri da mzakvruli
politikiT aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi kaxelebi unda ayriliyvnen da maT adgi-
las unda Camosaxlebuliyvnen ulusebi. amis Semdeg Sahi mTel amierkavkasiaSi ga-
batondeboda. qarTveloba umagaliTo gmirobiT umklavdeboda mters. xalxis
erTi nawili xsnis imeds erTmorwmune ruseTze amyarebda. rusuli orientaciis
gaZlierebam saqarTveloSi didad SeaSfoTa isedac mZvinvare Sahi. am ambavma di-
dad Caafiqra osmaleTis sulTanic. iranis Sahi, `kaci mzakvari da aRsavse yovel-
Tave siborotiTa~ sastikad gamZvinvarda, uricxvi jariT Semoesia kaxeTs da
cecxliTa da maxviliT musri gaavlo qveyanas. Sahis politika nel-nela srulde-
boda: aiCexa venaxebi, ganadgurda baRebi, moiSala sarwyavi sistemebi, gailewa
tyeebi, gadaiwva xexilis koromebi. mcxovrebTa umravlesoba an gaixizna, an sxva-
gan gadasaxlda, didZali xalxi tyved Cauvarda sparsul mxedrions da sparseTis
cixeebSi Rafavda suls. vaxuSti bagrationi aRniSnavs, Sahma `mosrna moswyevna,
ahyarna, moaoxrna da ganZarcvna~ kaxeTi; `wariyvana ayrilni kaxni tyved da das-
xna romelnime mazandars, xvarasans da ferias~. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ vkiTxu-
lobT: `Saabaz Cavlo kaxeTi da amoswyvita, moaoxra, da sxvani ahyarna da Tana wa-
asxna... da rac-odenni Seipyres, colSvilianad ahyares da waasxes, romelime fe-
risa~.
es momenti qarTlis samefos cxovrebisa daaxloebiT amgvaradve aqvs gamo-
xatuli akaki wereTels.
cnobilia, rom Teimuraz pirveli sistematurad agzavnida elCebs ruseTSi
da moskovs daxmarebas sTxovda iranel agresorTa winaaRmdeg samarTlian brZo-
laSi. rodesac Teimurazi CrdiloeTidan mokavSires moeloda, iran-osmaleTis
mmarTvelni uqmad ar isxdnen. isini gafacicebiT adevnebdnen Tvals am maTTvis
saSiSari megobrobis ganmtkicebis ambavs. isini elCebs elCebze agzavnidnen da
moiTxovdnen ruseTTan urTierTobaze xelis aRebas. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi isi-
ni ganadgureba-darbeviT imuqrebodnen. morRveulma da darbeulma qveyanam ma-
inc ruseTis orientacia irCia da amiT orive agresoris mrisxaneba daitexa Tavs.

124
moTxrobaSi es mZime viTareba aseTnairadaa warmosaxuli: oTaxSi martodmarto
Caketil Teimuraz mefes `win edva ori werili. erTi CrdiloeTidan da meore aR-
mosavleTidan gamogzavnili. pirveli tkbili iyo, alersiani da imediT gamamxne-
vebeli, meore — rCeva-sayvedurebiTa da muqariT savse; erTi gulSi uxicinebda,
da meore ki gulze hkbenda: `Teimuraz-xan, — swerda Sah-abaz pirveli, — Sevityve,
rom papiSenis kvals Sesdgomixar da gadamTieli ginda karze momayeno saWirbo-
rotod... Teimuraz-xan! gadaigde gulidan eg orivesaTvis mavnebeli survili,
Tvara, Tavman Cemman, veRar gadaurCe Cem samarTlian risxvas, veRarc Sen da ve-
Rarc Seni samefo~. am werilis wakiTxvis Semdeg Teimurazma, Rrmad Cafiqrebul-
ma, gadawyvita sparselebTan yovelgvari kavSiris gawyveta da ruseTTan samuda-
mo dakavSireba... man saswrafod Sekriba didebulebi da imave `dRes darbazma xmis
umetesobiT gadawyvita, rom gaewyvita kavSiri sparseTTan da mihkedleboda
CrdiloeTs~. Teimurazis aRniSnul nabijs mohyva Sahis sastiki wyroma.
bevri istoriuli piris mxatvrulad gardasaxuli saxe SemogvanaTebs Txzu-
lebidan, magram yvelaze mkafio maT Soris mainc centraluri gmiri — baSi-aCu-
kad monaTluli imereli ymawvili kaci... igi xalxis wiaRidan gamosuli erovnuli
gmiria. mis SegnebaSi Rrmad aris damkvidrebuli azri, rom mamuli upirvelesi
safiqralia. mas uangarod unda emsaxurebodes kaci. igi amayad acxadebs: `Cemi
gansacdeli raRa saxsenebelia, Seni Wirime, maSin rodesac mTeli saqristiano
gansacdelSia Cavardnili?!~. baSi-aCuki rogorc garegnobiT, aseve Sinagani meo-
biTac gamorCeuli pirovnebaa.
aseve sulierad da xorcielad wminda adamiania biZina ColoyaSvili. man sam-
Soblos Tavisuflebas Seswira Tavi. Tavis biZas — jandiers, romelic sparsele-
bis mxareze gadasvlas urCevda, biZinam ase ganucxada: `uwmindur sicocxles me
wminda sikvdili mirCevnia.. me CemdaTavad gazafxulis maxaroblobis dros sikvdi-
li mirCevnia zamTris winaswarmetyvelebaSi medidurad sicocxles... aq am patara
axmetaSi, — ambobs igi, yvelaferi malamod ecxeba Cems grZnoba-gonebas: miwa, wya-
li, mTa, tye, klde da veli, yvela erTad naTesauris kavSiriT gadabmula CemTan!..
vgrZnob raRac erTsisxlxorcobas maTTan!~.
avtorma metad amaRelvebeli da RrmaSinaarsiani sityva aTqmevina moTxro-
bis erT-erT mTavar gmirs. moxuci kaci elizbar qsnis erisTavi samefo darbazis
winaSe ambobs: `rac foTlebia xisaTvis, Cvenc iseve varT qveynisaTvis da rac we-
liwadia foTlebisaTvis, ise saukunea CvenTvis~... saqarTveli Cveni cxovrebis
xea... sanamdis misi Ziri ar Sesustdeba, Rero ar SeinZreva da fesvebi magrad eqne-
ba gadgmuli, Stoebis SerxeviTa da foTlebis dacveniT ara uWirs ra: Cvenc erTi
foTolTagani varT, adre Tu gvian dasacveni, da Cveni mizeziT raT unda miadges
gaWirveba samefos?~.
amgvari magaliTebi avtors ara mxolod imisaTvis sWirdeba, raTa aCvenos
warsulis sidiade, aramed imisaTvisac, raTa Tanamedrove qarTvelobas `saxed
da xatad~ warmoudginos ZvelTa saqmeni sagmironi, misabaZi ideali daanaxos Ta-
namedrove qarTvels.
calkeul personaJTa garda kidev erTi saintereso personaJi gamoiyvana mwe-
ralma — es gaxlavT eri, xalxi, mSromeli glexoba. im dros, roca morRveuli
qveynis Tavadaznaurobis erTi nawili gadagvarda da moRalateobis gzas daadga,
swored am tragikul momentebSi qveynis erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel moZrao-
bas Zalas matebda mSromeli glexoba. `glexobas, — vkiTxulobT TxzulebaSi, im
muSa-xalxs, romelic yoveldRe mama-papebis mowamur sisxls samSoblos mTa-bar-
ze msxverplad danTxeuls, patiosan Sromis ofls aRvrida, ar hqonda jer kidev
saero kavSiri gawyvetili... igi mzad iyo, rom kvariviT anTebuliyo, da ucdida
mxolod naperwklebs, saidanme monakvess!~. mSromelma glexobam, xalxma da misma

125
sibrZnem Causaxa biZina ColoyaSvils mtris damarcxebis imedi da sabolood STa-
agona sayovelTao ajanyebis brZnulad, xerxianad mowyobis gza.
xalxis wiaRidan gamosuli adamianebisagan Semdgari partizanuli razmebi
anadgurebdnen da SiSis zars scemdnen verag dampyroblebs, maT agentebs. swo-
red xalxis Zlevamosili laSqris meoxebiT SeZles mowinave Svilebma qveynis ga-
Tavisuflebac.
akaki Tanabar siTbosa da qebas miagebs qarTvel mandilosansac. am moTxroba-
Sic qalebi gamoyvanilni arian mamakacebis Tanabrad. pirimTvarisa, pirimzisa da
melano Seudarebeli patriotebi arian. isini TavdadebiTa da, amave dros, sazri-
anad ibrZvian mamakacebis gverdiT. amave dros, maSinac ki, rodesac Tavs icaven,
aCveneben ucxo tomis warmomadgenlebs Seudarebel zneobriv simtkices, sulier
simdidres.
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs pirimTvarisas portreti da Sinagani Seuva-
loba. mtris xelSi fufunebiT cxovrebas man amjobina garduvali sikvdili. igi is-
toriuli pirovneba ar aris, magram misi saxe moqargulia realuri qarTveli qalebis
Tvisebebze dayrdnobiT. aq mxatvruli gamonagoni da istoriuli sinamdvile erTma-
neTs ar ewinaaRmdegeba, piriqiT, urTierTs avseben. `pirimTvarisas msgavsi qalebi,
wers akad. k. kekeliZe, — feodalur qristianul saqarTveloSi SesaZlebeli da warmo-
sadgenia~.1
akaki wereTlis realizmis Zlieri mxare isaa, rom igi istoriis wiaRidan mxo-
lod sasaxelo da dadebiT momentebs ki ar gamoixmobs, aramed uaryofiT, dasag-
mob momentebsac. am TvalTaxedviT metad sainteresoa im moRalate TavadTa sa-
xeebis Cveneba, romelTac SemaZrwunebeli roli Seasrules qarTveli xalxis is-
toriaSi. TxzulebaSi gakicxulia Tavadi abaSiZe, romelmac aTi erTmaneTze uke-
Tesi qaliSvili mihgvara saCuqrad mefes. misma moqiSpe wereTelma ki baqraZis
tyupebi ar daindo da amiT asiamovna vaxtang mefes (Saxnavazs). akakis basr kalams
gaukicxavi ar darCenia qarTl-kaxeTis zogierTi mefe, maTi axlo winaprebi da
samefo karis moxeleni.
aRmosavleT saqarTvelo naxevrad gaTaTrda, Semovida sparsuli zne, Cveu-
leba, rjuli da kanonebi, ena SeibRala, samarTalwarmoeba ucxo enaze mimdinare-
obda, moRalate Tavadaznauroba dabal wodebas daawva Tavze. `qarTul tkbil
RiRins, vaJkacur Sexmatkbilebasa da sasoebis momgvrel galobas bolo mouRo
TaTrulma Seqaqanebam!.. tkbili Canguri da salamuri zurna-Wianurma Caylapa~..
mxolod `orovela~ da `mumli muxasa~ SerCenia muSa xalxs~.
maSindeli sparsuli politikis nayofi da Sedegi rom aCvena, amiT mweralma
Tanamedrove qarTvelebs daanaxva mefis carizmis politikis arsic, kolonia-
lizmis sisastike da veragoba.
rac Seexeba moqmed pirT: zaal aragvis erisTavs, biZina ColoyaSvils, eliz-
bar da Salva qsnis erisTavebs, Teimuraz pirvels, qarTlis mefe vaxtangs, Sahna-
vazad wodebuls, Sah-abass, ali-yuli-xans, feiqar-xans da sxvaT, isini istoriu-
li pirovnebebia. maT Sesaxeb uxvi masala moipoveba saistorio wyaroebsa da do-
kumentebSi, literaturul nawarmoebebSi.
qarTveli mematiane kaxeTis saxalxo ajanyebis meTaurad zaal aragvis eris-
Tavs asaxelebs. zaal erisTavma `Semoifica qsnis erisTavi Salva da elizbar da
kaxi sufraji biZina ColoyaSvili da Semoifices mTis kacni fSav-xevsur-TuSni...
amaT gaatana Tana zurab, Ze Tvisi, da warvidnen Ramesa erTsa. daesxnen Tavsa
sultansa baxtrions da amowyvites, da mosrnes baxtrionis cixeSi mdgomni elni,
da rac iyvnen, mihyvnen iqidame meotiTa, Cavidnen alaverds da, romelnica mun iy-

1
k. k e k e l i Z e , `baSi-aCukis~ erTi epizodisaTvis (akaki wereTlisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo kre-
buli, Tsu, 1940, gv. 198).
126
vnen TaTarni da elni, rac esaxla, yovelni mosrnes piriTa maxvilisaTa~ (qar-
Tlis cxovreba, t, II, 1959, gv. 438).
saistorio wyaroebis mixedviT, zaal erisTavi xSirad amxedrebula mtrebis
winaaRmdeg da mravalgzis gaumagrebia zurgi Teimuraz pirvelisaTvis agresor-
Ta winaaRmdeg brZolebiT. magram igi xSirad icvlida orientacias da xan Teimu-
razs emxroboda da xanac mis mtrebs umegobrdeboda. igi ar yofila samSoblo-
saTvis Tanmimdevari mebrZoli, erTguli da umwikvlo mamuliSvili. mas kaxeTis
ajanyebisas piradi interesebi asuldgmulebda. igi yaenis winaaRmdeg amxedre-
bula imis gamo, rom am ukanasknelma samefo taxtze zaalis nacvlad dasva ros-
tom mefis Svilobili vaxtangi, Sahnavazi. yovelive amis gamo, rogorc Cans, aka-
kim mizanSewonilad ar miiCnia kaxeTis ajanyebis meTaurad misi gamoyvana, amito-
mac amgvar centralur figurad biZina ColoyaSvili aRiara. aRniSnuls isic
uwyobda xels, rom mixeil sabininis mier `saqarTvelos samoTxeSi~ gamoqveyne-
bul anton pirvelis TxzulebaSi kaxeTis ajanyebis meTaurad biZina ColoyaSvi-
lia gamoyvanili, zaal erisTavi ki meryev TanaSemwed.
`baSi-aCukSi~ asaxuli mravali movlena antonis Txzulebas mihyveba.
zaal aragvis erisTavis saxe `baSi-aCukSi daxatulia, rogorc mSobliuri miwa-
wylis moamage da samSoblos moyvaruli pirovneba. igi mtkivneulad ganicdis qvey-
nis mZime mdgomareobas. kiriles sizmris pirveli mosmenidanve is veRar faravda
Tavis ganwyobilebas da `qveyniur zraxvebs veRar aRwevda Tavs~. akaki zaalis sasax-
lesac qveynis imedad saxavs: `kldovani kidis Tavze, Rrublebidan gamosuliyo
uzarmazari cixe-darbazi, Seupovrad gadmomdgariyo da sanugeSod gadahyurebda
are-mares~. amave sasaxleSi Seikribnen SeTqmuli erisTavebi da Seeficnen erTma-
neTs samSoblos ganTavisuflebisaTvis sabrZolvelad.
zaali TanaugrZnobs qveynis ganTavisuflebis ideas, magram Seqmnil viTare-
baSi mtris uricxavi jaris damarcxeba SeuZleblad miaCnia. aragvis erisTavs ga-
mocdileba afiqrebines, rom es ori aTasi qarTveli mxedari sul tyuilubra-
lod gawydeba ricxvmraval mtris winaaRmdeg brZolaSi da Semdeg ganrisxebuli
dampyrobi kidev ufro met ubedurebas daatexda Tavs dauZlurebul qveyanas.
zaali iCens sifrTxiles da erTgvar gaubedaobas. kiriles sizmrisa da meuRlis
SegonebiT zaali daTanxmda ajanyebaSi monawileobaze.
saistorio wyaroebis cnobiT, kaxeTis mmarTvelad 1659 wels Sah-abasis mier
daniSnuli iyo selimxani. moTxrobaSi ki xan ali yuli xania kaxeTis mmarTvelad
gamoyvanili, xan feiqar xani da xanac orive erTdroulad. rogorc Cans, anton
pirvelis nawarmoebis safuZvelze Seutania akakis Tavis TxzulebaSi selim xanis
nacvlad feiqar xani.
`baSi-aCuki~ xasiaTdeba maRalmxatvrulobiT. akaki ambis didebuli mTxrobe-
lia. mis mier SeTxzuli fabula momxibvlelia Tavisi moulodnelobebiT, liri-
kuli adgilebiT, iumorisa da tragizmis ostaturi SerwymiT. akakis prozas Ta-
viseburi ritmic moepoveba. akakis stilisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia isariviT win-
mswrafi kompozicia. igi arafers iseTs ar CarTavs TxzulebaSi, rasac SeuZlia
dinamikurobis Seneleba. amitomacaa, rom TxzulebaSi ar gvxvdeba arc erTi uad-
gilo detali, gaWianurebuli dialogi an monologi.
`baSi-aCukis~ avtori personaJTa xatvis didostatia. mis mier gamoqandakebu-
li saxeebi samaradJamod rCebian mkiTxvelis xsovnaSi da mkafioobiT xasiaTdebi-
an. avtori personaJis vrcel daxasiaTebas ki ar iZleva, aramed mokles, xolo Zi-
riTadad gvixasiaTebs mas moqmedebaSi, dinamikaSi. personaJTa vnebebi, sulieri
ltolvani savsebiT saxiers xdian maT.
akaki arc portretis xatvis tradiciul wess icavs. TiTqmis araferia naT-
qvami istoriul pirTa garegnobaze. samagierod mwerali ufro metad zrunavs
gamogonil personaJTa garegnuli iersaxis mkafiod gamoxatvaze. am mxriv saq-

127
restomaTioa baSi-aCukis brwyinvale portreti: `tanmaRali, welSi werweti,
mxarbeWiani, fafanak ukangadagdebuli, gaCeCili TmiT da gawkvertilis ulvaSe-
biT titvela pirze, swored sasiamovno Sesaxedavi iyo.~ sxartadaa gamokveTili
abduSahilis portretic: `erTi SexedviT, Casxmuli, uzarmazari, Savi marmari-
los qandakeba egoneboda kacs. Savi wverebi tevrad eyreboda gulmkerdze, didi
ulvaSebi aqeT-iqiT totebad scemdnen sigrZisad. didi Savi Tvalebi, sqeli war-
bebiT gadmoxurul-daCrdilulebi, saocrad brialebdnen.~
mwerali didi ostatobiT gviCvenebs mTavari personaJis pirvel gamosvlas.
mTavari figuris pirveli gamoCena — es akakisaTvis udidesi mniSvnelobis prob-
lebaa. am problebas igi warmatebiT wyvets. baSi-aCuki pirvelad vaJkacuri saqmi-
Ta da moqmedebiT SemoiWreba moqmedebaSi — guldagul gadalaxavs modidebul
aragvs da rwmenas da imeds unergavs yvelas. Tavdapirvelad moxveWili simpaTie-
biT baSi-aCuks momgebianad warmoaCens mkiTxvelis winaSe mTxrobeli Txrobis
manZilze.
moTxrobaSi xSirad aris gamoyenebuli zRaprebi, xalxuri Tqmebi, gadmoce-
mebi, andazebi, idiomuri gamoTqmebi da sxva. yvelafer amas akaki Tavisebur iers
aniWebs da mSvenier saSen masalad iyenebs moTxrobis mxatvruli qsovilisaTvis.
Cvens literaturas sakmao tradiciebi moepoveba sizmris literaturul ma-
salad gadamuSavebisa. am wess arc akaki Ralatobs. zRaprul motivebze agebuli
kirile mRvdlis sizmari maRali esTetizmiT gamoirCeva, damainteresebelicaa
da siuJetis ganviTarebasac xels uwyobs. sizmarma Caafiqra yvela, zogierTs ra-
Raca eniSna, zogierTs ki sifxizle gaumaxvila, zogsac eWvianoba gauorkeca. man
gaamxneva Salva da elizbar qsnis erisTavebi, gaaaqtiura zaalis meuRle da sxve-
bi. amave dros zRapari sxva mxrivac aris sayuradRebo. igi TiTqosda fokusSi aq-
cevso nawarmoebis mTel ideur-Sinaarsobriv mizandasaxulobas, amkafioebs qar-
TvelTa miswrafebas Tavisuflebisaken da gvamcnobs maT dajerebul optimizms.
igi simboluri saxea qveynis gaTavisuflebisa da momavali aRorZinebisa.
TxzulebaSi kargadaa Casmuli saxalxo garTobebisa da zeimebis amsaxveli pa-
saJebic. isini umTavresad sakvanZo sakiTxebis gamovlenisa da siuJetis daZabu-
lad gaSlis mizniT arian gamoyenebulni. aseTi saxalxo gasarTobebia jiriTi, ya-
baxi, agreTve sazeimo ceremonialebi mefeTa karze da sxv. aseTi pasaJebi TiT-
qosda damoukidebeli mniSvnelobisani arian, sinamdvileSi ki personaJTa xasia-
Tis gaxsnas emsaxurebian. amas garda, isini siuJetis ganviTarebasac uwyoben
xels.
amrigad, niWieri xelovanis xelSi erTi da igive literaturuli xerxi ramde-
nime mizans eqvemdebareba.
avtoris erT-erT didebul miRwevad iTvleba idumalebis xerxis didosta-
turi gamoyeneba. amgvari idumalebiT arian mosili tyupebi, abduSahili... didad
damainteresebeli da damZabvelia abduSahilis mier Svlis daWra, trial mindor-
ze tyeSi mzeTunaxavTan Sexvedra, Svlis goniereba, qalis gauCinareba, pirimTva-
risas Tavganwirva, abduSahilis fexze eqvsi TiTis qona da sxv.
mweralma leo qiaCelma sagangebod miuTiTa `baSi-aCukSi~ gamoyenebul mra-
valferovan poetur xerxTa gamoyenebis Taobaze. gansakuTrebiT gaamaxvila yu-
radReba moulodnelobisa da saidumloebis xerxebis Tavisebur gaSlaze.1 mar-
Tlac, mkiTxvels ajadoebs siuJetis amgvari gaSla. moulodneli momentebiTa
da idumalebiT mosili pirovnebebis mier Seqnili situaciebi erTmaneTis ganvi-
Tarebis pirobacaa da mTliani siuJeturi xazisac. am mxriv brwyinvale magali-
Tebia: zaal aragvis erisTavis meuRlis ucabedi Sekivleba, abduSahilis pirov-
neba, rom igi mkiTxvels TaTari hgonia, magram garkveulad kidev ukvirs misi ra-

1
l.q i a C e l i , Txzulebani, t. IV, gv. 345.
128
Racnairi lmobiereba da adamianuroba. bolos ki aRmoCndeba, rom igi qarTveli
yofila da yvelaferi naTeli Seiqneba. abduSahils satrfo mkvdari hgonia da igi
cocxali aRmoCndeba. saidumloebiT iyo mosili melanosa da abduSahilis da-
Zmobis ambavic. moulodnelad gairkva, rom isini marTlac sisxliT da-Zma yofi-
lan.
literaturis specialistebi xSirad miuTiTeben, rom WeSmariti literatu-
ra — es aris damajereblis daujereblad, xolo daujereblis damajereblad mo-
wodebao. am formulis mixedviT Tu ganvsjiT, maSin `baSi-aCukis~ avtori prozis
klasikosia. es jadosnuri Tviseba man moTxrobaSi Warbad gamoavlina.1
Tavisi kompoziciis mosxletilobiT, enobrivi poziciiTa da mxatvruli saxee-
bis originalobiT `baSi-aCukma~ qarTveli xalxis didi siyvaruli moixveWa. am na-
warmoebiT akaki wereTelma Taviseburi stili da xatvis manera daamkvidra qarTu-
li mxatvruli prozis ganviTarebaSi.

dramatuli poemebi. `Tamar cbieri~ akaki wereTlis pirveli leqsad da-


werili istoriul-dramatuli poemaa. poemis adrindeli redaqcia daiwera 1885
wels. saboloo redaqcia gamoqveynda 1898 wels. didma qarTvelma kompozitorma
meliton balanCivaZem am Txzulebis mixedviT dawera opera `Tamar cbieri~.
`Tamar cbieri~ agebulia Cveni qveynis istoriis uaRresad mZime da tragikul
epoqaze. dramaSi asaxulia imereTis samefos XVII s. meore naxevris, gansakuTre-
biT ki giorgi gurielis mefobis (1681-1683) tragikuli periodi. masSi CarTulia
darejan dedoflisa da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos cxovrebis garkveuli epizo-
debi. mefeTa da dedofalTa da mTavrebs Soris samefo taxtis dauflebis mizniT
gamudmebulma mtrobam, samSoblos Ralatma qveyana udides gansacdelSi Caagdo.
TavianTi miznebis gansaxorcieleblad qveynis moRalateebi xSirad iwvevdnen
dampyrob agresorebs, iranis Sahebs, osmaleTis sulTnebs da faSebs, romlebic
kidev ufro anadgurebdnen isedac dauZlurebul qveyanas. imereTis samefoSi
uaRresad tragikuli mdgomareoba Seiqmna aleqsandre mefis gardacvalebis Sem-
deg. taxtze misi Ze bagrati avida. igi isiZa cbierma dedinacvalma darejan de-
dofalma, Teimuraz I asulma, aleqsandre mefis qvrivma; miaTxova mas Tavisi Zmis
— daviTis asuli. eqvsi Tvis Semdeg veragma darejanma Seipyro bagrati, `aRmoax-
dina Tvalni, wargvara coli, SeirTo qmrad vinme vaxtang WuWunaiSvili, daeufla
taxts da amefa vaxtangi~. bagratis momxreebma faSa moixmares, romelmac taxtze
isev dabrmavebuli bagrati dasva. darejanma moqrTama faSa, romelmac xelaxla
gaamefa darejani da misi meuRle. male darejani da vaxtangi SeTqmulTa mier iqnen
mokluli da isev bagrat uTvalo gamefda. amasTanave, imereTs moadga qarTlis me-
fe vaxtang V (Sahnavazi) da imereTis mefed Tavisi mcirewlovani Ze arCili dasva
(Semdeg cnobili mefe da poeti), xolo dadianad dasva Samadavle, uwoda mas leon
da `misca Zmiswuli Tvisi Tamar meuRled~. arCili iZulebuli gaxda male daeto-
vebina imereTis taxti da kvlav bagrati gamefda. qarTlis mefesTan damoyvrebiT
gaTamamebulma leon (levan) dadianma ar indoma bagratis mefoba da didZali ja-
riT ekveTa mas. brZolaSi damarcxda dadiani, mefem igi Seipyro da Tamari TviTon
SeirTo colad.2
dadiani isev ekveTa bagrats, sZlia da daibruna Tamari. bagratma osmalebis
da giorgi gurielis daxmarebiT, didi sisxlis Rvris fasad kvlav daamarcxa da-
diani da isev waarTva meuRle. ase uwyalod oxrdeboda qveyana, Tamari xelidan

1
akakis prozis da, kerZod, `baSi-aCukis~ poeturobas sagangebod ikvlevs gr. kiknaZe. ix. misi lit-
eraturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, gv. 277-294.
2
qarTlis cxovreba, II, daviT CubinaSvilis gamoc., 1854, gv. 202-205. Sdr. qarTlis cxovreba, II, sim.
yauxCiSvilis red., gamokv. da SeniSvnebi, 1959; nik. dadiani, qarTvelT cxovreba, teqsti gamosca,
winasity., gamokvleva, komentarebi, saZieblebi, leqsikoni daurTo S. burjanaZem, 1962, gv. 162-163.
129
xelSi gadadioda. bagratis gardacvalebis Semdeg (1681 w.) samefo taxts da Ta-
mar dedofals daeufla giorgi gurieli.
yvelaze metad iCagreboda mSromeli glexoba, qeduxreli patriotebi gmiru-
lad ibrZodnen rogorc Sinauri, ise gareSe mtrebis winaaRmdeg da sisxlis fa-
sad icavdnen qveyanas.
akakis drama `Tamar cbieris~ ZiriTadi motivi patriotizmia. TxzulebaSi
samSoblos siyvaruli aRiarebulia, rogorc uzenaesi grZnoba, romelsac yvela-
feri emorCileba. naCvenebia poetis uzenaesi valdebulebis da moqalaqeobrivi
pasuxismgeblobis Zala. nawarmoebSi daxatulia avtoris ideali siyvarulis
grZnobis, misi daniSnulebis, fizikuri silamazis da maRali sulieri mSveniere-
bis urTierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb. motivTa amgvari siuxve da misi gadawyvetis
dros gamovlenili pozicia `Tamar cbiers~ erTob sayuradRebo dramatul
Txzulebad aqcevs.
Tamar dedofali istoriulad cnobili pirovnebaa. saistorio da litera-
turuli wyaroebis daxasiaTebiT, Tamari iyo `friad kekluci da aRmatebuli
mSvenierebiTa, srul umetesad~ (vaxuSti, qarTlis cxovreba). akakim Seudarebe-
li poeturi aRmafreniT daxata Tamar cbieris xorcieli siturfe, qveynad gan-
xorcielebuli edemuri fizikuri mSveniereba da zneobrivi biwiereba, sakuTari
siamovnebisaTvis qveynis gawirva.
akaki didad afasebda silamazes, `ciur niWad~ Tvlida. magram `Tamar cbier-
Si~ sagangebod xazgasmulia, rom marto garegani silamaze yovelTvis rodi am-
Svenebs adamians. maSin, rodesac mSveniereba xdeba biwierebis, mruSobisa da siZ-
vis, veragobisa da Ralatis, dacemis mizezi, amgvari silamaze uarsayofi, sa-
zizRari da dasagmobia. swored aseT uaryofiT movlenad miaCnda poets Tamar
cbieris silamaze da TviT Tamari. `leCaqis nacvlad eSmakis qseli mas Tavze xu-
ravs da imereTi misgan garyvnili dRes borotebis morevSi scuravs~.
goCa-mgosnis mier dedoflis saocari silamazisa da SemoTavazebuli siyva-
rulis uaryofa da SeCveneba gamomdinareobs akakis naTeli poziciidan, rom siy-
varuli mxolod garegnuli Tviseba ki ar aris, aramed igi sulis Tvisebaa, nam-
dvili siyvaruli sulTa kavSirSia. xorcieli da sulieri silamaze da amaRlebu-
li siyvaruli, akakis rwmeniT, patriotuli STagonebis xarisxiT fasdeba.
Tamar cbieris zRapruli silamazis gamo aoxrda qveyana; mis gamo erTmaneTs
ejaxebodnen mefe, mTavrebi, erisTavebi da aCaRebdnen ZmaTa sisxlismRvrel
omebs. erTi sityviT, Tamar cbieris silamaze amaRlebuli sulieri mSvenierebiT
ki ar iyo STagonebuli, aramed igi qveynis damRupvel Zalad iyo movlinebuli da
amis gamo gakicxuli, uaryofili da dagmobilia misi silamaze da siyvarulic;
amitom uaryo goCam Tamaris silamazec da mis mier SemoTavazebuli siyvarulic.
goCas mier Tamaris trfialis uaryofam ukiduresad gaamwara dedofali da das-
wama mgosans Zalad Seuracxyofis mcdeloba da dilegSi Caamwyvdevina. cxadia,
Txzulebis am nawilSi gamoyenebulia bibliuri gadmocema. faraonis meuRlisa-
gan SemoTavazebuli siyvarulis iosebis mier uaryofis gamo, gamwarebulma de-
dofalma cili daswama mas da faraons moaxsena, CemTan dawola moisurvao. gan-
risxebulma faraonma iosebi sapyrobileSi Seagdo.
Tamar dedofali goCas Segonebisa da zogi sxva situaciis zemoqmedebis Se-
degad, aRiarebs Tavis Secodebas da iTxovs Sendobas, codvebis mitevebas. `Ta-
mar cbieris~ adrindeli xelnaweris mixedviT dedofali Sendobil iqna mefis mi-
er. darbazSi sazogado gaocebaa, mgosani aRtacebiT wamoiZaxebs `RmerTo!~ eSve-
ba farda. aRniSnuli redaqciis mixedviT dedofali Tavs ar iklavs. momdevno
redaqcia poets Seucvlia. aq Segonebuli dedofali acxadebs:
`is, vinc sicocxliT ver gamaZRara,
sikvdiliT igrZnobs srul netarebas!~

130
axdis beWdis Tavs da Seswovs Sxams. momakvdavi Tamari mimarTavs mefes: `me-
feo, mgosans nu moiSoreb... qveynis ... di....deba~. dedofali kvdeba. mgosani wamoi-
Zaxebs: `ra drosa kvdeba!~ eSveba farda. bolo redaqcia naTlad gviCvenebs poe-
tis principul pozicias, rom moRalate, avxorci, Tundac Segonebuli da Sendo-
bili qalis, dedoflis taxtze darCena SeuZlebelia. amasTanave, akaki marTebu-
lad miiCnevs, rom samSoblos da xalxis moRalate Sendobil iqnas, igi mkacrad
unda daisajos; Tamar cbiermac Sesaferisi sasjeli gamoutana Tavis Tavs. axali
redaqciiT Zlierdeba dramatizmi. Tamar cbieris saxe kidev ufro tragikuli
xdeba. poeti Tavisi mxatvruli mizandasaxulobis Sesabamisad gverds uvlis gar-
kveul istoriul cnobebs da Tamar cbieris saxes aqac amdidrebs mxatvruli ga-
monagoniT. istoriulad cnobilia, rom Tamar dedofals Tavi ar mouklavs. igi
dedoflad darCa aleqsandre bagratis Zis mier giorgi gurielis samefo taxti-
dan gaZevebamde, magram istoriuli realiebi amis Semdeg poets aRar gamouyene-
bia. man Tamar cbieris ganwmendiT daasrula drama.
akakis mier gansakuTrebuli poeturi STagonebiTaa daxatuli xalxis wridan
gamosuli goCa mgosani. igi mowodebulia samSoblos mtrebis winaaRmdeg brZo-
lisaTvis, misi idealia dacemuli qveynis aRdgena, gaerTianeba da gaZliereba.
akakis rwmeniT, rogorc iTqva, WeSmariti poeti xalxis winamZRolia, igi maRali
moqalaqeobrivi idealebiT unda iyos STagonebuli, iyos nimuSi qveynisaTvis
Tavdadebisa. goCas saxe avtorma Semosa zneobrivi sxivmosilebiT, brwyinvale
poeturi SaravandediT.
mgosani zizRiT ukuagdebs Tamar dedoflis mier SeTavazebul tkbil da ne-
bier cxovrebas. goCa-poeti saTaveSi udgas Tamar dedoflis ganadgurebisaTvis
aRZrul saxalxo moZraobas, xolo, roca veragma darejanma `ukuRma scara Cveni
qveyana~ da `taxtze asuli farisevloba sisxliT da cremliT, Sav pirs ibanda~:
`maSin gavida xalxSi mgosani,
saero cremli Cangze damRera
da xalxis guli miZinebuli
gamoafxizla da aaZgera~.
mgosnis Zala ganusazRvrelia. man poeturi STagonebiT SeZlo xalxis gamof-
xizleba, aRelveba, sabrZolvelad gamoyvana da borotebis daTrgunva.
darejan dedoflis winaaRmdeg xalxis ajanyebis sulisCamdgmelad goCa-
mgosnis aRiareba scildeba istoriul WeSmaritebas, igi avtoris mxatvruli
fantaziis nayofia da Seesabameba mwerlis akakiseul ideals.
goCas saxe aRbeWdilia agreTve metad keTilSobiluri miswrafebiT — saqar-
Tvelos erovnuli konsolodaciisaTvis, ufro zustad, sxvadasxva samTavrod
da samefod daqsaqsuli da dasustebuli qveynis erT mTlian saxelmwifod gaer-
Tianeba da mterTa Cagvrisagan samSoblos ganTavisufleba aris mgosnis ideali.
erTgan akaki werda: `damarcxebuli mxolod maSin aris kaci, rodesac sasoebas
dahkargavs ... da Zalmomreobas SiSiT daemorCileba! Torem visac simarTle da WeS-
mariteba imediT SekavSirebuli gulSi uRviva, is yvelgan da yovelTvis gmiria~.1
swored amgvar pozicias emyareba goCas poeturi saxe. igi darwmunebulia Tavisi ke-
TilSobiluri idealebis ganxorcielebaSi da momavlisaTvis brZolaSi mosalodne-
li damarcxebis SemTxvevaSic uaRresad amaRlebul saxalxo gmirad rCeba. igi mefes
mimarTavs:
`mSvidobiT, mefev! Sen aq darCebi
samefo taxtze monad mjdomare!
me ki mefurad Sevxvdebi sikvdils!
darbazis nacvlad melis samare!~

1
a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani, t. XIII, gv. 131.
131
saerTod, goCa-mgosnis saxe erT-erTi brwyinvale furcelia da saintereso
masala mwerlobisa da mwerlis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb akakis mrwamsis naTelsayo-
fad.
giorgi gurieli istoriuli pirovnebaa. igi guriis erTi Zlieri mTavari iyo,
ris gamoc mas samefoSi garkveul angariSs uwevdnen. mas mravaljer miuRia mona-
wileoba imereTSi mefeTa, dedofalTa, mTavarTa, maRal sasuliero pirTa mier
Zalauflebis aRebis mizniT atexil ZmaTa sisxlismRvrel brZolebSi da qveynis
aoxrebaSi. mefe bagratis gardacvalebis Semdeg gurieli daeufla imereTis
taxts, kanonieri coli gauSva — bagratisa da Tamaris asuli darejani da colad
SeirTo sidedri, mefe bagratis qvrivi, dedofali Tamari, riTac, ganarisxa
RmerTi, saaqaos Sercxva da saiqios wawymda~ (farsadan gorgijaniZe). qveynis dam-
Svidebis, borotebis aRkveTis nacvlad, mefe giorgi nebier cxovrebas eweoda.
saxelmwifo marTvis sadave uzneo dedofalma Caigdo xelT.
amgvari daxasiaTebis Semdeg akaki erTgvarad apoeturebs gurielis saxes.
akakis poemis mixedviT, giorgi gurieli TiTqos keTilSobili idealebiT iyo
STagonebuli, magram garemoebam, pirvel rigSi ki Tamar cbierma ar misces saSua-
leba maTi ganxorcielebisa, ris gamoc igi tragikul gmirad iqca. poeti Tanda-
Tan gvamzadebs mefe giorgis mimarT simpaTiurad ganwyobisaTvis. mefem Seigno
Tavisi umweo mdgomareoba da qveynisaTvis saziano moqmedeba dagmo, moinania
codvebi da aRiara:
`gana mefoba eTqmis cocxal-mkvdars!
mefe rom viyo, sxvisi brZanebiT
gavimetebdi gana megobars?!~
goCa-mgosnisa da masxaras SegonebiT mefe giorgim xasiaTi da moqmedeba Seic-
vala. igi kvlav gaitaca saqveyno saqmis keTilSobilurma idealebma, Seimosa Zli-
eri nebisyofiT, gamoerkva, moikriba Wkua-goneba, icno qveynis mokeTeebi da aR-
tacebiT warmoTqva:
`aw kmara! isev mefe var,
mefe var, mefe gvirgvinosani!
da TanaSemwed ori kaci myavs:
erTi masxara, erTic mgosani~.
saistorio wyaroebis cnobiT, giorgi gurielma sul ori weli imefa (1681-
1683). xonTqaris daxmarebiT 1683 wels imereTis taxts daeufla bagratis Ze
aleqsandre, giorgi gurieli gadaixvewa guriaSi da imereTis taxtis dabrunebis
mizniT moawyo axali SeTqmuleba. Zlier brZolaSi `moisrnen orgniTve umrav-
lesni~ da moklul iqna giorgi gurieli (1684 w.) es cnobebi akakis poemaSi aRar
Seutania.
masxara da cira xalxis Svilebia. isini gmirulad ibrZvian samSoblos keTil-
dReobisaTvis. isini gabedulad amxelen mmarTveli wris mier qveynad gabatone-
bul Znelbedobas, aoxrebas, sisxlis Rvras. orive personaJi aqtiurad monawile-
obs SeTqmulebaSi. maT sjeraT, rom Tamar dedoflis mokvliT moisxamen `mTeli
qveynis madls~. masxaras simRerebsa da sityvebSi Caqsovilia xalxis miswrafebebi.
ara marto me-17 saukunis, aramed akakis Tanadroulobis sastiki mxilebaa xumaras
simReraSi:
`maRliT cecxlis wvima modis,
dabla dgeba sisxlis Rvari...
ca da miwa gadabrunda,
gagvisworda mTa da bari!..
Zma Zmas swiravs, mama-Svilsa,
megobarsa megobari~.

132
aseve ara marto me-17 saukunis imereTze SeiZleba gavrceldes Semdegi stri-
qonebi:
`es sofeli swored sagiJeTia:
yvela sCemobs Wkuas, grZnobas, gonebas!..
veRar varCevT marTals da moCvenebuls!
vin gadurCes ugnurebis monebas?!
garegnoba, Wreli sanaxaoba,
TvalsaCino, saTvalTmaqco Tviseba,
ai, qveynad ra amaRlebs kacad kacs!...
vis rad unda WeSmariti Rirseba?!~
akaki, didi optimisti da momavlis ubadlo momRerali, masxaras simReraSi
aqsovs Tavis Rrma ideals da mouwodebs:
`cao, cao, moiwminde,
dagviyene isev dari,
Sevardeno, frTa gaSale,
cis kamaras Tavi hkari!...~
mebrZoli suliskveTeba SaravandediT mosavs masxaras saxes.
cira ubralo moaxlea. igi goCas naTluli da Svilobilia. mas Segnebuli aqvs
qveynis umweo mdgomareoba da mzad aris msxverplad Seewiros samSoblos intere-
sebs. mas ezizReba mefe giorgisa da Tamar dedoflis bilwi moqmedeba. cira gu-
liT uTanagrZnobs gurielis kanonier meuRles, romelic dedam da qmarma gaswi-
res da udabnoSi gamoamwyvdies. Txzulebis mixedviT, Taliko (unda iyos: darejani
— p.k.) ciras dedis gazrdilia, misi ZuZu uwovnia. ciras patriotul miswrafebas Zi-
ZiSvilobis movaleobac aZlierebs da iwvevs sabrZolvelad. dobilisa da qveynis
gamoxsniT gatacebuli cira kisrulobs dedoflis mokvlas. cira Tavis satrfos
mouwodebs sagmiro saqmisaken da eubneba:
`nestan-darejan msxverplsa Txoulobs,
xataeTs gzavnis satrfos saomrad
da TinaTini mis gmirs avTandils
istumrebs xangrZliv moymis saZebrad...~
SoTas poemiT STagonebis safuZvelze cira Tavis satrfos awvdis xanjals da
avalebs Tamar dedoflis mokvlas: `Sen unda mokla qveynis orguli, samagierod
mec Seni var da SenTvis movkvdebi~. es saxalxo davaleba da ciras siyvaruli gada-
awyvetinebs niko guriels Tavisi valis aRsrulebas. cira dedoflis sarecelTan
misul guriels vaJkacurad amxnevebs, xeli ar agiTrToldes, gaupe gulio. Rrma
siyvaruliT anTebuli cira trfialze maRla saqveyno interesebs ayenebs da sat-
rfos pirobad udebs: sagmiro saqme aRasrule da Semdeg davemonebi Sens siyvaruls
da erTgulebaso. dabali wridan gamosuli cira poetma daxata rogorc samSoblos
erTguli gmiri qali.
`Tamar cbieri~ akakis pirveli leqsad dawerili piesaa. dramatuli poemis yve-
la moqmedeba erTmaneTTan logikuradaa dakavSirebuli. mecnierebaSi gavrcele-
buli klasifikaciis mixedviT replikebi orgvaria: rezultaturi da makavSirebe-
li (rgolebi).1 `Tamar cbierSi~ umTavresad gamoyenebulia moqmedebaTa damakavSi-
rebeli replikebi, e.i. iseTi replikebi, romlebic Seicaven movlenaTa ganviTare-
bis maniSnebel impulss, xazs da mkiTxvelis (mayureblis) interesebs apirobeben.
dramaSi yvela replika makavSirebelia. `Tamar cbieris~ pirvel moqmedebaSi ciram
ikisra dedoflis mokvlis organizacia da moqmedebis damaboloebeli mgosnis
sityvebi (replika): `nuTu mas, vinc es Cveni qveyana saocrad garyvna da daamcira,
pasuxs miagebs samagierod erTi ubralo moaxle cira?!~ da sxv. aq farda eSveba sa-
1
v. v o l k e n S t e i n i , dramaturgia, 1937, gv. 104 (rusulad).
133
intereso situaciaSi. replika amaxvilebs yuradRebas moqmedebaTa Semdgomi
msvlelobisadmi. meore moqmedeba mgosnis dapatimrebiT mTavrdeba. SeTqmulebis
mTavari xelmZRvaneli gansacdelSia. mkiTxveli (mayurebeli) gazrdili intere-
siT elodeba mgosnis bedisa da SeTqmulebis momaval msvlelobas, mis Sedegs. aqac
replika makavSirebelia. niko gurieli ciram daiTanxma dedoflis mokvlis aqtis
aRsrulebaze da ai nikos replika: `sicocxle ciras, sikvdili Tamars!~. analogiu-
ri funqciisaa meoTxe moqmedebis bolo replika da situacia kvlav damakavSirebe-
lia. CaiSala SeTqmuleba. cira daapatimres. mkiTxveli (mayurebeli) mouTmenlad
elodeba mexuTe moqmedebas.
`Tamar cbieris~ personaJTa daxasiaTebisas poets mravalmxrivi interesebi
amoZravebs. didi mxatvruli ostatobiTaa gamoyenebuli dinamikuri da emociu-
ri monologebi, mimzidveli dialogebi, personaJTa urTierTdamokidebuleba,
portretuli xatebi, replikebisa da lirikuli wiaRsvlebis moxdenilad gamoye-
neba.
Txzuleba Sesrulebulia 8,10,11-marcvlovani leqsiT. leqsis versifikacia
gamoyenebulia movlenaTa specifikuri xasiaTis Sesabamisad. mag., mgosnisa da
dedoflis, mefis... dialogebi da monologebi ZiriTadad gamarTulia aTmar-
cvlovani leqsiT. aRniSnuli zoma Txzulebis wamyvani formaa. zogierTi aspeq-
tis STambeWdaobis kidev ufro gaZlierebis, aRzevebuli grZnobebis, dinji da
Rrma Segonebisa da sxv. SemTxvevaSi poeti mimarTavs TerTmetmarcvlovan leqss.
masxaras monologebsa da dialogebSi poeti iyenebs rvamarcvlian leqssac. am-
gvari variacia xels uwyobs Txzulebis rogorc ideur-mxatvruli Sinaarsis, ise
moqmedi gmiris — masxaras saxis srulyofas. rvamarcvliani leqsia gamoyenebuli
iseT situaciebSi, rodesac masxara mware dacinviT, iumoriTa da gesliani sar-
kazmiT kicxavs uaryofiT personaJebs, movlenebs da amRerebulia igi xalxuri
Sairis hangze, xalxuri melodiis kiloze da gaformebulia narTauli an pirda-
piri TqmebiT.
leqsis versifikaciuli mravalferovneba, misi SerCevis principi da gamoye-
nebis ostatoba saerTod damaxasiaTebelia akakis poeziisaTvis.
`patara kaxi~. `patara kaxi~ xuTmoqmedebiani dramatuli poemaa. igi agebu-
lia meTvramete saukunis istoriul movlenebze, kerZod, Wabuki irakli bato-
niSvilis mier 1735 wels gareSe mtrebze saxelovani gamarjvebisa da qarTveli
xalxis patriotul SemarTebaze. analogiur Temaze aleqsandre jambakur-orbe-
lianma 1862 wels daamTavra da vrceli winasityvaobis darTviT dabeWda Jurnal
`ciskarSi~ prozauli formiT piesa `batoniSvilis iraklis pirveli dro anu
Tavdadeba qarTvelebisa~ (tragedia oTx moqmedebad). aRniSnuli nawarmoebi `pa-
tara kaxis~ erT-erTi literaturuli wyaroa.
akakis nawarmoebis istoriuli qarga aseTia: 1722 wlis zafxulSi ruseTis
Zlevamosili jarebi Zlieri sazRvao flotiT kaspiis sanapiroze idga da petre
pirvelis gegmiT iranSi SeWras apirebda. petre didma daxmareba sTxova qarTlis
mefe vaxtang VI-s. mefe `sixaruliTa didiTa~ Sexvda imperatoris gamowvevas da
30 Tu 40-aTasiani laSqriT 1722 wlis agvistos ganjaSi dadga. magram agvistos
bolos petre pirvelma daarRvia piroba, uRalata vaxtang VI-s, omi gadado da mo-
ulodnelad astraxans gabrunda. vaxtang VI TiTqmis sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi idga
ganjas da sasowarkveTili da imedgacruebuli gamobrunda Tbiliss. `Seeqmna me-
fes Wmunva didi~ (sexnia CxeiZe). iranisa da osmaleTisaTvis cxadi gaxda vaxtan-
gis zraxvebi. swored aman gansazRvra iran-osmaleTis uricxvi Semosevebi qar-
TlSi. qveyana moisra da ganadgurda. vaxtangs qarTlSi aRar daedgomeboda da
didi amaliT ruseTs gaemgzavra. am xanebSi kaxeTi eWira gamahmadianebul kon-
stantines, erekle pirvelis Zes, romelsac Saxis karze ewoda mahmad-yuli-xani.

134
Sahma vaxtang meeqvses CamoarTva mefoba da gadasca igi mahmad-yuli-xans, ro-
melic osmaleTis xonTqarma axalcixis faSas — usuf-faSas RalatiT moakvlevina.
amis Semdeg taxti konstantines Zmam, Teimuraz meorem daikava. magram gaZlierda
ra kaxeTSi osmal urdoTa da moTareSe lekTa Tavdasxmebi, qveynis rbevasa da awi-
okebas sazRvari aRar hqonda. mefes kaxeTSi aRar edgomeboda da amitomac `Teimu-
raz warvida fSavs da iyofeboda mun~ (vaxuSti). momxvdurni atyvevebdnen mcxov-
rebT da osmaleTis bazrebzed hyiddnen. mematianis gadmocemiT, `iyo tirili da
vaeba~... ase gaiafda tyve, rom `TiTos vaJkacs orol minalTunad aZlevdnen, rome-
lic ar gauvidisT, cxvruleb yelsa moWridian da zogs wyalSi yridian~ (papuna
orbeliani). amis gamo mosaxleobac mTianeTSi gaixizna.
qveyanas ganadgureba emuqreboda. `TiTqmis mTels saqarTvelos xalxsa gate-
nils Tofzed eZina~ (al. orbeliani).
qveynisaTvis metad tragikul aseT viTarebaSi gmiruli omi gadaixada 15
wlis Wabukma batoniSvilma ereklem (akakis azriT, meCvidmete welSi gadamdgarma
ufliswulma). Wabuki iraklis gmiruli saqmeni da Rvawli gamosaxa akakim Tavis
`patara kaxSi~. oman xerxeuliZe gadmogvcems: `welsa 1735 movidnen lekni da qi-
ziyi moarbives: maSin iyo Ze mefisa Teimurazisa irakli wlisas 15, romel-man Se-
moiyara soflebidam jari, ewia neiSnis mindorSi da Zlierad Semoebnen lekni.
garna TviT ese yrma, Ze mefisa Teimurazisa irakli, meored Sevida Sinagan jarsa
da lekisasa da pirvelad aman mokla kaci da amisa mxilvelTa kaxTa erT-pirad mi-
marTes yiviliT da wina wariqcies jari lekisa, ahyares tyveni da saqoneli da
moswyvites umravlesni, da movida maRaros gamarjvebuli, romlisTvis friad
mxiarul-iqmnen kaxni, ixiles ra simxne da mamacoba memkvidrisa Tvisisa~.
nawarmoebis ideur mxares gansazRvravs patriotizmi da ganmaTavisuflebe-
li brZolis paTosi. mxilebulni arian moRalateni, gamcemni, piradi interese-
biT gatacebuli adamianebi.
sainteresoa `patara kaxis~ Seqmnis istoria. akakis Tavdapirvelad dauweria
xuTmoqmedebiani drama proziT `irakli batoniSvili~. sacenzuro komitets ua-
ri uTqvams nebarTvaze. akakis erTi wlis Semdeg dramatuli sazogadoebisaTvis
gadaucia drama garkveuli cvlilebebiT, uwodebia ra misTvis `gela~. 1889 wels
prozad dawerili `irakli batoniSvili~ da `gela~ poets gauleqsavs da uwode-
bia misTvis `patara kaxi~. rogorc redaqciebis Sedareba cxadyofs, leqsad dawe-
ril `patara kaxSi~ patriotuli idea kidev ufro gamZafrebula.
scenaze ganxorcielebuli `patara kaxi~ aRtacebiT miiRo rogorc mkiTx-
velma, aseve mayurebelma.
`patara kaxis~ teqstze kompozitorma n. sulxaniSvilma dawera opera, rome-
lic, samwuxarod, dakargulia. SemorCenilia mxolod ramdenime aria (mag., `daig-
vianes... jer arsad sCanan~).
nawarmoebis personaJTa moqmedeba, miswrafebani, suliskveTeba STagonebu-
lia patriotizmiT.
erovnuli paTosi mkafiod gamoxata poetma Semdeg sityvebSi:
`kmara moneba! kmara moTmena!
dro aris adges erTpirad eri,
an brZolis velze suli dalios,
an moigeros mosuli mteri!~
didi STamagonebeli ZaliT JRers akakis mowodeba:
`sjobs monobaSi gadidkacebuls
Tavisuflebis ZebnaSi mkvdari!~

135
sanukvari saqarTvelos erTianobis idea am TxzulebaSic TvalsaCinodaa ga-
mokveTili poetis mier. aq xazgasmulia, rom kaxelTa ubedureba gaiziares mTie-
lebma, rom mTa dairazma baris misaSveleblad.
TxzulebaSi aRniSnulia, rom mijnurobaze maRla dgas samSoblos siyvaruli.
trfobis grZnobiT anTebuli levan qvabuliZe aRiarebs, rom siyvaruliT gataceba-
ze ufro `udidesi win gviZevs vali~ da es valia mamulisaTvis Tavdadebao. levani-
saTvis, rogorc didi grZnobis patronisaTvis, es Sewirva ar aris advili saqme. igi
aRtacebuli turfas siyvaruliT ase acxadebda: `asi sicocxle rom mqonodes, er-
Tad Sen Semogwirav!... Sen daganacvlebo~. siyvaruli misTvis iyo udidesi netareba.
miuxedavad siyvarulis grZnobis ase mZlavrad tarebisa, samSoblos interesebi, mo-
valeoba qveynis winaSe man ufro maRla daayena.
Tavis mxriv, mwerlis CanafiqriT, turfas swored siyvaruli ubiZgebs mamu-
lis ganusazRvreli siyvarulisaken da igi Tavis satrfosTan erTad Tavs swi-
ravs mSobel qveyanas. ase rom, akakis SemoqmedebaSi saerTod da, kerZod, am Txzu-
lebaSi siyvaruli sazogadoebrivi, erovnuli poziciidanaa Sefasebuli, am
grZnobas didi sazogadoebriv-politikuri datvirTva aqvs.
poeti didad afasebda qarTveli qalis rolsa da damsaxurebas samSoblos wi-
naSe. rodesac qarTvelTa jari umZimes gansacdelSi aRmoCnda, mariam dedofal-
ma da masTan erTad brZolis xazis axlos myofma qalebma erTxmad mouwodes er-
TmaneTs: wavideT Cvens ZmebTan, qmrebTan da SvilebTan da maTTan erTad Cvenc
pirnaTlad warvsdgeT Cvens ZvelebTano. am sityvebis warmoTqmisTanave maT le-
Caqebi moixades da gmirul-patriotuli SemarTebiT gaemarTnen brZolis xazisa-
ken.
nawarmoebSi aris aseTi pasaJi: rodesac qarTveli jari mterma rkalSi moaq-
cia da meomrebs daRupva daemuqra, am dros isini moulodnelad ixsna brZolis
velze gamoCenilma glexobam. glexTa gundebs win qalebi uZRodnen. akaki, ro-
gorc didi demokrati, gansakuTrebul rols aniWebs qveynis gadarCenaSi mxo-
lod mSromel glexobas. swored glexobas axasiaTebda optimizmi. es gamoixata
maT simRerebSiac, mag., `yanao, muSis samoTxev~... da gansakuTrebiT `mumli muxa-
sa~. mgosani fiqrobs, rom mterze gamarjvebis saqmeSi gadamwyveti roli glexo-
bas ganekuTvneba: akakim mSromeli xalxis rolis asaxviT TiTqos Seavso `qar-
Tlis cxovrebis~ adgilebi da istoriul Temaze Seqmnil nawarmoebebSi Tavadaz-
naurobis gverdiT sapatio adgili miuCina glexobasac.
Zvel saqarTveloSi Tavdadebul patriotebTan erTad zogierTi iseTi Tava-
dic gamoereoda, romelic Ralatobda mamuls, gadadioda mtris mxareze. aseTi
SemTxvevebi gaxSirda e.w. `TaTrobis~ periodSi. dawvrilebiT am movlenis Taoba-
ze msjelobs vaxuSti: `kvalad iyo tura ramazaSvili... ganvida tura Wirsa Sina
da iwyo man Tavoba lekTa da kirTeba laSqrobiT kaxeTs, vinaTgan uwyoda adgil-
ni da simagreni da misaval-warmosavalni; garna etikobiTa misiTa mravalgzis
sZles WarelTa. mere kvalad mouxda tura da warudga amas paata moTaved kaxTa~.
magram omis dros paata cxenidan Camovarda da `mohkla turam TvisiTa wixliTa.
xolo sxvani mosrna da wavida alafiTa~.1 ase rom, akaki simarTliTa da dananebiT
laparakobs moRalate Tavadebisa da maTi STamomavlebis Sesaxeb. aRniSnuli is-
toriuli faqti `patara kaxSi~ Semdegnairadaa asaxuli:
`mamamiss zaals kargad vicnobdi,
erTxel sikvdilsac gadavarCine,
rodesac tura ramazaSvili
mis win satevriT Zirs davawvine~.

1
qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV batoniSvili vaxuSti, aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa, 1973 , gv. 614.
136
ramaziSvili rom movkalio, — ambobs gela, — misi jaric SekrTa da Sedrka,
ikadra ukuqceva da guladobisaTvis swored maSin Semarqves `guladi gelao~. po-
eti guliswuxiliT msjelobs moRalateTa veragobaze. igi acxadebs: `qveynis or-
guli rom ar dazogos, yvela kacsa aqvs sruli ufleba~.
TxzulebaSi asaxuli arian istoriuli pirni: mefe Teimuraz meore, Tamar de-
dofali, patara kaxi da givi ColoyaSvili. Teimuraz meore iyo erekle pirvelis
Svili. igi samwerlo moRvaweobasac eweoda. Teimurazi sakmaod dakvirvebuli po-
litikuri moRvawe iyo. Znel epoqaSi igi galomebiT ebrZoda gareSe Tu Sinaur
mters. TviTonve laparakobs amis Taobaze: `vwerdi cxens mjdomi, vlaSqrobdi
iqiT da aqeTo~. meistorieni aRniSnaven, rom `Teimurazma moineba ruseTs wasvla.
aramed ar utevebdnen kaxni. merme Camoiyvanes kvalad Telavsave 1731 welso~.
swored patara kaxis cnobili laSqrobis win, 1734 wels, oman xerxeuliZis
cnobiT, Teimurazma `Semoikribna kaxni... Tavs daesxa da gaemarjva osmalTa zeda
da mravalni mowyvitnes da ukan iqca usuf-faSa meoti da mieriT verRa-ra ikad-
res osmalTa Sesvlad kaxeTad~. akaki zustad rodi mihyveba saistorio wyaroebs.
akakim kargad icoda fasi Teimuraz II moRvaweobisa, `am Zveli arwivis~ damsaxu-
reba. igi Teimurazs gvacnobs, rogorc `saxelganTqmul da Tavmomwone, namdvil
gmirs~, magram amasTanave miawers mas gadaWarbebul sifrTxiles, rac iwvevdao
garkveul situaciebSi mis gaubedav moqmedebas. akakis azriT, Teimurazs ukve
aRar SeuZlia `omSi triali~, radgan is `gulis frialma~ daasneulao. akakis uar-
yofiT moqmedebad miaCnia Teimurazis mier baris datoveba da Tavis Sefareba
mTaSi. brma gela ki ambobs:
`eh, Teimuraz, ra mtyuani xar,
rom moaSure am mTis simagres
da barelebi oxrad dahyare.
damnaSave xar, magram mefe xar
da vin ras getyvis? vin ras mogkiTxavs?~
akakim garkveul situaciebSi mefis esa Tu is Tviseba daupirispira batoniS-
vilis ama Tu im Tvisebas. aseT dros igi umTavresad iyenebs mxatvruli kontras-
tis xerxs. mama-Svilis SepirispirebiT-SedarebiTi daxatvis gziT avtori axer-
xebs mkafio saxe gamoxatos saqarTvelos momavali didebuli da brwyinvale me-
fisa.
istoriuli pirovnebaa dedofali Tamar. igi iyo vaxtang VI asuli `mSvenieri
da miuwTomeli~, saTnoebisa da sikeTis sruli gansaxiereba. istorikosTa daxasia-
TebiT, Tamari Wkviani da SorsmWvreteli yofila, didi avtoriteti mouxveWia ro-
gorc kaxeTSi, ise mis farglebs gareT. Tamar dedofals didi Rvawli miuZRvis ga-
reSe mtris winaaRmdeg brZolebSi. oman xerxeuliZis cnobiT, Sah-nadiri `ganZvin-
da saqarTvelosa zeda da ganigula ayra maTi da mowyveta qarTl-kaxeTis erisa.
hscna ra ese mefeman Teimuraz, waravlina dedofali Tamar, asuli mefis vaxtangi-
sa vedrebad yaenisa winaSe, raTa ara aswyvitos qarTl-kaxeTisa xalxi da dascxres-
ca mrisxaneba misi qristianeTa zeda: xolo movida ra dedofali Tamar daRestanSi
nadir-SahsTana da evedra auyrelobasa qarTl-kaxeTisasa da esreTve acnoba
ucodveloba Tvisisa mefisa Teimurazisa da erTguleba Zisa Tvisisa irakli meo-
risa, romlisaTvis myis Tanad lmobier-iqmna mZlavri igi pativ-sca, viTarca deda-
sa da yoveli Txovili mianiWa da gamouteva didiTa niWiTa kaxeTs~.1 analogiuri
cnobebi sxvasac moepoveba. poetic saTanadod iyenebs maT. poetis mier daxatuli
dedofali Teimuraz mefes gabeduli da gadamwyveti moqmedebisaken mouwodebs.
mas dauSveblad miaCnia gulis gatexva da usasod yofna. `sadac vera sWris sif-

1
o m a n x e r x e u l i Z e , mefoba irakli meorisa mefis Teimurazis Zisa (`qarTlis cxovreba~, II, 1854,
gv. 478).
137
rTxile... iqa sjobia gambedaoba~. Tamar dedofals miaCnia, rom Svili misi samSob-
los samsxverplod aRuzrdia:
`rogorc qarTvel qals, Cemi irakli
qveynis samsxverplod gamomizrdia
da sxva dedebTan mec erTad Cemi
movaleoba gadamixdia~.
rogorc iTqva, akaki bataluri scenebis xatvis didi ostatia. marTalia, `pa-
tara kaxis~ batalur scenebs mayurebeli scenaze ver xedavs (mis msvlelobas igi
meTvalyureTa da SikrikTa cnobebis mixedviT ecnoba), magram sabrZolo epizo-
debis amgvar gadmocemasac udidesi xibli axlavs akakis TxzulebaSi. akakim icis
moulodneli situaciebis, saidumlo ambebis, Sorisdebulebisa da sxva xerxTa
drouli CarTva Txrobis saerTo arqiteqtonikaSi da STabeWdilebac saTanadoa.
grZnobebi, emociebi dinamikurad cvlian erTmaneTs da nawarmoebidan statiku-
roba gandevnilia.
yvelaferi aRniSnuli imaze metyvelebs, rom `patara kaxi~ leqsad Sesrule-
buli qarTuli dramaturgiis erT-erTi saukeTeso nimuSia.
amrigad, uaRresad sagulisxmo da mravalferovania akakis SemoqmedebiTi
cxovreba. akakis Semoqmedeba da praqtikuli saqmianoba qarTveli xalxis didebi-
sa da Rirsebis dacvis, Tavisuflebisa da momavlis damkvidrebis did saqmes emsa-
xureboda. akaki mudam da ganuyrelad idga eris majiscemis sadarajoze. swored
amitom uwoda mas ilia WavWavaZem `rCeuli~ erisa; mas akakis poeziis gareSe verc
warmoedgina qarTuli lirika.
akakis Rvawli ukvdavia. sakacobrio idealebTan erTad mis SemoqmedebaSi or-
ganulad aris gaerTianebuli qarTveli xalxis saukeTeso idealebi, sibrZne,
fiqrebi da gancdebi, misi keTilSobiluri miswrafebani, faqizi survilebi. ami-
tom aris akaki namdvili saxalxo mgosani, amitom Seiyvara igi madlierma mSobel-
ma erma, aRiara sulier winamZRolad, did moWirnaxuled da Searqva mas qarTveli
xalxis `ugvirgvino mefe~.

138
giorgi wereTeli

(1842-1900)

cxovreba da moRvaweoba

giorgi wereTlis cxovreba, sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba da Semoqmedeba uaR-


resad saintereso da mravalferovania.
me-19 saukunis 60-iani wlebidan amave saukunis dasasrulamde Znelia davasa-
xeloT mniSvnelovani erovnuli saqme, siaxlis Semcveli saqveyno wamowyeba, rom-
lis meTauri da sulis Camdgmeli Tu ara, aqtiuri monawile mainc g. wereTeli ar
yofiliyo.
progresulad moazrovne am mweralsa da sazogado moRvawes usazRvrod uy-
varda Tavisi samSoblo; igi mudam mowiwebiT ixseniebda saqarTvelos diad war-
suls, TavgamodebiT ibrZoda awmyos Wrilobebis moSuSebisa da bednieri momav-
lisaTvis.
g. wereTeli iyo pedagogi, Jurnalisti, mxatvruli sityvis ostati, prozai-
kosi, poeti, dramaturgi; realisturi esTetikisa da kritikuli realizmis erT-
erTi damamkvidrebeli, filologi, literaturis Teoretikosi, kritikosi, Te-
atraluri moRvawe, istorikosi, ekonomisti, arqeologi, folkloristi, bune-
bismetyveli, Cveni qveynis soflis meurneobisa da mrewvelobis ganviTarebisaT-
vis Tavdadebuli moamage, progresuli azrebisa da ideebis mqadagebeli, erovnu-
li da socialuri uTanasworobis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli.
g. wereTlis mTel moRvaweobas, saerTo mizanswrafvas maRali sazogadoebri-
vi, socialuri da erovnuli idealebi asazrdoebs.

***

giorgi wereTeli 1842 wlis 14 maiss dabadebula zemo imereTSi, sofel gori-
saSi, saSualo SeZlebis aznaurisa da saxelmwifo moxelis, `naswavl kacad~ cno-
bil eqvTime wereTlis ojaxSi.
momaval mwerals deda ise adre gardaecvala, rom misi xsovnac ki ar SerCenia
Svils. bavSvs zrdida gulisxmieri, metad mzrunveli, mkacri, magram Svilis di-
dad mosiyvarule mama. dedis magivrobas uwevda ZiZa.
eqvTime wereTeli Tavisi droisaTvis ganaTlebuli da qveynisaTvis gulSe-
matkivari kaci yofila. mas kargad scodnia Zveli qaTuli literatura da sais-
torio mwerloba. ueWvelia, aseTi mama did gavlenas moaxdenda Svilis sasurve-
li midrekilebis ganviTarebaze, codnisadmi siyvarulis grZnobis gaRvivebisa
da saerTo ideuri miswrafebis Camoyalibebaze.
g. wereTels arc deduleTi hyolia uwignuri. giorgisa deda barbare iyo xo-
nis wminda giorgis eklesiis dekanoz Toma quTaTelaZis asuli da imereTis epis-
koposis, germanes diswuli. dedis Zma, germane episkoposi Semdeg quTaisis gimna-
ziaSi g. wereTels aswavlida qarTul enasa da saRmrTo sjuls. aseTma ojaxurma
da axlonaTesaurma wrem didi gavlena moaxdina g. wereTlis midrekilebasa da
ganwyobilebis formirebaze.
raki g. wereTels deda adre gardaecvala, igulisxmeba, unda hyoloda ZiZa,
aRmzrdeli. vin iyo es ZiZa da sad izrdeboda patara giorgi? Cvens yuradRebas
iqcevs is garemoeba, rom g. wereTlis `mgzavris wignebSi~, `gulqansa~ da `pirvel
nabijSi~ samegrelos bunebisa da yofis warmtaci suraTebia naCvenebi. `pirvel
nabijSi~ avtorma ara marto aRwera samegrelos is soflebi, gorakebi da Relee-
bi, romlebic im dros rukazedac ki ar iyo aRniSnuli, aramed maRalemociuro-
biT warmogvidgina am kuTxis mTisa da baris peizaJebi. garda amisa, g. wereTelma
moqmedi gmirebic umTavresad samegrelodan Semoiyvana. cxadia, warmodgenili
sinamdvilis gardasaxva SeuZlebeli iqneboda am mxaris yovelmxrivi gacnobisa
da Seswavlis gareSe. magram saidan, rogor? — ai kiTxvebi, romlebic pasuxs mo-
iTxoven.
rogorc gairkva, g. wereTeli izrdeboda samegreloSi da dedis magivrobas
uwevda mas megreli ZiZa. es faqti naTeli gaxda i. WavWavaZisadmi miwerili g. we-
reTlis baraTis mignebiT. g. wereTeli wers i. WavWavaZes: `...iqneb Tqven ar iciT
da me TviTon samegrelos dedis ZuZuTi var gazrdili da sxva mis meti ar max-
sovs. `es aris is adgilio,— ganagrZobs giorgi wereTeli, — sadac pirvelad de-
dis alersi migvrZnia, saca pirvelad gamixelia gonebis Tvali da samegrelos
mdidar bunebas aRuZravs CemSi ukeTesi grZnobebi!...~ aseTi gulSi Camwvdomi
sityvebiT ixseniebda mwerali saqarTvelos am mSvenier kuTxes, romelTanac mas
akavSirebda sayvareli ZiZa da bavSvuri tkbili mogonebani. amrigad, eWvmiutan-
lad cxadi gaxda, rom giorgi wereTels bavSvobis wlebi samegreloSi gautare-
bia. am niadagze daikava mis SemoqmedebaSi ase farTo adgili samegrelos bunebam,
yofam da sinamdvilis gansasaxiereblad saWiro literaturulma personaJebma.
saarqivo masalidan vigebT, rom g. wereTeli izrdeboda samegreloSi, axal-
senakSi, — Tanafia gabeskirias ojaxSi da rom Tanafias meuRle ZiZaa g. wereTli-
sa. cxadia, rom glexis ojaxSi bavSvobis wlebis gatarebam, glexur garemoSi
didxans yofnam g. wereTels gaacno xalxis cxovreba, romelic ase farTod war-
moadgina Tavis cnobil nawarmoebebSi.
mamis ojaxSi pirveldawyebiTi ganaTlebis miRebis Semdeg g. wereTeli quTai-
sis gimnaziaSi Seiyvanes. im wlebis STabeWdilebani g. wereTelma ganzogadebuli
saxiT mxatvrulad warmogvidgina `gulqansa~ da `pirvel nabijSi~, `Cveni cxovre-
bis yvavilSi~. am nawarmoebebSi naCvenebia mowafeTa autaneli mdgomareoba da
daxasiaTebulia aRzrdis is policiuri meTodebi, romlebic gabatonebuli iyo
imdroindel skolaSi.
g. wereTeli erT-erT karg mowafed iTvleboda gimnaziaSi da warmatebiT da-
amTavra kidec igi. rusul da qarTul literaturaSi farTod gaTviTcnobiere-
bulma da sakmao codniT aRWurvilma Wabukma gadawyvita sauniversiteto ganaT-
lebis miReba.

***

gimnaziis damTavrebis Semdeg, 1860 wels, g. wereTeli gaemgzavra peterburgs


da Cairicxa universitetis fizika-maTematikis fakultetis sabunebismetyvelo
ganyofilebis studentad.
g. wereTels, rogorc niWier axalgazrdas, stipendia imTaviTve dauniSna kav-
kasiis komitetma. roca giorgi peterburgs Cavida, maSin iq swavlobda qarTveli
axalgazrdobis mTeli Taoba: i. WavWavaZe, a. wereTeli, n. nikolaZe, kir.lorTqi-
faniZe, b. RoRoberiZe, n. RoRoberiZe da mravali sxva.
140
qarTveli axalgazrdoba, maT Soris g. wereTelic, izrdeboda ruseTis mowi-
nave inteligenciisa da evropis mowinave adamianTa progresul ideebze; am gare-
moebam erTgvarad gansazRvra momavali mwerlis moRvaweobisa da SemoqmedebiTi
ganviTarebis gza.
1861 wlis Semodgomaze revoluciurad ganwyobilma peterburgis mowinave
studentebma mefis mTavrobis winaaRmdeg farTo demonstracia moawyves. am moZ-
raobaSi g. wereTelma aqtiuri monawileoba miiRo. mefis policiam sastik zomebs
mimarTa. sxvebTan erTad g. wereTelic daapatimres, jer daamwyvdies petre-pav-
les cixeSi, Semdeg ki krondStadtis satusaRoSi moaTavses. sapatimrodan gamoS-
vebis Semdeg mas aukrZales universitetSi swavlis gagrZeleba, magram g. wereTe-
li mainc axerxebs leqciebze daswrebas; 1862 wlis oqtombridan mas darTes neba
eswavla meore kursze.
studentTa moZraobaSi monawileoba giorgi wereTlisaTvis garkveuli sazo-
gadoebriv-revoluciuri naTloba iyo. es garemoeba Seiqmna safuZveli imisa,
rom g. wereTeli Tavidanve samociani wlebis mowinave adamianebis wreSi moxved-
riliyo. cnobilia g. wereTlis, rogorc student-revolucioneris, suraTi
krondStadtis patimarTa Soris. studentTa areulobis gamoZiebis saarqivo ma-
salebi, sxva oficialuri cnobebi metyveleben, rom qarTveli axalgazrdebi aq-
tiurad monawileobdnen studentTa mRelvarebaSi. Tumca g. wereTeli universi-
tetis pirveli kursidanve gatacebuli iyo sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebiT, ga-
dawyvetili hqonda kidevac mecnieruli muSaoba am gziT gaegrZelebina, magram
male dasZlia literaturisa da, saerTod, sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa siyva-
rulma da misi miswrafeba axali mimarTulebiT warimarTa.
g. wereTlis didi interesi mecnierebisadmi, Sromis unari, niWi studentoba-
Sive gamomJRavnda. meore kursis studentad yofnis dros g. wereTels garkveu-
li Sexedulebac ki gamoumuSavebia da sakuTari Teoriis SemuSaveba ucdia embri-
ologiaSi — CanasaxTa ganviTarebis mecnierebaSi. samociani wlebisaTvis peter-
burgSi ocdaaTze meti qarTveli axalgazrda swavlobda, romelTa goneba mdid-
rdeboda axali mowinave ideebiT. amdenad, peterburgi, rogorc yvela Cveni sa-
mocianelisaTvis, g. wereTlisaTvisac akademiuri wrTobis qalaqi iyo.
g. wereTlis, rogorc mwerlis, sazogado moRvawisa da moazrovnis, profili ga-
mokveTilad gamoCnda saqarTveloSi dabrunebisas. misi ideuri miswrafebis Sinaar-
sis saboloo Camoyalibeba SesaZlebeli gaxda qarTuli erovnuli kulturis safuZ-
velze, romelsac Seerwyo mowinave rusuli da evropuli kultura. evropuli kul-
turis monapovris g. wereTliseuli aTviseba gulisxmobda demokratizmis, humaniz-
misa da patriotizmis erTobliobas. es unaTebda gzas g. wereTlis mwerlobas, moR-
vaweobas.

***

cxovrebaSi ukve Rrmad Caxeduli, nakiTxi, ganswavluli da farTod ganaTle-


buli axalgazrda g. wereTeli 1863 wlis miwuruls peterburgidan samSobloSi
dabrunda da farTo sazogadoebriv-literaturul moRvaweobas Seudga.
g. wereTlis brwyinvale literaturuli debiuti iyo 1863 wels i. WavWavaZis
`saqarTvelos moambeSi~ g-Telis fsevdonimiT dabeWdili statia — `ciskars ra
akakanebda?~.1 am RrmaSinaarsiani weriliT daedo saTave g. wereTlis aqtiur
brZolas qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azrisa da Cveni qveynis cxovrebis ganaxlebi-
saTvis; masSi gamovlinda g. wereTlis mowinave literaturul-esTetikuri Sexe-
dulebani.

1
`saqarTvelos moambe~, 1863, 5.
141
statias — `ciskars ra akakanebda?~- dReisaTvis ara marto istoriuli, ara-
med garkveuli SemecnebiTi mniSvnelobac aqvs. yovlad SeuZlebelia imsjelo
TergdaleulTa saerTo, sazogadoebriv da literaturul Sexedulebebze, sa-
moRvaweo asparezze gamosvlis, mamaTa da SvilTa brZolis xasiaTze da am stati-
as gverdi auaro.
rogorc i. WavWavaZis werili `saqarTvelos moambeze~ ilias moRvaweobis sap-
rogramo werilia, aseve g. wereTlis `ciskars ra akakanebda?~ da `maTusalas aR-
sareba~ Seiqmna g. wereTlis literaturuli da sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis Si-
naarsis ganmsazRvreli, samwerlo mrwamsisa da ideuri miswrafebis gamomxatve-
li.
am werilebis paralelurad g. wereTeli iwyebs mxatvrul nawarmoebTa gamoq-
veynebas. 1866-1867 wlebSi daibeWda misi ramdenime moTxroba, maT Soris `monadi-
ris naambobi~, `mgzavris wignebi~ da sxv. amas daemata isic, rom 1866 wels g. were-
Telma daaarsa gazeTi `droeba~, romliTac mis winaSe farTo Jurnalisturi
moRvaweobis asparezi gadaiSala.
g. wereTeli 1863-1866 wlebSi aqtiurad Caeba literaturuli da sazogado-
ebrivi cxovrebis ferxulSi. ruseTidan saqarTveloSi CamosvlisTanave, 1863
wlis miwurulSi, g. wereTelma daiwyo maswavlebloba jer quTaisSi da Semdeg
TbilisSi. quTaisSi misi mowafe yofila Semdgom saxelmoxveWili pedagogi da
moRvawe aleqsi WiWinaZe, xolo TbilisSi cnobili sazogado moRvawe g.TumaniS-
vili. orive mowafe g. wereTels axasiaTebs rogorc SesaniSnav maswavlebels.
am xnidan moyolebuli, g. wereTeli TiTqmis aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi ar wyvets
kavSirs skolasTan da aswavlis mSobliur enasa da literaturas Tbilisis sxva-
dasxva saswavlebelSi.
g. wereTels ara marto maswavleblobis periodSi, aramed mTeli sicocxlis
manZilze ar Seuwyvetia zrunva skolebze, swavla-aRzrdis saqmeze. amis Tvalsa-
Cino magaliTia g. wereTliseuli cda da zrunva TbilisSi universitetis daar-
sebis Taobaze.
qveynis ganaTlebis, qarTveli xalxis sulieri kulturis amaRlebis mizniT
dainteresebuli g. wereTeli swavlisa da ganaTlebis yvela mxares aqcevda yu-
radRebas, iyenebda yvela SesaZlo moments am mtkivneuli sakiTxebis dayenebisa
da gadawyvetis mizniT. `droebis~ erT-erT nomerSi g. wereTelma moaTavsa nek-
rologi besarion RoRoberiZis gardacvalebis gamo. b. RoRoberiZe maswavlebe-
li iyo da g. wereTelma es faqti garkveuli ideuri mizniT gamoiyena. es mizani
iyo mSobliur enaze swavlebis principis damkvidrebis propaganda. b.RoRoberi-
Zes man did damsaxurebad CauTvala, rom igi TavgamodebiT zrunavda skolebSi
qarTuli enis danergvisaTvis. g. wereTeli sajarod moiTxovda mSobliur enaze
swavlebas: `xalxs unda ganaTleba Tavis enazeo~.
g. wereTeli yovelgvari mosalodneli devnis miuxedavad, daundoblad akri-
tikebs swavlebis gabatonebul sistemas, swavlebis uvargis meTodebs, saskolo
policiur reJims, ruseTis biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis Sedegad
damkvidrebul saaRmzrdelo reJims. g. wereTeli Wkuis, swavlis, zneobisa da ga-
naTlebulobis urTierTkavSirs ase warmogvidgens: `qveyanaze Zvirfasi Wkuisa
ara aris ra~... magram mwerals mxolod es ar miaCnia didi adamianobis sawindrad.
igi wers: `rac unda niWieri, mxne da SesaniSnavi sazogado moRvawe iyos kaci, Tu
rom mas zneoba ar uvarga, misi moqmedeba sikeTis magivrad borots SeamTxvevs
qveyanas~.1
qarTuli skolebis bediT dainteresebul g. wereTels 1893 wlis `kvalSi~ mo-
uTavsebia werili `swavlis saqme CvenSi~, sadac mohyavs magaliTad is, Tu rogor

1
`kvali~, 1893, 4.
142
gulcivad Sexvda mosaxleoba skolebis gaxsnas, roca gaiges, rom swavla qarTul
enaze ar iqneboda. qveynis saqmisaTvis gulSematkivari g. wereTeli ara marto
TviTon werda xalxisaTvis Camafiqrebels, STamagonebelsa da gamamxnevebel
statiebs, aramed Tavis Jurnal-gazeTebSi farTod aTavsebda saerTo erovnuli
viTarebis maniSnebel, mosaxleobis gamaTviTcnobierebel, sabrZolo ganwyobi-
lebis Semqmnel sxva werilebs. yovelive zemoTqmulidan cxadi xdeba, Tu raoden
didia g. wereTlis Rvawli qarTveli axalgazrdobis aRzrdis, swavlebis, ganaT-
lebisa da erovnuli gaTviTcnobierebis saqmeSi. amdenadve, didia misi damsaxu-
reba Cveni skolisa da qarTuli pedagogiuri azrovnebis istoriaSi.

***

g. wereTlis damsaxureba qarTuli Jurnalistikis istoriaSi ganusazRvre-


lad didia. mefis ruseTis policiuri cenzuris pirobebSi man SeZlo Seeqmna
Zlieri qarTuli presa. metad mZime viTarebaSi moaxerxa gamoeca ramdenime qar-
Tuli gazeTi, Jurnali da exelmZRvanela maTTvis.
g. wereTeli ara marto damaarsebeli, redaqtori da gamomcemeli iyo zemo-
aRniSnuli Jurnal-gazeTebisa, aramed, amave dros, igi iyo qarTuli da rusuli
presis progresuli azrebiT ganmsWvaluli maxvilkalmosani TanamSromeli.
g. wereTlis literaturulma moRvaweobam sistematuri xasiaTi miiRo mas
Semdeg, rac 1866 wels daarsda gazeTi `droeba~. `droebaSi~ gamoqveynda `mgzav-
ris wignebis~ garkveuli nawili, `gulqanis~ ramdenime Tavi; sxvadasxva xasiaTis
ramdenime publicisturi werili.

***

glexkacobasTan uSualo kavSiris damyarebis mizniT g. wereTelma 1868 wels


daaarsa `sasoflo gazeTi~. am gazeTSi qveyndeboda samecniero-popularuli we-
rilebi soflis meurneobis, zooveterinariis, medicinisa da, saerTod, glexka-
cobis yofa-cxovrebasTan dakavSirebul Teoriul da praqtikul sakiTxebze.
`sasoflo gazeTma~ imTaviTve gaiTqva saxeli mTel saqarTveloSi da dRes igi am-
Svenebs qarTuli presis istorias. Tumca mecxramete saukunis 70-iani wlebis sa-
qarTveloSi gamodioda gazeTi `droeba~, romelic qarTul sazogadoebriv azrs
uZRveboda, ers Wrilobas uSuSebda da xalxs afxizlebda, magram qveynis goneb-
rivma dawinaurebam kidev meti sulieri sazrdo moiTxova. sazogadoebriv cxov-
rebaSi momwifda niadagi axali literaturuli Jurnalis gamocemisaTvis. mar-
Talia, am dros gamodioda samecniero-literaturuli Jurnali `mnaTobi~, mag-
ram is martooden literaturuli organo ar iyo.
axalma ideurma miswrafebam, axalma esTetikurma moTxovnilebam Zlieri li-
teraturuli organos daarsebis aucilebloba dRis wesrigSi daayena. saWiro
iyo qarTuli mwerlobis saukeTeso nimuSebis saqveynod gamotana. am saWiroebam
progresulad moazrovne Cveni inteligenciis winaSe mkafiod moxaza axali Jur-
nalis Sinaarsis konturebi. saTanado sja-baasis Semdeg am saqmis organizacia g.
wereTelma iTava.
1871 wlis 25 ianvars g. wereTelma TxovniT mimarTa kavkasiis mefisnacvals
Jurnalis gamocemis nebarTvis Sesaxeb. `krebulSi~ ibeWdeboda ara marto qar-
Tvel da araqarTvel klasikosTa nawarmoebebi, qarTuli xalxuri sityvierebis
nimuSebi, aramed istoriuli, literaturuli, eTnografiuli da publicisturi
xasiaTis sazogadoebrivad saintereso statiebi, feletonebi, werilebi. `krebu-

143
li~ warmarTavda Cveni mxatvruli sityvis Semdgomi zrdis saqmes da tons aZlev-
da qarTuli mxatvruli azrovnebis ganviTarebas.
`krebulSi~ gamoqveynda: i. WavWavaZis `glaxis naambobi~, `mgzavris werilebi~;
a. wereTlis mravali saintereso leqsi; g. wereTlis `mgzavris wignebis~ orive
nawili, `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~, komedia `jibri~. aqve daibeWda al. WavWavaZis,
n. baraTaSvilis, m.gurielis, g. waladidelisa da sxvaTa leqsebi da moTxrobebi.
`krebulma~ gamoaqveyna i. WavWavaZis mier Targmnili Seqspiris `mefe liri~, aka-
kis naTargmni molieris `skapenis cuRlutoba~, g. wereTlis mier germanulidan
Targmnili goeTes `egmonti~ da rusulidan Targmnili `doqtor krupovis Txzule-
bidan~. `krebulma~ udavod didi samsaxuri gauwia qarTvel mkiTxvelebs, qarTul
mwerlobas.
1873 wlis oqtombris ukanasknel ricxvebSi g. wereTelma, sazRvargareT was-
vlis gamo, `krebuli~ gadasca k. lorTqifaniZes. `krebuls~ amis Semdeg didxans
ar uarsebia, magram qarTul Jurnalistikas man dautova saxelovani tradicie-
bis mqone didi memkvidreoba, romelic didebiT mosavs g. wereTlisa da n. niko-
laZis saxelebs.

***

g. wereTeli, garda imisa, rom iyo damaarsebeli da redaqtori `droebis~, `sa-


soflo gazeTis~, Jurnal `krebulisa~, aqtiurad TanamSromlobda agreTve sxva-
dasxva qarTul Jurnal-gazeTSi.
1893 wels g. wereTlis CagonebiT anastasia TumaniSvilma daaarsa kvireuli sa-
mecniero da naxatebiani gazeTi `kvali~. marTalia, gazeTis gamomcemeli da redaq-
tori oficialurad anastasia TumaniSvili iyo, magram, faqtobrivad, 1898 wlamde
`kvals~ ideurad da teqnikuradac g. wereTeli xelmZRvanelobda. g. wereTelma Ta-
visi faqtobrivi xelmZRvanelobiT gamomavali `kvali~ axali azrebisa da Sexedule-
bebis gasamJRavneblad, gasavrceleblad daubrkoleblad dauTmo mesame dasis war-
momadgenlebs da 1898 wlidan TiTqmis mTlianad maT gadasca.

***

1877-1878 wlebSi g. wereTeli peterburgis yoveldRiuri politikuri da li-


teraturuli gazeTis — "Голос" -is specialuri samxedro korespondentia.
g. wereTlis mier "Голос"-is furclebze dabeWdil werilebSi profesionali
Jurnalistis xeli igrZnoba. g. wereTlis korespondenciebSi, arcTu ise iSvia-
Tad, mocemulia qarTveli xalxis didi warsulis ama Tu im mxaris istoriuli mi-
moxilva. saqarTvelos didi warsulis istoriuli mimoxilviT, saqarTvelos
mowyvetili qarTuli provinciebis sididis, simdidresa da strategiul mniSvne-
lobaze miTiTebiT, muslimanuri fanatizmisagan qristianTa daxsnis moraluri
ideebis qadagebiT g. wereTeli cdilobs daainteresos mefis mTavroba, samxedro
sardloba, rom ruseTma SemoierTos TurqeTis mier dedasamSoblos moglejili
saqarTvelos teritoria, gaanTavisuflos igi TurqTa batonobisagan. g. were-
Telma kargad icis, rom yvelaferi es advili araa, magram misi survilia, rogor-
me am omiT ruseTma daikavos iseTi strategiuli poziciebi, rom sazavo molapa-
rakebis dros dazaveba warmarTos ruseTis sasargeblod. es sargebeli saqarTve-
los sargebeli iqneboda. ruseTis mier aWarisa da lazeT-WaneTis dakaveba da Se-
momtkiceba TavisTavad gamoiwvevda am mxaris gaTavisuflebas Turqi dampyrob-
lebisagan, erTian saqarTvelos Seqmnas, rac mwerlis miswrafeba iyo.

144
g. wereTlis moRvaweoba centralur rusul presaSi martooden yoveldRiur
gamocemebSi TanamSromlobiT rodi isazRvreba. yuradRebas ipyrobs g. wereT-
lis monografiuli xasiaTis akademiuri Sromebi, romlebic rusul Jurnalebsa
da samecniero akademiur krebulebSi ibeWdeboda.

***

g. wereTels saTanado wvlili Sehqonda Tbilisuri rusuli presis saqmiano-


baSic. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa misi urTierToba literaturul-
pilitikur gazeT "Тифлисский вестник"-Tan.
Tavisi droisaTvis cnobili sazogado moRvawe g.TumaniSvili didi gulisxmie-
rebiT igonebs im ambavs, Tu rogor gauWirda ruseT-osmaleTis omis wlebSi da
omis damTavrebis Semdeg "Тифлисский вестник"-s da rogor miiwvies g. wereTeli am
gazeTis muSaobis gamosacocxleblad.
ar aris interesmoklebuli aRiniSnos, rom g. wereTlis istoriul, litera-
turul, eTnografiul, publicistur da sxva Sinaarsis Tu xasiaTis statiebsa da
werilebTan erTad rusulad ibeWdeboda misi mxatvruli Txzulebani. amdenad,
misi Tanamedrove rusi mkiTxvelisaTvis g. wereTlis arc mxatvruli proza iyo
ucnobi. `saqarTvelos moambidan~ `kvalamdis~ gavlili Jurnalisturi moRvawe-
obis istoria da rusul presaSi aqtiuri TanamSromloba g. wereTels did Jurna-
listad warmogvidgens.

***

erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraoba, romelic gansazRvravs Tergdale-


ulTa moRvaweobis Sinaarss, moicavs qarTveli xalxis rogorc erovnuli da so-
cialuri Tavisuflebis, aseve xelovnebis, literaturisa da, saerTod, qveynis
kulturuli cxovrebis axali, progresuli gziT warmarTvis ideas.
am didi saqmis erT mniSvnelovan mxares g. wereTlis moRvaweobaSi warmoad-
gens qarTuli Teatris aRorZinebis problema. g. wereTels Rrmad swams, rom Te-
atrs didi wvlilis Setana SeuZlia xalxis gaTviTcnobierebis saqmeSi. xalxis
esTetikur aRzrdaSi Teatrs igi imdenad did mniSvnelobas aniWebs, rom mas
`erovnul taZars~ uwodebs. aq pirvel rigSi aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom ruseTi-
dan dabrunebisTanave sxva sazogadoebriv saqmianobasTan erTad g. wereTeli ga-
tacebiT ebmeba qarTuli Teatris ganaxlebisaTvis saWiro muSaobaSi; monawileo-
bas iRebs scenismoyvareTa wreSi — droebiT Teatralur dasSi. qarTvel scenis-
moyvareTa am dasis monawile g. wereTeli 1893 wlis `kvalis~ #51-Si gamoqveyne-
bul Teatralur mogonebaSi wers: `axalgazrdoba 1867 wels tfilisSi gaitaca
qarTul msaxiobTa TamaSobam... erTxel maxsovs Cven SevadgineT qarTul warmo-
madgenelTa dasi; vTamaSobdiT melodramas `maikos~ da komedia `Zunws~. g. were-
Teli aq dasaxelebul dramatul TxzulebebSi gulisxmobs g.jabadaris `maikos~,
romelic 1853-1854 wlebSi idgmeboda, da g.erisTavis `Zunws~.
g. wereTeli ara marto scenismoyvareTa dasis wevri da msaxiobi iyo mxolod,
aramed dasadgmelad gamiznuli piesebis, repertuaris Sedgena-SerCevisa da im
drois reJisorTa kolegiis saqmianobis dauzarebeli monawilec iyo.
1867 wels TbilisSi Semdgari scenismoyvareTa jgufi g. wereTlis monawile-
obiT amzadebs niadags axali, mudmivi Teatris Sesaqmnelad.
g. wereTeli qarTuli TeatrisaTvis daucxromlad imitom zrunavda, rom am
`erovnul taZars~ Tavis scenidan Tanmimdevrulad SeeZlo qarTveli xalxis yo-
velmxrivi ganviTareba, erovnuli grZnobis mZafrad gaRviveba. misi azriT, `sce-
145
na unda iyos sazogadoebis skola, mwvrTneli da mamxilebeli misi naklulovane-
bisa da ara Semaqcevari samasxro oxunjobisa~. aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom g. we-
reTelma sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis asparezze gamosvlisTanave gaamaxvila sa-
zogadoebis yuradReba qarTuli Teatris arsebobis aucileblobaze. jer kidev
1866 wlis `droebis~ #11-Si man dramatuli xelovneba miiCnia xalxis gonebrivi
ganviTarebisa da zneobrivi amaRlebis erT-erT ZiriTad saSualebad, xolo Zlie-
ri qarTuli Teatris Camoyalibeba, maRali Teatraluri kulturis Seqmna, misi
popularizacia, speqtaklebis Sinaarsze sazogadoebis yuradRebis gamaxvileba —
maRali erovnuli idealebis samsaxurad. am ideiT Cagonebuli g. wereTeli gar-
dacvalebamde eweoda qarTuli Teatraluri saqmis propagandas, mis populariza-
cias. g. wereTlis TqmiT: `pirvelma Suqma ganaTlebisam sxvaTa Soris Teatris sa-
SualebiT SemosWvrita qarTvels sazogadoebaSi. erma dainaxa Tavisi cxovrebis
suraTi scenaze bevrnairi naklulovanebiTa, dainaxa agreTve ufro ganaTlebuli
cxovrebis suraTebica... qarTvelma sazogadoebam Seigno umjobesi gonebiTi da
zneobiTi natvra, anu rogorc ityvian ideali~. amitomac yoveli speqtaklisagan
igi moiTxovs gonebrivi da zneobrivi sawyisebis maRalemociur formebSi Cvenebas.
ideurobis gareSe g. wereTlisaTvis ar arsebobs xelovneba, am SemTxvevaSi Teat-
ri, warmodgenebi. Teatri ara marto ubralo gamrTobia mxolod, misi mizani sru-
liadac araa `saxumaro sityvebis an laTaiebis warmoTqma scenidan, aramed is aris
damafiqrebeli, sulis aRmZvreli da grZnoba-gonebis mwvrTneli~.
rogorc vxedavT, aq sworadaa gansazRvruli Teatris daniSnuleba. marTlac,
ra iqneboda Teatri am didi sazogadoebrivi funqciis gareSe? da g. wereTlis
eniT rom vupasuxoT — `dambaCebisa da Tofebis satkacatkuco, amoRebuli xanjle-
bis satrialo da saoxunjo asparezi~. mwerlis Rrma rwmeniT: `scena unda iyos nam-
dvili kacis bunebis da misi naklovanebis an Rirsebis gamomxatveli, rom sazoga-
doeba hpoebdes masSi an Tavis wvrTnas, an keTilSobilur gatacebas~.
realizmi, realisturoba — ai, pirveli moTxovna, rasac g. wereTeli uyeneb-
da piesas da speqtakls. amitomac werda igi molieris komediebis `colis SerTve-
vinebasa~ da `Zalad eqimis~ dadgmis gamo: `madloba RmerTs, rom bolos mainc gve-
Rirsa imisTana suraTis naxva, romelic cxovrebis sinamdviles cxadad warmog-
vidgens~.1 es bunebrivi da gasagebicaa, radganac igi yovelTvis amodis xelovnebis
realisturi Teoriis ZiriTadi principebidan.
g. wereTeli qarTuli scenidan STamagonebeli qarTuli sityvis gagonebas
moiTxovda— sityvas RrmaSinaarsiansa da moxdenili formis Semcvels, metyvele-
bas didi emociebis mqones, romelic mayurebels ganuviTarebda maRal gemovnebas,
gauRvivebda mSobliuri enis pativiscemas, siyvaruls da aRuZravda patriotul
grZnobas.
g. wereTlis mzrunvel damokidebulebas qarTuli Teatrisadmi, miswrafebas
misdami asuldgmulebda ara marto rwmena imisa, rom Teatri xalxis gaTviTcno-
bierebisa da aRzrdis saSualebaa, aramed isic, rom scena amaRlebs erovnul
grZnobas, xels uwyobs qarTuli enis daxvewas, gamarTuli saliteraturo enis
damkvidrebas. g. wereTels qarTuli scena erovnuli kulturis ganviTarebis,
axali azrebis danergvisa da dedaenis Rirsebis dacvis faqtorad miaCnda. qar-
Tuli metyvelebis bunebriobis dacvas, gamoTqmis Snosa da lazaTs igi xedavda
`namdvili qarTuli kilos gamoTqmaSi~ — intonaciaSi, rac varaudobda ucxo gav-
lenis acilebas, qarTuli enis siwmindis dacvas, gamoTqmis bunebriobis SenarCu-
nebas, metyvelebis literaturul gaformebas.
g. wereTeli TiTqmis yvela recenziaSi aqcevda yuradRebas enis sakiTxs. am
SemTxvevaSi mas ainteresebda sakiTxis ori mxare: a) rogori eniTaa dawerili

1
`droeba~, 1866, 11.
146
originaluri piesa da, Tu naTargmnia, rogoraa Targmnili; b) rogor ismis aqti-
oris metyveleba scenidan. amgvari moTxovnisa da Sefasebis mraval SemTxvevaTa
Soris davasaxelebT g. wereTlis recenzias a. sumbaTaSvilis dramis — `borki-
lis~ dadgmis gamo. am recenziaSi vkiTxulobT: `raica Seexeba qarTul Targmans,
ena SemuSavebulia da namdvili qarTuli kiloc ara aqvs. TviT moTamaSeebsac
vurCevT sityvebi Tanaswori xmis dakvriT gamoTqvan da dabolovebas nu hkveca-
ven~. qarTuli gamoTqmis bunebriobis dacvisa da damaxasiaTebeli intonaciis
SenarCunebisaTvis g. wereTeli ar erideba msaxiobTa swavlebasa da darigebas,
rom `qarTul enas ufro Svenis Tanasworad xmis dakvra da gamoTqma sityvebisa~.
cxadia, enobrivi faqti, metyvelebis gamarTuloba umniSvnelovanes rols
asrulebs, rogorc gagebinebis ZiriTadi saSualeba, magram scenaze mas unda mo-
vepyraT rac SeiZleba frTxilad, faqizad. scenidan unda ismodes sasiamovno
qarTuli metyveleba, gamarTuli qarTuli sityva.

***

Teatris ideuri gzis gansazRvrisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs reper-


tuars. nacionaluri Teatris Sinaarss qmnis nacionaluri repertuari. erovnu-
li dramaturgiis gareSe ver iarsebebs sisxlsavse Teatri da ver moaxdens saWi-
ro gavlenas xalxis sulieri cxovrebis ganviTarebaze.
g. wereTels gadaudebel amocanad miaCnda mtkice qarTuli repertuaris
Seqmna. mwerlis aseTi Sexeduleba ganpirobebuli iyo qarTuli esTetikuri az-
rovnebis xasiaTiT. xelovneba da literatura xalxisa da eris samsaxurSia; maSa-
sadame, Teatri da repertuari am saqmes unda emsaxurebodes. raki Cveni cxovre-
bis gamomsaxvel sityvakazmul mwerlobas, Teatrsa da speqtakls aqvs didi maor-
ganizebeli, esTetikuri, SemecnebiTi, socialuri da patriotuli mniSvneloba,
cxadia, gamarTlebulia g. wereTlis moTxovna — realisturi dramaturgia, rea-
listuri repertuari.
mtkice da saimedo safuZveli, romelsac unda emyarebodes Teatri, g. wereT-
lis azriT, esaa saerTod mSobliuri dramatuli literatura, erovnuli reper-
tuari. am principiT g. wereTeli icavs erovnuli repertuaris arsebiT upirate-
sobas Teatris saerTo repertuarSi: `gveyo amdeni gadmokeTebuli da ucxo xal-
xebis cxovrebidan aRebuli drama-komediebis cqera, — ayalibebs Tavis Tvalsaz-
riss am sakiTxze g. wereTeli, — Cveni sazogadoeba imaTgan verafers dids maga-
liTebsa da STabeWdilebebs veRar gamoitans, radgan ucxo cxovreba erTob da-
Sorebulia Cvens Sinagan yofa mdgomareobaze da xalxi im warmodgenebs ufro ise
uyurebs, rogorc ubralo gasarTobs da dros gasatarebels rame TamaSobas.
qarTul scenas am SemTxvevaSi ekargeba Tavisi umaRlesi mniSvneloba: is aRar
aris eris zne-Cveulebis sawvrTneli skola~. maSasadame, qarTul Teatrs ufro
meti saaRmzrdelo da mecnierul Zalas aniWebs nacionaluri repertuari, am
ukanasknelSi gamoCndeba xolme xalxis yofa-cxovreba, qveynis socialuri viTa-
reba, eris patriotuli miswrafeba.
g. wereTeli winaaRmdegi araa, rom ucxouri maRalmxatvruli dramatuli
Txzuleba Setanil iqnes Cvens repertuarSi da daidgas qarTul scenaze, zogjer
am faqts Zalian did mniSvnelobasac aniWebs, magram pirveli moTxovnilebis au-
cilebel saqmed is Tvlis qarTuli Zlieri repertuaris Seqmnas. g. wereTels
Rrmad aqvs Segnebuli erovnuli repertuaris fasdaudebeli mniSvneloba mayu-
rebelze ideuri da emociuri zegavlenis sicxovelis TvalsazrisiT. swored
amis gamo werda igi: `Cveni cxovrebidan aRebuli suraTi da saxioba, rac unda
naklovaneba hqondes mas, mainc ufro eintereseba qarTvel mayurebels, vidre na-
Targmnebi, gansakuTrebiT axlandel garemoebaSi, roca operaSi siaruli modad
147
gamxdara, qarTveli mayurebeli ase fiqrobs: ucxo qveynis repertuaridan na-
Targmnis cqeras, iseve operebSi wasvla mirCevniao da originaluri piesebis Se-
saxeb ki amas ver ityvis, radganac rac unda iyos, Cveni cxovrebis suraTebis sce-
naze dadgma axalsa da Tavisebur rasme mainc warmogvidgens~.
g. wereTeli ramdenime dramatuli Txzulebis avtoria. maT Soris komedia
`jibri~ daibeWda 1871 wlis Jurnal `krebulis~ meore wignSi, xolo dramebi —
`ojaxis asuli~ da `dari~ ar dabeWdila. g. wereTlis rogorc gamoqveynebuli,
ise gamouqveynebeli piesebi oTxmocian wlebSi xSirad idgmeboda qarTuli Teat-
ris scenaze da misi repertuaris xarvezis mniSvnelovan Sevsebas warmoadgenda.
Tavisi droisaTvis am nawarmoebebs qarTuli Teatri garkveuli interesiT eki-
deboda, magram am dramatul nawarmoebebs dRes qarTuli scenisaTvis mxolod
istoriuli mniSvneloba aqvs.
qarTuli Teatris repertuaris gasamdidreblad g. wereTeli Targmnida ag-
reTve sazRvargareTuli dramatuli mwerlobis saukeTeso nimuSebs. am mxriv
gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis Rirsia Sileris `vilhelm teli~, romlis erTi na-
wilis (scena meore) Targmani daibeWda jer kidev 1868 wlis `droebaSi~.
g. wereTlis Teoriul-esTetikur Sexedulebebs, calkeul mosazrebebs Tu
SeniSvnebs Teatris Sesaxeb dResac ar daukargavs saerTo cxovelmyofeloba,
garkveuli mecnieruli da praqtikuli interesi.

***

g. wereTlis mdidar literaturul memkvidreobaze sruli warmodgena rom


gvqondes, unda vicnobdeT misi Semoqmedebis erT mxaresac — esaa g. wereTlis da-
mokidebuleba saqarTvelos did warsulTan. am damokidebulebis xasiaTis gasar-
kvevad saWiroa zogadad mainc gaviTvaliswinoT: 1. g. wereTlis daintereseba sa-
qarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebiT; 2. g. wereTeli, rogorc qarTuli literatu-
ris istorikosi, Teoretikosi, kritikosi, Cveni didi mwerlobis damfasebeli;
3. g. wereTlis urTierToba xalxur sityvierebasTan.
g. wereTlis samwerlo niWi, mravalmxrivi sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis Sina-
arsi, samSoblos samsaxuris grZnoba, patriotuli ganwyobilebis Seunelebeli
siTbo gamsWvalulia saqarTvelos didi warsulis Seswavlisa da popularizaci-
is, qarTveli xalxis awmyosTvis brZolisa da samSoblos momavlis Rrma rwmenis
keTilSobiluri ideebiT.
qarTveli xalxis kulturuli warsulis SeswavliT dainteresebul g. were-
Tels Rrmad aqvs Segnebuli: `...rom axali, Zvelis Seuswavlelad, fesvebdaWrili
xea, saTamaSod miwazed dayenebuli. gava ramdenime dRe da am xes foTlebi uWkne-
ba, scviva; TviT xe fuRurovdeba da male matlebi daxraven. romel xalxsac surs
Tavisi ieri SeinarCunos, Tavisi vinaoba darCes, is usaTuod unda CaRrmavdes da
gaicnos Tavisi istoriuli zrda~. g. wereTlis am xatovan TqmaSi didad sagulis-
xmo azria Caqsovili. g. wereTeli eris kulturis istorias uyurebs rogorc
ganviTarebis jaWvs, gapirobebuls obieqturi garemoebiT, istoriuli kanonzo-
mierebiT. movlenebis ganviTarebis axsnas eZebs mizezisa da Sedegis Sesabamiso-
baSi. am Sesabamisobis dadgenis SesaZleblobis safuZvelze cdilobs istoriuli
procesis xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebas. am saxelmZRvanelo principiT igi dgeba mec-
nieruli kvlevis marTebul gzaze. am niadagze miuTiTebs, rom `...xalxis cxovre-
bis keTil-warmatebis gamsazRvreli aris mravali xniT misi istoriuli cxovre-
bis nayofi, da ara kacis Zalas ageTi biji ar SeuZlian sazogadoebaSi rom moax-
dinos~. rogoria pirovnebis urTierToba am procesTan da ra rolis Sesruleba
SeuZlian mas? g. wereTeli am kiTxvaze pasuxobs: `TiToeuli piris cxovreba im-
gvarad aris SekavSirebuli mTel sazogadoebis cxovrebasTan, rom arc SeuZlian
misi zemoqmedebisagan Tavi ixsnas, arc misgan gacalkdes da arc maszed amaR-
148
ldes... misi gamWriaxoba da Rvawli, rogorc sazogadoebis win, agreTve STamo-
mavlobis win fasdeba, Tu ramdenad ucvnia imas es faqti... an Tu ra mxriT waru-
marTavs is, rom rogorme am faqts SesZleboda cxovrebisaTvis moetana imdeni
keTili, ramdenic misgan iyo SesaZlo~.
g. wereTlis azriT, istoriis Semoqmedi xalxia, magram gamorCeul pirovne-
bebs SeuZliaT warmatebiT Seuwyon xeli saqveyno saqmes. g. wereTels saqarTve-
los gmiruli warsulisa da kulturuli Zlierebis Cveneba sWirdeba, rogorc
safuZveli qveynis Tanamedroveobis ganwyobilebis asamaRleblad, ukeTesi mo-
mavlis SeqmnisaTvis, xalxis sabrZolo imedisa da rwmenis gasamtkiceblad. am
mizniT mwerals ainteresebs qarTveli xalxis SemoqmedebiTi Zalis sidiadis ga-
momsaxveli cxovrebis yvela sfero.

***

g. wereTels, upirveles yovlisa, is afiqrebda, rom saqarTvelos istoriis


wyaroebi, kulturis Zeglebi da masalebi mecnierul wesrigSi ar iyo moyvanili
da rom xalxma cota ram icoda Tavisi warsulis Sesaxeb. g. wereTlis istoriuli
Sromebis ara marto ganxilva, aramed saTauris CamoTvlac ki sakmaod naTel war-
modgenas miscemda mkiTxvels imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori interesiT ekideboda igi
mSobliuri qveynis istorias.
g. wereTlis kalams ekuTvnis oTxmocamde monografiuli Sroma, statia da
werili saqarTvelos istoriis, materialuri kulturis, arqeologiisa da eT-
nografiis Tu xalxis adaTisa da wes-Cveulebis sakiTxebze.
yovelive amas Tu davumatebT g. wereTlis cnobil naSromebs, romlebic dai-
beWda moskovis saimperio arqeologiuri sazogadoebisa da aRmosavleTis komi-
siis SromebSi, romlebmac sayovelTao aRiareba pova maSindel mecnierul wreeb-
Si, rogorc didi mecnieruli mniSvnelobis gamokvlevebma, maSin cxadi gaxdeba
mwerlis didi damsaxureba saqarTvelos mdidari warsulis Seswavlis saqmeSi. g.
wereTlis aseTi nayofieri muSaoba am dargSi miuTiTebs imaze, rom igi organu-
lad iyo dainteresebuli saqarTvelos saxelovani warsulis SeswavliT. rasak-
virvelia, interess didi da zogjer gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs, magram, amas-
Tan erTad, farTo ganaTleba, erudicia da dauRalavi Sroma mwerals gzas uka-
favda saqarTvelos didi istoriis Sesaswavlad, mis gamosamzeureblad.
g. wereTeli ara marto TviTon aqveynebda masalebs saqarTvelos warsulze,
aramed aRtacebiT egebeboda yovel axal gamokvlevas am dargSi. sagangebo aRniS-
vnis Rirsia 1880 wlis `droebis~ #17 da 19-Si dabeWdili misi vrceli recenzia
dim. baqraZis naSromze `mirian mefe da wminda nino~. aRfrTovanebuli recenzen-
ti maRal Sefasebas aZlevs aRniSnul gamokvlevas, rogorc didi Rirebulebis
mecnierul monografias da xazs usvams mis patriotul mniSvnelobas. aseTive
mowonebiT ekideboda mari broses, al. xaxanaSvilisa da sxvaTa damsaxurebas, rac
araerTxel gamouxatavs beWdurad Tu sityvierad.
saqarTvelos uZvelesi kulturis evropisaTvis gacnobis gzad rusuli pre-
sa iTvleboda. am saSualebas mizandasaxulad iyenebda g. wereTeli. igi usayve-
durebs qarTvelobas, rom Tavisi warsulis qveynis gareT gatanis saqmisaTvis Se-
darebiT cotas zrunavs. erT Tavis werilSi g. wereTeli gvamcnobs: `evropis ga-
naTlebuli erebi TandaTan did yuradRebas aqceven kavkasias da kavkasiis nia-
dagze uZveles droidan dabinavebul erebs. maT Soris pirveli adgili uWiravs
kulturuli mxriT qarTvelebs~. magram, askvnis is, Cven ver viCenT fxas, ver vaw-
vdiT saTanado masalaso. evropeli mecnierebis am dainteresebas gamoyeneba un-
da qarTuli kulturis farTod gacnobisaTvis, popularizaciisaTvis, magram
vinRaa gamkiTxavi. Tavadaznauroba fuqsavatur cxovrebas eweva, mamulebis ga-
yidviTa da udardeli cxovrebiTaa garTuli, inteligencia xelmoklea, lukma-
149
purs Zlivs Soulobs, amitomac ar SeuZlia `win miegebos evropis mecnierTa saqe-
bur guliswadils Cveni qveynis gacnobisaTvis. gahyves mas, auxsnas Cveni warsu-
li, naSTi Cveni istoriuli cxovrebisa~. g. wereTels gadaudebel saWiro saqmed
miaCnia, rom Cvenma sakredito dawesebulebebma gaiRon fuli, gauwion finansuri
daxmareba qveynis saqmis mcodne kacebs, rom maT masalebi da cnobebi miawodon
evropel mecnierebs, rac gamoiwvevda saqarTvelos saxelis Sors gatanas.
mwerali miuTiTebs im garemoebazedac, rom zogi qveynis warmomadgenelni
axerxeben msoflioSi gaitanon TavianTi qveynis kulturuli monapovari, Cven ki
ver mogvixerxebia. isini Tbili mopyrobiT, saWiro zrunviT, cnobebis droulad
miwodebiT imsaxureben ucxoel mecnierTa yuradRebas, iwveven aqeT, inadireben
maT guls, aCveneben yvela masalas da amiT gadian msoflio arenaze.
saWiroa gadavdgaT gabeduli da mtkice nabijebi. gavacnoT Cveni qveynis si-
diade evropis gamoCenil mecnierebsa da xalxebs, msoflios mivawodoT cnobebi
da masalebi Cven did warsulze. yovelive amisTvis gvWirdeba saxsrebi, mondome-
ba. saxsrebi gaiRon SeZlebulebma, mondomeba xalxma da inteligenciam unda ga-
moiCinos — aseTia mwerlis patriotuli survili.
g. wereTlis azri da goneba qarTvelologiuri saqmis yvela sferos swvdeba.
igi ara marto ukmayofiloa, aramed wuxs kidevac, rom Cveni qveynis warsulisa da
awmyos Sesaswavlad ara gvaqvs saWiro rukebi, igi wers: `amasTanave ar SemiZlian
mwuxarebiT ar vTqvaT, jer aqamde qarTul enaze aramc Tu rigiani, sulac ara gva-
qvs geografiuli karta~. es saqme isea miSvebuli, rom `yovel gonier kacs ewyine-
ba~. ra vqnaT am didi xarvezis Sesavsebad? mwerlis azriT, saqmis mosagvareblad
droulad unda daviwyoT mzadeba, moqmedeba, rom SevqmnaT pirveli rigis saWiro
rukebi. g. wereTeli wers: `dro aris SevudgeT dawvrilebiTs Seswavlas Cveni qvey-
nisas. amisaTvis aucileblad saWiroa Sesdges qarTuli geografiuli sazogadoe-
ba, romelmac Tavisi moqmedeba jer kartebis gamocemiT unda daiwyos~.1
saqarTvelos warsuliT daintereseba, Cveni eris istoriis sakiTxebis damu-
Saveba da amiT mowinave kulturuli erebis planSi moqceva Cveni samocianelebis
saerTo sazrunavi iyo. Tu ra aris eris istoria, ra adgili ukavia da ra mniSvne-
loba aqvs mas eris cxovrebaSi, amis Sesaxeb ilia WavWavaZe mogviTxrobs: `...isto-
ria igi didebuli taZaria, saca uwiravs erTians sulsa erisasa da saca aRumar-
Tavs ers Tavis didebul da didbunebovan kacTa uwmindesni xatni da zed waruwe-
ria didTa saqmeTa moTxroba, viTa saSviliSvilo anderZi... did-bunebovan kacTa
da saxelovan gmirTa magaliTebiT istoria swurTnis ersa, zrdis da didebuli
saqmeni kidev guls ukeTeben moqmedebisaTvis, aqezeben, amxneveben, Tu nametna-
vad is magaliTebi eris sakuTari istoriisani arian~.
g. wereTlis damsaxureba isaa, rom man jer kidev adre, sanam frTas gaSlida
ilias `iveria~, `droebasa~ da `krebulSi~ daayena es sakiTxi. amitomac saqarTve-
los didi warsulis SeswavlisaTvis aqtiur moRvaweobaSi g. wereTeli erTi pir-
velTagania.
g. wereTeli qarTuli mwerlobis didi moWirnaxulea. rodesac g. wereTelze
vmsjelobT, Cvens yuradRebas ipyrobs mwerlis mier gamocemuli ramdenime wig-
ni, statia da werili qarTul mwerlobaze, qarTvel mwerlebze.
1870 wels g. wereTelma, n. berZeniSvilsa da p.umikaSvilTan erTad gamosca d.
guramiSvilis TxzulebaTa krebuli `daviTiani~. am gamocemis vrcel winasityva-
obaSi mwerali gulistkiviliT aRniSnavs, rom Cveni didi mwerlobis saukeTeso
nimuSebi jer kidev xelmiuwvdomelia farTo mkiTxveli sazogadoebisaTvis da
rom saamayo warsulsa da umdidres mxatvrul literaturaze xalxs arasruli
warmodgena aqvs.

1
`kvali~, 1895, 20.
150
`daviTianis~ winasityvaobaSi metad sayuradRebo mosazrebania gamoTqmuli
rogorc literaturis istoriis, aseve literaturis Teoriis rTul problemeb-
ze. g. wereTeli akeTebs istoriul eqskurss, raTa mkiTxvel sazogadoebas garkve-
uli warmodgena misces saqarTvelos did warsulze, sakacobrio mniSvnelobis
mdidar qarTul literaturaze, kulturaze. mkvlevari maxvilgonierad uZebnis
axsnas Cveni mxatvruli literaturis sinamdvilesTan damokidebulebisa da Jan-
rebis ganviTarebis xasiaTs; sagangebod Cerdeba sakaro poeziasa da eposze.
rusTavelisa da `vefxistyaosnis~ sidiadis xazgasmisaTvis warmodgenilia li-
teraturuli motivisa da Sinaarsis zogadi Tu kerZo sakiTxebis axsna. g. wereTe-
li msjelobs literaturaTmcodneobisaTvis saintereso sakiTxze — miTsa da
zRaparSi warmodgenili sinamdvilis xasiaTze da am sakiTxis axsnas literaturis
sxva Janrebs ukavSirebs. `is veeba cxra Taviani devebi, is grZneuli kacebi, — wers
g. wereTeli, — romlebic xan vefxvad gadaiqcevian, xan frinvelebad; is uzarmaza-
ri veSapebi, romelTac piridan cecxli amouquxT da piri Tu daaRes mTels so-
fels da qalaqs gadaylapaven — sul bunebis movleniT SeSinebuli kacis gonebis
monaWoria~.1 miTisa da zRapris am Tvisebis axsna ueWvelad sworia. magram CvenTvis
didi mniSvnelobis faqti isaa, rom es ganmarteba garkveul mizans emsaxureba da
gamoyenebulia rusTavelis genialuri qmnilebis sidiadis maCveneblad. miTiuro-
bis principis axsnidan gamomdinareobs sinamdvilis realisturi Cvenebis rusTa-
veluri gageba da g. wereTliseuli ganmarteba, rom `rusTavelma pirvelad poezi-
iT daanaxa saqarTvelos ers, rom bunebaSi saSiSi ar aris ra. is Tavis mravalfe-
rovnebiT kacis gonebis dasaCagravad ki ara, imis sawvrTnelad aris gaCenili~.
rusTavelisa da `vefxistyaosnis~ maxvilgonieri daxasiaTebisa da aRorZinebis
xanis mwerlobis mokle ganxilviT mkvlevari miiCqaris d.guramiSvilis poeziisa-
ken. igi gviCvenebs literaturul, kulturul da sazogadoebriv fons, raTa d.gu-
ramiSvili naTlad warmogvidginos qarTuli kulturis didi memkvidreobisa da
maRalpoeturi metyvelebis saxelovani tradiciis brwyinvale da originalur
gamgrZeleblad. am mizniT g. wereTeli qarTuli literaturis saTaveebidan ake-
Tebs eqskurss `vefxistyaosnamde~, ixilavs aRorZinebis xanis mwerlobas da Cer-
deba d. guramiSvilze. aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom mkvlevriseuli aseTi mimo-
xilva mkiTxvels zogadad acnobs qarTul literaturas da kulturul warsuls.
meore mxriv igi qmnis winapirobas guramiSvilis poeziis gagebisaTvis, misi mniSvne-
lobis garkvevisaTvis. marTalia, qarTuli poeziis gvirgvinad mas `vefxistyaosani~
miaCnia, magram aqve warmoaCens im noyier niadags, romelzedac unda gafurCqniliyo
S. rusTavelis poeturi genia. analogiuri fonia warmosaxuli d. guramiSvilis poe-
ziis sididis Sesaqmnelad da naCvenebia, Tu ra niadagi aciskrovnebs d. guramiSvi-
lis poetur niWs.
g. wereTlis azriT, d. guramiSvilis didi poeturi Zalis sxivosnoba imaSia,
rom mas aqvs didi realisturi Sinaarsi. `guramiSvilis TxzulebebSi moWorili
ara aris ra. avtori rasac ambobs, sul misi TvaliT danaxuli da gamocdilia. is
Zalas ar atans Tavisi azris gamoxatvas~. saqarTvelos awewil-dawewilma mdgo-
mareobam ganapiroba d. guramiSvilis piradi bedi da poeziis Sinaarsi. magram ma-
mulis siyvaruliT gamsWvalulma poetma piraduli interesebi saqveyno sam-
sxverploze miitana.
g. wereTeli ara marto ikvlevs, afasebs da axasiaTebs qarTveli xalxis saxe-
lovan warsuls, mis kulturas, mwerlobas, aramed kidevac icavs mas yovelgvari
Tavdasxmisa da Semotevisagan.

1
`daviTiani~, 1870, gv. VII.
151
***

mecxramete saukunis meore naxevris saqarTveloSi Seqmnili literaturuli da-


jgufebebis, anu dasebis Camoyalibebisa da saqmianobis Sinaarsis gasaTvaliswineb-
lad g. wereTeli gvawvdis sayuradRebo cnobebsa da mosazrebebs. g. wereTeli werda:
`1890 wlidan dahbera kvlav axalma progresulma siom. qarTul literaturaSi gamoC-
nda araCveulebrivi mimarTulebis TiTo orola axalgazrda, romelmac Tavi iCina
`kvalSi~ 1893 w. Taviseburi programiT. eseni arian ekonomiuri materializmis Teo-
riis mimdevarni~.1
g. wereTelma mis mier SemCneulsa da monaTlul axaldaselebs farTod gau-
Ro `kvalis~ karebi da amiT maT misca SesaZlebloba es popularuli gazeTi gamo-
eyenebinaT axali azrebisa da miswrafebis gasavrceleblad. mweralma guliT
uTanagrZno mesame dass.
g. wereTlis mesame dasisadmi damokidebulebis sakiTxma literaturul kri-
tikaSi imTaviTve gamoiwvia azrTa sxvadasxvaoba. erTni g. wereTelSi marqsists
xedavdnen, meoreni — Ria gulis maspinZels, romelmac xelgaSlilad miiRo isini
`kvalSi~ da sxv. TviTon giorgim mwvaved Seutia k. abaSiZes im mosazrebis gamo,
rom g. wereTeli mesamedaselebma moarjules, gadaibireso da sxv. am niadagze
mweralma k. abaSiZes Cveni literaturuli cxovrebis istoriis ucodinarobaze
miuTiTa. g. wereTeli ideurad axlo grZnobda Tavs mesame daselebTan, arc mar-
qsiszmSi iyo gaurkveveli, Tumca, marqsisti ar yofila. igi mxolod samocianel-
Ta Soris ufro radikaluri miswrafebisa da ganwyobilebis gamomxatveli iyo.
g. wereTlis, rogorc mwerlisa da sazogado moRvawis, originalobasa da Ta-
viseburebas qmnis misTvis Cveuli siaxlis grZnoba — cxovrebis ganviTarebis
perspeqtivis danaxva, rom axali, mowinave azrebi da ganwyobileba magnitiviT
izidavs mis sulsa da guls. g. wereTlis cxovrebis istoria — studentobis pirve-
li dReebidan moyolebuli sicocxlis ukanasknel wuTamde — siaxlisken ltolvi-
sa da miswrafebis mkafio gamoxatulebaa. cxovrebis ganviTarebiT gamowveuli axa-
li moTxovnilebis pasuxis gacemis saWiroebiT aris gapirobebuli yovelTvis g.
wereTlis yofna mowinave ideebis saTaveebTan.
farTo ganaTlebis mqone mwerlis, Jurnalistis, publicistis, istorikosis,
arqeologis, literaturaTmcodnis da ekonomistis nayofieri kalami Rrmad
wvdeboda samSoblo qveynis interesTa sxvadasxva mxares.
unda SevniSnoT, rom g. wereTlis sicocxleSi calke wignad gamoica mxolod mi-
si ramdenime mxatvruli nawarmoebi da erTi krebuli or tomad 1893 wels; mwerlis
aseTma daudevrobam sakuTari literaturuli memkvidreobisadmi daazarala mwe-
ralica da mkiTxveli sazogadoebac. Tumc yvelas sjeroda, rom Zvirfasia g. wereT-
lis literaturuli memkvidreoba; amas aRniSnavda presa, literaturuli kritika,
calkeuli mkiTxveli, magram misi Txzulebebis gamocemis saqme mainc ver mogvarda.
g. wereTlis saflavTan warmoTqmul sityvaSi akaki SeniSnavda: `mova dro, rodesac
sazogado moRvaweebs sakuTari SegnebiT da ara sxvebis xmis ayoliT daafaseben da
maSin giorgis nawerebis sidiade, sikeTe gaakvirvebs yvelas~.
g. wereTlis mravali werilia dabeWdili qarTul da rusul presaSi fsevdo-
nimiTa da xelmouwerlad. fsevdonimebi ZiriTadad amoxsnilia, magram gamour-
kvevelia bevri xelmouwereli werili.
g. wereTlis mravalricxovani fsevdonimebidan davasaxelebT zogierTs:
g.-Teli — aseTi xelmoweriT g. wereTelma 1863 wels Jurnal `saqarTvelos mo-
ambeSi~ moaTavsa cnobili werili `ciskars ra akakanebda?~. amave fsevdonimiT aqvey-
nebda igi Tavis nawarmoebebs `droebaSi~, `krebulsa~ da `kvalSi~.

1
`kvali~, 1897, 46.
152
Teli — `droebasa~ da `saxalxo gazeTSi~.
g. goriseli — `droebaSi~, `krebulSi~, `kvalSi~.
`krebulis~ mkiTxveli, X, XX da imereli — gazeT `droebaSi~.
krazanasa da damswres fsevdonimiT `droebaSi~ daibeWda ramdenime werili
da agreTve zogierTi leqsi.
g. w. — am fsevdonimiT aTavsebda nawarmoebs `iveriasa~ da `kvalSi~;
g-eli; g.-li; XX-eli; damswre; X-eli; mazakvali — fsevdonimebiT ibeWdebo-
da `kvalSi~.
g. wereTlis mier fsevdonimebi umTavresad gamoyenebuli iyo JurnalistikaSi,
magram aris SemTxvevebi, roca igi xelmouwerlad an fsevdonimiT aqveynebda mxat-
vrul nawarmoebebsac. magaliTad, `mgzavris wignebi~ xelmouwerlad daibeWda
`droebaSi~, `krebulSi~ ki — xelmoweriT.
g. wereTlis fsevdonimebSi yvelaze xSirad gvxvdeba mwerlis saxelTan da
gvarTan dakavSirebuli Semoklebebi da inicialebi, xolo rusul Jurnalistika-
Si amJamad cnobili fsevdonimebi mwerlis saxelisa da gvaris Sekvecidan momdi-
nareobs da warmodgenilia inicialebiT. rusul presaSi dabeWdil statiebs g.
wereTeli xels awerda: Г. Церетели, Церетели. Г. Ц. es ukanaskneli inicialebi ufro
metad gvxvdeba "Тифлисский Вестник"-Si.

***

g. wereTlis mravalmxrivi moRvaweobis Sinaarss mSobliuri qveynis didi siy-


varulis grZnoba aTbobda. saxelovani mwerali gardacvalebamde dauRalavad
emsaxureboda xalxis Tavisuflebis interesebs, naklebad zrunavda piradi
mdgomareobis uzrunvelsayofad.
g. wereTlis maRali miswrafeba sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba da Semoqmedebi-
Ti muSaoba iyo. mwerlis am midrekilebam imTaviTve iCina Tavi da studentobis
pirveli dReebidanve iwyo saqveyno saqmeebisaTvis fiqri da moqmedeba. es fiqri
da zrunva qveynis sikeTisaTvis, axali da progresuli ideebiT ganaTebuli, ara-
sodes Senelebia mas da samSoblos saqmis Tavkaci iyo yovelTvis. dauSreteli
energia, moZravi buneba, romantikuli gataceba, siaxlis grZnoba, moqmedebis
cxoveli interesi, romelic keTilSobiluri maRali ideebiT iyo gamiznuli, bo-
lomde SerCa did mwerals.
eris bedis gulSematkivari, mravalmxrivi nayofieri SromiT daqanculi moR-
vawe da saxelovani mwerali g. wereTeli gardaicvala 1900 wlis 12 ianvars, 58 wlis
asakSi.
g. wereTlis gardacvalebas qarTveli xalxi ganuzomeli mwuxarebiT Sexvda.
qarTuli da araqarTuli presa gulistkiviliT aRniSnavda am samwuxaro ambavs.
qarTulma dramatulma sazogadoebam glovis niSnad Teatris kari daxura, war-
modgenebi gadado, `kvalma~ rvagverdiani ori specialuri nomeri miuZRvna g. we-
reTlis gardacvalebasa da dakrZalvas.
g. wereTlis gardacvalebis gamo `iveria~ werda: `Zneli warmosadgenia qarTve-
li kaci, mcodne qarTuli wera-kiTxvisa, rom gansvenebulis g. wereTlis saxeli ar
gaegos, saxeli im kacisa, romelmac am ocdaaTi wlis (1862 w.) winaT aRapyro xeli Ta-
visi niWieri kalmiT da sikvdilamde Tavi ar gaunebebia mwerlobisaTvis. arc erTi
Jurnali, gazeTi ar dabadebula qarTul enaze, rom gansvenebuls giorgis mWrelis
maxvilisa da madlianis kalmiT daxmareba da Semweoba ar aRmoeCinos~.
g. wereTlis gardacvalebis xma moedo rogorc saqarTvelos, aseve kavkasiasa
da ruseTs. uamravi depeSa modioda qveynis sxvadasxva kuTxidan. depeSebi iyo ev-
ropidanac. mwuxarebas gamoxatavdnen ara marto qarTvelebi, aramed sxvadasxva
153
erovnebis warmomadgenlebic. depeSaTa Soris iyo ingliseli mwerlisa da sazo-
gado moRvawis, qarTuli kulturisa da qarTveli xalxis didi pativismcemlis
marjori uordropis depeSa. depeSebi imdenad bevri yofila, rom `kvali~ werda:
`yvela depeSis dabeWdvas mTeli nomeri moundebodao~.
i. WavWavaZis `iveriam~ g. wereTlis gardacvalebis gamo nekrologi mowinave
werilad misca, riTac gulistkiviliT auwyebda sazogadoebas didi mwerlis
gardacvalebas. am werilSi g. wereTeli daxasiaTebulia, rogorc mxatvruli
sityvis ostati da uangaro erovnuli moamage. `iveriaSi~ vkiTxulobT: `mesamoce
wlebis mraval moRvawe mweralTa saukeTeso gunds erTi, Cveni Raribi litera-
turis didi moWirnaxule wevri kidev gamoaklda. didis mwuxarebiT vacnobebT
mkiTxvelebs, rom guSin, oTxSabaTs, 12 ianvars, nasadilevis 4 saaTsa da 15 wuTs,
tfilisSi xangrZlivi avadmyofobis Sedegad gardaicvala Cveni mwerlobis erT-
erTi deda-boZTagani giorgi eqvTimes-Ze wereTeli~.1
`iveriam~ wereTlis dasaflavebis dRes, mwerlis xsovnis aRsaniSnavad, kvlav
mowinave miuZRvna. ilia da misi organos TanamSromlebi cxadad grZnobdnen im da-
nakliss, rac qarTulma mwerlobam ganicada. ai, ras vkiTxulobT am mowinaveSi: `Cven
pativsa vcemT cxedars im kacisas, romelic suliTa da guliT qarTveli iyo, ro-
melsac Tavisi erisa da qveynis sasikeToT hqonda guli aRZruli da Tavisis sazoga-
do moqmedebis sagnadac swored es erisa da qveynis sikeTe hqonda dasaxuli~.2
g. wereTlis dasaflavebis dRes, 16 ianvars, diliT, g. wereTlis cxedari bini-
dan qaSveTis eklesiaSi waasvenes. panaSvidis gadaxdis Semdeg xalxi didubisaken da-
iZra.
g. wereTlis kubosTan, didubeSi, pirveli sityva akakim warmoTqva: `Zvirfaso
amxanago, TanaSezrdilo da Tanave Seberebulo giorgi!~ — ase mimarTa akakim am did
moamages da Semdeg ase gaagrZela: `guli miRondeba, Tvalze cremli momdgomia da
tirils ki ver gibedav imitom, rom SenisTana gansvenebuls tirili ar SeSvenis~.
g. wereTlis gardacvalebas farTod gamoexmaura imJamindeli rusuli centra-
luri presac. am mxriv sainteresoa `Русские Ведомости", sadac daibeWda al. xaxanaSvi-
lis vrceli werili, romliTac daxasiaTebulia g. wereTlis damsaxureba mwerlo-
bisa da mecnierebis winaSe. xolo Tbilisurma rusulma presam didi qarTveli mwer-
lis gardacvaleba aRniSna ara marto gancxadebebiT, saerTo samgloviaro werile-
bisa da depeSebis moTavsebiT Tavis furclebze, aramed mwerlis pativiscema gamo-
xata imiTac, rom imave 1900 wels Targmna da dabeWda g. wereTlis moTxrobebi: `mami-
da asmaTi~, `mecxvaris naambobi~ da `Tofis srola~.
g. wereTlis gardacvalebas gamoexmaura inglisuri kvireuli gazeTi `Spec-
tator~, romelic 1900 wlis martis nomerSi aTavsebs cnobas g. wereTlis gar-
dacvalebis Sesaxeb, mimoxilulia misi moRvaweobac.
mowinave qarTveli inteligenciis TaosnobiT, 1900 welsve calke wignad ga-
moica g. wereTlis gardacvalebisa da dasaflavebisadmi miZRvnili krebuli, ro-
melSiac moTavsebulia mwerlis mokle biografia da TiTqmis yvela werili, leq-
si da sityva, Tqmuli Tu dawerili g. wereTlis gardacvalebis gamo.

1
`iveria~, 1900, 9.
2
iqve, 1900, 11.
154
giorgi wereTlis mxatvruli Semoqmedeba

farTo mxatvruli tiloebi

` mgzavris wignebi~. `mgzavris wignebi~, anu `kikoliki, Cikoliki da kudabzi-


ka~ mogzauruli Janris mxatvruli nawarmoebia. am Txzulebis pirveli oTxi Tavi
1867 wlis `droebam~ gamoaqveyna. rac Seexeba danarCen Tavebs, — mexuTe, 1870
wlis `droebis~ me-16 nomerSi, xolo meeqvse 22-e nomerSi daibeWda.
Janrulad Taviseburma da Tematikurad saintereso am nawarmoebma imTaviTve
miipyro sazogadoebis yuradReba da ori erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego Sexeduleba Se-
muSavda. erTni savsebiT uaryofdnen `mgzavris wignebis~ mxatvrul Rirebulebas,
meoreni maRal Sefasebas aZlevdnen mas.
1874 wels Zveli seminaristis fsevdonimiT gr. orbelianma `ciskarSi~ dabeWda
statia saTauriT `mgzavroba svaneTisaken g. w.~ da ganixila g. wereTlis `mgzavris
wignebi~. werilis Sesaval nawilSi gr. orbeliani werda: `me ar Sevexebi avtoris
ideasa, arc mis mimarTulebasa. me veZieb qarTuls moTxrobaSi mxolod qarTulis
enis siwmindesa~.1 aseTi dapirebis miuxedavad, gr. orbeliani nawarmoebis sxva mxa-
reebsac Seexo da Txzulebis vrclad ganxilvis Semdeg gaakeTa daskvna: `ara, es
mgzavroba aris raRac maxinji, dabadebuli avtoris gonebaSi! esoden Secdomile-
ba, esodeni ucodinaroba enisa, esodeni uazroba, rogor unda ipoebodes erTs pa-
tara TxzulebaSi~.2
poetma-kritikosma ugulebelyo nawarmoebis ideur-Sinaarseuli simaxvile,
xelaRebiT daiwuna g. wereTlis samwerlo ena da, amdenad, uaryo am nawarmoebis
ideur-esTetikuri mniSvneloba. marTalia, g. wereTeli uxvad xmarobda dialeq-
tizmebs, ar iyo daxvewili `mgzavris wignebis~ ena, magram savsebiT uaryofa am na-
warmoebisa ar iyo marTebuli. gr. orbeliani marTali iyo, roca calkeul sityvebs,
gramatikul formebs uwunebda g. wereTels, magram Tu mxolod calkeuli sityvebi-
sa da gramatikuli formebis mixedviT vimsjelebT, yuradRebas miipyrobs arqaizme-
bis uxvad gamoyeneba, romelic zogjer Zalian amZimebs da bundovans xdis Tavad
kritikosis metyvelebas.
raki gr. orbelianma `mgzavris wignebi~ ganixila ideur-Sinaarseul da mxat-
vruli mxareebis erToblivad warmodgenis gareSe, ver amoxsna Txzulebis Semec-
nebiTi da esTetikuri mTlianobis Sinaarsis WeSmariti buneba, amitom misi Sefa-
seba calmxrivi aRmoCnda.
arc anton furcelaZe yofila kargi Sexedulebisa g. wereTlis am nawarmoebze.
`mgzavris wignebi~ Seiqmna k.abaSiZis mcdari kritikuli Sexedulebis ganmsazRvre-
li, romliTac damcirebul iqna g. wereTlis samwerlo niWi. `g. wereTlis moTxro-
baSi, Tuki SeiZleba amgvar nawarmoebs moTxroba daerqvas, araks, naskvs ambavisas
aras dagidevsT~.3 k. abaSiZe ver gaerkva mogzauruli Janris nawarmoebis bunebaSi,
ver gaigo misi kompoziciuri xasiaTis Tavisebureba. sinamdvilis Cveneba mgzavro-
bis mxatvruli aRweriT, Janrulad imiT iyo saintereso, rom es xerxi mwerals aTavi-
suflebda kompoziciuri SezRudulobisagan, eZleoda farTo SesaZlebloba Txro-
baSi sasurveli pasaJebi Caesva, ideuri tendenciis gamomxatveli epizodebi CaerTo.
cdeboda didi poeti gr. orbeliani, cdeboda k. abaSiZec. orives Sexeduleba cal-
mxrivi da araobieqturi iyo.
mowinave qarTulma literaturulma kritikam imTaviTve daikava warmodgeni-
li Sexedulebis sawinaaRmdego pozicia. am mxriv sayuradReboa: n. nikolaZis, a.

1
`ciskari~, 1874, seqtemberi da oqtomberi.
2
iqve.
3
k . a b a S i Z e , etiudebi, t. II, 1912, gv. 47.
155
wereTlis, al. xaxanaSvilis da im droisaTvis cnobili sxva kritikosebisa da sa-
zogado moRvaweebis: Teofile xuskivaZis, xomlelis (r.fancxava), fxas (i.fancxa-
va) da sxvaTa Sexeduleba, romlebic maRal Sefasebas aZlevdnen am nawarmoebs da
saerTod g. wereTlis samwerlo niWs.
`mgzavris wignebi~ rom Zalian moewona sazogadoebas da siyvaruliT miiRo
is, amaze miuTiTebs cnobili sazogado moRvawisa da literaturis kritikosis n.
nikolaZis mier 1894 wels dabeWdili statia. igi werda: `roca am ocdaxuTi wlis
winaT mkiTxvelebSi TiTqmis imgvarive moZraoba Seiqna, rogoric cotaTi uwin
b-n ilia WavWavaZis `kacia-adamianma~ moaxdina. mgonia, cota ar aris amiT naTqva-
mi. mTelma sazogadoebam miaqcia yuradReba avtoris niWs. misi cxoveli suraTe-
bi, misi iumori, misi tipebi yvelas moswonda. `ucnobi ram gagvacno am kacmao~ —
ambobda Tu grZnobda mkiTxveli. didi imedebic dabada yvelaSi am bednierma da-
sawyisma. yvela eloda, ai, axali beletristi gauCnda Cvens mwerlobasao, fxiz-
lad da cocxlad metyveli Cveni qveynis cxovrebis ucnobi mxareebisa da sxv. im
dros — rogorc dResac — qarTuli beletristika mdidari rodi gaxldaT Sesa-
niSnavi, niWieri mSromelebiT. miT ufro saamo Seiqna qveynisaTvis am axali ta-
lantis asparezze gamosvla. yoveli axali xana misi `mgzavris wignisa~ axal aRta-
cebas, axal umaRles lodins da imedebs hbadebda~.1 es vrceli amonaweri, motani-
li n. nikolaZis statiidan, naTlad metyvelebs nawarmoebis maRal Rirsebaze, sa-
zogadoebis gulisxmier damokidebulebaze am Txzulebisadmi.
sazogadoebis interess nawarmoebisadmi aZlierebda sinamdvilis gadmocemis
iumoristuli toni, romelic ase emarjveba g. wereTels, da yovelgvari Seferade-
bis gareSe daxatuli Cveni qveynis duxWiri cxovreba, socialuri yofis mZafri su-
raTebi, batonymuri urTierTobisa da saqveyno cxovrebis sxva mankieri mxareebis
gakicxva.
g. wereTlis `mgzavris wignebSi~ aRwerilia mecxramete saukunis meore naxev-
ris saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi cxovreba, dasavleT saqarTvelos bunebis ko-
lorituli peizaJebi.
`mgzavris wignebis~ ideur-Sinaarseul mxareSi yuradRebas ipyrobs baton-
ymuri urTierTobis gakicxva, erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli ideis mxatvruli
gaRrmaveba, TviTmpyrobelobis, Cinovnikebisa da moxeleebis mxileba, angarebisa
da karieris moyvaruli inteligenciis Cveneba, qveynis momavlis Rrma rwmena.
nawarmoebSi naCvenebia Tavadaznaurobis daqveiTebuli mdgomareoba, glex-
kacobis duxWiri cxovreba, inteligenciis erTi nawilis ganwyobileba. `mgzavris
wignebis~ gmirTa saxeebi daxatulia reformamdeli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis
fonze; mZafradaa warmodgenili batonymobis gauqmebis molodinis gancdebi;
gadmocemulia glexkacobisa da TviT avtoris siZulvili batonymobisadmi. aR-
weril movlenebs mwerali warmogvidgens iumoristuli toniT. qarTuli lite-
raturis mkvlevari prof.al. xaxanaSvili `mgzavris wignebis~ Sesaxeb werda:
`...cocxali eniT dawerili `mgzavris wignebi~ anu `kikoliki, Cikoliki da kudab-
zika~ gesliani satiraa Tanamedrove uwesobaze~.2 nawarmoebSi TvalnaTladaa naC-
venebi batonymuri urTierTobis mier adamianis rogorc fizikuri, ise sulieri
gadagvareba. es Seexeba yvela wodebas.
movigonoT mwerlis mier daxatuli, `rumbiviT gasiebuli, jorze Sedebuli~
odiSeli mebatonis Tavad dazgas saxe da misi mxleblebi, fexSiSveli, dakonkili
msaxurebiTa da mwevar-meZebrebiT. Tavad dazgas daukargavs kacuri saxe; baton-
ymur urTierTobas cxovelur mdgomareobamde miuyvania, gadaugvarebia igi ro-
gorc fizikurad, aseve sulierad. g. wereTeli ramdenime StrixiT gvaZlevs mkafi-

1
`moambe~, 1894, 3.
2
a l . x a x a n a S v i l i , qarTuli sityvierebis istoria, 1918, gv. 226.
156
od daxatul dazgas saxes. dazga socialurad luarsab TaTqariZis axlo naTesa-
via. magram igi dasavluri variantia, Romisa da mWadis motrfiale. ai, rogor war-
mogvidgens mwerali odiSel Tavads: `mTidan CamoToxarikda erTi Tagvisodena Sa-
vi jori, romelzedac didi Zaris sisxo kaci Sedebuliyo~; avtori agrZelebs daz-
gas daxasiaTebas epiTetebiT, SedarebebiTa da metaforebiT. kikolas moridebul
SekiTxvaze `maTi brwyinvaleba dazga yvelis vaWariviT gaikriWa da meti ara sTqva
ra. is ijda gamoSterebuli, duqnis win. imis sveli Tvalebi da axirebuli Rimili
TiTqos mudam Tevzsa da Roms Setrfoden. magram me ki ar mjera, rom am pativcemu-
lis arsebis muceli marto Roms gaeberos ase saSinlad... imas ufro bevri mWadis
gundebi unda eylapa Tavis glexebisa sasuq indoursaviT~.1 dabolos, sainteresoa
dazgas suraTis damamTavrebeli detalebi, romelic asea warmodgenili: `brwyinva-
le dazgam moiTxova Tavisi jori da isev zed Seedo. sawyali jori kuds cxared ac-
macunebda, etyoboda, rom mZime tvirTiT saqme hqonda gaWirvebuli; gaWirvebis da-
samtkiceblad kudis ZirSi muzika daukra da waToxarikda~.
odiSeli Tavadi dazga, Tumca ramdenime StrixiT, magram sruladaa daxatu-
li. dazga warmoCenilia groteskul planSi, ar iqneba gadaWarbebuli, Tu vity-
viT, rom dazga gacilebiT dabla dgas adamianurad, vidre luarsabi. luarsabi
dazgasTan SedarebiT `moxdenil da maxvilgonier~ raindad moCans.
aseve daukargavT adamianuri individualoba ymebsac im ukacuri cxovrebis
pirobebis gamo, romelSic batonymobas Cauyenebia isini. bunebis simdidre, sim-
Sveniere araraobadaa qceuli maTTvis. amis gamo gaRatakebisa da gadagvarebis
gzaze Semdgara mosaxleoba. SimSils, siSiSvles, autanel siRaribes SemaZrwune-
bel mdgomareobamde dauqveiTebia xalxi. gulis siRrmeSi Camwvdomi siZlieriT
xatavs g. wereTeli autanlad mZime adamianuri cxovrebis suraTebs: `Tav-gadax-
dili wnelis qoxebi, waqceuli Robe, ferdmimxmari ZaRlebi, romelTac Cems mis-
vlaze ymuili Seqmnes da zeze ki ar wamodgen, albaT SimSilisagan weli ver aeT-
riaT, ori sami kiser-moxexili Rori qeciani goWebiT... bolos erTs dabRunZuls
da kar-gaRebuls qoxs mivadeqi. Sig axalgazrda qali perangis amara ijda da ga-
nis Caqebi iRliebamdis Sexeuli hqonda, ase rom gul-mkerdi sul erTianad mo-
titvlebuli uCanda. akvanSi srulebiT titvela bavSvi egdo da artaSnebis magiv-
rad baliSis CiTis nafleTebiT iyo Cakruli... ucxo kacis danaxvaze qalma Tavi
CaRuna da mxolod titvela mkerdis dafarvas apirebda perangis nafleTebiT,
magram erT ZuZus rom daifaravda, meore maSinve Tavs gamoyofda. gamovtrialdi
da sxva qoxs mivaSure. ezoSi sami rva-rva wlis pawawina qal-vaJi TamaSobdnen da
Tavidan fexamdis rac dedis muclidan ar dahyolodaT, imis meti ara ebadaT ra
tanze...roca im meore qoxSi Sevixede, erTi Rrma moxucebuli kaci damxvda. pe-
rangisa da SemofleTilis perangis amxanagis meti imasac ara ecva-ra~.2 rogorc
vxedavT, SemaZrwunebeli suraTia daxatuli.
iseve rogorc ilias, g. wereTels batonymoba qveynis ubedurebad miaCnda.
amitomac aCvena `mgzavris wignebSi~ dazgas, glexebisa da, saerTod, gapartaxebu-
li soflis suraTebi, romlebic `kacia-adamianis?!~ msgavsad TvalsaCinod gvisa-
xaven batonymobis damRupvel Sedegebs.
`mgzavris wignebis~ gmirTa Soris xatvis sisruliT yuradRebas ipyroben Ci-
koliki, kikoliki da kudabzika. samive es gmiri tipuria, magram kudabzika yvela-
ze srulad, mkafiod da damajereblad aris daxatuli.
kudabzika dakninebuli aznaurobis warmomadgenelia. misi saxis gamomkveTi da-
maxasiaTebeli niSan-Tvisebebi Txzulebis sxvadasxva adgilasaa naCvenebi. am gmiris
saxeli, qceva, xasiaTi da Sinagani Tvisebebi ise ostaturadaa Serwymuli nawarmoe-

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 52.
2
iqve, gv. 101-102.
157
bis qsovilSi, rom igi savsebiT tipuri, maRalmxatvruli saxea: `mardi da metiCara
iyo. imis qera Tmaze, niskartian cxvirze da wvrilad gawkipinebuls ulvaSebze rom
Segexedna, maSinve ityodi, es imereli unda iyoso. aseTi amayi da ukadrisi ram iyo es
dalocvili, tyuila ceri rom geCvenebina, erT adgilze Sexteboda. aseTs gaxre-
kils cxenze ijda, rom Zvlisa da tyavis meti ara iyo ra, swored wyalSi amowumpuls
virTagvas hgavda. kudabzika xSiraT mosWimavda xolme sadaves, rom Tavis bedauri-
saTvis kiseri moedrika da amasTanave hkravda dezebians quslsa, rom cotaze mainc
gaecundrukebina, viTom SemxedeT, rogors raSze vzivaro. sawyals virTagva cxens
imis dezebisagan gverdebi hqonda gaclili~.1 g. wereTels am gmiris Sesaxeb meti rom
araferi eTqva, am StrixiTac mainc cocxali warmodgena gveqneboda mis pirovneba-
ze, qcevaze, xasiaTsa da garegnobaze.
unda SevniSnoT, rom kudabzika mgzavrobis mTel manZilze gauTaveblad tra-
baxobs, rac TviTdaxasiaTebaa erTgvarad. misi mdgomareobasTan Seusabamo qceva
da ampartavnoba mkiTxvelis Rimils iwvevs yovelTvis. rogorc g.qiqoZe miuTi-
Tebs: `mkiTxvelis Tvalwin cocxlad dgas Tavisebur rosinantze, `virTagva be-
daurze~ mjdomare kudabzika, romelsac Tavisi winaprebis qonebrivi dovlaTi-
dan araferi SeurCenia da amitom ufro uazrod yoyoCobs da ufro Tavgamode-
biT ebRauWeba Tavis wodebriv privilegiebs~.2 n. nikolaZe werda: `mTel am Txzu-
lebaSi sruliad rom araferi yofiliyo, garda marto erTi kudabzikobis aRwe-
risa, maSinac Cvens mwerlobaSi ukvdavi darCeboda `mgzavris wignebi~, imitom
rom kudabzika — namdvili tipia~.3
kudabzikas daxatvaSi g. wereTelma gamoamJRavna didi iumoristuli niWi. iu-
mori, gesliani satira damaxasiaTebelia g. wereTlis SemoqmedebisaTvis. gro-
teskic araa ucxo g. wereTliseul xatvis maneraSi. marTebulad aRniSna al. xaxa-
naSvilma g. wereTlis Sesaxeb, rom `satiruli maTraxi, romelic man gaiRo qar-
Tuli sazogadoebis naklovanebaTa gasakicxavad, Cveulebrivi saSualeba ar iyo
Cvens mwerlobaSio~.4 es satiruli maTraxi gamoyenebulia imdroindeli uaryo-
fiTi sinamdvilis gasakicxad, dasagmobad. iumoristul-satiruli ferebiTaa
daxatuli am nawarmoebSi imdroindeli sazogadoebrivi sinamdvile, yvela uar-
yofiTi personaJi.
akaki wereTelma `mgzavris wignebi~ did nawarmoebad CaTvala, xolo kudabzi-
ka ara marto erovnul, aramed msoflio tipadac ki miiCnia: `zepirsityvierebam
erTi zRapruli tipi gadmogvca qarTvelebs: `nacar-qeqia~, romelic iseTive sa-
saciloa, rogorc `don-kixoti~, `falstafi~ da `ivane duraki~... axla gadavideT
im axal tipze, — wers poeti-kritikosi, — romelic Tvalwin xorcSesxmiT dagvi-
yena `mgzavris wignebis~ avtorma. es gaxlavT `kudabzika~. Tu marTla `don-kixo-
ti~ daZvelebuli raindobis tipia, es `kudabzika~ ususuri da swored ver gage-
buli kulturis nayofia. rodesac `kudabzika~ Tavis gaxrikul baxze zis, Tavs
uqinCavs, dezebs gverdebSi uCxukurebs da axtunebs, sruli darwmunebulia, rom
raSze vzivar da unda Tavi zecas miaWiros; magram rodesac misi raSi muclis tki-
viliT gamwarebuli miwaze kotrials daiwyebs, `kudabzikac~ sasoebadakarguli
dedamiwaSi apirebs CaZvrenas. amgvari tipebi, rasakvirvelia, msoflio tipebic
arian, magram kerZod ki namdvili nacionaluri tipia dRevandeli Cveni cxovre-
bisa~.5
kudabzikas qceva ise tipuria, rom kudabzikaseuli metiCroba, fxukianoba da
sasacilo ampartavnoba mkafiod vlindeba d. kldiaSvilis gmirTa qcevaSic. ku-

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. 1, 1947, gv. 41.
2
g.q i q o Z e , etiudebi da portretebi, 1958, gv. 174.
3
`moambe~, 1894, 3.
4
al.x a x a n a S v i l i , qarTuli sityvierebis istoria, 1918, gv. 226.
5
`kvali~, 1894, 23.
158
dabzika imdenad marTladaa daxatuli, rom misi Tvisebebi naTlad warmogvidge-
ba siRaribisagan dakninebul, magram uniadago, wodebriv TavmowonebaSerCenil
imerel aznaurTa saxeebSi d. kldiaSvilisa da n. lorTqifaniZis TxzulebebSi.
kudabzikas gaZvaltyavebuli cxeni agrZelebs gzas d. kldiaSvilis `samaniSvi-
lis dedinacvalSi~.
kikoliki inteligenciis im nawilis warmomadgenelia, romelsac swavla-ganaT-
lebis miReba piradi keTildReobisaTvis gaumiznavs. am miswrafebas igi jer kidev
universitetis studentad yofnis dros amJRavnebda; codnac zerele hqonda, Tva-
li Tanamdebobis miRebisaken eWira.
igi cdilobs am qveynis ZlierTa guliswyroma ar daimsaxuros. pativmoyva-
rea, mas piradi keTildReoba, mSvidi cxovreba, didi Tanamdeboba asuldgmu-
lebs. kikolikis devizia `yovelma kacma yvelaze uwin TavisTavze unda izrunos~.
misi azriT, `Tu mxrebze sqeli jinjilebi gaqvs, Tu gulze didi ordeni gaqvs Ca-
mokidebuli, maSin xar pativcemuli da Cemis azriT, — acxadebs igi, — asec unda
iyos, vinc ufro Wkviania da moxerxebulia, is poulobs amaebs~.
kikolikis idealia piradi warmateba da bedniereba. yovelgvar saqmeebs pira-
dulobis ganaRdebis saSualebad iyenebs, es iqneba samsaxuri, mogzauroba Tu ga-
zeTebis gamocema. colis SerTvac ki angarebis grZnobas, materialur keTil-
dReobas daumorCila. moigoneT misi ocneba SeZlebuli sovdagris qalis Ser-
Tvis Taobaze. amitom ambobda kikoliki: `jer unda viSovnoT nivTieri keTil-
mdgomareoba da mere qveyanas sikeTe unda movfinoT~. Tanamgzavris guliswyro-
ma kikolikis mimarT, am SemTxvevaSi g. wereTlis mier mTeli simZafriT gamosaxu-
li, gvaZlevs srul warmodgenas kikolikis miswrafebaze da warmoadgens am per-
sonaJis mkafio daxasiaTebas. `ehe, kikoliko, saiT gautie? gana iseTi droa, rom
bedniereba Tbil sawolSi unda eZios Cveneburma axalgazrdam? gana lamazi coli
da lazaTiani artala unda iyos Cveni gulis wadili? rom kidec eRirso magisTa-
na bednierebas, gana isargeblebdi? gana SegiZlia rbil doSakze lamaz qalTan Ca-
xutebuli dilis Tvlemas miece; Sens sasaxles gared aTasi da ori aTasi kaci rom
javrSi da unugeSobaSi iyos Cavardnili... nuTu Sen natrob tkbil gancxromas
funTuSa qalis mklavze, nuTu Sen natrob tkbilad daZinebas?~ magram qveynisa da
xalxis interesebiT gatacebul avtors kikolikma ironiulad Sexeda da `dacine-
biT waulaparaka — daiwyo Taviseburad...~ kikoliki individualistia mTeli Ta-
vis arsebiT, pirvel rigSi piraduli, sakuTari ojaxuri cxovrebis uzrunvelyo-
fa ainteresebs mas da ara saqveyno saqme. amitomac ambobs: `me mxolod maSin dav-
strialeb qveynis sasargeblo saqmes, roca Cemi kuWi gamZRaria da Cemi guli dak-
mayofilebuli~. ai, ra zraxvebi amoqmedebs kikoliks.
vin iyo kikoliki? kikolikis prototipad imTaviTve miCneul iqna niko RoRo-
beriZe, romelic 1861 wlis studentTa areulobis monawile iyo peterburgSi,
`droebis~ TanamSromeli, Semdeg quTaisis saTavadaznauro bankis Tavmjdomare,
bolos ki Savi qvis mrewveli WiaTuraSi. maSasadame, kikoliki namdvilad arsebuli
adamianis literaturuli saxea, romlis tipurobas aravin uaryofda.
mTxrobelis, ufro zustad, g. wereTlis kikolikTan damokidebulebis sabo-
loo garkvevisaTvis sainteresoa `mgzavris wignebis~ finali. ai, ras gvamcnobs
avtori: `Cemi navi agorebul zRvaSi iyo Securebuli. zRvis dawynarebis imedi ar
mqonda, magram warmoidgineT, me es sulac ar maSinebda, me mxiarulad viswrafo-
di win da, Tund kidev davRupuliyav, imedi mqonda, sikvdilis Jams mxiaruleba ar
moscildeboda Cems saxes. meore dRes kikoliks gavSordi im ganzraxviT, rom me-
ored aRar SevyriliyaviT. is abreSumis muTaqaze Tav-dadebuli tkbils ocneba-
Si davtove. me-ki Cemis gaukreWeli joriT Weqa-quxilSi gaWirvebis gzas Sevude-

159
qi~.1 es mxatvruli gancxadeba iyo g. wereTlis moRvaweobis gzamkvlevi. siRari-
bisa da mudmivi xelmokleobis miuxedavad, g. wereTeli mTeli Tavisi sicocxle
marTali gziT vidoda; man gakicxa kikolikebi, misi Tanamoazreni da mSobliur
xalxsa da qveyanas TavdadebiT emsaxura mxatvruli Tu publicisturi sityviT.
rac Seexeba Cikoliks, masac piraduli keTildReobis grZnobebi amoqmedeb-
da, misTvis sazogadoebis saqme imdenad iyo saintereso, ramdenad misi materia-
luri uzrunvelyofis zraxvebi iqneboda ganxorcielebuli. saubarSi Zalian ga-
naTlebul kacad mogaCvenebdaT Tavs, sinamdvileSi diletanti iyo. `maRali fra-
zeologia wyarosaviT gadmosdioda piridan Cikoliks~. Zalian uyvarda Tavis ga-
moCena, amitomac: `sadac mividoda yvelgan cdilobda pirveli adgili daeWira
da dasamtkiceblad, rom pirveli iyo, Sublze kakardas da yelze sisxlis jvars
ar icilebda~.
Cikolikma iseTi sityva-pasuxi icoda, rom yvelas imadlierebda, yvelas
hpirdeboda, magram saqmiT aravisTvis Tavs ar iwuxebda. g. wereTlis daxasiaTe-
biT Cikoliki iyo: `CvenSi rom ityvian `ena tartala, saqme patara, Romi ar eyo xu-
Ti kardala~.
piradi keTildReobisaTvis mzrunavi, egoisturad ganwyobili inteligencia
fexs ikidebda CvenSi da g. wereTelmac imaT winaaRmdeg mimarTa maxvili, gaakri-
tika mkacrad, amxila isini.
`xelovnebis namdvil realur gzaze, — werda xomleli, — saqarTveloSi imTa-
viTve dadga b-ni g. wereTeli, romlis sityva-kazmul nawerebSi umet-naklebod,
didi sicxoveliT daixata, gaiSala da dasuraTda Cveni cxovrebis viTarebis ar-
sebiTi Tvisebani da ucxo mxareni... Cikoliki, kikoliki da kudabzika gasaocaris
sinamdviliT, cocxlad aris daxatuli, es SesaniSnavi Txzuleba warCinebuli ta-
lantis mqone mxatvris nawarmoebia~.2
daxasiaTebul gmirTa galereidan calke dgas saRaTa. misi cxovreba da xasia-
Ti avtobiografiulia. misi survilia emsaxuros qveyanas, xalxs. igi batonymobis
winaaRmdegia, TanaugrZnobs glexobas, saerTod dabeCavebuls. survili aqvs naxos
xalxi Tavisufali, bednieri da ganaTlebuli, TviTonac mzadaa Tavi dados am saq-
misaTvis, oRond ki es saqme ganxorcieldes, survili ausruldes.
erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis ideas nawarmoebSi ganasaxiereben
saRaTa da x-ski. orive personaJis msjeloba didi damajereblobiTaa warmodge-
nili nawarmoebSi da gamoxataven samSoblosaTvis uangaro, Tavdadebuli siyva-
rulis grZnobiT gatacebul axalgazrda mowinave inteligentebis ganwyobile-
bas, miswrafebas. am saxeebma imTaviTve miipyro sazogadoebis yuradReba da didi
mowonebac daimsaxura. pirvelis prototipad miCneul iqna TviTon avtori —
g. wereTeli, meoresi — poloneli studenti vladislav xoroSevski.
x-skisa da saRaTas wuxilSi ismis poloneli da qarTveli xalxebis erovnuli
CagvriT gamowveuli ukmayofilebis xma, saocnebo gmirad italiis erovnuli gmi-
ri garibaldia miCneuli. sasurveli mizania ruseTis TviTmpyrobelobis damxo-
ba, erovnuli Tavisufleba. garibaldis heroikuli saxis miTiTebiT nawarmoebSi
gamoxatulia mwerlisa da misi zogierTi gmiris ganwyobileba, erovnuli da so-
cialuri ideali.
poloneli studenti x-ski, romelsac garkveuli adgili aqvs daTmobili nawar-
moebSi, gamoyvanilia xalxTa Zmobisa da patriotuli ideebis saqadageblad. `mgzav-
ris wignebSi~ vkiTxulobT: `am ymawvils surda qarTvel studentebs daaxloveboda
da imaTTan kavSiris SekvriT da Zmuri moqmedebiT gaetacebina eseni da Tavis Tana-
memamuleebTan daeaxlovebina... Cven Tu erTmaneTi kargad ar gavicaniT da erTmane-

1
g . w e r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I. 1947, gv. 201.
2
`kvali~, 1894, 16.
160
Tis gulis pasuxi dawvrilebiT ar SevityveT, cxovrebaSi kargad ver wava Cveni saq-
meo; mova dro, roca Cven erTmaneTis saWironi gavxdebiT da Tu axlave ZmebiviT ar
SevizardeT, Tu aqave am universitetis saqmeebSi erTmaneTis daxmareba ar viswav-
leT, mere ufro vrcels asparezze sadRa movnaxavT erTmaneTso; garemoebiT daSo-
rebulni, azriTa da guliT mainc unda viyoT erTmaneTis Zaf—gatarebuli da Tu xe-
ls ara, xmas mainc unda vaZlevdeT erTmaneTs, rom saerTo Wiri gavinawiloT~.1 es
saerTo Wiri iyo TviTmpyrobeluri ruseTi, mefis nacionaluri politika. Zmobisa
da saerTo saqmisaTvis brZolis mizniT nawarmoebSi Semoyvanili poloneli studen-
ti erTa solidarobisa da xalxis Tavisuflebis mqadagebelia.
amrigad, erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel ideas nawarmoebSi ganasaxiereben sa-
RaTa da x-ski. am ori personaJis ganwyobilebaSi g. wereTelma gamoxata Tavisi
erovnuli miswrafeba. samSoblos siyvarulis grZnobis gamovlinebam, patrio-
tulma miswrafebam erTgvarad dafara nawarmoebis publicisturi simSrale.
am nawarmoebis gmirTa prototipebi asea miniSnebuli: saRaTa — g. wereTeli,
meliq-aRa — stefane meliqiSvili, kikoliki — nikoloz RoRoberiZe, studenti
xski — vladislav xoroSevski da a. S.
namdvili ambebis aRweram da realurad arsebuli adamianebis gamoyvanam nawarmo-
ebis personaJebad, `mgzavris wignebs~ misca mxatvruli narkvevis xasiaTi. am niadagze
gaakeTa daskvna mkvlevarma l. asaTianma, `rom i. WavWavaZis `mgzavris werilebTan~ er-
Tad giorgi wereTlis `kikoliki, Cikoliki da kudabzika~ warmoadgens mxatvruli
narkvevis klasikur nimuSs gasuli saukunis qarTul literaturaSi~.2
g. wereTelma sinamdvile marTlad aRwera, Cveni qveynis mZime cxovreba Seula-
mazeblad aCvena. albaT aseT viTarebas Tu gulisxmobda igi, roca Tavis Tavs `Seu-
feravi realizmis~ warmomadgenels uwodebda. ramdenadac ar unda Seekavebina Ta-
vi, g. wereTeli Zlieri mxatvruli warmosaxvis gareSe ver Seqmnida maRalemociur
saxeebs, ver dagvainteresebda movlenebiTa da suraTebiT.
Rrma lirizmi, publicistika, zogjer qadagebac, mwvave iumori, mwared dam-
cinavi satiruli toni, groteski nawarmoebs aZlevs did cxovelmyofelobas da
amiT naCvenebia mwerlisa da xalxis zizRi da siZulvili mebatonisadmi, baton-
ymobisadmi, TviTmpyrobelobisadmi. samarTlianad aRniSna mweralma demna Senge-
laiam, rom `es SesaniSnavi wigni erTsa da imave dros aRsavsea Rrma lirizmiTa da
Sxamiani sarkazmiT, siyvaruliT mSobliuri xalxisadmi da mZulvarebiT mCag-
vrelTa mimarT, poeziiTa da publicistikiT, usazRvro TanagrZnobiT gaparta-
xebuli glexebisa da zizRiT muqTaxora Tavadaznaurobisadmi~.3
cxovrebis g. wereTliseuli Cveneba `mgzavris wignebSi~ zogjer mxatvrul do-
kumentaciamde midis. namdvili ambavi, zustad aRwerilia STambeWdav mxatvrul
Zalad iqceva da iZens did SemecnebiT da esTetikur Tvisebas.
`mgzavris wignebSi~ aRwerili batonymobis gauqmebis wina dRe, gauqmebis dro
da procesi iZleva am xanis imereTis cxovrebis Seuferadebel suraTebs. nawar-
moebSi dasmulia mTeli saqarTvelosaTvis mtkivneuli sakiTxebi, magram foni
mainc dasavleT saqarTveloa, — imereTi am cnebis farTo mniSvnelobiT. l. asa-
Tiani werda: `pirveli didi nawarmoebi g. wereTlisa — `mgzavris wigni~ anu `kiko-
liki, Cikoliki da kudabzika~ — me-19 s. qarTuli literaturis erT-erT Sedev-
rad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. am nawarmoebSi g. wereTeli Seexo Tavisi drois uaqtua-
lures da umwvaves socialur problemebs... avtoris didi literaturuli osta-
toba, dauSreteli iumori da Rrma codna Tanamedrove cxovrebis viTarebisa, —
ai udidesi mxatvruli Rirsebebi, romelic am nawarmoebebs axasiaTebs~.4 marTa-

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 111.
2
`mnaTobi~, 1932, 6.
3
`mnaTobi~, 1950, 2.
4
`mnaTobi~, 1932, 5-6, gv. 313.
161
lia, `mgzavris wignebis~ qarTuli literaturis Sedevrad gamocxadeba uTuod
gazviadebaa, magram isic cxadia, rom warmodgenil saerTo SefasebaSi ismis WeS-
maritebis xma.
mogzauruli Janri did SesaZleblobas aZlevda avtors erTmaneTTan kompo-
ziciurad aucilebeli mtkice kavSiris gareSe aRewera movlenebi, eCvenebina sa-
qarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis cxovrebis suraTebi, yofis realiebi, saerTo ko-
loriti. aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom g. wereTelma pirvelad am nawarmoebiT ase
farTod Semoiyvana Cvens literaturaSi dakninebuli imereli aznaurebi. aqedan
gaekafaT maT gza d. kldiaSvilisa da n. lorTqifaniZis SemoqmedebaSi.
`mgzavris wignebi~ TvalsaCino mxatvruli nawarmoebia rogorc ideur-Tema-
tikuri Sinaarsis gaazrebiT, aseve mxatvruli gamosaxvis saSualebaTa gamoyene-
bis xasiaTiT. Znelia warmoidginoT mecxramete saukunis meore naxevris qarTu-
li sazogadoebrivi cxovreba ise, rom ar moiSvelioT `mgzavris wignebi~ miuxe-
davad imisa, rom es nawarmoebi publicisturia TiTqos, gaumarTavi da dauxvewa-
via enobrivad. misi gverdis avla ara marto g. wereTlis Semoqmedebis, aramed
mecxramete saukunis qarTuli literaturis Seswavlis drosac ver xerxdeba.
`mgzavris wignebis~ mniSvneloba ueWvelad didia imiTac, rom misi Tematiku-
ri are exeboda epoqis aqtualur problemebs, romlebic awuxebda mecxramete sa-
ukunis meore naxevars. amitomac simarTlis gamomxatvelia mosazreba, rom is
`marto moTxroba ar aris, es imave dros manifestia 60-iani wlebis qarTveli ax-
algazrdobisa, es saprogramo dokumentia~.1
`gulqani~. g. wereTlis `gulqans~ saintereso istoria aqvs. am romanis ram-
denime Tavi pirvelad gamoqveynda 1868 wlis gazeT `droebaSi~ saTauriT — `ram-
denime suraTi moTxrobidan `gvritia~. `gulqanis~ nawyvetebi amave 1868 wlis oq-
tomber-noemberSi daibeWda `sasoflo gazeTSi~ saTauriT — `bakuriZe da misi
glexi petriela~, `TaTias sikvdili~ da `bakuriZis ymebis SiSi~. `droebaSi~ da-
beWdili nawyvetebi mxolod Tavebadaa warmodgenili, `sasoflo gazeTSi~ ki Ta-
vebi dasaTaurebulia. amrigad, `gulqani~ sxvadasxva saxelwodebiTa da Tavebis
dasaTaurebiT erTdroulad ibeWdeba `droebasa~ da `sasoflo gazeTSi~. magram
sacenzuro komitetis `gulisxmieri~ CareviT, erTdroulad Sewyda misi beWdva.
didi mondomebis miuxedavad, mZime sacenzuro pirobebis gamo, g. wereTelma ver
moaxerxa am nawarmoebis mTlianad dabeWdva. 1895 wlis `kvalis~ ramdenime nomeri
aseT gancxadebas beWdavs: `1896 wlis xelismomwerlebs `kvalisas~ daurigdebaT
premiad axali romani g. wereTlisa, saxelad `gulqan~. romani Sedgeba sami nawi-
lisagan~. magram TviTmpyrobelobis, biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis
mamxilebel, mefis ruseTis saxelmwifo moxeleebis gamkicxavma nawarmoebma da-
afrTxo cenzura. romanis `tendenciuri Sinaarsis~ gamo sacenzuro komitetma
akrZala `gulqanis~ gamoqveyneba da xelnaweri daakava. es dakaveba samudamo
datyvevebis momaswavebeli iyo. amas grZnobda avtori, amitom man jer sacenzuro
komitetsa da Semdeg Sinagan saqmeTa saministros mimarTa. scada axlo megobre-
bis — a. cagarlisa da n. maris daxmarebac, rom `gulqanis~ dabeWdvis ufleba mie-
Ro, magram yovelgvari molodini uSedego aRmoCnda.
`gulqanis~ pirveli da meore nawili daibeWda 1928 wels, Jurnal `mnaTobSi~.
samive nawili calke wignad pirvelad gamovida 1929 wels, v. xuroZis redaqciiTa
da winasityvaobiT, xolo Sesworebuli sruli teqstiT gamoica 1935 wels, m. du-
duCavas redaqciiTa da komentarebiT.
sinamdvilis mxatvruli gansaxierebis TvalsazrisiT g. wereTlis `gulqani~
cxovrebis realisturad Cvenebis princips emyareba da kritikuli realizmis
tradicias agrZelebs. romanSi aRwerilia batonymuri urTierToba, am urTier-

1
g. wereTlis rCeuli nawerebi g. natroSvilis redaqciiT, t. I, 1947, gv. 21.
162
Tobis gauqmebis xana, reformis momdevno periodi, kapitalizmis aRmavloba sa-
qarTveloSi.
nawarmoebis ideuri arsi Semdeg ZiriTad sakiTxebs moicavs: 1. batonymuri
urTierTobis mwvave xasiaTi da am urTierTobis rRvevis Cveneba; 2. kapitalizmis
ganviTareba da axalfexadgmuli burJuaziis aRmavloba; 3. biurokratiul-Ci-
novnikuri mmarTvelobis mxileba, mefis ruseTis moxeleebis gakicxva.
romanSi feodaluri urTierToba warmodgenilia yvela uaryofiTi Tvise-
biT. didi mxatvruli simarTliTaa aRwerili ymebisa da Sinaymebis mware Sroma,
r.bakuriZis ojaxis materialuri silaRe, xelgaSlili, usaqmuri da udardeli
cxovreba. mkveTradaa mocemuli r. bakuriZis pirovnebis daxasiaTeba.
angareba da piraduloba misi xasiaTis ganuyreli Tviseba iyo. is yovelTvis
cdilobda `mezobeli daeCagra da TviTon amaRlebuliyo, yvelaze didi gamxda-
riyo~.1
yirimis omSi ufrosad yofnis dros naZarcv-nagleji `bajaRloebi bakuriZem
sul foxlebiT Camoitanao~ — ambobda xalxi. guriis ajanyebulTa gacemiTa da
dabezRebiT maioris jinjilebs miaRwia da kargi gamonarCenic miiRo. r. bakuri-
Zis siavis, adamianebs ki ara, Citebsac eSinodaT, — gadmogvcems mwerali.
`gulqanSi~ batonymoba daxasiaTebulia, rogorc uaryofiTi socialuri in-
stituti da amave dros naCvenebia am institutis rRvevis procesi. batonymobis
wiaRSi aRmocenebulia axali elementebi, romelic winaaRmdegobas uwevs da Sig-
nidanve arRvevs batonymobas. es winaaRmdegoba gamovlenilia yma glexis petrie-
la kvesaZis moqmedebaSi. petriela xelze mosamsaxure iyo qalaqSi. iq isunTqa
Tavisuflebis sioTi. qalaqidan dabrunebulma ar miiRo axali valdebuleba, ar
daemorCila batonis neba-survils, ar ikisra xabazoba.
`— Sen brZane, ar gamovacxobo? — gajavrebiT Seutia bakuriZem.
— ra vqna, Seni Wirime, gamocxoba Cven papas da mamas ar marTebia.
— Sen es Tqvi, xabazoba xom ici? Tfilis qalaqs rom iyavi, Turme kargad xaba-
zobdi!
— Tfilis qalaqs, Seni Wirime, sul sxvaa. iq CemTvis vmuSaobdi, TavisTvis ra-
Racas izams kaci, imas batonisTvis rava izams!...
— aba, rom gibrZanon, ar gamoacxob?..
— ra vqna, Seni Wirime, ar mmarTebia da...~
bakuriZis ganrisxebis miuxedavad, petrielas saboloo pasuxi iyo: `rac ar
mmarTebs, imis gakeTeba ar SemiZlia~.2 aseTi pasuxis mosmena mebatonisaTvis ad-
vili ar iyo, miT umetes, rom Tbilisidan dabrunebuli petriela welze fexs id-
gamda da ojaxic fexze wamoayena. bakuriZem Suris TvaliT Sexeda kvesaZeebis
ojaxs, petrielas damorCileba, Sinamosamsaxured gaxdoma ganizraxa. magram,
mwerlis eniT rom vTqvaT, `aq batonis xmali folads Sexvda. petriela iseTi
glexi ar iyo, rom Tavisi uflebis Seuferebeli Zala aetana. man gaarRvia bato-
nis Zalmomreobis kedeli da gavarda~. winaaRmdegoba ufro metad garTulda. me-
batone sastikad uswordeba kvesaurebs, magram petrielas mainc ver imorCilebs.
r. bakuriZis mkacrma da usamarTlo damokidebulebam gaapartaxa gamrje, Tav-
mdabali glexis ojaxi. r. bakuriZis sisastikem Seiwira daTia kvesaZe, misi coli,
qaliSvili da petriela aiZula gadakarguliyo soflidan.
r. bakuriZe imdenad ukacuria, rom mxolod muSaxelis, mosamsaxuris dakar-
gva awuxebs da ara udanaSaulo ojaxis daRupva. `im beber dedakacs Tundac Cemi
Wiri wauRia, axalgazrda gogo menaneba. erTi kargi xelze mosamsaxure damekar-
ga, — wailuRluRa mebatonem~. r.bakuriZisa da daTia kvesaZis ojaxebis urTier-

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. II, 1948, gv. 193.
2
iqve, gv. 211.
163
Tobis CvenebiT mocemulia ori wodebis tipur warmomadgenelTa Soris gamarTu-
li mwvave brZolis suraTi.
batonymobis mkacri kanonebisa, mebatone bakuriZisa da boqaulis ukacuri
qcevis Sedegad gapartaxda daTia kvesauris ojaxi. deda-Svilis ori kubos er-
Tdroulad gamotana — aris umZafresi tragikuli scena. es ambavi isea gadmoce-
muli, suraTi ise SemaZrwunebladaa daxatuli, rom SeuZlebelia mkiTxveli ar
aRaSfoTos bakuriZisa da boqaulis araadamianurma qcevam, ar aRavsos udanaSau-
lo kvesaZeebis sibraluliT da TanagrZnobiT.
g. wereTels mTeli arsebiT sZulda batonymoba. es siZulvili man mxatvru-
lad gamosaxa `mgzavris wignebSi~, `gulqansa~ da `Cveni cxovrebis yvavilSi~, xo-
lo publicistur werilSi — `maTusalas aRsareba~ mweralma Tavisi aRtaceba ba-
tonymobis gauqmebis gamo mTeli sisavsiT gamoxata.
batonymoba gauqmda. amieridan erTmaneTs upirispirdeba yofili mebatone
revaz bakuriZe da misgan pirovnulad Seuracxyofili, ojaxurad gaqelili yo-
fili yma petriela, SemdegSi cnobili vaWari piotr ivaniC gawerilia. am dapiris-
pirebaSi gadmocemulia axali, winaaRmdegobebis Semcveli, sinamdvile; daxatu-
lia Zveli da axali urTierTobis warmomadgenlebis srulyofili saxe, magram
amaT Soris moqmedebaSi ufro metadaa naCvenebi — aRmavali, axalgazrda burJua-
ziis miswrafebis gamomxatveli yofili yma.
saxlidan gadavardnilma petrielam Savi zRvis sanapiros miaSura. moxerxe-
buli vaWrobiT didZali fuli daagrova. ramdenime xnis Semdeg gadasaxlda qu-
TaisSi, gamoicvala gvari da gaxsna duqani, qvianaSi gadasaxlebul r. bakuriZis
ojaxis maxloblad. cnobili sovdagari piotr ivaniC gawerilia dauaxlovda ba-
kuriZis ojaxs, romelic xelgaSlil evropul cxovrebas eweoda. bakuriZe gawe-
rilias maRaziidan nisiad iZenda sxvadasxva Zvirfas saqonels, samagierod aZ-
levda Tamasuqs. `revazs sovdagris Tamasuqi TiTqmis Tavis mosageb sagnad miaC-
nda~, radganac vaWari xSirad ar awuxebda galaRebul mebatones. r. bakuriZes az-
radac ar mosvlia, rom Tamasuqi igive fuli iyo im droisaTvis. piotr ivaniCma
moxerxebulad gamoiyena es Tamasuqi da sasamarTlos dadgenilebiT, im valSi ba-
kuriZes rom emarTa nisiis saxiT, xelT igdo mebatonis saxl-kari da ezo-mamuli.
rogorc vxedavT, fulma daipyro asparezi. movlenebi viTardeba axali ur-
TierTobis warmomadgenlis, cxovrebis axali gmiris sasargeblod, istoria am
axals uWers mxars. magram brZola mwvavea da sastiki. Zveli advilad ar uTmobs
axals. am brZolaSi iRupeba piotr ivaniCi, magram axali cxovrebis gza gakafu-
lia. naCvenebia ganviTarebis perspeqtiva. gawerilias gzas agrZelebs misi noqa-
ri. bakuriZis ojaxi gapartaxda.
mwerali Tavisi ganwyobilebiT aRmavali burJuaziis mxarezea. igi mxars uWe-
rs aReb-micemobis ganviTarebas. amitomac aTqmevina erT-erT gmirs: `vaWari ma-
rilia qveynis. is arCens xalxs, zrdis warmoebas da TviTonac mdidrdeba. yvelas
lukmas aZlevs bunebis simdidris waReb-wamoRebiT, maSin rodesac CarCi suls
xdis yovelnair warmoebas da xalxs tyavs aZrobs~.
g. wereTelma `gulqanSi~ mkafiod gamosaxa batonymobis winaaRmdeg mimarTu-
li da kapitalizmis ganviTarebisadmi Tavisi simpaTiuri damokidebulebis ten-
dencia. mxatvrulad aCvena agreTve mefis ruseTis moxeleebis zneobrivi dace-
muloba, meqrTameoba, xalxis awiokeba, socialuri devna da mkvidr mcxovrebTa
Seviwroeba. g. wereTlis mier `saxelmwifo moxeleebi iseTive uaryofiTi tenden-
ciiTaa warmodgenili romanSi, rogorc feodaluri aristokratia~.1
g. wereTlis mier `gulqanSi~ saaSkaraozea gamotanili xorxianeTis gamgis —
quTaisis gubernatoris ojaxisa da am ojaxis garSemo Tavmoyrili samxedro

1
m. d u d u C a v a , `gulqani~, 1935, gv. XI.
164
aristokratiisa da bobola moxeleebis garyvnili da TavaSvebuli cxovreba.
xorxianeTis gamge iTvisebs saxelmwifo qonebas, iRebs qrTams, cxovrobs xelgaS-
lilad, magram igi sasjels gadarCa imitom, rom Camosul revizors gulqani mona
qaliviT miarTva. xorxianeTis gamgis cols da mis garSemo Semokrebil qalebs da
oficrebs adamianuri saxe daukargavaT. gulqanic am wreSi trialebda, igi im mo-
ralur faseulebebze izrdeboda, rac qvianas saqalebo saswavleblis ufrosis
TanaSemwem da xorxianeTis gamgis colma STaagones. amitom gasakviri ar aris
gulqanis daqaneba garyvnilebis gzaze.
gulqani bavSvobidanve anCxli da TviTneba iyo, izrdeboda nebierad, mebato-
nis qalis yaidaze. gulqani miabares quTaisis saqalebo saswavlebelSi. bakuriZis
ojaxs uZneldeboda erTaderTi Svilis moSoreba, magarm isic icodnen, `rom ax-
landel droSi urusulod da utancaoT maRal sazogadoebaSi gamoCenac aRar
moxerxdebodao~.1 gvritos pirvel xanebSi sZulda qalTa pansionati, magram ma-
le mieCvia, Seegua skolas, sadac qarTuli akrZaluli iyo da qalebs Cinovnikebi-
sa da sxvaTa salaRobod zrdidnen.
g. wereTelma gaakritika rogorc gimnaziis, aseve saqalebo saswavleblis —
pansionatis saaRmzrdelo wesebi da warmogvidgina gaukuRmarTebuli swavlebis
sruli suraTi. marTlad aCvena sistema, Tu rogor amzadebdnen mefis erTgul
msaxurs, monasa da morCils, usulgulo moxeleebis, Cinovnikuri biurokratiisa
da oficrebis sacoleebs, garyvnilsa da znedacemul adamianebs.
`qali rom asakSi Seva, — vkiTxulobT romanSi, — iman yvelaferi unda daiviwy-
os, Tavis ded-mamac, ojaxic da gadasafrenad unda emzadebodes, magram ise ki, rom
Tvali karg, lamaz da uzrunvelyofil sabudarSi Casafrenad eWiros... qalis swav-
la-ganaTleba amaSi unda mdgomareobdes. ra Cveni saqmea geometria da algebra, an
bunebis mecniereba? raSi gamogvadgeba?.. gamocdilebiTac bevrs SeiZens qali, Tu
karg sazogadoebaSi kavalrebTan gaqnils mandilosnebs daukvirdeba da SeiTvisebs
imaT xerxsa~.2 amas Tu davumatebT xorxianeTis gamgis colis zneobriv swavlas, rom
`WeSmariti siyvaruli sicruea, qmris erTguleba sisulelea. axla aRaravin aRar Ca-
dis magisTana sisuleles, visac ki cxovreba esmis da Tavmoyvareoba aqvs...~3 cxadi
gaxdeba, Tu ra viTarebaSi izrdebodnen maRali wris qalebi, rogor iqceodnen did
moxeleTa colebi.
TviTneburma aRzrdam, lidia petrovnasa da quTaisis gubernatoris colis
uzneo darigebam, didma gvariSvilobam, mebatonurma qedmaRlobam, xelgaSlilma
udardelma cxovrebam, moxdenilma garegnobam, mefis didi moxeleebis, samxedro
aristokratiisa da oficerTa pirferobam gaaamaya, gaamedidura gulqani, amoag-
do cxovrebis kalapotidan da gaukafa gza garyvnilebisaken. gulqanis gadagvare-
ba, patriotuli grZnobis dakargva, qarTveli xalxis siZulvili g. wereTelma uf-
ro mkafiod Crdiloel vaWarTan urTierTobaSi aCvena. gulqanis saubari nikolai
nikiforoviCTan qarTuli kulturisa da qarTveli xalxis Sesaxeb, gulqanis sazo-
gadoebrivi yofisa da aRzrdis bunebrivi Sedegia. roca gulqani augad axsenebs
qarTul kulturas, lanZRavs qarTvel xalxs, es mxolod mkiTxvelis uaryofiT
reaqcias iwvevs da ara wyenas, radganac igi qarafSuta, uzneo qalis mieraa war-
moTqmuli.
g. wereTlis `gulqanis~ gmirebis sarbieli xorxianeTi, anu imereTia, magram
maTi moqmedeba wvdeba mTel saqarTvelos.
g. wereTlis `gulqani~ socialuri romania. nawarmoebis Tema ori mTavari Se-
nakadis Semcvelia — batonymuri urTierToba da kapitalizmis ganviTarebis
procesi saqarTveloSi. fabula erT ZiriTad ambavze — r. bakuriZisa da petrie-
1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. II, 1948, gv, 272.
2
iqve, gv. 275.
3
iqve, gv. 487.
165
la kvesaZis urTierTobazea agebuli. am ZiriTad ambavs erTvis biurokratiul-
Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis warmomadgenelTa cxovrebisa da moqmedebis mxileba.
ori sxvadasxva socialuri wrisa da epoqis tipur warmomadgenelTa cxovrebisa
da urTierTobis saCveneblad ramdenime CarTuli epizodia warmodgenili —
gulqanis cxovrebis istoria, arCevnebis ambavi quTaisSi, inteligenciis erTi
nawilis moqmedeba, romelic sisxlsavses xdis nawarmoebis ideur Sinaarss, mxat-
vrulad kravs nawarmoebis siuJetur qargas da srulad warmogvidgens epoqis xa-
siaTs.
nawarmoebSi ambavi gaSlilia naturaluri meurneobis rRvevisa da kapita-
lizmis ganviTarebis Cvenebis fonze. siuJeturi paralelebi erTi ideuri Cana-
fiqriT erTiandeba da kompoziciuri rkali mTliandeba.
nawarmoebi isea agebuli, rom ambavi yovelTvis ar misdevs erTmaneTs. kompo-
ziciuri svla zigzagiT midis, amiT yuradReba da interesi ki ar neldeba, aramed
ufro Zlierdeba, radganac movlena bunebrivad viTardeba da siuJeturi mTlia-
nobac daculia.
`gulqanis~ ena saerTo saliteraturo enas mihyveba, magram igi uxvad Seicavs
kuTxuri metyvelebis formebs da, poeturi leqsikis TvalsazrisiT, TvalSi sa-
cemia imeruli dialeqtizmis saWiroebis gareSe gamoyeneba. g. wereTeli bunebis
suraTebis daxatvis, poeturi samkaulebis, tropuli metyvelebis Cinebuli os-
tatia. gamosaxvis am saSualebebiT igi aZlierebs sinamdvilis warmosaxvis Tval-
saCinoebas, emociurobas, esTetikurobas.
avtori did ostatobas iCens gmiris Sinagani brZolisa da mwvave gancdebis
gadmocemaSi, aseve gmiris garegnobis mxatvrul CvenebaSi. sanimuSod SegveZlo
dagvesaxelebina gulqanis mSvenierebis aRwera, petrielas daxasiaTeba, sardion
enuqiZis saxe, dragunis oficris lizobliudovis Tvaltanadoba, Siukas gareg-
nobis sxarti daxatva. sul ramdenime sityva da Siukas portreti Camoqandakebu-
lia. g. wereTeli uCveulo mimzidvelobiT xatavs xorxianeTis gamgis ojaxSi ga-
marTuli wveulebis scenebs. yvelaferi mozomilia, gadmocemulia emociuri
metyvelebis formiT. saxeebi daxatulia didi mxatvruli taqtiTa da poeturi
moswrebulobiT. Rrmaazrovani, magram advilad Casawvdomi da amosacnobi meta-
forebi, moxdenili Sedarebani, gemovnebiT SerCeuli sxarti epiTetebi, mxat-
vruli gamosaxvis kompoziciuri da sxva sityvieri saSualebebis gamoyenebis po-
eturi gamizvna, gaazreba axasiaTebs g. wereTlis mxatvrul sityvas.
` pirveli nabiji~. g. wereTlis mdidar literaturul memkvidreobaSi `pir-
vel nabijs~ upirvelesi adgili uWiravs. am nawarmoebSi mxatvrulad warmoisaxa
kapitalizmis ganviTarebisa da feodaluri yofis rRvevasTan dakavSirebuli is
ZiriTadi problemebi, romlebic g. wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi adreve iyo gaazre-
buli.
`pirveli nabiji~ g. wereTlis SemoqmedebiTi mowifulobis xanaSi, oTxmocda-
aTian wlebSi daiwera da gamoqveynda. is daibeWda literaturul krebul `cda-
Si~, romelsac 1889-1891 wlebSi `qarTulis mwerlobis moyvarulTa gamocema~ aq-
veynebda quTaisSi.
`pirvel nabijSi~ mkveTrad gamovlinda g. wereTlis maRali samwerlo Tvise-
bebi — didi mxatvruli tilos gaSlis ostatoba, tipuri saxeebis gamokveTis xe-
lovneba, ganzogadebis simarTle, stilis daxvewiloba.
`pirveli nabijis~ ZiriTad Temad aRebulia kapitalizmis ganviTarebis pro-
cesi saqarTveloSi da miT gamowveuli socialuri cvlilebani. sinamdvilis
mxatvrul gansaxierebaSi mwerlis ideuri tendencia Sepirobebulia surviliT,
mimzidveli ferebiT daxatos erovnuli burJuaziis aRmavlobis suraTebi da aC-
venos Cveni qveynis cxovrebis axali gziT ganviTarebis perspeqtiva.

166
nawarmoebis ideis mxatvrulad gaSlis socialur fonad gamoyenebulia bur-
Juaziasa da Tavadaznaurobas Soris arsebuli winaaRmdegoba. mwerlis mkafio
ideur Canafiqrze miuTiTebs romanis saTauri `pirveli nabiji~ da mTavari gmi-
ris gvari — fulava.
`pirveli nabijis~ arqiteqtonika siuJeturad sam Senakads moicavs: 1. baxva
fulavas Tavgadasavali, romliTac gadmocemulia aRmavali qarTveli burJua-
ziis cxovrebis istoria; 2. ieremia warbas cxovreba, riTac naCvenebia Cveni Tava-
daznaurobis gadagvarebuloba, dacemuloba; 3. garyvnil validas, polkovnik
lebovisa da sxva samxedro da samoqalaqo moxeleTa ojaxebis aRviraxsnili
cxovrebis Cveneba.
ZiriTadi ambis siuJetur ganviTarebas, mxatvrul Sesisxlxorcebas — baxva
fulavas cxovrebisa da moqmedebis istoriis mxatvrul Cvenebas Tan axlavs qar-
Tveli Tavdaznaurobis dacemisa da mefis ruseTis moxeleebis gaxrwnis gamom-
saxveli suraTebi.
`pirvel nabijSi~ sagulisxmoa avtoris mier gmirTa Semoqmedebis ared mTe-
li saqarTvelos gamoyeneba. marTalia, erTiani saqarTvelos idea Tergdaleul-
Ta ideaa da mxatvrul literaturaSi es momenti ufro mkveTrad xazgasmulia
akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi, magram `pirveli nabiji~ pirveli romania qarTul
literaturaSi, sadac moqmedeba imier-amierSia gaSlili.
ambis gaSlisa da movlenebis ganviTarebaSi ZiriTadi rkali SemosazRvrulia
istoriulad ori sxvadasxva socialuri wris warmomadgenlis — baxva fulavasa
da ieremia warbas urTierTobiT. erTia — glexi, mwyemsi, xelze mosamsaxure, Sem-
deg vaWari, aRmavali burJuaziis warmomadgeneli, xolo meore — cxovrebis ka-
lapotidan amovardnili usaqmuri, moqeife, moCxubari, ukacuri.
socialuri mdgomareobiT `pirveli nabijis~ gmirebi asea warmodgenili —
mdabioTa wre: baxva, esma, esmas deda, ivane mWedeli, nestora; maTi mopirdapireni
— ieremia, valida, wunkala da sxva wvrili da msxvili moxeleebi. am dapirispire-
baSi mwerlis simpaTia yovelTvis mdabioTa mxarezea. Sepirispirebulia ara mar-
to baxva da ieremia, aramed esma da validac. esma mSromeli, lamazi, nazi, wynari;
validac lamazi, magram fuqsavati, gaqeqili, romelsac TvalSi Sehyureben bobo-
la samxedro pirebi da mosamsaxureebi, rogorc trfobis obieqts. validac am
moments SesaniSnavad iyenebs.
gansaxierebis simarTle da gmirTa moqmedebis is xasiaTi, romelic `pirvel
nabijSia~ warmodgenili, varaudobs kapitalizaciis process saqarTveloSi,
erovnuli burJuaziis aRorZinebas, qarTveli vaWris saxis gamokveTilad Cvene-
bas, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ganviTarebis tendenciaze miTiTebas.
baxva fulava `pirveli nabijis~ mTavari gmiria, mwerlis ideuri Canafiqris
mxatvrulad ganxorcielebuli saxea. amitomac romanis Tematikuri arsis ideu-
rad gadawyvetis TvalsazrisiT upiratesad baxvas cxovrebisa da moqmedebis
sferoa sayuradRebo. TiTqmis yvela movlena, romelic aRwerilia nawarmoebSi,
pirdapir Tu arapirdapir baxvas pirovnebasTanaa dakavSirebuli.
yofili Txis mwyemsi baxva fulava didZali fulisa da savaWro saqonlis gar-
da feodaluri mamulisa da saxl-karis patroni gaxda. es momenti miniSnebaa imi-
sa, rom axali socialuri Zala, burJuazia mZlavrad ikidebs fexs, irRveva sauku-
neobrivi tradiciis mqone feodaluri yofa, idilia.
sayuradReboa, rom nabatonaris, didi feodalis saxl-karis dagiraveba ban-
kSi da sajaro vaWrobiT gayidva nawarmoebSi naCvenebia rogorc saerTo damaxa-
siaTebeli movlena mecxramete saukunis meore naxevris saqarTvelosaTvis. ama-
ze miuTiTebs Tundac gazeTiT gamoqveynebuli gancxadebebis faqti. aRniSnuli
viTareba gvamcnobs Tavadaznaurobis materialur daqveiTebasa da fuladi me-
urneobis farTod ganviTarebas.

167
Tavadis miwa-wyals eufleba axali socialuri urTierTobis warmomadgene-
li. es movlena cxovrebis ganviTarebis bunebrivi Sedegia. baxvam SeiZina didZa-
li qoneba feodaluri saxl-karisa da mamulis saxiTac. es momenti imis xazgasmaa,
rom kapitalizmi ipyrobs rogorc qalaqs, aseve sofels. movlenis meore mxare
isaa, rom baxva Semoifargla savaWro operaciebiT, mamulisa da saxl-karis SeZe-
niT, ar isurva kapitali daebandebina msxvil warmoebaSi, ar Caeba saqarxno-sa-
fabriko mrewvelobaSi. iyo Tu ara aseTi xasiaTis warmoeba imdroindel dasav-
leT saqarTveloSi? — ara. vTqvaT, mwerals unda gadaelaxa es sinamdvile, daena-
xa xvalindeli dRis SesaZlebloba, magram g. wereTeli xom kritikuli realizmis
warmomadgenelia, igi Tavis SemoqmedebaSi namdvil cxovrebas emyareba yovel-
Tvis, amitomac gmirTa moqmedebis sfero bunebrivad warmoadgina, xolo per-
speqtivis konturebi noqris, nestoras saxiT moxaza. tendencia saerTo ganviTa-
rebis SesaZleblobaSi aCvena.
feodalizms saukuneobrivi istoria hqonda saqarTveloSi. feodalizmis epo-
qam Seqmna maRali kultura da yofis didi tradicia. axalfexadgmuli burJuaziis
warmomadgenlebs — mejRanuaSvils, gawerilias, fulavas rom guli TavadiSviluri
cxovrebisaken miuwevT, feodaluri yofis didi gavleniTaa gamowveuli. Tu baxva
fulavas mixedviT vimsjelebT, SevamCnevT, rom baxvas rainduli, keTilSobiluri
da romantikuli qceva esmas winaSe, sofelSi Tavadurad dafuZnebis survilebi, bax-
vas Cacmuloba da garegnuli ieri ufro TavadiSviluria, vidre vaWrisa.
g. wereTels kapitalizaciis maxaroblad miaCnia foTSi rom cecxlis gemma
iwivla. am movlenas sixaruliT Sexvda avtori. es Tbili gancda Sedegi iyo g. we-
reTlis im Sexedulebisa, riTac varaudobda savaWro urTierTobebis saerTo
ferxulSi saqarTvelos Cabmas, bunebrivi simdidreebis eqsploatacias, warmoe-
bisa da mrewvelobis aRorZinebis saWiroebas.
kapitalizmis ganviTarebis Sedegad qveynis mamoZravebeli fuli Seiqmna, is
gaxda yovlisSemZle, fetiSi. samarTlis, patiosnebis, niWisa da sxvaTa sazomad
fulia miCneuli, yvelaferi fulzea damokidebuli da fuliTve izomeba. es kar-
gad esmis g. wereTels da mis personaJebs, rac naCvenebia baxvas magaliTze. sanam
fuli hqonda, kaci iyo baxva, sazogadoeba mowiwebiT ekideboda. Semoelia fuli
da loT CarCad gadaiqca mis adre pativismcemelTa TvalSi.
marTalia, fulianma baxvam samarTali ver daadgina, mteri ver daasjevina
ise, rogorc mas undoda. ajobes am mxriv, daiCagra kidevac, magram es aixsneba
imiTac, rom kapitalizmma jer kidev ver daZlia Cveni qveynis feodaluri yofisa
da biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis zRudeebi. Tumca cxadia isic, rom
baxvaseuli samarTlis dadgenaSi, ieremias mokvlaSi, mainc fulma Seasrula ar-
sebiTi roli.
marTalia, baxva daiRupa rogorc pirovneba, magram misi daRupviT ar daRu-
pula sistema, ar Secvlila kapitalizmis ganviTarebis principi. asparezs Camos-
cilda mxolod misi erT-erTi warmomadgeneli.
baxvas biZaSvili nestora, romelic `kunZebisa da simindis vaWrobaSi monawi-
led hyavda Seyvanili~, ikavebs baxvas adgils, agrZelebs baxvas dawyebul saqmes.
aseve agrZeleben am saqmes baxvas saqmis mimdevarni — farna da sxva noqrebi da
vaWrebi.
ara fizikurad, aramed ideuri miswrafebiT baxva maSin daiRupa, roca man
vaWrobas, aReb-micemobas mianeba Tavi da SurisZiebis grZnobiT gamsWvalulma
daiwyo samarTlis Zebna esmas mkvlelis, baxvas ojaxisa da saqmianobis damRupve-
lis ieremiasaTvis samagieros gadasaxdelad, magram ver ipova samarTali. Tumca
baxvas TiTqos ar daukargavs imedi da amitomac ambobs kidevac: `roca ieremias
cimbirisaken gavistumreb, iseve vaWrobis saqmes Sevudgebi~. es iyo ukanaskneli
gaazreba baxva fulavas dakarguli mdgomareobis aRdgenisaTvis.

168
roca sasamarTlom ieremias Tormeti wlis katorRa miusaja, baxvam Sveba ig-
rZno: `baxva fulavam ieremias gansjis Semdeg saSineli mZime tvirTi moixsna zur-
gidan. igi suliT damSvidda, daamda~. magram xanmokle aRmoCnda baxvas damSvideba.
umaRlesi sasamarTlos did moxelesTan validas gaarSiyebis Semdeg katorRamis-
jili ieremia gaaTavisufles. baxvas imedebi sabolood CaiZira. baxvam dakarga yo-
velgvari rwmena marTlmsajulebisa. amis Semdeg baxvam gamonaxa sxva gza — gza pi-
radi Surisgebisa. gadawyvita TviTon daedo msjavri ieremiasaTvis. gadawyveti-
leba sisruleSic moiyvana. es faqti `pirveli nabijis~ bolo striqonebSi mTeli
simZafriTaa gamoxatuli.
baxvas xanjliT gangmiruli ieremia sisxlSi curavs. baxva doinjSemoyrili
dgas, gaqcevas ar kadrulobs da qveyanas amcnobs: `samarTali gavaCine, samarTa-
li! qveyanam ar maRirsa samarTali da me TviTon gavaCine... ai, axla gavcocxldi!
me axla gavxdi uwindeli baxva... amieridan saca unda viyo, yvelgan baxva merqmeva
da qudic Tavze mexureba~.1
marTalia, savaWro-savaxSo kapitalis ganviTarebis suraTebi pirvelad qar-
Tul mwerlobaSi g. erisTavisa da l. ardazianis SemoqmedebaSi gamoCnda, magram g.
wereTlis `pirveli nabiji~ sruliad axali etapia. am mxriv g. erisTavis komedieb-
Si mxolod savaxSo kapitalis pirveli Casaxvisa da ganviTarebis suraTebia naCve-
nebi. rac Seexeba l. ardazians, man farTod gviCvena savaWro da savaxSo kapitalis
ganviTarebis garkveuli safexuri, magram ar yofila warmodgenili iseTi rTuli
operaciebi, romelTac baxva fulava awarmoebda. mejRanuaSvili CarCia, mevaxSeo-
biT SemozRuduli. baxva farTo aReb-micemobis ferxulSia Cabmuli. baxvas moqme-
deba mTel saqarTvelos moicavs TiTqmis. rkinigzis farTo qselis Cveneba, miTiTe-
ba qalaqebze — foTi, Tbilisi, baqo, baxvas saqonliT datvirTuli gemebi foTSi,
sxvadasxva saqonlis maRaziebi mzadebaa didi mrewvelobisaTvis. amitomac g. wereT-
lis Semoqmedeba, da kerZod `pirveli nabiji~, Tematikuri arsis ideuri gadawyveti-
lebis TvalsazrisiT, Cveni sinamdvilis sruliad axali safexuria. baxvas komersan-
tuli operaciebi axali movlenaa qarTul literaturaSi.

***

kapitalizmis ganviTarebis Sedegad Tavadaznauroba gaRatakebisa da zneob-


rivi daqveiTebis gzas daadga. axali urTierTobis damkvidrebas Tan mohyva axa-
li cxovrebis garTulebuli moTxovnilebani. gaCnda fufunebis sxvadasxva saqo-
neli, Tavadaznauroba TiTqos ukan ar ixevs, magram misi Semosavali ver faravs
gasavals, iqmneba mwvave mdgomareoba.
didi mamulis, uzarmazari ezo-saxlkarisa da samasi komli ymis patroni iyo
erT dros Tavadi TavqfilaZe. `aba, vin mosTvlis, ramdeni warCinebuli lxini gadax-
dila am ganier ezoSi! ise dReoba rogor Caivlida, rom aq sami Tu oTxi Zroxa mainc
ar dakluliyo, sami Tu oTxi sapalne Rvino erT ijraze ar daleuliyo... `2 magram
gaqra didebisa da bednierebis dReebi. gauqmda batonymoba. Tu aqamde `samasi kom-
lis naWirnaxulevi am dids ojaxSi dauSreteli simdidris wyaroT hqonda~, didi
socialuri cvlilebebis Sedegad `dRes es siuxvis wyaro damSrala~. raki Sinaymebi
gamoecala, Sromas miuCveveli Tavadi TavqfilaZe qalaqSi gadasaxlda, magram iq
ufro rTuli Seiqna cxovreba. axali drois moTxovnilebiT yvelafers fuli das-
Wirda, fuli, kapitalizmis epoqis kerpi. TavqfilaZis ojaxi didkacobasa da xel-

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 433-434.
2
iqve, gv. 241.
169
gaSlil cxovrebas ar iSlida, `saswavlebelSi gamozrdili misi qalebi axal modebs
ayolodnen, ar iklebdnen balebs, piknikebs da maskaradebs~.
TavqfilaZis vaJebma swavlaze guli aicrues da `mieCvien sastumroebSi Tre-
vasa da banqos TamaSs~. aseTsa da amden xarjvas TavqfilaZis mamulis Semosavali,
ra Tqma unda, ver dafaravda. Tavadma TavqfilaZem mevaxSeebisagan didi procen-
tiT sesxis aReba daiwyo. ver uSvela am sesxebmac. bolos mTeli misi mamuli da
saxl-kari bankSi daagirava, ris Sedegadac moxda is, rom Tavadma TavqfilaZem
gazeT `droebis~ erT-erT nomerSi sruliad moulodnelad amoikiTxa: `Tavadis
TavqfilaZis adgilmamuli, ezo da saxl-kari isyideba bankSi saerTo vaWrobiT,
sargeblis Seutanlobis gamo~.1 tragikuli iyo moxuci nabatonarisaTvis aseTi
ambis gagoneba, miT ufro, rom mdgomareoba gamouvali Canda.
SeZlebuli Tavadis odesRac didebuli ezo, saxl-kari da mTeli mamuli saja-
ro vaWrobiT SeiZina baxva fulavam, feodalis nasaxlarze cxovreba axleburad
moawyo.
rac Seexeba ieremia warbas, `pirveli nabijis~ erT-erT mTavar gmirs, misi qce-
viT g. wereTelma mkafiod gviCvena daRupvis gzaze damdgari Tavadaznaurobis war-
momadgenlis saxe. ieremia warbas saxeSi naCvenebia yvela is uaryofiTi Tviseba, rac
damaxasiaTebelia uSromel cxovrebas miCveul socialuri wris warmomadgenel-
TaTvis. ieremias cxovrebis aRweriT mwerali sinamdviles ise xatavs, rom gmiris
mTeli moqmedeba mkiTxvelSi zizRs iwvevs.
mowafeobis pirveli periodis damTavrebis Semdeg ieremiam dakarga WeSmari-
ti adamianuri Rirseba. bavSvobis wlebis Semdeg ieremias saxe mweralma warmog-
vidgina, rogorc sazogadoebisaTvis gamousadegari adamiani, magram mefis moxe-
leebis mfarvelobiT ieremia yovelTvis axerxebs sapatio adgilis dakavebas, da-
naSaulis Cadenis Semdeg dausjeli rCeba. g. wereTelma ieremias saxiT gvaCvena
sinamdvile, uaryofiT sinamdviled, da uaryofiTi xasiaTis gmirs saTanado ga-
naCenic gamoutana, misi cxovrebis istoriac gagvacno.
jer kidev gimnaziaSi yofnis dros ieremia warba dauaxlovda swavlaze gu-
lacruebul amxanagebs, romlebmac misi meTaurobiT daiwyes saeWvo cxovreba.
gimnaziidan garicxvis Semdeg aTasi cudi xma dadioda quTaisSi ieremias yofaq-
cevis gamo. `erTxel gavarda xma, rom s. zeganas erTi mdidari mRvdeli yofila.
imas lamazi qali hyolia, mRvdlis ojaxi gaucarcvavT da qali gauupatiurebia-
To. avazakebis moTave yofila ieremiao. am saqmis gulisaTvis ieremia ramdenime
Tve kidec iyo datyvevebuli satusaRoSi~.2 amieridan iwyeba ieremias avazakuri
saqcielis, yaCaRuri moqmedebis grZeli istoria. g. wereTelmac ieremias bavSvo-
bis, siWabukisa da, rac mTavaria, saTanado Tvaltanadobis gamomxatveli gvari —
warba ar akmara da gaavazakebis Semdeg meore gvaric miaSvela — firaliZe. mwe-
ralma gvaris epiTeturi SinaarsiT gamoxata ieremias yaCaRuri buneba.
ieremias quTaisSi aRar edgomeboda, man foTSi gadainacvla. igi Sevida samxed-
ro samsaxurSi — cxenosan miliciaSi, romelic foTSi idga da zRvis sanapiroebs
icavda kontrabandistebisagan. magram ieremiam TviTon daiwyo kontrabandistTa
mfarveloba, meqrTameoba, uweso cxovreba. igi foTSi ufro metad gairyvna.
`RviniT SeJinJRilebuli~, utifari ieremia pirvelad foTSi Sexvda esmas
pirveli maisobis dResaswaulze da Seuracxyofa miayena gasarTobad mosul
xalxs, esmas, baxvas. es dRe gaxda esmas cxovrebis sabediswero mizezi. aqedan iwy-
ebs ieremia fiqrs imaze, Tu rogor Seasxas xorci Tavis mzakvrul zraxvebs.
esmas mokvlis Semdeg is gadavida TbilisSi, Tavi Seafara silamaziT gan-
Tqmul, zneobrivad maxinj validas. kacismkvleli yaCaRi, garyvnili da uzneo ie-

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 243.
2
iqve, gv. 327.
170
remia validas meSveobiT samxedro samsaxurSi Cairicxa. marTalia, ieremia daeca
moralurad, magram mweralma mTlad ar waSala mis arsebaSi adamianuri niSanwya-
li; ieremias awuxebs, rom umanko esma mokla. am ambis mogoneba aforiaqebs mis
suls. `im Ramis Semdeg Cemi sicocxle ganaxevrebulia, Cemi guli kupris morevia,
gvel-bayayiT avsebuli. me aw raRam unda manugeSos?.. mSvidobiT aw mosvenebav,
mSvidobiT siamovnebav...~1
Tu ieremia warba xandaxan sinanuliT igonebda esmas sikvdils, Tbilisis maRa-
li sazogadoebis gacnobis Semdeg sruliad dakarga yovelgvari adamianuri Rir-
sebis niSanwyali. daaviwyda esma da Tavisi danaSauli. igi xedavda, rom mkvleloba,
Ralati, meqrTameoba samarTliT ar isjeboda. aman ufro waaTamama igi. is dar-
wmunda, rom yvela didi moxele danaSauls Cadioda, magram aravin ar sjida. Tu
mfarveli gyavs, rac ginda is qeni da, ai, ieremiamac gaiCina mfarveli, silamaziT
ganTqmuli validas saxiT.
epoqis viTareba, fuladi meurneobis ganviTarebiT gamowveuli cvlilebebi
garkveul gavlenas axdenen cxovrebis zedapirze amotivtivebul uzneo ieremia
warba-firaliZeze. jer erTi, ieremia CaerTo rTul kontrabandistul kombina-
ciebSi, didZal fuls gamokra xeli polkis mommarageblad yofnis dros, dabo-
los, gaxda Tbilisis savaWro klubis wevri.
ieremias gaucruvda molodini, gamdidrebisa da uzrunveli cxovrebis nac-
vlad katorRisaken uCvenes gza, rogorc kacismkvlels, magram sakmarisia gaqni-
li validas gaarSiyeba umaRlesi sasamarTlos wevrebTan da ieremias sasjelis-
gan anTavisufleben. aq sainteresoa ara marto validas da ieremias pirovneba,
aramed mefis ruseTis marTlmsajulebis xasiaTi. aseTi mfarvelobis gamo iyo,
rom ieremia yovel Rames dawolis win validas suraTs akocebda xolme da ase mi-
marTavda: `Sen rom ara, vin icis, me axla sad viqnebodi, iqneba madnebis muSaobaSi
suli amomZroboda~. valida ifaravda ieremias imitom, rom igi misi garyvnilebis
mesaidumle iyo.
ieremiam daRupa ara marto Tavisi Tavi, aramed esma, baxva da mravali sxvac.
mweralma ieremia warbas pirovnebaSi gviCvena cxovrebidan gariyuli qarTveli
Tavadaznaurobis warmomadgenlis mkafiod gamoxatuli tipuri saxe. `ieremia
warba erT-erTi yvelaze damajerebeli da reliefurad daxatuli tipia mecxra-
mete saukunis qarTul literaturaSi~.2

***

kapitalizaciis procesis suraTis daxatvisa da Tavadaznaurobis gaRatake-


ba-daqveiTebis CvenebasTan erTad g. wereTlis fxizel Tvals ar gamohparvia bi-
urokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis moxeleebis uxamsi saqcieli, romelic
ase damajerebladaa warmodgenili `pirvel nabijSi~.
carizmis mmarTvelobis sistema ryvnida adamians, aCvevda meqrTameobas, usa-
marTlobas da aTasgvar borotebas. mefis moxele xels iRebda yvela adamianur
Rirsebaze da piradi interesebiT amoqmedebuli yovelgvar umsgavso saqmes kad-
rulobda.
`pirvel nabijSi~ gaqnili adamianebis ori jgufia saintereso: a) boqauli
jgirkoCa, veqilebi: wunkala da sivila; b) polkovniki lebovi, valida, umaRlesi
sasamarTlos wevrebi da sxva didi moxeleebi.

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 344-345.
2
g . q i q o Z e , etiudebi da portretebi, 1958, gv. 180.
171
boqauli jgirkoCa gaiZvera moxelea, romelmac baxva fulavas mier ieremia
warbasTvis miyenebuli Wrilobis ambavi gangeb gaazviada, moimizeza policmeis-
teris Careva da umniSvnelo saqme baxvas metad garTulebulad moaCvena. jgirko-
Cam daarwmuna baxva gansacdels agacdeno. yovelive es naangariSevi iyo fulis
gamosatyueblad. gaqnilma policielma baxva gaaba maxeSi da samasi maneTi qrTami
igdo xelSi. `ai bismarkis Subli~ — wamoiZaxa gamarjvebulma jgirkoCam da amayad
gaiar-gamoiara oTaxSi; `ocdaaTi Tumani avswapne~ — warmoTqva jgirkoCam nasia-
movnebi xmiT da papirosi gaabola.
unda aRiniSnos, rom boqaul jgirkoCas da baxvas saubris scena, baxvas gu-
lubryviloba didi samarTliTaa gadmocemuli. amas isic emateba, rom saxeli
jgirkoCa ironiulia Sinaarseulad. jgirkoCa megruli sityvaa da karg kacs niS-
navs, boqauli ki gaqeqili meqrTamea. maSasadame, am sityvis forma da Sinaarsi ar
Seesabameba gamosaxatav azrs, rac ironiisTvisaa Cveuli.
didi STamomavlobis mTavarmarTeblis ojaxis axlobeli polkovniki lebovi
amoraluri adamiania; misTvis `qalia tkbileuloba, kacisaTvis gaCenili. me miy-
vars es tkbileuloba da ise gauznevebuli var, rom arc erT uzneo bavSvs ar Ca-
movuvardebi tirilSi, oRond ki es muraba viSovno~.1 es gancxadeba gamoxatavs
lebovis cxovrebis azrs. Tumca moxucebulma lebovma colad SeirTo valida,
magram Tvali mainc sxvisken eWira, radgan `misTvis siyvaruli maisis vardis kre-
fad iyo gadaqceuli~. `lamazi qali inglisis punSi ariso~, ityoda lebovi. `kacis
dRiur varamSi is gaCenila mxolod sisxlis asaRelveblad, Ronis mosakrefaT.
vardic vargia, sanam norCia, surnelovani da feri wasvlia. roca daWkneba, Semdeg
axali kokori unda eZebovo~.2 es moraluri kodeqsi tipuria mefis moxeleebisa da
maRali wris warmomadgenelTaTvis.
biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri wris zneobrivi dacemuloba naTlad Cans im `da-
rigebaSi~, romelsac validas aZlevs misi dedobili: `... colqmroba da namdvili
siyvaruli Sori-Sors aris erTmaneTze. qalisaTvis qmari saxelia da zneobis fa-
ri...Tu qmari ar SeiSnobs umanko gulis erTgulebas, vai mis gunebas!.. Sen xar gva-
riSvilobiT da warCinebuli damokidebulebiT — lebovis meuRle, sazogadoebi-
sagan dafasebuli da mTavarmarTeblis karze miRebuli... amas Semdeg TviT Senzea
damokidebuli Seni bedniereba... lebovma, nekresis qarebiT Sepyrobilma beberma
kacma, rac unda, isa hqnas... Sen ra?.. ecade Sens siamovnebas, oRond, xerxianad mo-
iqeci, rom sazogadoebis TvalSi Sens garegans yofaqcevas Cirqi aravin mosdos...
Cvens sawolTan vis ra saqme aqvs?...~3 am darigebaSi mweralma gamoxata did moxe-
leTa da mmarTvelobis warmomadgenelTa ojaxebis zneobrivi mrwamsi.
gamzrdelisa da dedobilisagan aseTi zneobrivi rCevis miRebis Semdeg vali-
dam axali gziT warmarTa Tavisi cxovreba. `trfialebaSi is eZebda raime nivTiers
sargeblobas. misTvis sul erTi iyo patiosani kaci, gind avazaki, meqrTame, mruSi,
xazinis qurdi da samarTlis damarRveveli, mxcovani, gind Wabuki, oRond igi misi
nebis morCili yofiliyo da, rasac daasaqmebda, aesrulebina~.4
am gziT validam didi saxeli da gavlena moipova. yvela warCinebuli fexTa
mtvrad gaixada. amitom axerxebda igi yvela saeWvo saqmis mogvarebas. arSiyobiT
daatyveva umaRlesi sasamarTlos wevri da gaaTavisuflebina kacismkvleli ie-
remia warba.
garda validas imedisa, ieremia warbam `axla sxvagvari zneobiTi Rone moica,
bevri ram axali Seityo Tbilisis didkacobis cxovrebidan: zogs colis mkvle-
loba braldeboda, zogs yalbi fulebis moWra, zogs yalbi anderZiT auracxeli

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 360.
2
iqve.
3
iqve, gv. 384-385.
4
iqve, gv. 385.
172
qonebis miTviseba, zogs saidumlo mkvleloba, romlis gamo ubralo kacebi daus-
jiaT, TviT mkvlelebs ki sapatio adgilebi eWiraT dResac sazogadoebaSi~.1
aseTi viTarebiT damSvidebuli ieremia advilad moeloda sasjelisagan ga-
Tavisuflebas. molodini gaumarTlda, meore mxriv, baxva fulavam dakarga yo-
velgvari imedi marTlmsajulebisa da roca amaSi sabolood darwmunda, ganaCeni
borotmoqmedebas TviTonve gamoutana.
rogorc vxedavT, `pirveli nabijiT~ kapitalizmis ganviTarebasa da Tavadaz-
naurobis daqveiTebasTan erTad, mZime sacenzuro pirobebis miuxedavad, osta-
turadaa naCvenebi biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis aparatis gaxrwna,
samxedro da samoqalaqo moxeleebis usamarTloba, garyvnileba, amoralizmi.

***

nawarmoebSi yuradRebas ipyrobs ara marto Tematikuri aqtualoba da Sina-


arseuli simarTle, aramed misi mxatvruli qsovili, sinamdvilis emociurad ga-
mosaxvis xerxebi da saSualebani.
`pirveli nabijis~ umTavresi kompoziciuri Taviseburebaa siuJetis parale-
lurad gaSlis xerxi, rac did SesaZleblobas iZleva farTod iqnes naCvenebi si-
namdvilis sxvadasxva mxare, cxovrebis rTuli Sinaarsi, mravalferovneba. es Se-
saZlebloba mwerals moxdenilad aqvs gamoyenebuli da monaTesave ambebis mxat-
vruli gamTlianebiT, nawarmoebi Sekrulia kompoziciurad, Tema ki gadawyveti-
lia maRalostatobiT.
nawarmoebi kompoziciurad isea agebuli, rom ambis Txroba ar midis pirdapi-
ri gziT. xSirad momdevno Tavi ar warmoadgens wina Tavis gagrZelebas, es ki siax-
les da mkiTxvelis dainteresebas iwvevs. aris SemTxveva, roca ambis ganviTare-
biT iqmneba situacia, romlis mixedviT Sedegis gaTvaliswinebaa SesaZlebeli.
winaswari mixvedris es SesaZlebloba mwerals ise aqvs mxatvrulad mofiqrebu-
li, rom mkiTxvelis interesi nawarmoebisadmi ki ar neldeba, aramed Zlierdeba
kidec.
g. wereTlis SemoqmedebisaTvis niSandoblivia ambis ganviTarebis Cveneba mo-
ulodnelobis xerxiT, riTac saWiro mxatvruli efeqtia miRweuli. moulodne-
li kompoziciuri svlebi Txrobas sainteresos xdis.
ambis moulodneli gziT ganviTarebis SemTxvevebi gvxvdeba rogorc `pirvel
nabijSi~, ise g. wereTlis sxva nawarmoebSic. magram es umTavresad gamowveulia
ambis siuJetis gaSlis kompoziciuri saWiroebiT. am TvalsazrisiT `pirvel na-
bijSi~ ori momentia saintereso: erTi — savaWro klubis wevrobis gareSe ieremi-
asTvis mouxerxebeli iyo avetiqas qaliSvilis gacnoba da avetiqas ojaxTan daax-
loeba; meore — niSnobis Rames ieremias dasapatimreblad boqaulis gamocxadeba
amZafrebs ambis ganviTarebas, iZleva moqmedebis gamwvavebis SesaZleblobas da
aZlierebs mkiTxvelis interess. am dapatimrebis Semdeg naCvenebi unda iqnes ka-
cismkvlel ieremias gaTavisufleba umaRlesi marTlmsajulebis mier. aseTi
kompoziciuri Canafiqri xels uwyobs mwerals, mkafiod aCvenos mkiTxvel sazo-
gadoebas Cinovnikuri aristokratiis qceva da marTlmsajulebis xasiaTi.
g. wereTels emarjveba kontrasti da dapirispirebac, riTac qmnis naTel
warmodgenas ama Tu im gmirze Tu movlenaze. am mxriv sayuradReboa, rogorc
kontrasti da dapirispireba: baxva — ieremia; esma — valida; esmas deda salome —
validas dedobili da sxv.

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 364.
173
g. wereTels saerTod exerxeba mwvave socialuri dapirispirebis mxatvruli
Cveneba. es Cveneba Sepirobebulia gmirebis socialuri miswrafebis kontrastiT.
socialuri sinamdvile aRsavsea winaaRmdegobiT. am winaaRmdegobaSi moqceuli
gmirebis mdgomareoba xSirad gamouvalia da sicocxle tragikuli. am Tvalsaz-
risiT sainteresoa baxvas, esmas, salomes, ieremias, givisa da sxvaTa cxovreba.
`pirveli nabijis~ siuJetis ganviTarebas axlavs rTuli dramatuli konfliq-
tebi, romelic tragikulobaSi gadadis xolme, magram mwerali xelovnuri efeqtis
xerxs, romantikul TamaSs ki ar mimarTavs, aramed ambis ganviTareba Cveulebrivad
mihyavs namdvil, cocxal viTarebaSi; sinamdvilis mxatvruli gansaxierebis gamo
konfliqtebi da tragizmi nawarmoebSi bunebrivadaa warmodgenili.
g. wereTeli Rrmad swvdeba gmiris sulis moZraobis siRrmes. misTvis Seuc-
nobeli ar rCeba personaJis gancdis arc erTi niuansi. movigonoT: erTi mxriv,
esmasa da, meore mxriv, baxvas Cafiqreba pirveli maisis dResaswaulidan dabru-
nebis Semdeg, esmasa da baxvas siyvarulis gancdebi da naTeli gaxdeba mwerlis
fsiqologiuri wvdomis Zala.
g. wereTeli `pirvel nabijSi~ ara marto rTuli socialuri viTarebis fons
gvixatavs, sazogadoebrivi diferenciaciiT gamowveul mwvave konfliqtebs
gviCvenebs, aramed gmirTa saTuT sulier samyaroSi gvaxedebs da zogjer liri-
kulad gvamcnobs personaJTa Rrma adamianur gancdebsa da ganwyobilebas.
publicisturi aqcentuaciis miuxedavad, g. wereTlisaTvis ucxo araa Rrma
emociuri damokidebuleba sinamdvilisadmi. igi Tavis gmirTa ara marto moqmede-
bas, qcevasa da xasiaTebs gviCvenebs, aramed gvixatavs mimzidvel portretebs,
Tvaltanadobas, Sinagan sulier Tvisebebs. zogjer yovelive es ramdenime Strixi-
Taa warmodgenili.
g. wereTeli gmiris portretis daxatvis, personaJis garegnuli Tu Sinagani
niSan-Tvisebis gadmocemis, saerTo aRweris Cinebuli ostatia.
personaJis mxatvruli daxasiaTebis, Semkobis — qebis Tu Zagebis, upiratesi sity-
vieri saSualeba epiTeti da Sedarebaa. g. wereTeli orives Cinebulad iyenebs. g. we-
reTlis mier met-naklebadaa naxmari gamosaxvis TiTqmis yvela sityvieri forma. am-
denad, mwerlis poetikuri stilistikis sfero mravalferovania, mdidari da sxar-
tia. gansakuTrebiT iTqmis es tropul metyvelebaze, romelic qmnis g. wereTlis sam-
werlo enis eqspresiulobas, Rrma emociurobas.
g. wereTeli iyenebs poeturi enis yvela saxes, raTa sinamdvile maRalmxatvru-
lad warmogvidginos. magram `pirvel nabijSi~ epiTeti warmmarTvelis rolSia. es
gasagebicaa. radganac mwerali exeba aqtualur socialur problemebs, bunebri-
via, unda daaxasiaTos sazogadoebrivi sinamdvile, am sinamdvilis gamomxatveli
adamianebi.
g. wereTeli mimarTavda gapirovnebasac, movlenisa da sagnis gaadamianebas, cxo-
velTa da mcenareTa samyaros adamianuri TvisebiT warmodgenas. am xerxis gamoyeneba
`pirvel nabijSi~ iwvevs warmodgenisa da gaazrebis sferos gafarToebas.

***

g. wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia bunebas. lamazi da


warmtacia igi TavisTavad, magram cxadia, rom ufro warmtacia mwerlis TvaliT
danaxuli peizaJebi. am warmtacobas is afermkrTalebs, rom socialuri cxovre-
baa mouwyobeli. amis gamo yovelTvis ar emTxveva bunebis sidiade da simSvide
personaJis sulier mdgomareobas.

174
ieremia warbas daWris Semdeg mZime fiqrebSia garTuli baxva. mware gancdebi
awvalebs mas, mkiTxveli grZnobs baxvas sulier tkivilebs, magram buneba am dros
mSvidi da Cveulebisamebr zviadia. `mze gadaweuli iyo dasavleTisaken. misi Suqi
oqrosfraT Rebavda are-mares, Sors zRvis kandeli da dasavleTisaken miqceuli
fanjris SuSebi ise prialebdnen, TiTqos cecxlis ali mosdebodeT, Savi zRva
laJvardis fraT iwva Tavis kalapotSi da bumberazsaviT CasZineboda. mis Zils
ar akrTobda arc kacebis xmauroba, arc samxedro musikis griali... ar SeakrTobs
spilos Zils koRoebis wuwuni~.1
sxva SemTxvevaSi buneba fonia da ara TanamgrZnobi. is ver ayuCebs gmiris tki-
vilebs, ver amSvidebs mis suls: `mze daiwura dasavleTiT, caze alisferi atlasi
gaekra da bumberazi qeCo narinjisfrad SeiReba. buneba damtkbari, damyudrebu-
li iyo; mxoloT ar iyo damtkbari da dayuCebuli baxvas gulisTqmebi. mis gul-
gvamSi da tvinSi iyo saSineli qartexili, aRZruli sxvadasxva Savis fiqrebisa-
gan, mis guls gahqonda bagabugi; gaSmagebuli sisxlis zvirTebi tans rom ver da-
etia, TavSi avardnoden, iq upirebdnen kefis axeTqas da gadmoTxevas~.2
mwerlis mier daxatuli bunebis simSveniere ver umsubuqebs baxvas gulis dar-
debs, ver gamohyavs igi siyvarulis buranidan. cota xniTac ver daiviwya baxvam mi-
si mwveli esma bunebis didebul wiaRSic; `misi saxe baxvas ar Sordeboda, misi
cocxali suraTi baxvasaTvis is iagundis kvercxi iyo, romelic mzeWabuks win ugo-
ravda. arc es mSvenieri, didebuli buneba, arc texuris Sxuili, arc TviT misi Savi
bedauris amayi tareba da Semaqcevari gaxtom-gamoxtoma ar aviwyebda esmas sinar-
nares, romelic am dros mis gonebis Tvalebs Tilismis kvercxiviT win miugorav-
da. mas mudam Tvalwin edga esmas lazaTiani TamaSi, misi mercxliseburi navardoba,
misi mwyeruli gogmani, misi seriozuli xma da Congurze ganazebiT damRereba~.3
buneba arc sxva SemTxvevaSia `pirvel nabijSi~ gmiris mSveleli, damxmare,
ubedurebis winaTmgrZnobi, personaJis TanamgrZnobi. socialuri winaaRmdego-
biT gamowveul wuxils veras Svelis buneba, sazogadoebrivi borotebisagan ver
hkurnavs, veravis Svelis. socialuri konfliqti Tavisi gziT midis, SeiZleba
imitomac, rom sazogadoeba da buneba sxvadasxva kanonebiT moqmedeben. magram
al. yazbegis, vaJa-fSavelas da sxvaTa gmirebs xom uTanagrZnobs buneba, efarde-
ba personaJis sulier mRelvarebas, g. wereTeli ki yovelTvis ar amyarebs axlo
urTierTobas personaJsa da bunebas Soris.
g. wereTeli adamianis Rrma fsiqologiuri gancdebis gadmocemis, rTuli soci-
aluri konfliqtebis Cvenebis garda, bunebis suraTebis warmtacad xatvis ostati-
caa. kidev erTi mniSvnelovani detali. sizmari literaturaSi Zalian xSirad gamo-
yenebulia rogorc simboluri miniSneba. g. wereTelma moxerxebulad CaurTo baxvas
sizmari, romelmac mkiTxvels agrZnobina winaswar, simbolurad miuTiTa mosalod-
nel ubedurebaze. magram es miTiTeba pirdapiri ki araa — qaragmulia, savaraudebe-
lia. amitom mkiTxvelic ar Rebulobs am sizmars, rogorc aSkara winaTgrZnobas,
magram Sedegis garkvevis Semdeg grZnobs mxolod mis Zalas.
rac Seexeba `pirveli nabijis~ enas, igi gamarTulia literaturulad, magram am
nawarmoebSi mainc ismis imeruli dialeqti.
magaliTad: SeCurTul wvivebs, gamosinkulia, sxapvas TamaSobda, eSmakma amatu-
ra, ufro uReldeboda, xmali vkvevkve TavSi, fuli bJiriviT eyara jibeSi da sxv. is-
mis agreTve avetika sovdagris kiloc: zaxrumal, razboiniki da sxv. magram yvela es
elementi umTavresad moCans personaJis saubarSi. amiT mwerals unda, uCvenos per-
sonaJis yofis kolorituloba, esec rom ar iyos, amgvari gamoTqmebi imdenad umniS-
vneloa, rom sruliad ar bRalavs nawarmoebis enas da stils. dialeqtis ena aqa-iq
1
g . w e r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 251.
2
iqve.
3
iqve, gv. 271.
175
ismis mwerlis metyvelebaSic, magram igi imdenad mcirea, rom `pirveli nabijis~ ena
ar imsaxurebs sayvedurs. arc TiTo-orola barbarizmi asustebs nawarmoebis mxat-
vrul Rirsebas.
`pirveli nabiji~ g. wereTlis farTo mxatvruli tiloebidan gamoirCeva enob-
rivi daxvewilobiT. Tu `mgzavris wignebi~ mwerlis pirveli nawarmoebi iyo da ga-
moqveynda im dros, roca axali saliteraturo ena arc ki iyo sabolood dadgenili,
xolo `gulqanis~ saboloo redaqciis gakeTeba cnobili mizezebis gamo avtoris si-
cocxleSi ver moxerxda, `pirveli nabiji~ daiwera da gamoqveynda mwerlis mowifu-
lobis xanaSi, ris gamoc am nawarmoebze gulisxmieri muSaobis didi SesaZlebloba
hqonda. Sedegic sasurveli aRmoCnda.
cxovrebis Rrma codna, aRweris sizuste, yofa-cxovrebis saintereso detale-
bis kolorituli Cveneba g. wereTlis beletristuli niWis niSandoblivi Tvisebe-
bia. `pirvelma nabijma~ avtors didi prozaikosis saxeli daumkvidra qarTul mwer-
lobaSi. ar aris gadaWarbebuli, roca amboben: `beletristikaSi g. wereTelma Rrma
kvali gaavlo da veravinRa da verc veraferi veRar waSlis am kvals... amis metic rom
ara gaekeTebia ra g. wereTels, esec sakmao iyo, rom igi yvela qarTvelisaTvis, vid-
re qarTvelobs, sacnauri iyos~.1
Tanadroulobis xazgasma, ideuri gaazrebis simaxvile, mimzidveli Sinaarsi, si-
namdvilis Cvenebis kolorituloba, cocxali ena, mxatvruli komponentebis poetu-
ri mTlianoba, rac damaxasiaTebelia g. wereTlis SemoqmedebisaTvis da, kerZod,
`pirveli nabijisaTvis~, g. wereTels klasikosi mwerlis saxels uqmnis qarTul li-
teraturaSi.

moTxrobebi

Tu g. wereTlis romanebSi pirdapir aris naCvenebi kapitalizmis ganviTare-


bisa da naturaluri yofis rRvevis procesi, moTxrobebSi es movlena warmodge-
nilia kapitalizmis ganviTarebaze uSualo miTiTebis gareSe. suraTebi isea da-
xatuli, rom igulisxmeba batonymobis gauqmeba, fuladi meurneobis ganviTare-
bas daurRvevia feodaluri yofa da amis Sedegad Tavadaznaurobis cxovreba
morRveula, dakninebula.
qarTveli Tavadaznauroba me-19 saukunis meore naxevarSi ufro metad gaRa-
takda, daqveiTda, magram umravlesobam mainc Sroma ar isurva, arc qedmaRloba
da ampartavnoba moiSala. aman ganapiroba am wodebis cxovrebis Semdgomi ganvi-
Tarebis istoriuli gza. es movlena g. wereTels SesaniSnavad aqvs naCvenebi
moTxrobebSi. maTSi odesRac warCinebuli, magram dRes daqveiTebuli, gaavazake-
buli Tu gaborotebuli adamianebis mkafiod daxatuli saxeebia warmodgenili.
garda amisa, moTxrobebis ciklSi sagangebodaa dasmuli da gaazrebuli swav-
la-aRzrdisa da ganaTlebis problema CvenSi. g. wereTeli ramdenime saintereso
moTxrobis avtoria. maT Soris yvelaze metad sayuradReboa: `Cveni cxovrebis
yvavili~, `ruxi mgeli~, `mamida asmaTi~, `RvTis wyaloba~.
`Cveni cxovrebis yvavilis~ pirveli aTi Tavi 1872 wlis Jurnal `krebulis~
ukanasknel oTx nomerSi gamoqveynda, xolo sxva danarCeni Tavebi imave `krebu-
lis~ 1873 wlis pirvel da meore nomerSi daibeWda.
moTxrobas mkiTxveli sazogadoebis cxoveli interesi gamouwvevia. cnobili
pedagogi da mwignobari ilia feraZe g. wereTels swerda: `swored erTi kviris
win Cems wignTsacavSi vnaxe Seni Txzuleba `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~, romelic
Turme jer arc ki wamikiTxavs me!.. movkide xeli, wavikiTxe erTxel, wavikiTxe meo-
red... xelis aReba ar mindoda...didi STabeWdileba moaxdina man Cems arsebazed...

1
g. wereTlis dasaflavebisadmi miZRvnili krebuli, 1900, gv. 93. i. fancxavas sityva.
176
Cemi samagistro Txzulebis weras Tavi mivanebe, Seni Txzuleba rom wavikiTxe...
minda Rirseuli fasi davsdo am Zvirfass ganZs Cveni mwerlobisas... daxe Cems uvi-
cobas! aqamdis ar wamikiTxavs Turme ra saunje yofila Cvens literaturaSi. ram-
deni kiTxvebi aRmiZra da gadamiSala Tvalwin Senis Txzulebis wakiTxvam da Ses-
wavlam~.1 aRniSnul Txzulebaze maRali Sexedulebisaa Cveni Tanamedrove litera-
turaTmcodneobac. g. wereTlis am cnobili moTxrobis ideur Sinaarss qmnis:
1. axalgazrdobis aRzrdisa da swavlebis arsebuli viTarebis Cveneba ojaxsa da
skolaSi; 2. feodaluri urTierTobis uaryofiTi mxareebis miTiTeba; 3. biurok-
ratiuli mmarTvelobis saganmanaTleblo sistemis ugunuri xasiaTi, xalxis pat-
riotuli grZnobis Seuracxyofa Cinovnikebis mier.
am nawarmoebis saTauriTac mJRavndeba mwerlis mizandasaxuloba, saocnebo
survilebi, momavlis rwmena da saTuTi damokidebuleba axal Taobisadmi. moce-
mulia swavla-aRzrdis arsebuli sistemis gaSlili kritika.
moTxrobis mTavari gmiri dito qvelaZe nebivrad izrdeboda mamis ojaxSi.
didi da patara yvela misi neba-survilis aRmsrulebeli iyo. patara ditos ara-
erTxel dautuqsavs, uwvalebia Sinaymebi Tu mosamsaxureebi, maT Soris misTvis
Zalian sayvareli Tornike kvimataZec. es zviadi da TviTneba ymawvili Seiyvanes
skolaSi. nebivrad aRzrdil ditosTvis pirveli dRidanve mZime Seiqna Cinovni-
kuri skolis aRzrdis uxeSi wesebi. erTi ukiduresobidan meore ukiduresobaSi
aRmoCnda igi. `dito rva saaTidan mokidebuli, Tormet saaTamdis sul fexze id-
ga. amas garda `uCiteli~ focxveriviT Camouqrolebda xolme ymawvilebs~,2 yvi-
roda ditosaTvis sruliad gaugebar sityvebs, xan amas mivardeboda, gaqoCravda,
xan imas uSiSvlebda saxazavs TavSi ise Ronivrad, rom ymawvili erTs iwivlebda
da gulwasuli mieyrdnoboda kedels. axla ki moagonda ditos saxlSi rom aSineb-
dnen: `daica skolaSi migcemT da bare oriodejer agawripinebeno~. moswavleebi-
sadmi damokidebulebis im suraTebma, romelic ditom skolaSi dainaxa, gaakeTe-
bina daskvna: `marTlac, saswavlebeli ki ara, aq sawvalebeli yofilao~.3 da ga-
dawyvita gaqceva, magram Zvirad daujda es ganzraxva. amieridan ditos ufro
mkacrad moekidnen, misi xvedri xSirad cema da `garozgva~ Seiqna. fizikur sas-
jels sxva Sedegi mohyva, bunebiT mkvircxl, niWier ditos `uCitlisagan lineikis
cemiT xelis guli gasqelebuli hqonda da am gasqelebas tvinSic ki Seetanebina
uazro, gaugebari sityvebis dazepirebisa gamo~...4
quTaisis gimnaziis mZime saaRmzrdelo wesebma, aRsazrdelisadmi policiur-
ma damokidebulebam, erTob ukacurma sasjelma `dito sul gamoalenCa~. gaugeba-
ri sityvebis zepirobam daaClunga da `bunebiT niWieri ymawvili gamodga klasSi
yvelaze uniWo~. magram misi biZis meSveobiT qarTuli wera-kiTxva iswavla, amiT
gaexsna goneba, Seecvala ganwyobileba, gamxiarulda. gaigo, rom wera-kiTxvis sa-
SualebiT sxvisi da sakuTari azrebis gadacema yofila SesaZlebeli. ucxo, gau-
gebari frazebis dazepirebiT daretianebuli dito Zlivs movida gons. gana mar-
to dito iyo aseT mdgomareobaSi? — swavlebis policiur meTods, gaugebaris ga-
ugebarive eniT dazepirebas `borkilebze da xundebze ufro magrad hqonda Sepy-
robili mTeli Cveni axalgazrdobis Wkua da mexsiereba. Zvirad Tu vinme gadarCe-
nia am borkilebs Cvens STamomavlobaSi gonebiTa da mexsierebiT dajujavebas~5 —
gadmogvcems mwerali.
uvargis saaRmzrdelo sistemas Tan erTvoda uvargisi maswavlebloba: `imaT-
Si iseTebic erien, rom `stolnaCalnikobaSi~ aTi weli emsaxurnaT da raki imedi

1
saqarTvelos ssr mecn. akademiis xelnawerTa instituti, g. wereTlis fondi, 106.
2
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. II, 1948, gv. 24.
3
iqve, gv. 25.
4
iqve, gv. 40.
5
iqve, gv. 43.
177
dahkargodaT umaRlesi adgilis miRebaze, eTxovnaT maswavlebloba q...sis gimna-
ziaSi~.1 aseTma maswavleblebma ara erTi da ori niWieri axalgazrda aacdines
gzas. am sabediswero Sedegis gamo ambobda lega: `cxra weliwadia kuziani Cem
guls Cxvletda mowamluli sityvebiT. imisma piiturma sulelobam mexsiereba
damikarga da swavlaze guli wamixdina. wignisa da sawer-kalmis danaxva WiriviT
mezareba. Txutmeti weliwadi gimnaziaSi gamovikali Tavi da ra viswavle?~.2 mag-
ram am mZime mdgomareobaSi myofi quTaisis moswavleTa nugeSi iyo, Tumc xasiaT-
gatexili, magram mainc keTili maswavlebeli umanski.
moTxrobaSi TviTmpyrobeluri skolis ara marto aRzrdis saerTo uxeSi wese-
bia aRwerili, romlis Sedegad dito da misi amxanagebi ver gaerkvnen sapyrobileSi
iyvnen Tu skolaSi, aramed gamovlenilia zogi maswavleblis reaqciuli ganwyobi-
leba, aqedan maTi damokidebuleba qarTveli moswavleebisadmi. magram imeds is sa-
xavda, rom quTaisis gimnaziis moswavleTa aRmzrdelebs Soris iyo TiTo-orola
maswavlebeli, romelTagan mozardebi ismendnen Tbil sityvas da eCveodnen damou-
kidebel azrovnebas. am mxriv sainteresoa maswavlebel umanskis saxe.
g. wereTlis mier umanskis saxe daxatulia didi poeturi siTboTi da simpaTi-
iT. naCvenebia, rogor gaumwara TviTmpyrobelurma reJimma mas sicocxle, magram
mowinave inteligentma mainc SeinarCuna gulwrfeli adamianuri grZnoba da Sina-
gani keTilSobileba.
umanski progresulad moazrovne, ganaTlebuli maswavleblebis warmomadgene-
lia. umanskis ukanaskneli mimarTva mowafeebisadmi programuli rCevaa, samoRvaweo
gzis maCvenebelia, cxovrebis ganaxlebisaTvis brZolisaken mowodebaa. umanskis
rCevaSi Cans is gulwrfeli maRaladamianuri da humanuri msoflSegrZneba, rome-
lic mTel inteligenciaSi, imperiis teritoriaze mosaxle xalxebis mowinave Svil-
Ta cnobierebaSi danerges samociani wlebis saxelovanma rusma revolucioner-de-
mokratebma. isini ganasaxierebdnen axal revoluciur ruseTs, romelic saTaveSi
edga xalxTa ganmaTavisuflebel moZraobas.
ditos arsebaSi sruli gardatexa moxda mSobliuri, qarTuli wera-kiTxvis
SeswavliT. qarTuli wignebis dawafebiT axali xana daiwyo mis cxovrebaSi. ymaw-
vilma igrZno wignis Zala, swavlis mniSvneloba da bejiTad daiwyo mecadineoba.
xSirma cema-tyepam, udanaSaulod, umizezod dasjam, `rozgma~, gaugebari
sityvebis dazepirebam daamaxinja, daaClunga moswavleebi. mZime materialurma
pirobebma, Jveriis facxaSi umeTvalyureod yofnam ymawvilebi da maT Soris di-
toc uzneo saqmes, qurd-bacacobas miaCvia.
ganaTlebis cudi sistema, aRzrdis biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri meTodebi,
swavlebaSi mSobliuri enis ugulebelyofa, maswavlebelTa umravlesobis uvar-
gisoba, aRzrdis saerTo mZime pirobebi, rac am nawarmoebSia warmodgenili, naC-
venebia sinamdvilis Rrma codniT. roca vecnobiT am sinamdvilis mxatvrul su-
raTebs, advilad vakeTebT daskvnas, Tu ras SeeZlo gamoewvia axalgazrdobis da-
maxinjeba, maTi cxovrebis gzis gamrudeba.
quTaisis gimnaziaSi gabatonebuli swavla-aRzrdis wesebis susxi g. were-
Telma, mis TanamedroveebTan, n. nikolaZesa da sxvebTan erTad mwared ganicada.
aqve igrZno man mwvave erovnuli tkivili.
es tkivili sul awuxebda did mwerals, amitomac aRzrdis sakiTxi man jer ki-
dev `gulqanSi~ daayena, arc `pirvel nabijSi~ daviwyebia igi, magram swavla-aR-
zrdis Tema ZiriTadad `Cveni cxovrebis yvavilSi~ gaSala da dagmo biurokrati-
ul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis aRzrdis uvargisi principebi, dagmo carizmis mi-
er dakanonebuli marTvisa da ganaTlebis sistema, amxila gonebaSezRuduli Ci-

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. II, 1948, gv. 76.
2
iqve, gv. 87.
178
novnik-pedagogebi. sakuTrad gancdili, nanaxi da gagonili g. wereTelma imgva-
rad ganazogada, rom daxata tipuri sinamdvile, gviCvena simarTle.
`Cveni cxovrebis yvavilSi~ Tematikuri TvalsazrisiT yuradRebas iqcevs
rogorc feodaluri yofis sakiTxebi, ise erovnuli motivi. g. wereTeli TiTqmis
yvela TxzulebaSi exeba mebatonisa da glexkacis mdgomareobas da yovelTvis
sxvadasxva kuTxidan gviCvenebs am ori wodebis samtro urTierTobas. am moTxro-
baSi igi ditos ojaxis fonze didi damajereblobiT gvixatavs glexkacobis si-
Zulvils mebatoneebisadmi, maT urTierTbrZolas. erTi personaJis moswrebuli
gamoTqma: `batoni yvela glaxaa. deiqca da deiRupa sadac batonis saxsenebeli
iyos~,1 gamoxatavs mwerlis ganwyobilebas da exmaureba `kako yaCaRis~ cnobil ta-
eps: `batoniSvili kargi ra aris, avi ra iyos~. movigonoT agreTve batoniSvilis mi-
er Tornikes ulvaSebis wiwkna, batonis saxlis msaxurTa SiSi da kankali ditosa da
misi mamis winaSe, yovelgvari simwris atana ditos survilebis asasruleblad da
Cven win gadaiSleba batonisa da glexkacis mdgomareobis, maTi urTierTdamokide-
bulebis naTeli suraTi.
`Cveni cxovrebis yvavilSi~ TvalsaCinodaa miTiTebuli agreTve feodaluri
urTierTobis pirobebSi soflis axalgazrdobis gasvla qalaqad, fulis SeZena,
soflad dabruneba, rac erTgvarad wasabaZi Seiqna sxvebisaTvis: `glexis qalebi
Tavis pawawa Svilebs eubnebodnen: `Cemi kikoc ki ar gadavardeba erT dros kaxeT-
Si da ar daixuravs TaTrul cxvris qudsao~. did da patara soflebSi am koxtad
morTul `gakaxelebuls da gaqalaqebuls biWebs Sescqerodnen~. ufro sworad,
Senatrodnen maT bedsa da mdgomareobas. magram `imereTis mebatoneebi Cumad
kbilebs aRrWenden yovel amisTana koxta biWis Sexvedraze: am mamaoxrebma sul
wagvixdines glexebi... mosamsaxureebs gvibriyveben~.2
erovnul motivs g. wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi sapatio adgili ukavia. `Cveni cxov-
rebis yvavilSi~ ki es sakiTxi ori momentiTaa warmodgenili: a) saqarTvelos warsu-
li; b) saqarTvelos awmyo, romlebic mefis moxeleebis mier abuCad agdebulia.
g. wereTeli am nawarmoebSi ise marTlad warmogvidgens TviTmpyrobelur
skolas, misi moxeleebis sibriyves, biologiur Sovinizms, rom mkiTxvels samar-
Tlianad ufleba aqvs `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~ miiCnios farTo mxatvrul ti-
lod, sadac mxilebulia carizmis mTeli wyobileba, kerZod, saskolo politika.

***

qarTul literaturaTmcodneobaSi farTod moikida fexi Sexedulebam, rom


`Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~ avtobiografiuli nawarmoebia da, rom `dito qvelaZe
TviT giorgi wereTlis odnav saxeSecvlili oreulia~, 3 rom `Cveni cxovrebis
yvavili~ gakeTebulia umTavresad avtobiografiul masalaze~4 da sxv. aseTive
azrisaa qarTuli literaturis araerTi mkvlevari da kritikosi. magram dRemde
aravis ucdia raime faqtobriv masalaze miTiTeba am debulebis dasadastureb-
lad. nawarmoebis Sinaarsi ki aRniSnul mosazrebas ar adasturebs. Cveni azriT,
am Txzulebis avtobiografiulad gamocxadeba arafriT ar aris gamarTlebuli,
radganac amis saSualebas ar iZleva TviT nawarmoebSi mocemuli realiebi.
Tu `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~ avtobiografiuli moTxrobaa, es nawarmoebi unda
Seicavdes g. wereTlis cxovrebis ZiriTadi xazis Cvenebas, an unda warmogvidgendes
mwerlis cxovrebis garkveul epizodebs, mTavar momentebs, ZiriTad Strixebs,
mxatvrulad gansaxierebuls. dabolos, nawarmoebis mTavari gmiri, romlis garSemo

1
g . w e r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. II, 1948, gv. 54.
2
iqve, gv. 10.
3
g. qi q o Z e , etiudebi da portretebi, 1958, gv. 176.
4
l. a s a T i a n i , `mnaTobi~, 1932, 5-6.
179
iSleba mTeli ambavi, dito qvelaZe riTime mainc unda emsgavsebodes g. wereTels.
mwerlisa da gmiris cxovrebis esa Tu is mniSvnelovani momenti unda emTxveodes er-
TmaneTs. aseTi arc damTxveva da arc msgavseba nawarmoebis Sinaarsis mixedviT ar
dgindeba. metic, g. wereTlis bavSvobisa da siWabukis cxovrebis gza da dito qvela-
Zis yrmobisa da mowafeobis xanis Sinaarsi, aRzrdisa da cxovrebis istoria sruli-
ad sxvadasxva xasiaTisa da Tvisebisaa.
am nawarmoebSi aRwerili viTareba saerToa mocemul epoqaSi warmodgenili
sinamdvilisaTvis. SeiZleba am nawarmoebis zogi detali analogiaze miuTiTebs,
magram es analogiuri TviT sinamdvileSi iyo bevrisTvis niSandoblivi. g. were-
Teli, rogorc didi realisti mxatvari, tipur xasiaTs tipur garemoSi xatavda
da aCvenebda, amitomac ditos mxatvruli saxe SeiZleba bevrs hgavda da agonebda
kidec Tavisi drois mkiTxvelebs.
Znelia warmoidginoT iseTi realisturi nawarmoebi, romelic mwerlis gan-
cdils, gagonils, sinamdvilesTan Sefardebuls, mxatvruli fantaziiT gamogo-
nils an SesaZlo varaudis elements ar Seicavdes. magram aseTi viTareba ar gvaZ-
levs uflebas amgvari xasiaTis nawarmoebni avtobiografiulad miviCnioT. an ki-
dev, nuTu nawarmoebis gmiris yoveli miswrafeba, qceva, xasiaTi avtoris midre-
kilebisa da cxovrebiseuli saerTo Sinaarsis, maTi igiveobis gamoxatulebaa?
amrigad, cxovrebis Rrma codnis, gancdilis, nanaxisa da gagonilis ostaturi
Serwymis safuZvelze g. wereTelma Seqmna mxatvruli sinamdvile da dagvixata dito
qvelaZis marTali saxe. igi gimnaziis moswavleTa garkveuli nawilis zogadi saxea.
`Cveni cxovrebis yvavils~, SesaZloa, dahkravs avtobiografiuli ieri, magram aramc
da aramc saubari g. wereTelsa da dito qvelaZis igiveobaze ar SeiZleba.
`ruxi mgeli~ g. wereTlis erT-erTi cnobili moTxrobaa. nawarmoebSi mxat-
vruladaa naCvenebi Tavadaznaurobis materialuri da moraluri daqveiTeba, am
niadagze dawyebuli mwvave SuRlis tragikuli xasiaTi, biurokratiul-Cinovni-
kuri mmarTvelobis warmomadgenelTa usamarTloba, meqrTameoba, saerTo uka-
curoba; glexkacobis duxWiri cxovreba.
moTxrobis saTauri `ruxi mgeli~, nawarmoebis gmirTa moqmedebisa da konfliq-
tis gaSlis are — sawioke, gmirTa gvarebi — kvimataZe, jibiaSvili, personaJis metsa-
xeli — ruxi mgeli nawarmoebis ideuri arsis gamomxatvelia, amasTan simbolurad
miuTiTebs Txzulebis personaJTa bunebaze, xasiaTsa da sulier Tvisebebze. es mo-
menti sainteresoa, rogorc mxatvruli gamosaxvis Taviseburi xerxi.
rogorc moTxrobidan Cans, sawiokes asze met mebatones ZiriTad saarsebo sa-
Sualebad SerCa gauyofeli erTi mTa da tye — sawioke. am tyis Tanabrad gamoyeneba
ver mouxerxebiaT, ris gamoc xSirad imarTeboda samkvdro-sasicocxlo brZola.
isini erTmaneTs eqiSpebian, Tu vin vis daaswrebs tyis Semokodvas an glexebis da-
begvras, awiokebas, gaZarcvas, mecxvareebis gaqurdvas da sxv.
am niadagze araerTi usiamovneba momxdara, magram sasamarTloSi saqme yo-
velTvis avTandil kvimataZis sasargeblod mTavrdeboda, radganac avTandils
hyavda iseTi gulSematkivari, rogoric samson jibiaSvili iyo.
aznauri samson jibiaSvili iyo sawioke mTis mebatoneTagani, sasuliero akademia-
damTavrebuli, igi saxelmwifo samsaxurSi Sesuliyo jer `stolnaCalnikad~, Semdeg
ki mazris ufrosis TanaSemwed muSaobda, magram `Citi fcqvnaT ara Rirso~, — ifiqra
gulSi samsonma, mianeba Tavi saxelmwifo samsaxurs~. sakancelario xrikebsa da kano-
nebSi gamowvrTnilma jibiaSvilma gadawyvita: `...veqilaT gamxdariyo da kancelariis
ganjinebis magieraT xalxis jibe gamoexra~.1
marTalia, samson jibiaSvili sxva sofelSi cxovrobda, misi saxl-kari sawio-
kes sakmaod Sori manZiliT iyo mocilebuli, magram, miuxedavad amisa, iq momxda-

1
g . w e r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 438.
180
ri raime SemTxveva arasodes ar gamohparvia mas. `rogorc-ki Seityobda, mTaSi
`saWmo~ gaCenilao, isic maSinve amxedrdeboda Tavis lurjaze, rom saufliswu-
lo ar dahkargoda. ai, amitom uyvarda mas Tavisi saxlis aivanze jdoma da sawio-
ke mTisaken cqera~.1 gawuwkebuli veqilis xedva Sors swvdeboda `aT, TxuTmet
versze RobemZvrala Citic ver afrindeboda, rom mis Tvalebs ar SeeniSna~.
sawiokes mcxovrebTa Soris samson jibiaSvils hyavda suliTa da guliT ganuyre-
li megobari, misi siavkacis Tanamonawile aznauri avTandil kvimataZe. am orTa megob-
ruli kavSiri iyo erT-erTi mizezi, erTi mxriv, sawioke mTis isedac gaRatakebuli me-
batoneebis erTaderTi sarCo-sabadeblis xelidan gamoclis, meore mxriv, glexebis
awiokebis.
avTandil kvimataZe erTi imaTTagani iyo, romelsac mudam sasamarTloSi
hqonda saqme. igi gafacicebiT daeZebda iseT SemTxvevebs, romelTa gasaCivreba
SeiZleboda. aRZrul saqmes yovelTvis igebda samson jibiaSvilis CareviT. av-
Tandil kvimataZe mTeli dRe dawanwalobda sawioke mTaSi. igi `sakvirveli daxe-
lovnebuli iyo soflis darajobaSi~.2 awuxebda mebatoneebs, stacebda glexebs,
risi warTmevac ki SeiZleboda, amitomac am rux Coxosans ruxi mgeli Searqves.
Txzulebis mTavari gmirebis — jibiaSvilisa da kvimataZis Tvisebebis Cvenebis
Semdeg, mweralma moamzada niadagi kvanZis SekvrisaTvis. gaCnda konfliqti. saja-
rod daupirispirdnen erTmaneTs mebatoneebi baana da avTandili, risi Sedegic iyo
maTi urTierTobis tragikuli dasasruli.
saqmis Sinaarsi amgvari gaxldaT: sawioke mTis monawile aznaurma baanam saerTo
Sekrebilobaze saxalxod usayvedura avTandil kvimataZes imis gamo, rom man xelme-
ored Semokoda baanas mier Semokodili xeebi. es ki avTandilma iukadrisa. ganviTar-
da rTuli konfliqti, rac erTmaneTisaken miwev-mowevaSi gamoixata. baanam Tofic
ki moimarjva, magram am SemTxvevas raime marcxi ar mohyolia, sabolood ki es momen-
ti sabediswero Seiqna orive mxarisaTvis.
samson jibiaSvilma saCivari Seudgina avTandilsa da Seatanina sasamarTloSi.
viTomda baanas didi danaSaulisa da mkvlelobis ganzraxvis Taobaze da sxv. da-
iwyo gamoZieba, magram qrTamma da samson jibiaSvilis gavlenam sasamarTloze
ukuRmarTad gadawyvita baanas saqme. amis Sedegad baanam satusaRoSi dalia suli.
avTandilis saqcielma da baanas udanaSaulo sikvdilma aaRelva sofeli, mag-
ram avTandili da samsoni udardelad saubrobdnen baanas sikvdilze da soflis
awiokebis gegmas adgendnen: `Sen Tu cocxali meyole, meti ra miWirs! am sawioke
mTas xelSi dagaWerineb, oRond is aRsrulebiTi furclebi daatake sawiokelebs.
samoqalaqo boqauli Cauyene yvelas. kapeiki aravis moeZeva. avuweroT mTaSi mo-
nawileoba da gavuyidoT. mag ZaRlebis Wamas, me da Sen vWamoT, ara jobia?~.3
erTxel, roca avTandil kvimataZe da samson jibiaSvili tkbilad saubrobdnen
soflis aoxrebaze, ramdenime vaJkacma moiTaTbira xalxis awiokebisaTvis samagie-
ro miezRoT avTandil kvimataZisa da samson jibiaSvilisaTvis.
marTlac morigi Tevzaobisas `SavaT SefuTnuli arsebani daesxnen Tavze~...
samsoni da avTandili sikvdilis piramdis miiyvanes cemiT. meore dRes, avTandi-
li da samsoni cxenebze gadakidebuli miiyvanes avTandilis saxlSi. `samson jibi-
aSvils didxans aRar ucocxlia... avTandili Tumca morCa, magram sisxlis fur-
Txeba daawyebina, is saxlidan aRar gamodioda...~4
avTandilis Svilebma, romlebic mTel mxareSi cnobili iyvnen `ruxi mglis lek-
vebad~, es ambavi daabrales baanas Svils. Siukas ZaliT aTqmevines gamomZieblis wi-
naSe, rom mas TiTqos baanas Svili ecnos Tavdasxmis dros. Tumca mTeli sofeli

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 440.
2
iqve, gv. 443.
3
iqve, gv. 455.
4
iqve, gv. 462.
181
uaryofda baanas Svilis am saqmeSi monawileobas, magram, miuxedavad amisa, baanas
Svili mainc gadaasaxles ruseTis Soreul kuTxeSi. gaukuRmarTda baanas ojaxis
saqme, magram arc kvimataZisa da jibiaSvilis ojaxebs dasdgomia kargi dRe.
mweralma `ruxi mgeli~, iseve rogorc sxva bevri nawarmoebi, namdvil ambavze
aago, Txzulebis gmirTa saxeebi realuria da TiTqmis yovel maTgans prototipi
hyavs. sayuradReboa a. gaCeCilaZis mier gamoqveynebuli `ramdenime axali cnoba~1
g. wereTlis Semoqmedebasa da `rux mgelze~, sadac miniSnebulia im abaSiZeebis
saxelzec ki, romelTa cxovreba da urTierToba gamoiyena mweralma Tavisi
moTxrobisaTvis. rogorc sxva nawarmoebTa ganxilvisas aRiniSna, g. wereTlis
personaJTa da aRwerili ambisa da movlenis ukan sinamdvile dgas.
g. wereTlis, rogorc niWieri mwerlis, didi Rirseba is iyo, rom konkretuli
faqti Tu saxe zogadobis simaRlemde ahyavda da tipur viTarebas xatavda. am gziT
imereTis aznaurTa dakninebis, daqveiTebisa da zogjer maTi mgluri instinqtebis
CvenebiT warmosaxulia gaRaribebuli da moralurad dacemuli qarTveli aznau-
robis cxovreba. amdenad, `ruxi mgeli~ sainteresoa rogorc konkretul faqtebze
agebuli Txzuleba, magram saqarTvelosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli saerTo tipuris
gamomxatveli.
g. wereTlis beletristikul nawarmoebTa Soris, mxatvruli dasrulebis
TvalsazrisiT, erT-erT saukeTesod misi `ruxi mgeli~ unda CaiTvalos~.2
`mamida asmaTi~ 90-iani wlebis damdegs, 1888 wels daiwera da gamoqveynda. am
droisaTvis sakmaod sagrZnobi iyo axali sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis damkvid-
reba. msgavsad `ruxi mgelisa~, `mamida asmaTi~ warmoadgens iseT Txzulebas, rom-
liTac daxatulia imereTis aznaurTa materialuri daqveiTebisa da moraluri
dacemis naTeli suraTebi. magram gansxvavebas Sinaarseulad is qmnis, rom aq azna-
uroba ise dakninebula, rom da Zmas ar indobs, Zma — das, mamida da biZa — ZmisSvils.
am nawarmoebis kiTxvisas umal TvalSi gvecema disa da Zmis samkvdro-sasi-
cocxlo dapirispireba, romlis Cveneba iSviaTi SemTxveva iyo qarTul mwerloba-
Si. magram droeba Seicvala da damkvidrda axali yofa. es sinamdvile g. wereTelma
dakvirvebuli mxatvris TvaliT dainaxa da ganasaxiera ukvdav moTxrobebSi.
`mamida asmaTSi~ erT mxarezea asmaTi, meoreze — rosafi. orives fiqri, azri da
zraxva iqiTkenaa mimarTuli, Tu rogor waglijon erTmaneTs miwis nakveTi da sxva
romelime sasargeblo da gamosaCeni nivTi.
mtrobisa da Suris sagania ara marto miwa-wyali. aramed oboli naTelac. naTe-
las aRmzrdeli mamida asmaTi da meurve biZa — rosafi daupirispirdebian erTma-
neTs. orives interess erTi nivTieri sarCuli aqvs — rogorme naTelas wili ma-
mul-deduli miisakuTron da Tanac misi gaTxovebiT xeli moiTbon mTxovnelisa-
gan fulis aRebiT. es momenti gansazRvravs da-Zmas Soris arsebuli konfliqtis
xasiaTsa da Sinaarss.
qurdobas, yaCaRobas, meqrTameobasa da roskipobas abralebs asmaTi Tavisi Zmis
— rosafis ojaxs. asmaTsa da rosafs Soris grZeldeba dausrulebeli qiSpoba imis
gamo, Tu vin daaswrebs 10-12 wlis oboli Zmiswulis — naTelas gaTxovebas. orives
amoZravebs materialuri gamorCenis molodini, angarebis survilebi. mkafiod isa-
xeba kiTxva — vin daisakuTrebs naTelas — meurve biZa Tu aRmzrdeli mamida. orive
mglis TvaliT Sehyurebs erTmaneTs. magram SepirispirebulTa Zala tolfardova-
nia. brZolac didxans grZeldeba. asmaTma kalapotidan amovardnili aznauri oTari
Svilobilad aiyvana, rom amiT ufro mZlavrad daupirispirdes rosafs.
Zmis mimarT gaborotebulma asmaTma pirveli sabrZolo nabiji gadadga, mosav-
lisa da miwis nakveTis miTvisebis mizniT Tavis Svilobil oTars aawiokebina glexe-

1
`literaturuli gazeTi~, 1962, 22.
2
g.q i q o Z e , etiudebi da portretebi, 1958, gv. 182.
182
bi rosafis yanaSi. rosafis SuriT aRgznebulma asmaTma moisyida oTari da cxovre-
bis lukmas danatrebuli oTaris amyoli sxva aznaurebi, raTa gadawvas Zmis saxl-ka-
ri da xelT igdos mamiseuli skivri, romelSic viTom raRac anderZi da dedis naqo-
ni Zvirfasi `gulis qinZisTavi~ inaxeba.
rosafis saxl-kari gadaiwva, skivri gaitaces, magram Sig araferi ar aRmoCnda.
aman Seqmna mZime sulieri mdgomareoba, saSineli imedgacrueba. asmaTs ar gaumar-
Tlda molodini, tyuilubralod gadawva Zmis ojaxi, dis da Zmis aseTi urTierToba
aSkarad metyvelebs odesRac warCinebuli wodebis Semoubruneblad dacemasa da
dakninebze. moralurad daqveiTebuli da gaavebuli disa da Zmis suliskveTeba os-
taturadaa gadmocemuli `mamida asmaTSi~.
qvrivi, uSvilo, upatrono asmaTi TiTqos TafliviT tkbilad unda iyos Zmas-
Tan, magram saarsebo saSualebis SenarCunebis mglur instinqtebs gaumZvinvarebia
igi. orive mxare piradulsa da SiSvel egoistur zraxvebs Seupyria da amdenad da-
ukargavT ara marto saerTo humanuri, aramed naTesauri daZmuri grZnobac.
cbierebis, laqucobis, motyuebis da pirferobis klasikuri scenaa asmaTisa
da rosafis meuRlis — mzexaTunis Serigebis aqti. naTesauri grZnoba, alersi,
tkbili sityva angarebis safaria rZlisa da mulis urTierTobaSi. amis dadastu-
rebaa agreTve rosafisa da asmaTis damokidebuleba obol naTelasTan, sadac ma-
mobrivi da dedobrivi zrunvis ukan mtaceblis eSvebi Cans.
mamida asmaTi rTuli saxea. marTalia, igi erTi SexedviT gvagonebs ilias
oTaraanT qvrivs, magram gansxvaveba ufro didia, vidre msgavseba. oTaraanT
qvrivi enamwarea, magram guli keTili aqvs. igi pirdapiri, mouridebeli, pirSi
mTqmeli dedakacia; mas `pilpilmoyrili madli uyvars~, magram mkvaxe sityvebis
ukan yovelTvis keTili buneba moCans.
asmaTis sulieri samyaro kontrastulia. avi, boroti, moZule, daundobeli,
gautaneli, meore mxriv, TiTqos keTili, mzrunveli, mosiyvarule. igi jiutia da
principuli, magram gaRunvaca da ukan daxevac SeuZlia, Tu saWiro aRmoCnda,
rac ucxoa oTaraanT qvrivisaTvis.
mamida asmaTi pirfera, gulzviadi, gorozi da moqnilia. igi mravalsaxovani
pirovnebaa. mas saSiSi Tvalebi aqvs. es Tvalebi misi sulis gamomzeurebaa. is yo-
velgvar siaves gaakeTebs, oRond survili daikmayofilos. oTaraanT qvrivi keTi-
lia, mamida asmaTi avia, daundobeli. miuxedavad asmaTis moxerxebisa da gaiZvero-
bisa, is mainc damarcxebuli aRmoCnda ZmasTan — rosafTan brZolaSi.
rac Seexeba rosafs, igi erTi SeZlebuli aznaurTagani iyo, romelsac, quTa-
isis oTxklasiani sasuliero saswavleblis damTavrebis Semdeg, Sorapnis mazris
gamgeobaSi mwerlis Tanamdeboba eSovna. rosafi am Tanamdebobas moxerxebulad
iyenebda. ufrosebTan rom axlo urTierToba daemyarebina, amis gamo arc uf-
ross da arc mis `sekretars~ ar aklda `ZRveni~ glexkacobisagan, magram misi
mfarveli CerCeti mazris ufrosi moxsnes da `sekretars~ saxazino fulebis miT-
visebisaTvis sapyrobileSi ukres Tavi. rosafma sasjels daaRwia Tavi, mamiseul
ojaxSi dabinavda da oboli Zmiswulis — naTelas meurveoba ikisra. aqedan da-
iwyo winaaRmdegoba, am momentidan garTulda urTierToba mas da asmaTs Soris.
axalgazrdobaSi yvela Tavmomwone mandilosans misken eWira Tvali, miT ume-
tes, rom `tans ecva buzmentebiT gamowyobili qulaja, ganieri Sarvali, buxris
qudi. ijda yovelTvis matareblis bedaurze da yelze Camogdebuli abreSumis
baRdadi lamazad mifarfaSebda~.1
axla ki ormocdarva wlis rosafi `asmaTis mtrobas udrood gaeTeTrebina~.2

1
g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 493.
2
iqve, gv. 494.
183
asmaTisa da rosafis ambis fonzea naCvenebi moyiale, TavzexelaRebuli aznauri
oTari. am saxis SemoyvaniT mwerali amZafrebs ambis siuJetur ganviTarebas. oTari
warmosadegi Sexedulebis vaJkacia, magram usaqmuri da uSromeli, soflidan so-
felSi daexeteba. Tumc lxiniTa da qeifiT atarebs dros, magram saqaTmeSi SeZromas
da qurdbacacobasac ar ukadrisobs. TviTon mudam qeifSi garTuls Sin col-Svili
mSieri exoceboda. oTari cxovrebisagan gariyuli aznauris saxea. igi enaTesaveba
ieremia warbas, tariel mklavaZes da winaparia d. kldiaSvilis uqnara da sxvis xar-
jze moqeife gmiris — platon miminoSvilisa.
oTaris Tvaltanadoba, lxinis Sno da lazaTi xiblavda yvelas. Tumca Sroma
sZulda, magram uyvarda yiali. axlomaxlo ki ara, Soreuli soflebis yvela dRe-
oba zepirad icoda. misi `samoRvaweo~ asparezi iSleboda goridan foTamde.
lxinsa da dReobebze daupatiJebeli wveva misi Cveuleba iyo.
`mamida asmaTSi~ yuradRebas ipyrobs naTelas saxe. adreve daoblebuls, or
mzrunvels Soris mouxda yofna. asmaTi zrdida, rosafi meurveobda. asmaTs guliT
uyvarda Tavisi gazrdili, arc rosafs sZulda igi, magram orive gamosarCens uT-
valTvalebda. aTi wlis naTelas asmaTma gaTxovebis Cagoneba dauwyo. eSinoda ro-
safma ar damaswros da misi wili miwa-wyali ar daisakuTroso. arc rosafsa da mis
meuRle mzexaTuns eZinaT. rosafma daaswro da naTela Tavis colis axlo naTesavs
moatacebina. damarcxda, gatyda asmaTi.
naTelas, mamidas CagonebiT, saqmro warmodgenili hyavda pirtitvela da Tmaxu-
WuWa, magram miaTxoves wverulvaSian kacs. naTelas saTuTad uyvarda qmarica da
Svilic. magram mainc gatacebiT Sehyurebda bedis varskvlavs caze. aq sainteresoa
naTelas gaoreba, ocnebisa da sinamdvilis dacileba, warmosadgenisa da realuris
sxvadasxvaoba.
g. wereTeli SesaniSnavad icnobs Tavadaznaurobis fsiqologias. mwerali niWie-
rad aCvenebs maT cxovrebaSi momxdar Rrma cvlilebas: materialur gaRatakebas mo-
hyva sulieri daqveiTeba. aznaurTa sulieri daqveiTebis klasikuri gamomxatvelia
`mamida asmaTi~.

***

g. wereTeli samociani wlebis qarTvel moRvaweTa im saxelovan jgufs ekuT-


vnis, romelmac ilia WavWavaZis meTaurobiT erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZ-
raobis droSa aRmarTa. man socialuri da erovnuli problemebis dasmiTa da ga-
dawyvetiT, esTetikuri idealebis gamizvniT, Tavisufali mxatvruli Semoqmede-
biT ara marto gaamagra ilias da akakis ideuri pozicia, aramed maTTan erTad
qarTuli azrisa da mwerlobis ganviTarebis axali gza gakafa.
g. wereTeli, iliasa da akakisTan erTad, mxatvruli SemoqmedebiT, litera-
turuli werilebiT, publicisturi statiebiT, sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobiTa
da praqtikuli saqmianobiT gamoxatavda qarTveli xalxis diad miznebs.
g. wereTlis ideuri mrwamsis radikaluri xasiaTi imTaviTve cxadi iyo sazo-
gadoebisaTvis. radikalur moazrovned darCa igi `saqarTvelos moambidan~
`kvalSi~ dabeWdil Tavis ukanasknel werilamde. g. wereTlis radikalizmi da de-
mokratizmi yovelTvis gamoxatavda qarTveli xalxis Tanamedrove Tavisufali
cxovrebisa da naTeli mermisis survilebs.

184
anton furcelaZe

(1839-1913)

anton furcelaZe nayofieri da mravalferovani mweralia. mis kalams ekuT-


vnis sakmaod mozrdili poemebi ( `Tamar Razneli~, `bagrationebis dideba~, `ma-
rabda~, `wyaloba~, `ciskara~), dramatuli Txzulebebi (`didi mouravi~, `avazake-
bi~, `asuli israelisa~), moTxrobebi (`marTa~, `qitesa~, `Cveneburi saqmis bolo~,
`ToTa~, `vai marTalTa~, `samis Tavgadasavali~), istoriuli romani (`maci xvi-
tia~), leqsebi, gamokvleva giorgi saakaZeze, literaturul-kritikuli da eko-
nomikuri xasiaTis werilebi da sxva mravali. Jurnal `ciskridan~ dawyebuli, mi-
si Txzulebebi ibeWdeboda `droebaSi~, `mnaTobSi~, `imedSi~, `moambeSi~. amasTan
erTad igi muSaobda Targmanebze da aqarTulebda rus da evropel mweralTa Se-
moqmedebas. mas ekuTvnis puSkinis, krilovis, nekrasovis, Seqspiris, baironis,
barbies, beranJes, haines da sxvaTa Txzulebebis Targmanebi. igi, Tu erT SemTxve-
vaSi dainteresebuli iyo giorgi saakaZis pirovnebiT, sxva SemTxvevaSi werda we-
rilebs Savi yvavilis wamlobaze; dramatuli Txzulebebis werasTan erTad msje-
lobda qarTuli enis gramatikuli normebis Sesaxeb. qarTveli xalxis mZime is-
toriuli warsulis amsaxvel TxzulebebTan erTad, bankebis mniSvnelobasa da
lotos TamaSiT sazogadoebis erTi nawilis gatacebaze laparakobda.
a. furcelaZis Sesaxeb s. mgalobliSvili wers, rom igi mesamoce wlebSi iyo
wevri didebuli razmisa, romelsac margalitis Tvlebad usxdnen ilia WavWavaZe
da akaki wereTeli da amSvenebdnen sergei mesxi, giorgi wereTeli, iakob gogeb-
aSvili, dimitri baqraZe da sxvani da romelsac 70-ian wlebSi Caemata mRelvare su-
lis niko nikolaZe. a. furcelaZes am razmSi TvalsaCino adgili eWirao, daaskvnis
igi.
a. furcelaZes mxatvrul TxzulebebSi mniSvnelovani problemebi aqvs wamo-
yenebuli da damuSavebuli. mwerali arc erT sakiTxs zereled ar Sehxebia. roca
igi epikur nawarmoebSi apirebs gadmogvces Tavisi damokidebuleba saqarTvelos
istoriul warsulTan, moxazavs mTlian epoqas da hqmnis `Tamar Raznels~, rome-
lic 1700 strofs Seicavs; roca igi dainteresda giorgi saakaZis pirovnebiT, mas
miuZRvna rogorc didi dramatuli da epikuri Txzulebebi, iseve didi gamokvle-
va giorgi saakaZis droindeli saqarTvelos politikuri mdgomareobis Sesaxeb;
man dawera tragedia `avazakni~, romelSiac didmniSvnelovani, sazogadoebrivad
aqtualuri sakiTxi daamuSava. a. furcelaZes exerxeboda Temebis SerCeva, ro-
melTac saTanadod warmoaCenda mxatvrulad.
anton furcelaZe daibada 1839 wels Suagul qarTlSi, sofel mereTSi, md.
patara liaxvis pirad. mamamisi nikoloz, mcire mamulisa da bevri Svilebis pat-
roni iyo. antonma bavSvoba sofelSi gaatara da dedis — barbare gedevaniSvilis
asulis xelmZRvanelobiT miiRo pirveli Sinauruli gakveTilebi dedaenasa da
literaturaSi. mamas undoda Svili Tbilisis gimnaziaSi Seeyvana, magram xelmok-
leobisa da wvrilSvilianobis gamo es survili ver Seesrulebina. Svili rom us-
wavleli ar darCenoda, nikolozma antoni ruseTSi (qal.orioli) samxedro sas-
wavlebelSi gagzavna (saxelmwifo xarjze). antonma saswavleblis damTavreba ver
SeZlo, radgan erTxel varjiSisas fexi itkina da dakoWlda. es momxdara 1854
wels. samSobloSi dabrunebuls, radgan swavla veRar gaugrZelebia, xeli miuy-
via TviTganviTarebisaTvis, waukiTxavs yvelaferi, rac xelSi moxvedria, goneba
ganuviTarebia da 1858 wels TbilisSi gadmosaxlebula, sadac daaxlovebia di-
mitri yifians, ivane kereseliZes, `ciskris~ TanamSromlebs da werisaTvis miuy-
via xeli. male daiwyo leqsebis beWdva, marTalia TargmanebiT (`ciskari~ 1861
wlis 8, II, 12 da sxv.), romelTac miayola originaluri Txzulebebica da sxvadas-
xva xasiaTis werilebic. JurnalSi TanamSromloba cxovrebis wyaro ar iyo, mas
uSovia samsaxuri davrdomilTa TavSesafarSi. amasTan, Caeba sxvadasxva TviTgan-
viTarebis wreebSi. masTan xSirad uvliaT petre umikaSvils, dimitri yifians uf-
rosi vaJiT nikoTi, muSa-xelosnebs da sxvaT. TbilisSi cxovrebis pirvelsave xa-
nebSi igi dauaxlovda qalaqis dabal mosaxleobas, gaecno maT da rogorc s. mga-
lobliSvili gadmogvcems, gamobrZmedila cxovrebis SeswavlaSi, SeuTvisebia
rusi mwerlebis azrebi, gansakuTrebiT ki CerniSevskisa da gatacebula misi
moZRvrebiT. TavdaviwyebiT daswafebia agreTve dobrolubovis, gercenis, lav-
rovis, pisarevisa da sxvaTa nawerebs.
1862 wlidan Tbilisis gimnaziaSi aRmzrdelad msaxurobda, Semdeg wels man
`ciskarSi~ dabeWda werili daniel WonqaZis nawarmoebis Sesaxeb. man gailaSqra
batonymobis drois udierobisa da, saerTod, socialuri usamarTlobis winaaR-
mdeg.
1867 wlidan a. furcelaZe `ciskris~ faqtiuri patronia da cdilobda misi ge-
zis Secvlas, mas uxdeboda kamaTi redaqtorTan. 70-ian wlebSi man miiRo veqilobis
ufleba, rac gamoiyena batonymobis gadavardnis Semdegi drois glexTa uflebebis
dacvisaTvis. s. mgalobliSvili gviambobs, Tu ra TavgamodebiT icavda antoni gle-
xebs, xSirad Tavisi mezobeli da nacnobi Tavadebisa da aznaurebisagan.
1869 wlidan Jurnal `mnaTobis~ TanamSromelia, 1873 wlidan redaqtorobs
gazeT `guTnis deda~-s, Semdeg msaxurobda saTavadaznauro bankSi, sadac er-
Txel direqtoris Tanamdebobac ki eWira.
anton furcelaZe gardaicvala 1913 wels, dasaflavebulia mereTSi. mis Zeg-
ls misive poemis — `Tamar Raznelis~ ramdenime striqoni aweria:
`me wilada mxvda xvedri mware, Znelad saamo,
Cvens iarebSi da wylulebSi xelebis reva,
miT wyluls vamtkivneb me sneulTa da amis gamo
SeviZinevi moZmeTagan lanZRva da wyeva~.
a. furcelaZis literaturul-esTetikuri azrovneba SemuSavda im principe-
bis safuZvelze, romelzec agebuli iyo qarTveli samocianelebis Sexedulebani.
misi azrovnebis wyaroc is moZRvreba iyo, romelic miiRo maSindeli saqarTve-
los inteligenciam. man gaiazra utilitaruli Sexeduleba xelovnebisa da li-
teraturis daniSnulebaze. marTalia, a. furcelaZe ar ekuTvnoda `Tergdale-
ulTa~ jgufs, mas ganaTleba ar miuRia ruseTisa Tu ucxoeTis universitetebSi,
ar yofila studentTa moZraobis monawile, magram misi mrwamsi cxovrebasa da
sazogadoebis urTierTobaze swored 60-ian wlebSi Camoyalibda. xelovnebisa da
mecnierebis gamoyenebiTi TvalsazrisiT Sefaseba, mxatvruli sityvis, rogorc
xalxis sazogadoebis sneulebis winaaRmdeg wamlad xmareba iyo mTavari im dros
literaturisaTvis. aRsaniSnavia, rom xSirad a. furcelaZe ufro radikaluria,
vidre sxva misi Tanamedrove, ufro uarmyofelia da memarcxene, Tumca erT Sexe-
dulebaze da ganwyobilebis niadagze dgoma ar SeeZlo. moRvaweobis manZilze mas
bevr qarTvel moazrovnesTan hqonda kamaTi, raSic igi amJRavnebda Seurigeblo-
bas. amisi mizezi, albaT, iyo misi TviTganviTareba, yvelaferze xelis Sevlebis
survili da yvelafris kiTxva.
a. furcelaZis, moRvawisa da mwerlis, xasiaTi gamomJRavnda imaSic, rom 70-
80-ian wlebSi igi xalxosnuri moZraobisaken gadaixara da gadaiqca am moZraobis
praqtikul moRvawed. swored misma Seurigebelma da ukompromiso xasiaTma miiy-
186
vana igi 70-iani wlebis revoluciur moZraobasTan. igive s. mgalobliSvili gvac-
nobebs, rom `1873 wlidan q. gorSi daarsda social-revolucionuri (xalxosnu-
ri) saidumlo wre, romelmac miznad daisaxa gaecno xalxisaTvis mTavrobis mavne
wes-wyobileba, Caexedebina glexoba Tavis cxovrebaSi, daerwmunebina igi, rom
umamulod misi ganTavisufleba Zvel batonymobaze uaresi iyo, rom am garemoe-
bam glexoba ufro yurmoWrili yma gaxada nabatonarisa... anton furcelaZe
...gaxda goris wris suli da guli. erTad vmuSaobdiT da vcdilobdiT mogvewyo
stamba sof. tyviavSi aralegaluri wignebis sabeWdavad...~1
a. furcelaZe Tavisi nihilisturi ganwyobilebiTa da praqtikuli moRvaweo-
biT Seefereboda qarTul xalxosnobas gasuli saukunis 70-80-ian wlebSi. nihi-
lizmi da xalxosnuri gatacebani dafuZnebuli hqonda im grZnobaze, riTac igi
dakavSirebuli iyo mSobliur xalxTan, glexobasTan. glexobis gaTavisuflebis
idea iyo mTavari a. furcelaZis moRvaweobaSi. misi araerTi Txzuleba emsaxure-
ba samSoblos siyvarulisa da mSromeli adamianis pativiscemis gamomJRavnebas.
misi patriotuli leqsebi agebulia im Temaze, riTac saxeli gaiTqva rafiel eris-
Tavis leqsma `samSoblo xevsurisa~. a. furcelaZes uyvarda Tavisi qveyana, magram
ara imdroindel viTarebasa da yofaSi, aramed revoluciurad gardaqmnili. igi
eZiebda samSoblos mxsnel gmirs da radgan mas samSobloSi praqtikulad ver naxu-
lobda, qeba-didebas asxamda sxva qveynis erovnuli ganTavisuflebisaTvis meb-
rZols. a. furcelaZis sayvareli gmiri iyo juzepe garibaldi, italieli erovnuli
gmiri, romelmac yvela erovnulad daCagrulTa siyvaruli da pativiscema moipova.
a. furcelaZis iniciativiT gorelma revolucionerebma italielebs samZim-
ris depeSa gaugzavnes garibaldis gardacvalebis gamo.
a. furcelaZem Tavisi azrebi Camoayaliba im werilebSi, romelnic Jurnal
`ciskarSi~ gamoaqveyna 1863 wels. aq gamoxata man Tavisi damokidebuleba mwer-
lobasa da mxatvruli sinamdvilis mxatvruli asaxvisadmi. 1862 wlis noembris
nomerSi man dabeWda patara kritikuli SeniSvna sardion aleqsi-mesxiSvilis er-
Ti daubeWdavi Targmanis Taobaze. werili exeba frangi mwerlis, eJen sus Txzu-
lebis `mimogzauri uriis~ qarTul Targmans. a.furcelaZe imgvaradve msjelobs
am kritikul werilSi, rogorc msjelobda ilia WavWavaZe kozlovis poemis qar-
Tuli Targmanis Sesaxeb. msjelobis azri Semdegia: qarTuli literatura Rari-
bia sasargeblo da gamosadegi nawerebiT, saWiroa iseTi Txzuleba, `romelic an
suls miekros, an xorcsa~. eJen sus Txzulebis qarTulad mTargmnels sardion
aleqsi-mesxiSvils Sromis gawevisas mxedvelobaSi unda mieRo xalxis (qarTveli
xalxis) mdgomareoba, xalxisa da qarTuli literaturis saWiroeba da xalxis ma-
terialuri SesaZlebloba. `mimogzauri uria~ TviT safrangeTSi aRaraa miRebu-
li, misi azri da Sinaarsi ar aris qarTvelisaTvis nacnobi, radgan Seexeba iezu-
itTa borot saqmianobas. nawarmoebi cruromantikulia, misi Targmani `Targamos
qarTvelTa mamis eniTaa Sesrulebuli, romelic axla xucess petre laJRaursac
aRar eyureba. amasTan erTad, roca gamoicema, Zvirad eRireba, wignis fasi TiTo
Tumani~.
a. furcelaZe garkveulad iziarebs i. WavWavaZis Sexedulebasa da principebs
Targmanze. mas literatura miaCnia cxovrebis Seswavlis saSualebad, radgan
amis Semdeg ufro advilia cxovrebis daavadebuli organizmis mkurnaloba. yve-
laze mniSvnelovani iyo a. furcelaZis werili daniel WonqaZis `suramis cixis~
Sesaxeb (daibeWda 1863 wlis `ciskris~ ianvris nomerSi), sadac mocemulia aramxo-
lod nawarmoebis analizi, aramxolod msjeloba Jurnalis daniSnuleba-raoba-
ze, mxatvruli nawarmoebis mizanze, `ciskarSi~ gamoqveynebul zogierT Txzule-
baze, mweralTa mier masalis gamoyenebasa da aTvisebaze; es werili ar aris mxo-

1
s . m g a l o b l i S v i l i s teqstebi amoRebulia misi wignidan `mogonebani~.
187
lod `suramis cixisaTvis~ adgilis mikuTvneba qarTul mwerlobaSi, masSi gamoT-
qmulia a. furcelaZis literaturul-esTetikuri Sexedulebebi, qarTveli mo-
winave inteligenciis protesti socialuri uTanasworobis winaaRmdeg.
a. furcelaZe aqtiurad monawileobda 60-iani wlebis literaturul kamaTSi
da axalgazrda Taobis mxareze idga, rac gamoxatulia 1862 wels `ciskarSi~ da-
beWdil werilSi `wavida is dro~. igi dascinis Zveli Taobis, e.w. `mamebis~ Taobis
warmomadgenlebs, isini `siZvelis mqadageblebad~ miaCnda, xolo maTi naweri
uazrod da uSinaarsod. igi amxels Zveli Taobis konservatizms, mxars uWers
epoqis axal mimarTulebas, axal moZraobas. maSinve gamoCnda misi Seurigebeli
da mojanye buneba. marTalia, igi `ciskarSi~ darCa samoRvaweod, magram srulia-
dac ar iziarebda maT Sexedulebas, vinc maSin arqaul Sexedulebebs icavda da
winaaRmdegi iyo sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisa da literaturuli principebis ga-
naxlebisa. mas surda Jurnali `ciskari~ waremarTa sxva gziT, undoda misi prog-
resul organod gadaqceva. 1863 wlidan am Jurnalis kritikis ganyofilebas xel-
mZRvanelobda, sul male `ciskris~ araoficialuri xelmZRvanelic gaxda da iyo
misi faqtiuri redaqtori. am drois misi werilebi `suramis cixeze,~ juzepe ga-
ribaldis moRvaweobaze, qarTul literaturaze warmoadgenen nimuSebs baton-
ymuri wyobilebis winaaRmdeg laSqrobisa. igi werda ganaTlebis saWiroebaze,
cxovrebis evropuli formebis gadmoRebaze, demokratiuli principebis gan-
xorcielebaze.
mravali aqtualuri problema daayena a. furcelaZem publicistur da mxat-
vrul TxzulebebSi. igi gamodioda patara erebis damcvelad da erovnuli Tanas-
worobis mqadageblad. misi SexedulebiT xelovneba unda yofiliyo sinamdvilis,
cxovrebis suraTebis amsaxveli, literatura unda Camdgariyo cxovrebis gaum-
jobesebisaTvis zrunvis samsaxurSi. a. furcelaZis msjelobaSi am dros garkve-
ulad Cndeba d. pisarevis radikalizmis anarekli. mis werilebSi, romlebSic mka-
fiod moCans avtoriseuli memarcxene pozicia, gakritikebulia `saqarTvelos
moambis~ publicisturi da mxatvruli Semoqmedebis nimuSebi. swored es gaxda
mizezi imisa, rom `saqarTvelos moambe~ da `ciskari~ am dros cxare polemikas
awarmoebdnen erTmaneTSi.
a. furcelaZem wamoayena sakiTxi SemoqmedebiTi meTodisa da imTaviTve rea-
lizmis momxreTa wyebaSi Cadga, mis principul momxred darCa. realisturi me-
Todis literatura a. furcelaZes mxolod arsebuli sazogadoebis gardaqmni-
saTvis undoda, amitomac igi xSirad mxatvruli literaturis mTavar funqcias —
mxatvrulobas, saxeebiT azrovnebas ugulebelyofda da mxolod mebrZoli ide-
is Cvenebas utovebda xelovnebasa da literaturas. es azrebi man gamoTqva `su-
ramis cixis~ Sesaxeb daweril werilSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom a. furcelaZis es weri-
li aris pirveli sruli da marTebuli Sefaseba d. WonqaZis Txzulebisa. am weri-
liT man xma aRimaRla batonymobis winaaRmdeg, `suramis cixe~ epoqis sulis gamo-
xatulebad CaTvala. Jurnalma `ciskarma~ am nawarmoebis dabeWdviT daaRwiao Ta-
vi `apaTiis burans~. nawarmoebma, a. furcelaZis azriT, `dahsca saSineli elda da
moswyvita welebi davardnils xalxsa da Zveli azrebis patronebsa, batonebi os-
man-aRasi darCnen pirRiani; jer didxans ver moegnen cnobasa da bolos, rodesac
moipoves grZnoba, daxedes, gadaiRes, gadmoiRes es Txzuleba da rogorc sarke-
Si, ise dainaxes Tavisi Tavi~. d. WonqaZis Txzuleba a. furcelaZis mier miCneulia
gamwarebuli qarTveli glexobis suraTad, Zveli azrebis mqoneTa mxilebad. es
Txzuleba Jurnalis redaqtors sixaruliT miuRia, magram mokrZalebiTa da Si-
SiT daubeWdavs, radgan eSinoda Turme, Jurnalis xelismomwerTa wyromisa. `su-
ramis cixe~ imdenadaa a. furcelaZisaTvis mniSvnelovani, ramdenadac masSi aRwe-
rilia glexobis mdgomareoba batonymobis dros. a. furcelaZes moswons igi imi-
tom, rom TxzulebaSi daxatulia namdvili ambebi da gamoyvanilni arian namdvi-

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li adamianebi, mocemulia ulmobeli kritika sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ganvi-
Tarebis damabrkolebeli mizezebisa, rom masSi ismis protesti adamianis damo-
nebisa da misi pirovnebis gaqelvis gamo.
amrigad, a. furcelaZem pirvelsave werilebSi, vidre igi mxatvrul Semoqme-
debas Seudgeboda, Camoayaliba Sexedulebani literaturis daniSnulebaze da
gamokveTa Tavisi pozicia da ganwyobileba, amasTan survili brZolisa da Setevi-
sa yovelgvari umsgavsobisa da cxovrebis damabrkolebel movlenaTa winaaR-
mdeg.
anton furcelaZis esTetikuri kredos safuZvlad misaCnevia qarTvel samocia-
nelTa Sexedulebani, romlis Tanaxmad xelovnebis nawarmoebis srulfasovneba war-
moudgenelia cxovrebis gavleniT warmoqmnis gareSe. igi wers: `Cven srulebiT ar
veTanxmebiT imaTa, romelnica gazdeven Zvels azrs da iZaxian: xelovneba xelovne-
bisaTvis unda iyoso. Cven yovelTvis winaaRmdegis azrisani viyaviT~.
momdevno werilebSi, imave 1863 wels, a. furcelaZe aRrmavebs Tavis azrebs
da ufro radikalurad gamoTqvams maT. Jurnalis raobaze da, kerZod, qarTuli
Jurnalis daniSnulebaze misi azri ar gansxvavdeba i. WavWavaZis mosazrebisagan.
i. WavWavaZis werili dasdebia safuZvlad a. furcelaZis Sexedulebas. i. WavWava-
Zis `saqarTvelos moambezed~ aris amosavali a. furcelaZisaTvis. `yoveli ke-
Tilsindisieri Jurnali unda cdilobdes, rom xalxs auxsnas goneba, gamoiyva-
nos Tavis uSveris mdgomareobidan da uCvenos WeSmariteba da gza WeSmaritebisa.
Tu amis winaaRmdegobis qadageba ar SeiZleba...imas mainc unda akeTebdes, rom
xalxi ufro da ufro daamonos am gvars azrsa da rwmenasa~— wers a. furcelaZe.
miuxedavad rwmenis siaxlisa, a. furcelaZe, akaki wereTlis msgavsad, i. Wav-
WavaZis `saqarTvelos moambeSi~ ar gadasula TanamSromlad da akakisave msgav-
sad TviT `ciskarSi~ awarmoebda kamaTs Zvelisa da CamorCenilis winaaRmdeg. mas
zogjer ukiduresi uarismyofelisa da xelovnebis avadmaxseneblis, `qarTveli
pisarevis~ saxeli erqva. amisi mizezi unda veZioT im enTuziazmSi, rac misTvis
damaxasiaTebeli iyo saerTod.
rusul literaturaSi gaCnda nihilisti bazarovi, romelic angrevs puSkinis
poezias. a. furcelaZe gaitaca am sazogadoebriv-literaturulma movlenam, da-
wera werili n. baraTaSvilis poeziaze, uaryo igi, `cru ocneba~ uwoda mas. `Cven
gvinda poeziaSic da isec, vxedavdeT saqmesa, WeSmaritebas, Cveni gulis pasuxsa,
Cveni Tavis cnobas, Cvens garemos...da ara Tqvens opiumisagan mTvralis dagvaris
raRac-raRacaebs, vaSauSsa...~ man n. baraTaSvilis poezia usargeblod miiCnia.
`mkiTxveli raRac momzadebiT Seudgeba kiTxvas, da roca gaaTavebs, rCeba xaxam-
Srali, gulcarieli. es imitom, rom aqedan ar gamoaqvT gonebis masazrdoebeli
lukma...~ marTalia, a. furcelaZis Sexedulebebi ucvleli ara yofila. 60-70-iani
wlebis kritikuli werilebi ufro mkveTri iyo, vidre im saukunis ukanasknel
wlebSi dawerilisa, Tumca, maSinac ki, roca igi ukiduresi poziciis mpyrobelad
Cans, igi ar gahyolia bolomde ruseTis cnobili uarmyoflebis yvela Sexedule-
bas. igi zogierTi Tanamedrove da wina epoqis mwerlis Semoqmedebas iwunebda
imitom, rom igi memarcxene samocianeli, xelovnebis nawarmoebisagan pirvel
rigSi moiTxovda azrsa da Tanamedrove saWirboroto sakiTxebSi garkvevas da
ara nawarmoebis maRal mxatvrulobas, Tanac yovelgvari Seferadebis gareSe.
amasTan, misTvis miuRebeli iyo raime elementi piradulobisa da literaturul
nawarmoebsac srulfasovnad maSin Tvlida, roca masSi xalxis gamwarebuli
cxovrebis anarekli iyo mocemuli.
a. furcelaZem mxatvruli sityva gamoiyena xalxis daavadebuli gonebis sae-
qimod, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis dasneulebuli organizmis wamlad. amitom man
didi yuradReba miaqcia azrs, Sinaarss da mniSvnelovani adgili dauTmo mxat-

189
vrul SemoqmedebaSi msjelobas, Teoriebis wamoyeneba-gaSlasa da publicistu-
robas.
a. furcelaZis moRvaweobis dawyeba daemTxva ruseTSi da saqarTveloSi gle-
xobis mdgomareobiT inteligenciis dainteresebis periods, roca yma glexis
mdgomareobas afasebdnen, roca adamianTaTvis adamianuri uflebis warTmevis
sakiTxs amuSavebdnen. mis winaSec dadga sakiTxi qarTveli glexobis mdgomareo-
bisa batonymobis udier pirobebSi. mwerali batonymobas Seexo rogorc Tanamed-
roveobaSi, ise warsulSic da aCvena, rom es saSineleba arc istoriulad da arc
TanamedroveobaSi sxvadasxvagvari ar yofila, rom batonymobis safuZveli da misi
gamovlinebis formebi erTgvari iyo warsulSica da mwerlis TanamedroveobaSic,
rom es sistema arRvevda erovnuli organizmis mTlianobas. man, garda publicis-
turi werilebisa, mxatvrul TxzulebebSi, romlebSiac qarTveli xalxis socia-
lur fenebad dayofas Seexo, maRali wodebis warmomadgenelni gamoiyvana moqiSpe-
ebad, uprincipoebad, sakuTar Jinze da survilze mdgom adamianebad, romelTac
daukargavT erovnuli Segneba da mxolod SuRlisa da separatizmisaTvis gadaud-
viaT Tavi. mSromeli glexoba cxovrobs araadamianur pirobebSi rogorc warsul-
Si, ise awmyoSic, — aseTia a. furcelaZis azri.
Tu Tavis publicistur werilebSi `suramis cixesa~ da `kacia adamianze~ mwe-
ralma daayena sakiTxi socialuri uTanasworobisa da erTis mier meoris Cagvrisa,
mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSic aranaklebad miuzRo man batonymobis saSinelebaTa mxi-
lebas. igi damajereblad asaxavda yma glexTa mdgomareobas, mebatoneTa gulqvao-
bas, mgznebare sityviTa da mwerluri siTamamiT kicxavda gabatonebulTa velur,
uadamiano damokidebulebas mSromeli da umweo glexebis mimarT, Zirs uTxrida im
Sexedulebas, viTomc CvenSi Zvelad batonymoba sasikeTo movlena iyo.
a. furcelaZe qarTul literaturaSi pirvelia, romlis TxzulebaSic gamoC-
nda (daniel WonqaZis `suramis cixis~ Semdeg) is, rom glexobis darbevaSi mebato-
neebs exmarebian da xSirad aqezeben kidec mTavrobis moxeleni, eklesiis msaxur-
ni, administraciis warmomadgenelni. mweralma cocxlad gamoxata maSindeli po-
litikuri sistemis CamorCeniloba da uvargisoba, aCvena is, Tu ra dabal safe-
xurze idga saxelmwifoebrivi sistema mefis xelisuflebisa SedarebiT im qvey-
nebTan, romelTa sazogadoebriv-saxelmwifoebrivi mmarTvelobis sistema prog-
resulad eCveneboda mas.
a. furcelaZem `marTaSi~ da `maci xvitiaSi~ gaatara azri, rom Seurigebel
brZolaSi, romelsac glexoba awarmoebda Tavisi adamianuri uflebebis mosapo-
veblad, saWiro iyo SeTanxmebuli ZaliT winaaRmdegoba da ara individualuri
brZola pirovnebebisa. mamakacebTan erTad qalebsac unda mieRoT monawileoba
pirovnebis socialuri gaTavisuflebis saqmeSi.
pirveli nawarmoebi, romelic am sakiTxebs uZRvna mweralma, iyo moTxroba `To-
Ta~, romlisTvisac osebis yofa da viTareba gamoiyena mweralma. osi ToTa yaCaRad
aqcia arsebulma sazogadoebrivma viTarebam (aRsaniSnavia, rom a. furcelaZem ro-
gorc moTxrobaSi `ToTa~, ise `marTaSi~ masala aiRo saqarTveloSi mcxovreb osTa
yofidan. mweralma kargad icoda maTi viTareba, adaTebi da wesebi).
moTxroba `ToTa~ maSin cenzuram metad Seamcira da daamaxinja, magram mainc
aris SesaZlebloba misi mTavari azrisa da mimarTulebis amocnoba-wakiTxvisa.
masSi dayenebuli sakiTxebi ufro vrclad mweralma gadmosca `marTaSi~ da `maci
xvitiaSi~.
1865 wels dawera a. furcelaZem `marTa~, mozrdili moTxroba, romelSiac
aRwerilia glexobis yofa-mdgomareoba saqarTveloSi batonymobis gadavar-
dnamde. masSi kargad aris garkveuli glexTa cxovrebis damabrkolebeli pirobe-
bis Ziri. mwerali daufaravad aRnusxavs yvela nakls, rac sazogadoebas axasia-
Tebs da daurideblad amaTraxebs sistemas, romelic safuZvlad gamxdara baton-

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ymobis arsebobisaTvis. moTxroba `marTa~ d.WonqaZis nawarmoebis didi gavleni-
Taa dawerili, zogierT SemTxvevaSi mis adgilebs imeorebs kidec. a. furcelaZe,
SeiZleba iTqvas, avrcelebs d.WonqaZis damuSavebul Temas da kidev ufro usvams
xazs qarTveli glexobis umweo mdgomareobas, ufro amaxvilebs yuradRebas im
brZolaze, glexobaSi rom aris Casaxuli, klasobriv urTierTobas rom gamoxa-
tavs da TandaTan rom viTardeba.
nawarmoebSi ori socialuri fena aris warmoCenili — glexoba da Tavadebi,
romelTa cxovrebasac mwerali maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli mxareebiT warmogvid-
gens: glexebi Sromoben, Tavadebi usaqmuroben. ras akeTeben es Tavadebi, ra aris
maTi saqmianoba? `inaTlebda Tu ara, eseni amoiCridnen iRliaSi purs, amoiReb-
dnen waTxidan yvels da daikargebodnen, manam kidev puris Wamis dro mouvido-
daT~- ambobs mwerali. es fena usaqmuria, parazituli, mSromelTa xelisSemSle-
li. usaqmurobisagan maT adamianis garegnobac ki dahkargviaT. `axaluxs atareb-
dnen farCisas, magram esenic iqamde nacveTi iyvnen, rom rac unda kargi Tvali
gqonoda, Tu windawin ar icodi, ver gaigebdi ra farCa iyo... waRebidan xSirad ga-
moeyoT yvela fexis TiTebs Tavi...fexSiSvela siaruls irCevdnen da qalamans ki
ar Caicvamdnen...~ amaTi Zma aris rostom tablaZe, moTxrobis mTavari personaJi.
igi ufro gamocdilia, saqmiani, qalaqSi namsaxuri. rostomi ufro rafinirebu-
li Tavadia am klasis damaxasiaTebeli yvela antisazogadoebrivi TvisebiT. igi
gaborotebulia imis gamo, rom Sin aravis uyvarda. swored amitom bavSvobidanve
imas fiqrobda, iseTi ram saSualeba moeZebna, rom yvelasaTvis gaeswro, pirveli
yofiliyo. mas boroti egoizmi ganuviTarda, goneba gaumaxvilda, gamWriaxi gax-
da da, amasTan, Tavisi glexebis risxvad iqca. mwerali iZleva maRali klasis war-
momadgenelTa degeneraciis suraTs. tablaZeTa usaqmuri da uazro yofa metad
hgavs luarsab TaTqariZis yofas.
mweralma glexebi adamianuri TvisebebiT aRsavseni daxata moTxrobaSi, isini
antipodebi arian Tavadebisa. mSromelni, adamianobiT aRbeWdilni, gulmarTal-
ni da erTurTis damfasebelni, isini batonebis ymebi arian, Tavisufleba warTme-
ulni. rostom tablaZis moaxle marTa yvelas uyvarda, urigo sityvas misgan ve-
ravin gaigonebda. aseTive Rirsebisa iyo tablaZis meore msaxuri sosika, romel-
sac marTa Sehyvareboda — sulgrZeli, momTmeni. rostomma Tavisi ymebi araadami-
anur pirobebSi Caayena. isini batons itanen imisaTvis, rom sisxlis daRvras eri-
debian, amis nebas adamianoba ar aZlevs maT. magram roca fiala moTminebisa pir-
Tamde aevsoT, maSin ki SeiTqvnen glexebi abezari batonis Tavidan mosacileb-
lad. sosika, ninika, daTo da sxvebi gadawyveten rostomis mokvlas, magram gadam-
wyvet momentSi maT sZlevT SiSi sisxlis daRvrisa. glexebSi ukve gacocxlda
mebrZoli suliskveTeba, igi TandaTan mkveTrdeba. rostomis mxarezea xelisuf-
leba, magram glexebi mainc aRmarTaven xels batonis winaaRmdeg. orWof glexebs
marTa mimarTavs aRmgznebi sityvebiT: `maswavleT Tofis gatena, giCvenebT,
Tqven rom ver gagibediaT. miyureT me, dedakacsa, miyureT rogor Tavi gamimet-
nia. sircxvilis Semdeg me sicocxle aRar menaneba TqvensaviT. dRes Tqvens co-
lebs daxades Ciqilebi, Tqvens colebs daasxes Tavze lafi... Tqven ki gaCumebul-
xarT... momyeviT me da pirveli me mival sisxlis dasalevad...~
marTam cecxli daunTo SeTqmulT. misma sityvebma didi gavlena moaxdina
glexebze.
a. furcelaZe im azrs adgas, rom batonsa da ymas Soris morigeba ar iqneba, maTi
klasobrivi interesebi ver SeTanxmdebian, maT Soris damokidebuleba sisxlis daR-
vriT unda damTavrdes. glexobas adridanve Segnebuli ar hqonda Tavisi klasobri-
vi arsi, ver warmoedgina, rom SesaZlebeli iqneboda dawesebuli urTierTobis Sec-
vla. sosika (`marTa~) pirvel xanebSi pasiuria, magram, roca mis winaSe daisva sakiTxi
marTasTan dakavSirebisa da batonma ki siyvarulis ufleba ar misca, daiwyo brZola

191
rostom tablaZesa da sosikas Soris, rasac rostomis ojaxis amowyveta mohyva. ram-
denime cdam am abezari Tavadis mokvlisam, uSedegod Caiara; rostomis gamoCena
glexSi Ronesa da SesaZleblobas adunebda, magram, roca moTminebis fiala aivso,
maSin ki sosikam da sxvebma iaraRi aisxes da mizansac miaRwies. glexebma Tavisi sis-
xlismsmeli mokles.
1876 wlidan a. furcelaZe cxovrobda da msaxurobda zugdidSi, igi sasamar-
Tlo dawesebulebis moxele iyo. samegreloSi mopovebuli masaliT da megreli
glexobis yofis Seswavlis Sedegad man Seqmna romani `maci xvitia~.
Cveni xalxis cxovrebaSi mravlad iyo tragikuli movlenebi. mweralma gansa-
kuTrebiT gaamaxvila yuradReba maTze. samTavroebis separatistuli zraxvani,
SuRli da gaugonari qiSpi, feodaluri aRviraxsniloba glexobis isedac savala-
lo mdgomareobas ufro arTulebda. maTi dawiokeba, osmaleTSi gayidva Zirs
uTxrida xalxis momavals. yvela, visac Zala hqonda, yidda glexTa sagangebod
darCeul qal-yrmas. osmaleTisa da egviptis bazrebi savse iyo dasavleT saqar-
Tvelodan tyved wasxmuli axalgazrdebiT.
`maci xvitias~ daweriT a. furcelaZem pasuxi gasca maT, visac warsuli saTnoe-
bis samefod warmoedginaT. marRaniebi, CiCuebi, ServaSiZeebi, dadianebi da sxvani
erTurTs Soris da yvela erTad mTavris winaaRmdeg aSlila, erTmaneTs esevian,
angreven, wvaven da iwvis pirvel rigSi glexis saxl-kari, ingreva pirvel rigSi
mravaltanjuli glexis ojaxi. yovelgvari boroteba, qurdoba, Zarcva, kvla aris
Sedegi socialuri uTanasworobisa.
`maci xvitia~ imiTaa saintereso, rom mweralma SeZlo aRewera da ganezogade-
bina megreli glexis mdgomareoba. nawarmoebSi daxatuli viTareba met-naklebad
saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSia mosalodneli. `glexkacoba sruli kuTvnileba iyo
Tavisi batonisa da mTavrisa. imas unda Seenaxa eseni sulian-xorcianad. glexebis
colebi da qalebic batonebisa da mTavris sruls uflebaSi ufro iyvnen, vidre
qmrisa da mamisaSi. glexkaci iTmenda yvela amas uneblieT. isini ukiduresobam-
din mividnen, magram mainc kidev am mdgomareobidan gamosasvlel Rones vera hxe-
davdnen~.
nawarmoebSi daxatulia tipuri suraTebi feodaluri aSlilobisa, TavadTa
Soris ganuwyveteli Tavdasxmebisa da brZolebisa. yvelaze metad am mdgomareo-
biT iCagreboda glexi, metic, igi fizikurad da moralurad nadgurdeboda — maT
itacebdnen, yiddnen aRmosavleT qveynebis bazrebze. es tipuri suraTebi iyo
Zveli yofisa sazogadod.
`maci xvitia~ metad popularuli nawarmoebia misi mTavari personaJebis —
ekasi da macis saocari TavgadasavliTa da xifaTiT aRsavse bediT.
a. furcelaZem glexobis yofa batonymobis gadavardnis Semdegi droisac aR-
wera. saglexo reformam glexis mdgomareoba ver Secvala. batonymoba moispo,
magram glexi mainc ver gaTavisuflda, man ver miiRo miwa, igi yofili batonis,
axlandeli memamulis Semyure darCa. batonymuri meurneobis naSTebi, didi gada-
saxadebi da memamulisaTvis miwis gamosasyidi fasis gadaxda, rac xSirad glexu-
ri meurneobis Semosavals aRemateboda, iwvevda glexTa ekonomikur gaCanagebas.
kapitalisturi warmoebis ganviTarebam soflis mosaxleoba daanawila da maT
Soris mourigebeli brZola gaaCaRa. soflis mosaxleobis dayofa qonebis mixed-
viT Raribi glexobisaTvis autaneli Seiqna. soflis ufrosoba mdidarma nawilma
igdo xelSi. sasoflo gadasaxadebs yvelaze erTnairad anawilebdnen. gadasaxadi
advili gasastumrebeli iyo SeZlebulTaTvis, magram, iseTi adamianisaTvis, vinc
kvers nacarSi acxobs, autaneli da SeuZlebeli gaxda. aseTia nacarkveraZe,
arafris mqone glexi, romelic gadasaxadis mixedviT gaTanasworebulia SeZle-
bulebTan. am qitesa nacarkveraZis yofa aris aRwerili moTxrobaSi `qitesa~.

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a. furcelaZis im TxzulebaTa mixedviT, romlebSic mwerals glexTa mdgomare-
oba aqvs aRwerili, SeiZleba Tvali gaedevnos cvlilebebs, rac xdeboda qarTul so-
felSi feodaluri urTierTobis rRvevisas da kapitalisturi warmoebis ganviTa-
rebis procesSi. Tu `marTa~ asaxavda glexTa yofas batonymur pirobebSi, sxva viTa-
reba aris aRwerili moTxrobaSi `qitesa~, romelsac qvesaTaurad uweria —ambavi sa-
xelmwifo soflis cxovrebidan.
am patara TxzulebaSi a. furcelaZem cocxlad warmosaxa ara mxolod qitesa,
aramed, saerTod, Raribi, ubadruki, miwasTan gasworebuli glexoba. nawarmoebi dawe-
rilia 1871 wels, roca qarTul sofelSi momZlavrebuli iyo mosaxleobis diferen-
ciacia. swored es viTareba asaxa mweralma moTxrobaSi. misTvis cnobilia yvela
wvrilmani glexobis yofisa, amitomac uSualobiT da pirdapirobiT daxatuli qite-
sas saxe didxans rCeba mkiTxvelTa mexsierebaSi.
mwerali aRwers gamogonil sofel briyveTianSi momxdar ambavs, sadac glexebi
SeZlebis mixedviT dayofilni arian litrianebad, samCareqianebad, naxevarlitri-
anebad da Careqianebad. magram sofelSi arian iseTebic, romlebic am danayofSi
ver xvdebian, radgan maT sulis garda araferi gaaCniaT. bunebrivia, soflis Tavka-
cebi SeZlebuli glexebi arian, romelnic Tavissave mezoblebs, Tanasoflelebs —
qitesa nacarkveraZes, bero burtylaZes, mose mwyeraZes da maTs msgavsT metad aviw-
roeben. mozrdili nafuzris patronma cetiaSvilma da qitesa nacarkveraZem, ro-
melsac erTaderTi Zroxa SimSiliT moukvda, erTnairi gadasaxadi unda gadaixadon
— aseTia soflis TavkacTa gadawyvetileba. am niadagze Cndeba ukmayofileba da Cxu-
bi, rac mTavrdeba ketis trialiT da cema-tyepiT. amis Sedegad burtylaZe da na-
carkveraZe arian dalurjebulni da dasisxlianebulni. daCagruli glexebi simar-
Tlisa da samarTlis saZieblad qalaqs midian, saidanac iseve gawbilebulni dabrun-
debian, rogorc sofelSi iyvnen. mwerali ufro amuqebs saRebavs imiT, rom qitesas
14-15 wlis gogo maro, romelic batonTan idga mosamsaxured, Sin Sercxvenili dab-
runda. gamwarebuli qitesa sasowarkveTili iZaxis: `waval. xelmwifesTan waval...
RmerTamdin vivli, RmerTamdina...raRad minda Tavi cocxali...~
a. furcelaZem TxzulebaSi daxata qitesas msgavsi uRaribesi, uuflebo, dam-
cirebuli adamianebis mTeli wyeba, romlebic mdidari glexebis, vaWrebis, dawe-
sebulebaTa moxeleebis neba-survils asruleben.
aseT yofaSia glexoba saglexo reformis meore dRes.
70-ian wlebSi a. furcelaZe ukve nacadi mwerali iyo. man garkveuli rolic ki
Seasrula xalxosnuri mimdinareobis ganviTarebaSi. kavSiri xalxosnebTan mwe-
ralma umTavresad gamoxata ekonomikuri xasiaTis werilebiT, romelTac Jur-
nal `mnaTobSi~ da gazeT `guTnis dedaSi~ beWdavda 70-ian wlebSi.
`mnaTobsa~ da `guTnis dedaSi~ gamoqveynebul werilebSi (`Cveni saltolve-
lo~, `sasoflo werilebi~, `sasoflo bankebisa da mamulis saerTo mflobelobis
Taobaze...~) a. furcelaZe sargeblobda rusi `narodnikebisagan~ miRebuli Temu-
ri saerTo mflobelobis ideiT, romelic xalxis ekonomiuri keTildReobis qva-
kuTxedad unda gadaqceuliyo. cxadia, rogorc yvela xalxosans, masac am dros
axasiaTebda winaaRmdegobani. azrovnebis aseTma mimdinareobam, rasakvirvelia,
gavlena moaxdina mis mxatvrul Semoqmedebazec.
kapitalisturi samyaros kritika a. furcelaZes gaSlili aqvs piesaSi `ava-
zakni~, romelSic aRwerilia e. w. `bneli samefo~, sadac araa erTurTis dandoba,
erTurTis Sewynareba. am `bnel samefoSi~ gabatonebulan vaWrebi, flidi da meq-
rTame Cinosnebi, matyuara advokatebi da sammarTvelo sistemis usindiso warmo-
madgenlebi. nawarmoebSi daxatulia siClungis pativiscema da dawixlva adamia-
nobisa. burJuaziul-kapitalisturi Segnebis mqone sazogadoeba axSobs siaxles,
azris moZraobas. qveyanaze fulia gabatonebuli da fulis raodenoba gansazR-
vravs adamianis adgils sazogadoebaSi. mweralma amxila avazakuri da mtaceb-

193
lur-momxveWeli buneba gabatonebuli sazogadoebisa. havaqa dilanovis, zaxar
iagoriCis, minas ivaniCis mtaceblur saqmianobasa da uadamianobas aravin regla-
ments ar udebs, maTi yaCaRoba xelisuflebisaganac da sazogadoebisaganac neba-
darTulia.
a. furcelaZis TxzulebebSi umniSvnelo adgili uWiravs eklesiis msaxurTa,
mkiTxavTa, eqimbaSTa moRvaweobis, crumorwmuneobis damRupveli gavlenis aRwe-
ras. misi gmirebi moazrovne axalgazrdebi arian, romelTac SeswevT unari ana-
lizi gaukeTon saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebis arss, iqonion mowinave azrebi,
romelTa mizani amqveyniuri adamianuri yofis mowesrigeba aris, aris damyareba
socialuri Tanasworobisa, adamianTa Soris namdvili adamianuri da gulwrfeli
damokidebulebisa. es axalgazrdebi msjeloben momavali sazogadoebis av-kar-
gze. svimon badlaZe, besarion vargisaSvili, vasil nawretiSvili da sxvani gonie-
ri axalgazrdebi arian, maT analitikuri azrovnebis unari aqvT, mgznebared sa-
ubroben, riTac axalgazrda Tanamzraxvelebs iCenen.
a. furcelaZe sxva TxzulebebSic axdens axalgazrda adamianTa progresuli
Sexedulebebis demonstrirebas, kerZod, socialuri borotebis winaaRmdeg maT
amxedrebas, an burJuaziuli yofisagan gaqelili pirovnebis damcvelad maT aRze-
vebas. am axalgazrduli Zalis Rirseba ganaTlebisadmi ltolvaa, demokratiuli
azrovnebaa, konkretul problemaTa gadawyvetisaken miswrafebaa.
msgavsi inteligentis saxe pirvelad an. furcelaZem daxata moTxrobaSi `mar-
Ta~, Tavad rostom tablaZis ZmisSvilis, daviTis saxiT. daviTs Segnebuli aqvs,
rom axlovdeba glexobis socialuri gaTavisuflebis dro, magram mas, avtoris
daxasiaTebiT naklad, `eniT yoCaRoba~ gamohyoloda, mas ara hqonoda Tavi `saqme-
zed saqmis miyvanisa~. biZasTan molaparakebisas gancdili marcxis Semdeg igi gle-
xebTan aRiarebs — rostomTan vera gavawye-rao.
daviTis msgavsad, a. furcelaZis sxva nawarmoebSi gamoxatuli naswavli axal-
gazrdebic maRali fenidan arian gamosulni. mwerali maT akisrebs cxovrebis
ukuRmarTobis gamosworebisaTvis fiqrsa da zrunva-saqmes. esenic ewamebian sazo-
gadoebis wevrTa wamebiT, maTi gulebic keTilSobili zraxvebiT aris aRsavse,
mzad arian yvelaferi humanuri grZnobebis karnaxiT moimoqmedon. saubedurod
sazogadoeba cru rwmeniT, drogadasuli tradiciebiTaa Seborkili, mas ar Ses-
wevs sikeTiT aRgznebuli axalgazrdis dafasebis unari, ris gamoc igi far-xmals
yris, Sua gzaze Cerdeba, xsnisa da daxmarebis obieqts Sua wyalSi xels SeuSvebs da
gadarCenis imeds uxSobs.
sainteresodaa daxatuli nawarmoebSi — `samis Tavgadasavali~ — svimon bad-
laZis saxe. man gauZlo yovelgvar winaaRmdegobas, dasZlia SimSili, dacinva-Se-
uracxyofa da meZav maSasTan damokidebulebaSi gamoamJRavna maRali adamianuri
Tvisebebi. a. furcelaZem am nawarmoebSi mravali saintereso ambavi da bevri ada-
miani aRwera. is survilebi, romlebic amoqmedebda svimons, samociani wlebis ru-
sul literaturaSi ukve damuSavebuli iyo. am SemTxvevaSi an. furcelaZes maga-
liTi SeeZlo aeRo n.CerniSevskis romanidan `ra vakeToT?~
svimon badlaZis msgavs adamianebs, marTalia, xalxisaTvis samsaxuris gawevis
didi survili amoqmedebT, magram isini metad ususurni arian, xSirad saqmes Sua
gzaze Tavs anebeben da garbian soflidan qalaqSi, qalaqidan sofelSi, saqarTve-
lodan sazRvargareT, survilebiTa da jan-RoniT aRsavseni uazrod iRupebian.
es personaJebi `monanie aznaurebic~ arian, romlebic winaparTa mier daSvebul
SecdomaTa gamosworebas cdiloben, magram dawyebuli saqme dasasrulamde ver
mihyavT uxerxemlobisa da praqtikuli cxovrebis ucodinrobis gamo.
svimon badlaZis saxe a. furcelaZem Semdeg araerTxel aametyvela. 1873 wels
daweril TxzulebaSi — `Cveneburi saqmis bolo~, badlaZis oreuli vasil nawre-
taSvili daxata.

194
svimon badlaZe (`samis Tavgadasavali~), vasil nawretaSvili (`Cveneburi saq-
mis bolo~), miSo (`vai, marTalT!~) SesaniSnavi azris mqoneni arian, maT unari aqvT
msjelobisa, SeiaraRebulan Teoriuli codniT, magram ar hyofniT principulo-
ba.
gmiri moTxrobisa `vai marTalTa~, miSo, magaliTad, gabedulad Seudga prog-
resis SuqiT ganaTebul gzas, magram, male tydeba da sakuTari qveynisTvis gamo-
usadegari xdeba. miSos saxeSi a. gercenisa da i. turgenevis mier gamoxatuli ax-
algazrdebis xasiaTebi moaqcia mweralma. sazogadoebasa da amgvar adamianTa So-
ris SeuTanxmebloba sufevs, konfliqtic amitom xdeba maT Soris, ris Sedegadac
pirovneba marcxdeba.
miSo hgavs i. turgenevis rudins, uaRresad ganaTlebul adamians, magram
fraziors, romelsac saqmisaTvis xeli ver moukidnia; miSoc maRali gonebis pat-
ronia, male xiblavs adamians kargi laparakiT, magram saqmes verc is uZRveba. ami-
tomac mieltvis sazogadoebisagan gandgomas, sazRvargareT cdilobs gamgzav-
rebas. bolos miatova samSoblo, jer garibaldis razmSi Caewera, Semdeg ki pari-
zis komunarebSi gaeria da barikadebze brZolis dros daeca.
n. CerniSevskis romanSi, romelic a. furcelaZis idealebis ganxorcieleba
iyo, idga sakiTxi qalTa uflebis Sesaxeb. revoluciurma da demokratiulma in-
teligenciam seriozuli yuradReba miaqcia qalis emansipaciis sakiTxs. maT qa-
lis Tanasworuflebianoba miiRes da mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSic didi adgili da-
uTmes mas. a. furcelaZem, pirvelma qarTul literaturaSi, daayena sakiTxi qalis
ojaxuri da saskolo aRzrdis Taobaze. misi nawarmoebebi, romlebic axalgazrdo-
bis saqmianobas da maT gegmebs exeba, ganekuTvneba qalTa sakiTxsac. mwerlis idea-
lia qalis monawileoba saqveyno saqmeebSi. a. furcelaZis moTxrobaTa gmiri mama-
kacebi Teoriulad da praqtikulad exmarebian qalebs, romelTac esaWiroebaT ga-
naTlebac, swavlac, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebac.
a. furcelaZem Tavis SemoqmedebaSi didi adgili dauTmo istoriul Temas. sa-
qarTvelos istoriidan mas itacebs erTi momenti, metad Taviseburi da saSineli
periodi Cveni qveynis warsulidan — Sah-abasis Semosevani da qarTvelTa Tavdacvi-
Ti brZola giorgi saakaZis meTaurobiT. qarTveli xalxis cxovrebis am istoriul
monakveTs mweralma miuZRvna mozrdili gamokvleva — `brZola saqarTvelos mo-
saspobad da saqarTvelos SesaerTeblad anu giorgi saakaZe da misi dro~. giorgi
saakaZis pirovnebiT daintereseba sakmaod didxans gagrZelebula. giorgi saakaZe-
zea dawerili tragedia `didi mouravi~, poemebi — `marabda~, `Tamar Razneli~,
moTxrobebi — `daviT aslaniSvili-jandieri~ da `SeTqmuleba giorgi saakaZisa~.
istoriis Temaze dawerili Txzulebebisa da gamokvlevis mizani aris Cveneba im aS-
lilobisa da daqsaqsvisa, riTac xasiaTdeba feodaluri saqarTvelo. uaRresad
ganviTarebuli separatizmi, wvrilman interesTa win wamoweva, erTurTis winaaR-
mdeg brZola, ZmaTa Soris sisxlis Rvra — ai is faqtebi, rac damaxasiaTebeli iyo
Zveli, feodaluri saqarTvelosaTvis. zogierTi qveynis gamgeblisa da did sagva-
reuloTa uazro nabijebi, rac safuZveli iyo qveynis ngrevisa (`bagrationebis di-
deba~), sagvareulo SuRli da qiSpi (`Tamar Razneli~), did TavadTa gesliani damo-
kidebuleba gulSematkivarTan (`didi mouravi~) a. furcelaZes xSirad auweria.
igi istoriuli Temis damuSavebisas im principebiT xelmZRvanelobda, romliTac
ilia WavWavaZe da akaki wereTeli. maT saqarTvelos warsulidan amokrifes samSob-
los siyvarulisa da misi dacvis gamomxatveli SesaniSnavi epizodebi da Tanamed-
roveT miuTiTes qveynisaTvis brZolis saSualebebze. a. furcelaZemac amas miaq-
cia yuradReba da, TiTqos ufro daaxasiaTa saqarTvelos warsulSi moqmedi Zale-
bis roli, dainaxa is saqmeebi, rasac akeTebda maRali wodeba saqarTvelos mTlia-
nobisa da damoukideblobis dangrevis saqmeSi.

195
a. furcelaZem i. WavWavaZis msgavsad matianeebSi xalxis yofa ver amoikiTxa da
amitom miznad daisaxa TviT Seeqmna xalxis mdgomareobis amsaxveli Txzulebebi.
misi SexedulebiT, istoria ar iZleva namdvil cnobebs:
`CvenT matianeT damwerelni yurs ar ugdeben
arca xalxsa da arca xalxis yofa-cxovrebas,
isini marto mefeTa da sardalT icnobdnen
da agviwerdnen maTs omebs da maTs amxedrebas.
dajda bakuri qarTlis mefed, mokvda bakuri,
bakuris Semdeg dajda farsman, kaci uZluri,
sumbatis Semdgom mefed dajda bagrat regveni,
mokvda regveni, sumbat, daviT da sxva mefeni~
( `Tamar Razneli~, Tavi 4, str. 2-3)
aseTia mwerlis azriT saqarTvelos oficialuri istoria. amis sawinaaRmdegod
poemaSi `Tamar Razneli~ mweralma daxata saxalxo gmiri — bero dvaliZe, romelic
dampyrobTa winaaRmdeg brZolaSi gauZRveba xalxs. Zveli politikuri yofis kriti-
kiT a. furcelaZe gamodis saxelmwifoebrivi simtkicisa da Zlieri adgilobrivi
mmarTvelobis momxred. qveynis saTaveSi unda iseTi gonieri da gamocdili strate-
gi idges, rogoric giorgi saakaZe iyo.
istoriul TxzulebebSi mwerali gvixatavs qarTveli qalis, qarTveli dedis
gmirul saxeebs. qeTevan dedofali sayvareli gmiria mwerlisa, romlis patriotiz-
mze da gamZleobaze bevrs msjelobs rogorc gamokvlevaSi, ise mxatvrul Txzule-
bebSi. poemaSi `Tamar Razneli~ dawvrilebiT aris aRwerili qeTevanis wameba. amasTan
erTad, masSi daxatulia meore Tavdadebuli qarTveli qalis, givi Raznelis asulis —
Tamaris saxe, romlis simtkices veraviTari muqara ver aryevs. aseTive saxe qarTveli
qalisa gaxlavT xerxeuliZeTa deda poemidan `cxra Zma~. keTilSobili aRmzrdeli
brZolis velze istumrebs Svilebs da Tavadac gmirulad ibrZvis. istoriul-patri-
otuli Tema aqvs mwerals damuSavebuli, agreTve, piesaSi `asuli israelisa~.
a. furcelaZe kargi ostatia Temis amorCevisa. mwerali cxovrebas misdevs
fexdafex da yvela mniSvnelovan movlenas cocxlad da swrafad exmaureba. igi
qadagebs arsebuli wyobilebis winaaRmdeg brZolas. Tamamad amxels sazogadoeb-
rivi yofis uaryofiT mxareebs, dauRalavad ebrZvis qarTveli inteligenciis
uniaTobasa da SemoqmedebiTi Zalebis modunebas, sityviTa da laparakiT gatace-
bas, moiTxovs praqtikuli saqmianobis gaZlierebas da jvarze akravs molaybesa
da uxerxemlos. mweralma gailaSqra burJuaziul-kapitalisturi sazogadoebis
mtacebluri interesebis winaaRmdeg da araerTgan amxila misi mgluri gautan-
loba. mweralma amxila xelisuflebisa da xalxis moTxovnilebaTa SeuTanxmeb-
lobac. a. furcelaZe Tavisuflebis mqadagebeli iyo, gansakuTrebiT uyvarda
TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli adamiani da xalxi. didi gatacebiT eweoda igi ga-
ribaldis pirovnebisa da moRvaweobis popularizacias.
a. furcelaZis Semoqmedeba aqtualuri da ideurad Ronieria, magram, samwuxa-
rod, mxatvrulobas naklebi yuradReba aqvs daTmobili. mwerali Semoqmedebas iye-
nebs saqadageblad, azrTa gadmosacemad. amitomacaa, rom misi Txzulebebi aRsavsea
ideebiT, SinaarsiT da, naklebad, gamoqandakebuli formiTa da saxeebiT. nawarmoe-
bis aRnagobac Taviseburi gaaCnda mas. didi masala da didi Tema saSualebas ar aZ-
levs konkretuli momentebi warmoadginos da maTze yuradRebis gamaxvilebiT,
mxatvruli detalizaciis saSualebiT, isini tipurni gaxados. masalis siuxve xSi-
rad Warbobs da amitom xSiradve mis TxzulebebSi gvian Cndeba mTavari gmiri. nawar-
moebTa stili gaubraloebulia, mwerals uyvars iseT ambavTa detalizacia, romel-
nic siaxlis TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovans aras warmoadgenen, mis TxzulebaTa gmi-
rebis gvarebic winaswar gansazRvraven maTs xasiaTs: nacarkveraZe, burtylaZe ( `qi-
tesa~), tablaZe ( `marTa~), medgariZe (`vai marTalTa~) da sxvani, da mkiTxvels winas-
196
war awvdian cnobebs gmiris xasiaTis Taobaze. mwerali uxvad mimarTavs sizmris mo-
tivs.
a. furcelaZis mxatvruli Semoqmedebisa da publicistikis ena aRsavsea ru-
sicizmebiT, rac avtors sruliad ar eCoTireba. daniel WonqaZes ki usayvedu-
rebda barbarizmebiT nawarmoebis gadatvirTvas. misi saubari yovelTvis saamo
mosasmeni yofila, `laparakSi enawylianobas iCendao~, `antoni rom saxlSi Semo-
va, kedlebic ki iciniano~, — gadmogvcemen memuaristebi.
prof. simon xundaZe, werilSi `anton furcelaZe da egnate ninoSvili~1 wer-
da, rom am or mweralsa da publicists Soris arsebobs ideuri naTesaoba, rac is-
toriuli TanamimdevrobiT unda aixsnaso, rom a. furcelaZem Tavisi mxatvruli
Semoqmedebis TematikiTa da publicistikis motivebiT istoriulad Seamzada ni-
adagi eg.ninoSvilis aRmosaceneblad. is, rac ver SeZlo an.furcelaZem Tavisi
epoqis xasiaTis gamo, sacnauri da SesaZlebeli gaxda eg. ninoSvilisaTvis, rad-
gan man wina epoqis mweralTa da a. furcelaZis gamocdilebiT isargebla da gada-
iqca mecnieruli socializmis mimdevrado. s.xundaZe aCvenebs im adgils, rome-
lic epyra a. furcelaZes qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azris istoriaSi.
a. furcelaZem wina rigSi wamoayena pirovneba, misi goneba da Segneba, mas daa-
vala sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis Secvla, magram es Segneba dairRva istoriuli
ganviTarebis kanoniT, radgan kapitalizmis ganviTarebam da axli sawarmoo ur-
TierTobis damyarebam sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis gardamqmnel faqtorad pro-
letariatis revoluciuri Zala daadgina.
a. furcelaZem Tavis Tanamedrove mwerlebis msgavsad kritikuli realizmis
meTodi gamoiyena. mwerali Tavis inteligent gmirebTan erTad aRSofoTebulia
arsebuliT, ibrZvis mis gardasaqmnelad, magram, Tu mas maTTan erTad mklavi
usustdeba, imis gamo, rom maSindeli sazogadoebrivi Segneba da azri met da
sxvagvar SesaZleblobas ver qmnida. mwerlis pirovnebaSi ki imdenad didi iyo
miswrafeba revoluciuri gardaqmnis ideisaken, rom Tavisi erTi gmiri, radgan
mas saqarTveloSi samoqmedo asparezi ver mounaxa, frang komunarebSi gauria da
`kacis simarTlisaTvis~ msxverplad Seswira.
simarTlisaTvisa da adamianobisaTvis brZola amoqmedebda anton furcela-
Zes, rac man Taviseburad gamoxata Tavis mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi.

1
Jurn. `qarTuli mwerloba~, 1929, 11-12.

197
XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebi

XIX s. 80-iani wlebi rTuli sazogadoebriv-politikuri viTarebiT xasiaTdeba.


erTi mxriv erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli da revoluciur-demokratiuli moZra-
obis aRmavloba, meore mxriv, reaqciis gaZliereba. literaturasa da, saerTod,
kulturul cxovrebas tons jer kidev samocianelebi aZleven, magram samwerlo
asparezze ukve gamoCndnen xalxosnuri mwerlobis warmomadgenlebi. gansakuTre-
biT mniSvnelovania is garemoeba, rom swored 80-ian wlebSi moRvaweobas iwyeben a.
yazbegi da vaJa-fSavela. 80-iani wlebidan iwyeben saqmianobas dramatuli sazoga-
doeba da qarTuli Teatri, qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazoga-
doeba, Cndeba axali perioduli gamocemebi da a. S. asparezze gamodis kritikosTa
da publicistTa axali Taoba. mwerlobis ganmsazRvreli mxatvruli meTodi kvlav
realizmia, Tumca empiriul-naturalisturi tendenciebic araa gamonaklisi. yove-
live aman ganapiroba 80-iani wlebis Taviseburebani saqarTveloSi.

***

70-iani wlebis dasasrulsa da 80-iani wlebis damdegs sagrZnoblad gaZlier-


da reaqcia mTels ruseTis imperiaSi. miT ufro es igrZnoboda SemoerTebul
qveynebSi, sadac socialuri Cagvris winaaRmdeg brZolas erovnul-ganmaTavi-
suflebeli moZraobac emateboda. saqarTveloSi gaZlierda Seviwroeba erovnu-
li enisa, Teatrisa, sxvadasxva kulturul-saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebisa.
amitom iyo, rom qarTveli mwerlebi, uwinares ki qarTveli samocianelebi Seu-
povrad ebrZodnen ruseTis xelisuflebis koloniur RonisZiebebs. upirvelesi
sagani zrunvisa qarTuli ena iyo. imxanad xelisufleba yovelnairad cdilobda
mSobliuri ena ganedevna TviT dawyebiTi skolebidanac ki. amas mohyva i. WavWava-
Zis, a. wereTlis, s. mesxis, k.lorTqifaniZis, i. gogebaSvilis da sxvaTa saprotes-
to gamosvla qarTul presaSi. 1881 wels i. WavWavaZe kategoriulad acxadebda:
`radganac arsebiTi niSani erovnebisa, misi guli da suli — enaa, amitomac tlanqi
xeli umecaris moxeleobisa yvelazed uwinares enas miswvda. Tu romelsame moxe-
lis xels am SemTxvevaSi azri ram amoqmedebda, eg is azri iyo, rom saxelmwifo
enazed ar laparakobeno. ugunureba am azrisa cxadia~.1
aseve icavda Cveni inteligencia qarTuli Teatris erovnulobas. 1879 wels
Camoyalibda qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoeba da qarTuli mudmivi Teatri.
profesiuli Teatris aRdgenas ganuzomeli mniSvneloba eniWeboda. mas biZgi un-
da mieca ara marto qarTuli mwerlobisa da, kerZod, dramaturgiis aRmavlobi-
saTvis, aramed gaeZlierebina erovnuli TviTSegneba, daerazma xalxi brZoli-
saTvis damoukideblobis mosapoveblad.
qarTuli Teatris swored aseTi suliskveTeba ar moewona mefis ruseTis xe-
lisuflebas. amitom iyo, rom d. erisTavis mier gadmokeTebuli v.sardus piesis —
`samSoblos~ dadgmas katkovis Savrazmuli gazeTi — `Московские ведомости~ Seu-
racxmyofeli weriliT gamoexmaura. qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoebis da qar-
Tuli Teatris erT-erTi sulisCamdgmeli i. WavWavaZe iyo, kaci, romelmac Rir-
seuli pasuxi gasca katkovis gazeTs ( `katkovis pasuxad~, droeba, 1882, 40). aseve
mkacrad gamoepasuxa katkovs a. wereTeli `droebasa~ da `kavkazSi~.
erovnuli meobis dacva, erovnuli istoriisa da kulturis warmoCena, saer-
Tod, erovnuli Rirsebis xelSeuxebloba qarTvel samocianelebs kvlav upirve-

1
i . W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. V, 1955, gv. 80-81.
les amocanad esaxebaT. reaqciis periodSi, gansakuTrebiT aleqsandre meoris
mkvlelobis Semdeg, es problemebi kidev ufro mwvaved wamoiWra. amitom acxa-
debs ilia ase dabejiTebiT, rom `saxelmwifo erTobas ar uSlis arc rjulisa da
arc eris sxvadasxvaoba~.
ilia kategoriulad icavs calkeuli eris uflebebs, misi sityviT, `ruseTi
erTi imisTana saxelmwifoa, saca sxvadasxva tomisa da enis erni scxovroben, da
mere, ise, rom TavianT mama-papeul miwa-wyalzed Sejgufebulni arian da ara Si-
gadaSig gafantulni. amitomac eris udidess sapolitiko sagans ruseTisas Sead-
gens jer is, rom sxvadasxva tomis erni rogor unda moewyon SinaobaSi saTiTaod,
da mere — rogor unda moTavsdnen saxelmwifosTan... yvelas unda winaswar scod-
noda, rom dResa Tu xvale ruseTi iZulebuli Seiqneboda daeniSna samzRvari sa-
xelmwifo moqmedebisa sazogadod da erovnebisa calked da erTisa da meoris moe-
dani cal-calke Semoefargla ...ruseTs ara hqonda da arc dReisaqamomde aqvs ga-
morkveuli da dadgenili deda azri maszed, Tu sad Tavdeba ufleba erovnebisa da
sad iwyeba saxelmwifosi~.1
qarTveli samocianelebi 80-ian wlebSic dabejiTebiT eZieben socialuri da
erovnuli Tavisuflebis gzebs da swored am xanebSi erTxel kidev gancxadda i.
WavWavaZisa da mis TanamoazreTa erovnuli koncefcia, romlis mixedviTac, ba-
tonymobis gauqmebis Semdeg, mTeli yuradReba erovnul problemaze unda gadae-
tanaT. uwinares yovlisa, saWiro iyo erovnuli Tavisuflebis mopoveba. es idea-
li yvela wodebas aerTianebda erTi droSis qveS. amitom aRar iyo saWiro wodeb-
riv winaaRmdegobaTa gaRrmaveba, maTze yuradRebis gamaxvileba. mTeli Cveni
erovnuli energia unda warimarTos erTi miznisaken, Cven Sidaklasobrivi brZo-
la aras gvargebs, igi mxolod dagvasustebs. i. WavWavaZe, romelmac kargad icis,
rom evropis istoria klasTa brZolis istoriaa, saqarTvelos mimarT gamonak-
liss uSvebs ( `cxovreba da kanoni~). Cven patara eri varT, msjelobs ilia da yo-
velgvari Sinagani winaaRmdegoba CvenTvis momakvdinebelia. amitom man warsuli
wodebrivi winaaRmdegobebis gaxsenebac aRar miiCnia saWirod. wodebebma xeli
unda gauwodon erTmaneTs, unda daingres is zRude, romelic saukuneTa ganmav-
lobaSi aRimarTa maT Soris socialur-ekonomikuri sxvaobis bazaze. unda aR-
sdges `Catexili xidi~. es azria mxatvrulad xorcSesxmuli `oTaraanT qvrivSi~.
ra safuZvelze moxdeba aseTi feriscvaleba? -ilia, ra Tqma unda, iseTi gulub-
ryvilo ar aris, rom fiqrobdes, TiTqos sakmarisia Segneba, `namusis qudis~ da-
xurva da yovelive mogvardebao (mkvlevarTa sakmaod didi nawili aseT Sexedu-
lebas miawers i. WavWavaZes). ilias azriT, erTianma Sromam unda gardaqmnas ada-
miani, mTlianad sazogadoeba, maSin moxdeba `maSvralis gankaceba~ da sruli wo-
debrivi gaTanasworeba, `Sromis sufeva mova maSina~, rogorc es jer kidev `aC-
rdilSi~ iwinaswarmetyvela iliam. Tavisufali Sroma `Tavisufal miwaze~ — goe-
Tes faustis dedaazria magram, rogor unda damyarebuliyo es `Sromis sufeva~?
cxadia, iliasTvis igi ar gulisxmobda klasTa brZolas, aramed, rogorc aRvniS-
neT, erovnuli mTlianobis ideas emyareboda.
erovnul RonisZiebaTa gamoxatuleba iyo ara marto qarTuli dramatuli sa-
zogadoebis, qarTuli Teatris da saTavadaznauro bankis daarseba, aramed iseTi
didi kulturul-saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis Camoyalibebac, rogoric iyo
`qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba~. am wamowyebis ini-
ciatorebi, uwinares yovlisa, isev da isev qarTveli samocianelebi iyvnen. `qar-
TvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba~ aris ara mxolod kul-
turuli dawesebuleba, aramed Cveni erovnuli TavSesafari~, — vkiTxulobT am sa-
zogadoebis 1904 wlis 15 maisis angariSSi da marTlac, daarsebis dRidan (1879 w. 15

1
i . W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. V, 1955, gv. 79-80.
199
maisi, gamgeobis pirveli Tavmjdomare dim. yifiani), vidre likvidaciamde (1927 w.
ivnisi) sazogadoeba Taosnobda mraval erovnul wamowyebas, igi Cveni kulturis
centrad iqca. am sazogadoebis mfarvelobiTa da xelSewyobiT daarsda sxvadasxva
tipis qarTuli skola, biblioTekebi, sazogadoeba exmareboda axlad daarsebul
qarTul Teatrs, Jurnal-gazeTebs, beWdavda saxelmZRvaneloebsa da sakiTxav wig-
nebs, uniSnavda stipendiebs ruseTsa da evropis umaRles saswavleblebSi moswav-
le qarTvel studentebs da a. S.
qarTvel moRvaweTa aseTi patriotuli RonisZiebani, cxadia, oficialuri
xelisuflebis ukmayofilebas iwvevda. xSiri iyo konfliqti, represiebic. amis
erTi yvelaze cxadi dadasturebaa dimitri yifianis tragikuli aRsasruli. ro-
gorc cnobilia, 1886 w. Seuracxyofilma seminarielma ioseb laRiaSvilma mokla
seminariis Savrazmeli reqtori Cudecki. egzarxosma pavlem oficialurad, ek-
lesiis ambionidan SeaCvena laRiaSvili da mTeli qarTveli eri. maSin d. yifianma
egzarxoss miswera mkacri werili da mosTxova saqarTvelo daetovebina, —
`...Tqveni Rirsebisa da wodebis gadasarCenad gmarTebT, viTarca Seuracxmyofeli,
dauyovnebliv gaecaloT Tqvens mier Seuracxyofil mxares~. d. yifiani xelisuf-
lebam gadaayena quTaisis guberniis Tavadaznaurobis marSlis Tanamdebobidan da
gadaasaxla stavropols, sadac igi 1887 w. muxanaTurad mokles. am faqtma aRaSfo-
Ta qarTveli sazogadoeba. d. yifianis dakrZalva erovnul manifestaciad iqca.
akaki am tragedias gamoexmaura brwyinvale leqsebiT: `ganTiadi~ da `qarTveli
ucxoeTSi~.

***

rogorc aRvniSneT, 80-ian wlebSi TavianT aqtiur samwerlo da sazogadoebriv


moRvaweobas agrZeleben samocianelebi. am periodSi mravali TvalsaCino mxat-
vruli, publicisturi, literaturul-kritikuli da pedagogiuri nawarmoebi
Seqmnes: i. WavWavaZem, a. wereTelma, n. nikolaZem, i. gogebaSvilma da sxv. am xanebSi
samwerlo asparezze gamoCndnen a. yazbegi da vaJa-fSavela, romlebic, marTalia,
ZiriTadad samocianelTa tradiciebs agrZeleben, magram amave dros didad afar-
Toeben qarTuli mwerlobis ares Tematikurad da Janrobrivad. gansakuTrebiT
mniSvnelovani iyo qarTvel mTielTa yofis Cveneba, razec aqamde met-naklebad bun-
dovani warmodgena hqondaT barSi. am mwerlebma qarTvel mkiTxvels gaucnobieres
mTis yofa, zne-Cveulebani, iqaur mcxovrebTa idealebi, miswrafebani; rac mTavaria,
uCvenes, rom mTas barisagan gansxvavebuli interesebi ar gaaCnia, rom maT erTi sat-
kivari aqvT. amiT a. yazbegma da vaJa-fSavelam kidev ufro warmoaCines erTiani sa-
qarTvelos idea da qarTvel mkiTxvels ganumtkices rwmena, rom gaerTianebuli
brZola samSoblos TavisuflebisaTvis yvela qarTvelis sazrunavia.
80-ian wlebSive gaSales TavianTi literaturuli da praqtikuli saqmianoba
qarTvelma xalxosnebma. marTalia, 70-ian wlebSi maT ukve Camoayalibes TavianTi
jgufebi saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi, magram literaturul asparezze er-
Tiani poziciiT isini 80-ian wlebSi gamovidnen. swored am dros moaxerxes maT sa-
kuTari Jurnalis, `imedis~ daarseba (1881-1883). cnobil xalxosan beletristeb-
Tan erTad (rogorebic iyvnen: n. lomouri, s. mgalobliSvili, a. furcelaZe, e.
gabaSvili), moRvaweobas iwyeben sxva mwerlebi da publicistebic: s.WrelaSvili,
g. maiaSvili (zdaneviCi), m. gurgeniZe, z. gulisaSvili, m. asaTiani, n. xizanaSvili...
es jgufi xalxosani mwerlebisa upirispirdeba samocianelebs da polemikas iwy-
ebs `droeba~-`iveriis~ winaaRmdeg. es axali Taoba samocianelebs usayvedurebs,
rom isini ar icnoben xalxis cxovrebas, mis satkivars, ar iZiebdnen glexobis mZime
mdgomareobis namdvil mizezebs; samocianelTa msjeloba ufro ganyenebuli xasi-
aTisa iyo da iseT problemebs utrialebda, romelTa gaSuqebas ar SeiZleboda ra-
ime pozitiuri, praqtikuli Sedegi mohyoloda. erovnuli sakiTxiT gatacebam
200
Cvens samocianelebs TiTqos xalxis saarsebo moTxovnebi daaviwya da a.S. magali-
Tad, g. maiaSvili Tavis statiaSi `werili Cven sazogadoebriv moRvaweTa mimarT~
(`iveria~, 1882) pirdapir acxadebs: `ar SeiZleba reforma moaxdino romelisame sa-
zogadoebis cxovrebis nawilisa, Tu igi ucnobia da gamourkveveli. amisaTvis aris
saWiro svindisieri da yovelmxrivi Seswavla xalxis ekonomiuris cxovrebis yo-
vel mxareTa. mxolod amgvar Seswavlaze damyarebiT SeiZleba daaskvna esa Tu is
didi azri, gamoikvlio xelmZRvaneli principi da gzis maCvenebeli naTeli WeSma-
riti, romlis SemweobiT SesaZlebeli iqneba moipovos kacma zomani da RonisZieba-
ni saWiroebaTa dasakmayofileblad, damaSvral da tanjul mSromelTa gaWirvebis
da uilajobis cremlebis mosawmendaT. marTlac, viciT gana cota mainc wesierad
exlandeli mdgomareoba xalxisa? SegviZlian vuCvenoT uaxloesi mizezni xalxis
wuxilisa, gaWirvebisa da gaRaribebisa?~
qarTuli xalxosnoba rusuli e.w. `narodnikobis~ gamoZaxili iyo. narodniko-
bam ruseTSi farTo politikuri moZraobis xasiaTi miiRo. misi upirvelesi mizani
arsebuli weswyobilebis Secvla, glexuri ruseTis ganTavisufleba da socializ-
mis damyareba iyo. glexoba iyo socialuri Zala, romelsac unda moexdina es cvli-
lebebi. amitom glexobis gaTviTcnobiereba, masSi ganaTlebisa da revoluciuri
suliskveTebis Setana, saerTod, xalxis, glexobis yofis Seswavla misi cxovrebis
gaumjobeseba iyo narodnikebis moRvaweobis umTavresi mizani. ruseTSi arsebuli
Temuri miwaTmflobeloba (Община) unda yofiliyo safuZveli socialisturi sa-
zogadoebis damyarebisa. amitom ilaSqrebdnen es moRvaweebi kapitalizmis ganvi-
Tarebis winaaRmdeg ruseTSi. maT miaCndaT, rom adgilobriv TaviseburebaTa wya-
lobiT ruseTi ascdeboda evropis ganviTarebis gzas, ascdeboda kapitalistur
urTierTobas da pirdapir gadavidoda socializmSi. miuxedavad mravali arsebi-
Ti Secdomisa, es revolucionerebi garkveul TanagrZnobasac imsaxurebdnen, ram-
denadac ebrZodnen arsebul reJims ukeTesi momavlis saxeliT.
bevri qarTveli xalxosani ara marto saqarTveloSi, aramed ruseTSic moRva-
weobda. magram unda iTqvas isic, rom xalxosnoba ar iyo maincdamainc organuli
movlena qarTuli sazogadoebrivi yofisa da literaturisaTvis, ramdenadac `na-
rodnikoba~ wminda rusul movlenas warmoadgenda. amitomacaa, rom, miuxedavad
rusuli `narodnikobis~ aSkara gavlenisa Cvens sazogadoebriv azrovnebasa da
mwerlobaze, xalxosnoba saqarTveloSi mainc sakmaod bevr ganmasxvavebel moments
warmoaCens. uwinares yovlisa, es mJRavndeba Temuri miwaTmflobelobis apologii-
sadmi srul gulgrilobaSi; aseve, kapitalisturi ganviTarebis kritika ar aris wam-
yvani Tema qarTuli xalxosnuri literaturisa da publicistikisa, piriqiT, zog-
jer Cveni xalxosani publicistebi adgilobriv vaWroba-mrewvelobis ganviTareba-
sac ki uWeren mxars; dasasrul, isini ver Semoifarglnen mxolod socialur-ekono-
mikuri sakiTxebiT da, nebsiT Tu uneblieT, marTalia araTanmimdevrulad, erov-
nul problemebsac Seexnen. am mxriv, qarTvelma xalxosnebma xarki mouxades mSob-
liuri mwerlobis did tradicias. amitom ar aris gasakviri, rom Semdeg xalxosanTa
erTi nawili ilias `iveriam~ Seifara.

***

80-ian wlebSi kidev ufro Rrmavdeba ara marto literaturuli, aramed sazo-
gadoebriv-politikuri kontaqtebi qarTvel da rus mowinave inteligencias So-
ris. qarTveli mamuliSvilebis brZolas sakuTari erovnuli uflebebis dasacavad
mxars uWerdnen da exmarebodnen ruseTSi gamoCenili mwerlebi da sazogado moR-
vaweebi. SemTxveviTi ar iyo, rom ilias mZafri polemikuri statia `katkovis pasu-
xad~ maSinve gadabeWda progresulma rusulma gazeTma `moskovski telegrafma~. am
xanebSi n. nikolaZe TavgamodebiT ibrZvis Tavisi maswavleblisa da megobris — n.
201
CerniSevskis gasanTavisufleblad (manve pirvelma gamosca sazRvargareT `Cerni-
Sevskis Txzulebani~). iTargmneba rusuli klasikuri literatura, idgmeba a. os-
trovskisa da sxvaTa piesebi qarTul scenaze. amave dros qarTuli mwerlobis
calkeuli nimuSebic iTargmneba rusulad da xelmisawvdomi xdeba rusi mkiTxve-
lisaTvis. saerTod, unda aRiniSnos, rom 80-ian wlebSi didad gafarTovda mTar-
gmnelobiTi saqmianoba CvenSi. sakmaod xSirad qveyndeba evropel mweralTa Txzu-
lebebic. am saqmianobaSi ukve aqtiurad monawileoben qarTveli qalebic. unda iT-
qvas, rom faqtobrivad am periodSi eyreba safuZveli qarTul sabavSvo litera-
turasac, uwinares yovlisa, iseTi mwerlebis wyalobiT, rogorebic iyvnen: i. goge-
baSvili, a. wereTeli, i. WavWavaZe, vaJa-fSavela n. lomouri, e. gabaSvili, a. Tuma-
niSvili -wereTlisa da sxv.
literaturuli saqmianobis aseT aRmavlobas, ra Tqma unda, didad Seuwyo xe-
li qarTuli presis ganviTarebam. 80-ian wlebSi ukve sakmaod bevri gazeTi da
Jurnali gamodis. zogierTis dasaxelebac sakmarisia: gaz. `droeba~ (1866-1883),
Jurnali `imedi~ (1881-1883), gaz. `Sroma~ (1881-1883), `nobaTi~ (1883-1885, sabavSvo
Jurnali `pedagogiuris damatebiT mSobelTa da aRmzrdelTaTvis~), Jurn. `qar-
Tuli biblioTeka~ (1883), gaz. `Teatri~ (1885-1890), gaz. `iveria~ (1886-1906, manam-
de gamodioda Jurnalis saxiT), weliwdeuli `saqarTvelos kalendari~ (1888-
1905), sabavSvo Jurnali `jejili~ (1890-1920) da sxv. am gamocemebs ukve win uZRo-
da qarTuli presis garkveuli tradicia da gamocdileba.

202
niko lomouri

(1852-1915)

biografia

cnobili qarTveli mwerlis — niko lomouris samSoblo-kuTxea qarTli. swo-


red goris maxloblad, sofel arboSi, 1852 wlis 19 Tebervals daibada niko lo-
mouri. am sofelSi umetesad `qarTuli patiosnebiT savse~ mSromeli adamianebi
cxovrobdnen. mwerlis mama iosebic — miuxedavad imisa, rom mRvdeli iyo, Tavis
meuRle efemia gvimraZis qalTan erTad, mZime, glexkacur Sromas eweoda. ase rom,
glexkacuri Sromis simkacrisa da keTilSobilebis Sesaxeb Sexeduleba niko lo-
mourisaTvis naucbadevad SeZenili azri ki ar iyo, aramed, imTaviTve, momavali
mwerlis sasicocxlo atmosferodan iRebda saTaves da, rasakvirvelia, saTanado
inteleqtualuri gawafvis niadagze, mogvianebiT sxva STambeWdaobasa da damar-
wmunebel Zalmosilebas iZenda mis SemoqmedebaSi.
1860 wels patara niko goris sasuliero saswavlebelSi miabares, Semdeg ki
Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi Cairicxa. am droidan iwyeba niko lomouris ga-
morCeulad azriani SinaarsiT savse cxovreba. cnobismoyvare da bejiTi ymawvi-
lisaTvis pirdapir macocxlebeli mniSvneloba moipova saswavlebelSi yofnam,
radgan, sabednierod, Cveni eris didi moamage da moZRvari iakob gogebaSvili mo-
evlina n. lomours mfarvelad. `mas vbaZavdiT yvelaferSi, xSirad wvrilmaneb-
Sic ki, mag. laparakis kiloSi, siarulSi da sxva~ — igonebs mwerali. didi qarTve-
li pedagogis mier gansakuTrebuli taqtiT danergilma humanurobis grZnobam
asazrdova niko lomouris rogorc literaturuli, aseve praqtikul-sazogado-
ebrivi moRvaweobis Sinaarsi.
Tbilisis sasuliero saswavlebelSi swavlis dros — `i. WavWavaZec gavica-
niT~ — aRniSnavs n. lomouri. `gansakuTrebuli zegavlena moaxdina Cemze `glaxis
naambobma~, romelSic iseTi aRtacebuli grZnobiT aris aRwerili glexkaci. Cve-
neburi glexebi pataraobidanve miyvardnen, rogorc naTesavebi... moxsenebulma
wignma axla pativiscema aRZra Cems gulSi glexebisa~ — ganagrZobs mwerali. amave
periodSi gaecno igi CerniSevskis, dobrolubovis, gleb uspenskis, nekrasovis
nawerebs. `amaT erTianad gaafarToves Cemi warmodgena glexis Sesaxeb~ — aRniS-
navs n. lomouri. TbilisSi swavlis dros gaeRviZa mas SemoqmedebiTi interese-
bic. 1871 wels. `mnaTobSi~-c daibeWda n. lomouris leqsi.
1875 wels niko lomouri kievSi miemgzavreba. misi didi survilisda miuxeda-
vad, samedicino ganaTleba mieRo da bavSvTa eqimi gamxdariyo — n. lomourma niv-
Tieri gaWirvebis gamo, ver moaxerxa survilis asruleba da iZulebuli gaxda sa-
suliero akademiaSi Sesuliyo. am wlebSi n. lomouris mxatvruli interesebi sav-
sebiT momwifda. amaSi didi damsaxureba miuZRvis ilia WavWavaZes, akaki were-
Tels da iakob gogebaSvils.
literaturul niWTan erTad, n. lomouri pedagogiuri alRoTic aRmoCnda
dajildoebuli. etyoba imdenad gansakuTrebuli iyo iakob gogebaSvilisa da
sxva qarTvel pedagogTa qceva-saqmianobis gavlenis Zala axalgazrda n. lomo-
urze, rom igi sakuTari moRvaweobis qvakuTxedad aqcevs sxvis niWze zrunvas, mis
movlasa da dafasebas. niko lomourisaTvis STamagonebeli mniSvneloba moipova
ilia WavWavaZis, akaki wereTlis, iakob gogebaSvilis, niko cxvedaZis saqmianobam,
203
maTma mamuliSvilurma miswrafebebma. Tu ara am saTavidan nasazrdoebi didi
grZnoba mamuliSvilobisa, aba, sxva ra mizani amoZravebda qarTlidan kievSi Ca-
sul sasuliero akademiis student niko lomours, rom cxovrebis megzuroba,
literaturuli maswavlebloba gaewia kievSi imereTidan Cayvanil, mSobliur
enadaviwyebul, samxedro gimnaziis moswavle daviT kldiaSvilisaTvis — daviT
kldiaSvilisaTvis, romelic Semdeg qarTuli literaturis mSvenebad da siama-
yed iqca.
niko lomouris pedagogiuri unari da mamuliSviluri gznebiT anTebuli gu-
li farTo samoqmedo asparezs eZebda. mwerlis cxovrebaSi es xanac dadga. 1879
wels igi samSobloSi brundeba; muSaobas iwyebs Tbilisis sasuliero seminaria-
Si, sadac rCeba 1883 wlis Semodgomamde, Semdeg ki n. lomouri gadmodis mSobli-
ur qalaq gorSi. samsaxuris adgils icvlis mwerali ara materialuri, an kerZo
interesiT, aramed wminda moqalaqeobrivi motiviT: mas miaCnia, rom imxanad au-
cilebeli iyo swored q. gors Semateboda sazogado moRvaweobis suliskveTebiT
aRsavse Tundac erTi pedagogi. aq, gorSi, gardacvalebamde atara mweralma mas-
wavleblis sapatio da sapasuxismgeblo tvirTi.
bunebiT maswavlebeli iyo niko lomouri: niWis aRmoCena axarebda da yvela-
fers akeTebda, raTa Cveni qveynisaTvis saimedo mamuliSvilebi aRezarda. Tavad
did sulier moZRvarTa — ilias, akakis, iakob gogebaSvilis Tayvanismcemeli n.
lomouri, TviTonac samagaliTo aRmzrdelad da moZRvrad iqca. misi mowafeebi,
Semdeg cnobili mwerlebi da moRvaweebi: daviT kldiaSvili, baCana, Tedo razi-
kaSvilebi, ia ekalaZe (iakob cincaZe), anastasia erisTav-xoStaria, natalia azia-
ni, folkloristi grigol afSinaSvili, varlam burjanaZe, cnobili eTnografi
da maswavlebeli niko janaSia, bolomde mwerlis did Tayvanismcemlebad dar-
Cnen.
niko lomouri im adamianTa ricxvs ekuTvnoda, romelTac savsebiT gacnobie-
rebuli aqvT TavianTi cxovrebis mizani: es iyo pirovneba, romelic mxolod sa-
zogadoebrivad Rirebuli movlenebiT cocxlobda da suldgmulobda. man sxvis-
gan daTesili sikeTis fasi icoda da didi energiis wviT axerxebda am Zvirad Ri-
rebuli saunjis gadacemas mis irgvliv myof adamianebSi. niko lomouri uaRre-
sad inteligenturi, gawonasworebuli pirovneba iyo. man kargad icoda, Tu ras
niSnavda XIX saukunis saqarTvelosaTvis sazogadoebrivi grZnobiT savse moqa-
laqe da, Tavisi SesaZleblobebis kvalobazed, yvelafers akeTebda sxvebisaTvis,
sazogadoebisaTvis. umwikvloba, uangaroba iyo misi xasiaTis niSandoblivi mxare
da am Tvisebas ayenebda igi sxvaSic yvelaze maRla. sisadave da ubraloeba n. lo-
mours adamianis sulier samkaulad miaCnia da es misi yofiTi cxovrebis iersaxe-
Sic irekleboda. am upretenzio, tkbilad moqarTule inteligent kacs didi zne-
obrivi sagzali aRmoaCnda, radgan mravali Rirseuli qarTvelisaTvis STamago-
neblad da gzismkvlevad mogvevlina igi.
simarTliT, gulwrfelobiT, sazogado saqmisaTvis Tavdadebis didi grZno-
biT, pasuxismgeblobisa da movaleobis Rrma SegnebiT ipyrobda niko lomouri
TanamedroveTa yuradRebas da amitomac iyo, rom mis ubralo sityvasac gansa-
kuTrebuli fasi gaaCnda qarTveli inteligenciis TvalSi.
niko lomouri ar iyo gamorCeuli talanti, arc sagangebod produqtiuli
mwerali yofila is. zogierTi kritikosi usayvedurebda kidec, rom mas xan-
grZlivi SemoqmedebiTi Seyovnebebi hqonda.
sxvadasxva dros `levan cavelis~, `gorelis~, `arboelis~, `seminarielis~,
`Tqveneburis~, `provincielis~, `n. l -s~, `n. l-ri~-s fsevdonimebiTa da inicia-
lebiT niko lomouris Txzulebebi ibeWdeboda Jur. `mnaTobSi~, gaz. `droebaSi~,
`iveriaSi~, Jur. `TeatrSi~, `moambeSi~, `ganaTlebaSi~ da sxv. niko lomouri lite-

204
raturuli da sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis sidiadisa da maradiulobis Segnebas
uviTarebda sxvebs da amiTac maRldeboda igi TanamedroveTa TvalSi.
ukanasknelad, 1915 w. susxian zamTarSi (5. II), igi tkbili, amaRelvebeli, swored
`moyvasis siyvaruliT~ savse sityviT, TviTonac janmrTelobaSeryeuli, goris sad-
gurze gamoeTxova Cveni eris sulier moZRvars, Tavis did literaturul maswavle-
belsa da qomags, didebuli akaki wereTlis neSts. amis Semdeg mwerali avadmyofob-
da da 1915 wlis aprilSi 63 wlis asakSi gardaicvala. niko lomouri daasaflaves
gorSi, wm. samebis eklesiis galavanSi, saidanac 1935 wels misi neSti qalaqis baRSi
gadaitanes.

niko lomouris Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi tendenciebi

1. niko lomouris Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi tendenciebis gaTvaliswineba arse-


biTad misi moqalaqeobriv-literaturuli mrwamsisa da TxzulebaTa Tematikis
daxasiaTebas gulisxmobs. am mwerlis literaturuli debiuti 1869 wels Sedga,
roca man gaz. `droebaSi~ dastamba leqsi (i. beraZe). amis Semdeg n. lomouris leq-
sebi da poeturi Targmanebi erTxans kidev qveyndeboda qarTuli presis fur-
clebze, magram isini garda erTisa (`yinva da patara mowafe~), arc maSin da, cxa-
dia, arc axla ar iqceven mkiTxvelis yuradRebas.
niko lomouris, rogorc mwerlis, mxatvruli individualobis dadgenis xa-
nad SeiZleba miviCnioT is periodi, roca man akaki wereTlis rCeviT Tavi daaneba
leqsebis weras da qarTvel sazogadoebas warudga rogorc garkveuli socialu-
ri Tvalsazrisis mqone beletristi. Tavisi socialuri poziciis masazrdoebel
wyarosa da literaturul simpaTiebze TviTon mwerali miuTiTebs, roca aRniS-
navs: `avad Tu kargad vemsaxurebodi glexkacis fexze wamoyenebas. xalxosnoba,
saxalxo mimarTuleba (Нaродничество) gardaiqca Cemi sicocxlis gzis maCvenebel
varskvlavado~. am mxriv niko lomouri sakuTari literaturuli mrwamsis Camo-
yalibebaSi gansakuTrebiT gaxazavda CerniSevskis, dobroliubovis, gleb uspen-
skisa da nekrasovis mniSvnelobas.
mwerlis zemoaRniSnuli miTiTebebisa da misi SemoqmedebiTi masalis ganxil-
vis safuZvelze, ganmtkicebuli tradiciiT, niko lomouri xalxosani mweralia
im niSnebiT, riTac gamoirCeva sofrom mgalobliSvili, Saqro (zaqaria) gulisaS-
vili, zogierTi niSniT anton furcelaZe, ioseb daviTaSvili da ekaterine gabaS-
vili.
saerTod, saqarTveloSi xalxosnur ideaTa gavrcelebis geografiuli gare-
moc ki imTaviTve Zalze viwro iyo. ZiriTadad igi qarTliT da, kerZod, goris
mazriT Semoifargla. am mxriv, Zalian sayuradReboa is momenti, rom dasavleTi
saqarTvelo konkretuli masaliT xalxosnebTan araa SemoqmedebiTi interesis
sagnad qceuli. es erTob mniSvnelovani faqtia. etyoba xalxosnuri suliskveTe-
bis gamJRavnebisaTvis qarTli, sadac saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebTan SedarebiT
istoriuli avbediTobis gamo, gamZafrebuli iyo aRmosavleTidan SemoWrili
despotizmi, ufro met safuZvels iZleoda maRali da dabali fenis doneTa dasa-
SoriSoreblad. aq, erTgvarad, SedarebiT ufro mkveTri iyo gansxvaveba mebato-
nesa da glexs Soris. mTeli saqarTvelos masStabiT yvelaze pirquSi saxiT ba-
tonymoba swored qarTlSi mZvinvarebda. yvelaze beCav mdgomareobaSic xalxi am
kuTxeSi cxovrobda. amitomac, Tuki odnavi sababi xalxosnuri ganwyobilebebis
dasayrdenad SeiZleboda gaCeniliyo CvenSi, es swored niko lomouris samSob-
lo-kuTxe, misi mwerluri interesis sagnad qceuli saqarTvelos es saxelovani
kuTxe iyo. Tuki saqarTveloSi xalxosnobis idea da ganwyobileba arsebobda, bu-
nebrivia, es qarTlSi SeiZleboda arsebuliyo. yovelive zemoTqmulic swored
205
imaze miuTiTebs, rom xalxosnoba ar iyo sayovelTao movlena saqarTveloSi, e.i.
is qarTveli xalxis fsiqoeTnikuri, socialuri da kulturul-istoriuli au-
cileblobiT dapirobebuli movlena ar gaxldaT; maSasadame, xalxosnoba qarTu-
li niadagidan ar amozidula da arc qarTveli adamianis erovnul moTxovnile-
bad qceula misi ideebis momarjveba cxovrebasa da literaturaSi. TviT qar-
Tvelma xalxma ar miiRo da iucxova xalxosnuri ideebi, amitomac werda xalxos-
nad wodebuli mwerali sofrom mgalobliSvili: `xalxi Cven ar gvikarebda, gansa-
kuTrebiT glexobao~.
qarTvel xalxosnebsac, rogorc aRniSnaven `Tavisi eris bunebis Sesabamisad
ar gadaumuSavebiaT is Teoriebi, romlebic qarTuli presis furclebze gadmoh-
qondaT... amitom saqarTveloSi `xalxosnurma ideebma ver poves gavrceleba~
(S.vaSaymaZe). imis gamo, rom qarTveli xalxis sayovelTao moTxovnilebebs ar Se-
adgenda Temis idealizacia, misi upiratesobis aRiareba, TviTamaRlebisa da dax-
vewis formaTa Zieba, amdenad, xalxosnobis Teoriuli ideebis qadagebas meqani-
kuri xasiaTi hqonda da amitomac Cveni erovnuli cxovrebis did mesveurebs:
ilia WavWavaZesa da akaki wereTels ar gasWirvebiaT qarTvel xalxosan moRvawe-
Ta Teoriuli Sexedulebebis kritika. 1881 da 1883 wels gamoqveynebul ilias
`Sinaur mimoxilvebSi~, 1881 wels daweril akakis `pasuxsa~ da 1882 wels `droeba-
Si~ (44) gamoqveynebul `cxel cxel ambebSi~, ufro adre (1881) misive `mcire ram
SeniSvnaSi~, kargad aris naTelyofili e.w. qarTvel xalxosanTa Teoriuli pozi-
ciis susti mxareebi, maTi araerovnuli xasiaTi da iluziuri buneba. amitomac
iyo, rom literaturuli interesebis mqone xalxosnuri midrekilebebis mwerle-
bisTvis Zneli ar yofila poziciebis daTmoba da isini sabolood maTsave war-
momSob budes, 60-ianelTa poziciebs daubrundnen. aseTi gza airCia niko lomo-
urma, sofrom mgalobliSvilma, giga yifSiZem, anton furcelaZem, ekaterine ga-
baSvilma, ioseb daviTaSvilma da TiTqmis yvelam — vinc ki mxatvruli sityvis
sferoSi scada bedi. am mwerlebs da maT ideur mesveurebs, romlebic erTxans
Jurn. `imedSi~ iyvnen Tavmoyrilni, zogierTma moRvawem `tetiaTa motrfiale-
nic~ uwoda, ramac mogvianebiT niko lomouris mkacri pasuxic gamoiwvia. 1902
wels gaz. `cnobis furcelSi~ (1722, 10.11) `provincielis~ xelmoweriT daibeWda
niko lomouris werili `xma provinciidan~, romelSic mwerali ekamaTeba `zangis~
fsevdonimiT moRvawe kritikoss gr. rcxilaZes. aq mwerali ganmartavs Tavis
mrwamss da miuTiTebs rogorc garkveul siaxloveze xalxosan moazrovneTa Tu
mweralTa samyarosTan, aseve im arsebiTad ganmasxvavebel Taviseburebebze, rac
mas da misdagvar mwerlebs mijnavs xalxosnebisagan. niko lomouris TqmiT `TviT
saxelwodeba im pirTa, romelnic igulisxmebian `tetiaTa motrfialebad~ uSno-
ulamazoTa, kuda-aznauruli dacinvaa da sxva araferi. ramdenadac rusuli
sityva `Народник~-i, moswrebuli da savsebiT damaxasiaTebelia im moRvaweTa,
romelTac ekuTvniT igi, imdenaTve qarTuli `tetiaTa motrfialeni~ Seufere-
beli da uazro sityvebia~... aq, erTi mxriv, damcirebulia tetiaT wodebuli gle-
xi kaci, da meore mxriv igini, romelnic am ubadruk sulel tetias etrfian, vin
dauwyebs sulel da ubadruks trfialebas Tu ar misive msgavsi?... swored azriTa
da WkuiT sacodavi unda iyos is kaci, romelic glexis gulubryvilobaSi idea-
lur umankoebas dainaxavs da mis tanjul arsebobas idiliur gabednierebaT Ca-
racxavs. gasaocaria, rogor da saidan gamoiyvana b.zangma amgvari Seuferebeli
daskvna?! rogorc Cans, `cnobis furclis~ kritikosi niko lomours xalxosno-
bis im nakadis warmomadgenlad Tvlis, romelic glexis kults da yovelive gle-
xuris idealizacias eweoda da romlis TvalsaCino debulebani l. tolstois
moZRvrebaSia saZiebeli. niko lomouris pasuxidan irkveva, rom is, sof. mgalob-
liSvilTan erTad, sxvagvari simpaTiebis matarebeli mweralia. n. lomouris
msjelobidan gamomdinare, Tavisi azrovnebis wyobiTa da SemoqmedebiTi intere-
206
sebiT, igi emijneba kritikosis mier warmodgenil xalxosnobis nakads, roca
wers: `tetiaTa motrfiale mwerlebis tipur warmomadgenlebad b.zangi racxavs
s. mgalobliSvilsa da n. lomours; vgoneb, es orive pirni glexkacs daaxloebiT
icnoben, misi sisxl-xorcni arian, mis cxovrebas dRevandlamde gverdze udganan
da amis gamo, vgoneb, rom cotaTi mainc unda icodnen maT am cxovrebis namdvili
viTareba Sinaarsi. maS, romelma tartarozma auria maT Wkua-goneba, azri imde-
nad, rom glexkacis tanjul cxovrebaSi idealuri umankoeba da idiliuri mSve-
niereba aRmoaCines? xolo me daWeSmaritebiT SemiZlian vsTqva, rom arc erTs ze-
moT dasaxelebuls pirs sizmraTac ar sCvenebiaT is, rasac maT kritikosi awers~.
sailustraciod mwerali rogorc kritikoss, aseve mkiTxvels ase ganumartavs sa-
kuTar TxzulebaTa Tematikur Sedgenilobasa da ideur mizandasaxulobas: `alsa~
da `qajanaSi~ — n. lomouris TqmiT — avtori gvixatavs im vaebas da mwuxarebas, ro-
melTac hbadavs glexis cxovrebaSi crumorwmuneoba. mesame moTxrobaSi, romel-
sac saxelad `bedi ubedurTa~ hqvian, aRwerilia jer gvalvisagan da Semdeg, saSine-
lis niaRvrisagan gaoxrebuli sofeli. `gigo RrubelaSvilSi~ gamoyvanilia ga-
naTlebuli axalgazrda kaci, igi Semkulia mravalis keTilis survilebiT: enatre-
ba qveynis samsaxuri, davrdomilis fexze dayeneba... magram mis arsebaSi aRfrTova-
nebuli ocneba-fantazia daSorebiTa sWarbobs mecnierul swavla-codnas, da um-
Tavresad, amis gamo verafers axerxebs. `samfexa amirana~, `qristiani lekebi~, `yo-
velis mxridan~ da sxva danarCeni misi moTxrobani xataven da asuraTeben imave
glexkacis gaWirvebul mdgomareobas, mwuxarebas, tanjvasa da vaebas, yvela aqedan
vgoneb, cxadia n. lomouris literaturuli moRvaweobis azri!... mas unda miaqci-
os mkiTxvelis yuradReba glexkacis tanjul arsebobas, raTa ganaTlebulma sa-
zogadoebam dasdos raime wamali am tanjul arsebobas, riTime gaaumjobesos, gah-
kurnos igi~.
ase gadmoscems niko lomouri Tavis literaturul mrwamss da bunebrivia,
rom misi ideuri da mxatvruli poziciis daxasiaTebisas mas saTanado angariSi
unda gaewios. am msjelobis mixedviT, niko lomours araferi aqvs saerTo im na-
rodnikul moZRvrebebTan, romlebic glexis kultsa da idealizacias, Temuri
wyobis upiratesobis, rogorc adamianTa socialuri da Tanasworobis utopiur
da, Tu gnebavT, fantastikur-iluziur warmosaxvas emyareboda.
niko lomouri, uaryofs ra kritikosis mier miTiTebul zemoaRniSnuli xal-
xosnuri tendenciis arsebobas sakuTar SemoqmedebaSi, wers: `bolos b. zangi
brZanebs: amgvarma mimarTulebam, Tavisi dro mosWama da amJamd mas aRaraviTari
mniSvneloba ara aqvso. ara, Cemo batono, is mimarTuleba, romelsac sagnad aqvs
tanjulTa sibraluli da siyvaruli da maTi Semweoba da daxmareba, ase adre ar
mosWams Tavis dros~.
tanjuli adamianisadmi sibraluli da siyvaruli aris niko lomouris Txzu-
lebaTa laitmotivi da faqtebze Zaldataneba iqneboda, rom zogjer SiSvlad mo-
cemuli ideuri Canafiqris gamo, isini romelime xalxosnuri Teoriis zegavleniT
Seqmnil qmnilebebad gveRiarebina. aq, Tu maincdamainc n. lomouris simpaTiebze
midgeba saqme, SeiZleba 70-iani wlebis is xalxosnuri ganwyobilebebi SevniSnoT,
romelsac arc sistemuroba axasiaTebs da arc doqtrinis pretenzia aqvs. es imgva-
ri ganwyobilebebia, romlebSic SeiZleba moTavsdes yvela im mwerlis mizanswraf-
va, visi gulic tanjuli adamianis sibraluliT, siyvaruliTa da daxmarebis sur-
viliTaa savse. cxadia, aseTi ganwyobilebiTa da Tundac ideiT Sepyrobili mwer-
lebi mxolod xalxosnebi ar iyvnen. erT dros Teoretikosi xalxosnebi TviT glex
uspenskisac ki usayvedurebdnen, rom igi Tavisi ideuri mrwamsiT meryeobda da ar
iyo xalxosanTa principebis Tanmimdevruli damcveli. es savsebiT gasagebia, rad-
gan mwerali, Tu is namdvili mweralia, arc SeiZleba Tanmimdevrulad misdevdes
da icavdes romelime Teorias, mkacrad moxazul programas, an ideologiur dak-

207
veTas... mwerlis xedvis are yovelTvis ufro farToa, vidre romelic gnebavT Te-
oriuli sistema. am niadagze imis moTxovna, rom ama Tu im Semoqmedma mxatvrul na-
werSi zustad ver gadmosca romelime politikuri, socialuri, filosofiuri da
a.S. Tvalsazrisi, ver upasuxa mis principebs, savsebiT araliteraturuli moTx-
ovnaa. mwerali xedavs da man unda aCvenos sinamdvilis mravalferovneba, raoden
saWiro da sasurveli ideuri tendenciiT ar unda iyos dapyrobili misi goneba. ase
aris es yvela mwerlis da, rasakvirvelia, niko lomouris SemTxvevaSic, romlis mi-
marT savsebiT samarTlianad miuTiTeben: `mwerals xalxosnoba gagebuli aqvs ara
rogorc ideologia, aramed SemoqmedebiTi interesi mxolod, romelsac safuZ-
velSi mSobliuri qveynisa da mSromeli adamianis siyvaruli udevs. niko lomouri
ar yofila TanamSromeli Jurnal `imedisa~, romelSic qarTuli sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis pirobebSi gamomJRavnda e.w. `narodnikoba~.1 saerTod ki, rogorc ger.
qiqoZe aRniSnavs: `rusulma xalxosnurma azrovnebam gansakuTrebiT Zlieri ze-
gavlena politikuri publicistikis dargSi moaxdina. SedarebiT sustia misi ze-
gavlena mxatvrul literaturaze~.2 amitomacaa, rom am TvalsazrisiT niko lomo-
uri ufro 60-70-iani wlebis rus mweralTa da moRvaweTa xalxosnur ganwyobile-
bebTan amJRavnebs siaxloves, vidre mogvianebiT warmoSobil xalxosnobis ideo-
logiur moZRvrebebTan. amitomacaa, rom mis nawarmoebebSi araferia iseTi, rac
mkveTrad emijnebodes Cveni saxelovani 60-ianelebis — iliasa da akakis mier arCe-
ul ideur gezs. literaturaSi, niko lomourTan, iseve rogorc xalxosnad wode-
bul sxva qarTvel mwerlebTan, gare sinamdvilisadmi xalxosnuri tendenciebi da
midgoma upiratesad Tematikuri TvalsazrisiT SemoqmedebiTi problematikis
SerCeviT interesSi gamoixata. n. lomouri ar aris iseTi tipis mwerali, romelsac
gaaCndes polemikur aspeqtSi warsulis did kulturul-literaturul memkvid-
reobasTan dapirispirebis survili, rasac mag. Jur. `imedis~ Teoriuli mesveure-
bi avlendnen. igi, etyoba, saTanado realisturi sifxizliT dajildoebuli moR-
vawe iyo, raki kargad aqvs gasigrZeganebuli, rom qarTul sinamdvileSi, Cveni didi
kulturuli memkvidreobis pirobebSi, ar arsebobs araviTari safuZveli imisaT-
vis, rom qarTveli moRvawe da mwerali daupirispirdes Tavis sulierad masazrdo-
ebel warsuls... winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi rus moRvaweTa ususur epigonobasTan
gveqneboda saqme. n. lomours kargad aqvs Segnebuli: rani viyaviT, rani varT da
momavlis perspeqtivis TvalsazrisiT met-naklebad ra sWirdeba qarTvel adami-
ans. amitom xalxosnur tendenciaTa gamovlenis are da farglebi mis Semoqmedeba-
Si ganwyobilebaTa sferos ar scildeba. SeiZleba iTqvas, masalisadmi Tematikuri
interesi niko lomourisaTvis is erTaderTi sferoa, sadac mJRavndeba misi xal-
xosnuri midrekilebani. am mxriv Tematikuris TvalsazrisiT ra SeiZleba iTqvas
lomouris Semoqmedebaze?

xalxosani moRvawis anu qadagis saxe


niko lomouris SemoqmedebaSi

niko lomouris mrwamsi yvelaze mkafiod gamovlinda moTxrobaSi `gigo Rru-


belaSvili~. rogorc cnobilia, xalxosnebma sagangebod gaxazes qadagis, moRva-
wis mniSvneloba xalxisaTvis. es sakiTxi bunebrivad daukavSirda ganaTlebis sa-
kiTxs. niko lomouris am moTxrobaSi naTladaa warmodgenili xalxisaTvis ga-
naTlebis saWiroebis Sesaxeb msjeloba. gigo RrubelaSvilis magaliTze aq naCve-
nebia ganaTlebuli pirovnebis fasi da mniSvneloba adamianebisTvis. qarTul li-

1
s. x u c i S v i l i , `niko lomouri~, Sesavali werili — n. lomouris Txz., t.I, gv. 15.
2
g . q i q o Z e , rCeuli Txzulebani, t. III, Tb., 1965, gv. 315.
208
teraturaSi erTgan ilia WavWavaZesTan (`glaxis naambobSi~) daxatuli mRvdeli-
maswavleblis saxiT gvaqvs aseTi nimuSi, magram niko lomourTan da, sazogadod,
xalxosnebTan aseTi pirovnebis fasi da mniSvneloba gansakuTrebuli energiu-
lobiTaa xazgasmuli. `gigo RrubelaSvilSi~ daxatuli ganaTlebuli qadagi anu
propagandisti xalxis interesebis sadarajoze mdgomi axalgazrda gigo, Tavisi
`ubralo, iaffasiani lurji bluziT~, `yviTeli Calis ganieri qudiT~, `yelze
gadagdebuli nacrisferi SaliT~ da `xelSi karga mozrdili Zvirfasydiani wig-
niT~ garegnulad is dasamaxsovrebeli saxea, romelic ase iyo gavrcelebuli
xalxosnuri ideebiT gamsWvaluli 70-80-wlebis rusul sinamdvileSi. aq mwerali
xatavs swored am periodSi agrerigad modaSi myof xalxosnuri miswrafebebis
axalgazrda kacs, romelic lamazi ocnebiT cxovrobs, aqvs mSvenierebis gancda,
magram, roca misi ocneba `sacodavi qoxmaxebiT savse~ sofels, `glexkacis ganu-
zomel siRaribesa, mis davrdomilebas, misi azrisa, grZnobisa da gonebis dauZ-
lurebas~ xedavs, suli tanjviT evseba. niko lomouris mier warmodgenili xal-
xosani moRvawis ocnebiT, qveynis sargod momarTuli praqtikuli ideebiT aRsav-
se pirovneba unda ebrZolos soflis ubadrukobas, mis talaxian orRobeebs, `sa-
codav qox-maxebs~, savses `saqonlis pativiT~, `sazizRari wumpeebis suniT~, xole-
riTa da aTasnairi avadmyofobiT da, rac mTavaria, amgvari pirobebisagan gaube-
durebuli, sikeTisadmi grZnobadaClungebuli, gonebiT gaxevebuli adamianebiT,
romlebsac arc araferi swamT da arc arafrisa sjeraT. umaduroba aris amgvari
ubadrukobis pirmSo.
mwerali `gigo RrubelaSvilSi~ realisturad iZleva wminda xalxosnuri
ideebiT gamsWvaluli pirovnebis saxes, magram mis idealizacias ki ar axdens,
aramed aseTi moRvawis arapraqtikulobas, mis SexedulebaTa iluziur xasiaTsa
da uniadagobas aSiSvlebs. erTaderTi, risi imedic SeiZleba hqondes adamians da
rasac naTeli Seaqvs mis sulSi, aris rwmena ganaTlebisa. ase rom, niko lomouris
mier warmosaxuli xalxosani moRvawis saxe ar SeiZleba gavaigivoT sakuTriv
mwerlis mrwamsTan. am nawarmoebiT n. lomouri avlens xalxosnur mimdinareoba-
Ta, maTi amosavali Tvalsazrisebis safuZvlian codnas, magram, ramdenadac es
mxatvruli nawarmoebis farglebSi SeiZleboda moxerxebuliyo, iqve iZleva maT
kritikas.

crumorwmuneobis Tema. erT-erTi Tema, romelic wamyvan adgils iWers ni-


ko lomouris (iseve rogorc sxva e.w. xalxosani mwerlebis) SemoqmedebaSi — esaa
crumorwmuneobis Tema. gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo isaa, rom masTan aRniSnuli
Tema Taviseburi midgomiTaa warmodgenili. niko lomouris TiTqmis yovel nawar-
moebSi aris miniSneba crumorwmuneobis, rogorc sibnelis, budis Sesaxeb, magram sa-
gangebod mwerali am sakiTxs mainc exeba moTxrobebSi — `ali~ da `qajana~. aq ara mxo-
lod sakiTxisadmi mwerlis midgomaa gamorCeuli, aramed sayuradReboa isic, rom es
Tema Taviseburi gagebiT gveZleva. niko lomouri miiCnevs, rom crumorwmuneoba,
romelic adamianis sibneleSi moqcevis pirobaa, saxalxo ubedurebaa. misi arsebobis
faqti am mweralTan ganicdeba da aRiqmeba, rogorc tragedia. adre Cvens litera-
turaSi, rasakvirvelia, sxva mwerlebic asaxavdnen crumorwmuneobas, amxeldnen mis
socialur mankierebas, magram maTTan es ar ganicdeboda tragediad. mag., gavixse-
noT i. WavWavaZis `kacia-adamiani?!~ — jados povnis scena. es detali aq aris dareja-
nis inteleqtualuri siClungis gamoxatuleba da luarsabis imave inteleqtualur
simaRleze dgomis dadastureba, magram aramc da aramc es araa miCneuli saxalxo
ubedurebad.

eqimbaSobis Tema. zemoaRniSnul sakiTxTan aris dakavSirebuli meore


Tema, romelsac niko lomouri exeba — eqimbaSobis Tema. `alSi~ `pawia megobreb-

209
sa~ da `qajanaSi~ gamovlenili es motivi xalxis sibneleSi yofnis dadasturebad
aris CaTvlili da, amdenad, es movlenac mwerlis mier saxalxo ubedurebis done-
zea gancdil-gaazrebuli. am ubedurebis gamosasworeblad niko lomouri xaz-
gasmiT miuTiTebs ganaTlebis yovlisSemZleobasa da sinamdvilisadmi jansaRi
damokidebulebis realur Rirebulebaze (`qajana~, `pawia megobrebi~).

patriarqaluri ojaxis rRveva. `berua qristesiaSvilSi~ niko lomou-


ri gviCvenebs misi warmosaxvis niadagze Seqmnil patriarqalur qarTul ojaxs, sa-
dac idealuri wesrigi sufevs. am nawarmoebSi kargad aris gamokveTili niko lo-
mouris pozicia. mwerals maxvilgonivrulad aqvs nagrZnobi da gaazrebuli Cveni
istoriis sazrisi. qarTveli xalxis istoriulma bedma da aucileblobam gverdig-
verd daayena, Tavdacvisa da Tavis gadarCenis aucileblobam SeaduRa fenaTa in-
teresebi... am garemoebam, kulturul-zneobrivi tradiciebis erTgvarovnebasTan
erTad, erTgvarad Seasusta eris SigniT socialuri urTierTobis simZafre...
erovnuli Cagvris pirobebSi Sina socialurze ki ara, gare socialuri konfliq-
tebis gamomwvev faqtorebze iqna yuradReba gadatanili, riTac gamoiricxa rusu-
li sinamdvilisaTvis niSandoblivi xalxosnuri moZraobebis gadmonergvis saWi-
roebani. niko lomouris `berua qristesiaSvilSi~, iseve, rogorc mis sxva nawarmo-
ebebSi, Cven vamCnevT ara glexuri Temisaken (Община) mibrunebis propagandas, ara-
med erovnuli mTlianobis darRveviT gamowveul tkivils. qarTveli xalxis sxva-
dasxva fenaTa interesebisa Tu ideologiis mixedviT erT muStad Sekvris da damo-
ukidebeli arsebobis moTxovna dgas aq. xalxosnebad wodebuli mwerlebis da, pir-
vel yovlisa, niko lomouris nawerebSi aSkarad Cans kriticistuli damokidebu-
leba narodnikebisagan gaidealebuli patriarqaluri yofisadmi. niko lomouris,
rogorc moazrovnisa da mwerlisaTvis, mxolod berua qristesiaSvilis ojaxis ma-
galiTze naTelia, rom CvenSi kapitalisturi cxovrebis momZlavrebis pirobebSi
ar arsebobs araviTari Sansi imisaTvis, rom ndoba gamoecxados istoriulad moZ-
velebulsa da dromoWmuls. sinamdvilisadmi is gulubryvilo xedva, rac berua
qristesiaSvils gaaCnia, warmavalia da uniadago, Tumca romantikul elvarebas
araa moklebuli, amitomacaa, rom patriarqaluri yofa, romelic kunZuliviT ga-
darCeniliyo berua qristesiaSvilis ojaxis saxiT, niko lomourma mkiTxvelis wi-
naSe dasca da am dacemis sababic gviCvena: es iyo daTika qristesiaSvili, rogorc
axali da Zlieri ekonomiuri faqtoris warmomadgeneli, qalaqis kaci, romelmac
icis, rom kanons kanoni unda daupirispirdes da statias statia. mwerlis mkacri
realizmi cxovrebis ganviTarebis namdvil perspeqtivebze mianiSnebs mkiTxvels
da mas arasodes tovebs yalbi iluziebis amara.

niko lomouris mier gacocxlebuli qarTlis sofeli. yvela Sem-


TxvevaSi niko lomouri glexTa mosarCle da qomagi moralisti mweralia. mis na-
warmoebebSi, iseve rogorc sxva xalxosnad wodebul qarTvel mwerlebTan, moqa-
laqeobrivi ufleba moipova glexobam.
niko lomouris TxzulebaTa personaJi glexebi: andria (`yovlis mxridan~),
babale, gigo sosiaSvili, solomon farcxaZe (`bedi ubedurTa~) gaWirvebasa da
socialur usamarTlobasTan Widils aleven TavianT Zal-Ronesa da sicocxle-
sac. svimona lukaSvili (`qristiani lekebi~) ki, Tavisi miznebiTa da zneobrivi
sibeCaviT, gonebrivi SezRudulobiT, SeiZleba iseT glexis magaliTad miviCni-
oT, romelic saarsebo saSualebaTa Ziebis moTxovnilebam garemos monad aqcia.
materialuri siZlieris mopovebis gadaudebelma moTxovnilebam n. lomouris
mier daxatuli glexebi sulieri momentisagan erTgvarad ganZarcva da isini
xSir SemTxvevaSi gulqva, uxeS adamianebad aqcia. niko lomouric mouRlelad
gvixasiaTebs uxeS pirobebSi, zneobrivad dauxvewav garemoSi, patriarqalurad
210
SemozRudul fargalSi moqceul adamianTa ubedurebas. ubedurebaa am adamiane-
bisaTvis cxovreba ara mxolod imitom, rom isini miwur qoxebSi, saqonlis Sardsa
da WuWyian garemoSi cxovroben, ar gaaCniaT sakmarisad sakvebi, samosi da fuli,
dReniadag xariviT Sromoben da mainc Raribebi arian; mwerlis TvalsazrisiT,
kidev ufro didi ubedureba isaa, rom maTi Sroma Tavisi xasiaTiT saTanado gaaz-
rebuli Sroma araa. am alalmarTal, patiosan adamianTa sulis gauxeSebis mizezi
marto TavadaznaurTa wris warmomadgenelTa Semoteva araa: isini mxolod xmama-
RalSvilebis, ylapiaSvilebis, badriZeebis da JamiaSvilebis usulgulo qcevis
niadagze gaubedurebuli fena ki araa, aramed sofelSi mimdinare rTuli socia-
luri diferenciaciis safuZvelze Seqmnili viTarebis msxverplni arian. axali
cxovrebis pirobebSi maTive aRzevebuli TanamoZmeebi: mamasaxlisi beso gabaSvi-
li (`qristiani lekebi~), qristesia nacriaSvili (`bedi ubedurTa~), sosika da ni-
nika (`bedi ubedurTa~), — es is adamianebia, romlebic dros wamoutivtivebia, vi-
Tarebas Casafrebian, rom gamorCena naxon, Tundac TanamoZme gahyidon da gaa-
nadguron. niko lomouris nawarmoebebSi gamokveTilad araa mocemuli, Tu gle-
xis fsiqikaSi ranairad mwifdeba protestis grZnoba. aq, Cven, iSviaTi gamonakli-
sis garda, verc vamCnevT, rom maT SegnebaSi viTarebis mimarT gaazrebuli dapi-
rispirebis moTxovnileba idges. mxolod `wuTisofelSi~ Cans usamarTlo, tlanq
da utifar ZalasTan saqmianad dapirispirebis tendencia. niko lomouri, rogorc
qarTveli mwerali, mZafrad ganicdis qarTuli soflisaTvis maTi damRupveli
saqmianobis Sedegs. mwerlis azriT, araerovnuli burJuaziis SeWras qarTlis so-
felSi ormagi ubedureba moaqvs Cveni xalxisaTvis: erTi mxriv, materialurad yv-
lefs miwis muSa gulubryvilo glexobas, meore mxriv, maT xelSi TiTqmis muqTad
uvardebaT erovnuli dovlaTi, — qarTuli miwa-wyali.
niko lomouri fenaTa SigniT arsebul sxvaobebs aCvenebs da gaxazavs. amito-
macaa, rom mis mier daxatul TavadaznaurobaSi gvxvdeba rogorc uaryofiTi,
aseve dadebiTi personaJebi.
saerTod, niko lomouris mier gacocxlebul qarTlis sofels awuxebs, sis-
xlisgan clis sxvadasxva juris fuqsavati Tavadi, utifari aznauri, ucxo tomis
CarC-vaWari da soflis pirobebSi burJuaziuli urTierTobis momZlavrebis xana-
Si cxovrebis zedapirze amotivtivebuli regveni, magram gazuluqebuli, moxeled
qceuli glexi. mwerlis interesTa gareSe arc religiis msaxurTa saxeebi rCeba.
moTxrobebSi `ali~ da `yovelis mxridan~, naTladaa naCvenebi zaqaria diakvnisa da
mRvdlis moCvenebiTi sulieri mamoba, angarebiani, mtacebluri buneba; magram maT
gverdiT mwerali gvixatavs saTnoebiTa da WeSmaritad qristianuli siwminde-uan-
garobiT mcxovrebi moxuci episkoposis saxes (`wuTisofeli~). aqedan Cans, rom ni-
ko lomouri araa mxatvruli sityvis sferoSi `SiSveli tendenciurobisa~ da xal-
xosnobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ukiduresi utilitarizmis momxre.
gansakuTrebuli siyvaruliT mwerali gamsWvalulia Cveni sazogadoebis yve-
la fenidan gamosuli im inteligentebis mimarT, romelTa qceva da saqmianoba ni-
ko lomours WeSmaritad saxalxo tipis inteligentis metrad CauTvlia. aseTia
gigo RrubelaSvili, vano mxiaruliZe, is RvTisnieri eqimi, imedgadawyvetil mi-
xas (`samfexa amirana~) rom gankurnavs, Tu patara maros mkurnali eqimis — dau-
viwyari tarsaiZis saxe `pawia megobrebSi~.

niko lomouris patriotuli TvalTaxedva. niko lomouri Tavisi


drois Svili iyo. mZafr socialur interess arasodes miuCqmalavs masSi mRelva-
re patriotuli grZnoba da Segneba. niko lomouris mier daxatuli mwvave socia-
luri wnexis qveS moqceul glexTa fsiqikaSi Rrmadaa fesvgamdgari mSobliuri
miwis mimarT mamuliSvilobis maRali movaleobis grZnoba. qarTveli glexis
cxovrebis azrad, niko lomouris warmodgeniT, gamocxadebulia misi nawarmoe-

211
bis erTi glexi personaJis sityvebi: `sadac dabadebulxar, iqve Cayare Seni Zvle-
bi~ (`ali~). am principiT cxovrobs, wvalobs, itanjeba, magram sicocxlis ulevi
wyurviliT anTebuli, kvlav sicocxles, mama-papis mSvenier tradiciebs, saku-
Tar enasa da teritorias esarCleba, icavs da efereba am mwerlis mier daxatuli,
cxovrebisagan gatanjuli adamianebi. moTxrobaSi `winaparTa aCrdilni~ — mkafi-
odaa gamJRavnebuli niko lomouris erovnul-politikuri mrwamsi. niko lomou-
ris istoriuli koncefcia ilia WavWavaZisa da sxva qarTvel 60-ianelTa Sexedu-
lebebis arealSi SeiZleba iqnes ganxiluli. Tavis ufros did TanamedroveTa
msgavsad, n. lomoursac miaCnia, rom ena, rwmena da istoriuli idealebi, teri-
toria is faqtorebia, romelTanac mtkice urTierTobaSi yalibdeba erovnuli
fsiqologia. qarTvelTa gadarCenis pirobad mwerals swored is miaCnia, rom
Cvenma winaprebma saimedod daicves eris arsebobis SemanarCunebeli es ucilobe-
li faqtorebi. `winaparTa aCrdilnis~ garda, niko lomouris arc erT Txzuleba-
Si wina planze araa wamoweuli patriotuli grZnoba, magram es kidev ar miuTi-
Tebs imaze, rom am mwerlis qmnilebebi Tavisufali iyos patriotuli grZnobebi-
sagan. saqme imaSi gaxlavT, rom 80-iani wlebidan Cvens mwerlobaSi socialurma
sakiTxma ufro meti simZafre SeiZina, radgan TviT dabal fenaSi, sofelSi gaCnda
axali socialuri fena. am garemoebam, erovnuli TvalsazrisiT, axali satkivari
gaaCina Cveni inteligenciis winaSe, rasac misma erTma nawilma, da maT Soris n.
lomourma, imiT upasuxa, rom mwvave socialur problemaTa Soris patriotul
gulistkivils daqvemdebarebuli saxe miuCina. amiT mweralma gaxaza ara am maRa-
li grZnobis gaqrobis, an ukana planze gadawevis saSiSroeba, aramed TviT socia-
luri grZnobis aqtualizacia CaTvala patriotul aucileblobad.

siyvarulis Tema. qarTuli literaturis mkvlevarTa Soris ganmtkice-


bulia azri, rom niko lomouri araa siyvarulis Zlieri vnebis gamomxatveli mwe-
rali (g.qiqoZe). es Sexeduleba ramdenadme sworia, magram Tavis arsebiT nawilSi
is mainc saWiroebs garkveul koreqtivs. niko lomours aqvs vrceli nawarmoebi
`wuTisofeli~, sadac mwerali avlens sakmaod seriozul interess aRniSnuli Te-
misadmi. am metad rTuli grZnobis mxatvruli gansaxierebisas niko lomouri ak-
virdeba ara TavisTavad siyvarulis fsiqologiur Sinaarss, aramed misi warmoSo-
bis socialur niadags. mwerlis yuradReba mipyrobilia im socialuri garemosad-
mi, romelic saxes ucvlis am ukeTilSobilesi grZnobis mimdinareobas da adamian-
Ta cxovrebis tragediis mizezad iqceva. mkacr da mtaceblur principebze agebu-
li garemo auxeSebs adamianis suls, aborotebs nazsa da faqiz arsebas (eTeris sa-
xiT) da adamianuri bednierebis uflebas arTmevs yvela imas, visac siyvarulis
grZnobis sidiade swamda. aseTia is mZime yofa, romelsac gamokveTilad gvixatavs
mwerali.

bunebisadmi mimarTeba. niko lomouri Cveni e. w. xalxosani mwerlebis da-


rad, bunebis Temasac SeeWida. mis qmnilebebSi uxvadaa warmodgenili saqarTve-
los, kerZod qarTlis, peizaJebi. mwerali gatacebiT xatavs mSobliuri kuTxis
mdinareebs, mTebs, vel-mindvrebs, yvelafers, rasac misi Tvali swvdeba, magram ga-
morCeuli interesi mipyrobilia iseTi bunebisadmi, romelsac mis TxzulebaTa
mTavari personaJebis — glexebisaTvis sargebloba da dovlaTi moaqvs. sul sxva
energiiT acocxlebs igi TavTavebiT damZimebul puris yanebs, yurZniT datvir-
Tul venaxebs, TuraSauli vaSlebiT, Tafla msxlebiTa da qarTlisTvis bunebisa-
gan momadlebuli xileuliT daxunZlul xeebs. am SemTxvevaSi mwerlis interesi
mizandaqvemdebarebulia, radgan amgvari buneba glexis cxovrebis materialuri
keTildReobis wyaroa da safuZveli. SfoTavs da kvnesis mwerali, roca Savi Rru-
beli (`yovelis mxridan~) anadgurebs da spobs glexis imedad gadaSlil am mSveni-

212
er vel-mindvrebs, baRebsa da venaxebs. amgvari midgoma bunebisadmi miuTiTebs,
rom gamorCeuli esTetikuri tkbobis obieqts niko lomourisTvis buneba ar war-
moadgens, igi erTvis im gaRrmavebul socialur miznebs, rac misi nawarmoebebis
amosavali principia. roca sicxisgan gadaxrukul bunebas warmogvidgens n. lomo-
uri (mag., `bedi ubedurTa~), aqac wamyvani tendencia isaa, rom TvalnaTlivi gaxa-
dos mkiTxvelisTvis swored am bunebriv pirobebSi mcxovrebi mSromeli adamianis
duxWiri bedi. ase rom, bunebis suraTebi n. lomouris nawerebSi im mizniTaa gadmo-
cemuli, raTa mweralma saTanado foni Seuqmnas Tavis socialursa da patriotul
miznebs. mwerali bunebis simSvenieres TavdaviwyebiT ar eZleva, raTa mis fonze ar
STainTqas uSualod TxzulebaTa socialuri Sinaarsi, amitomac tkbobiTi momen-
tisadmi interesi aq erTob Semofarglulia da SezRuduli.

niko lomouri, rogorc sabavSvo mwerali. rogorc cnobilia, niko


lomouri Tavisi praqtikul-sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobiT mWidrod iyo dakavSi-
rebuli aRzrdis sferosTan. mTeli 35 wlis manZilze igi eweoda maswavleblis
sapatio da erTob sapasuxismgeblo saqmianobas. amitomac, bunebrivia, n. lomou-
risaTvis ymawvilTaTvis gamiznuli Txzulebebis Seqmnas savsebiT gamokveTili
mizandasaxuloba edo safuZvlad. niko lomouris sabavSvo qmnilebebma imTaviT-
ve miipyro mkiTxveli sazogadoebis yuradReba. TviT mwerlis sayvarelma maswav-
lebelma, iakob gogebaSvilma `bunebis karSi~ Seitana niko lomouris leqsi —
`yinva da patara mowafe~, xolo Secvlili saTauriT nawyvetebi moTxrobebidan:
`Zma da da~ moTxrobidan `patara qajana~, `mosavali~ (moTxrobidan `yoveli mxri-
dan~) da `mwyris bude~ (imave moTxrobidan). Semdeg da Semdeg saskolo saxel-
mZRvaneloebSi bavSvTa sayvarel sakiTxav masalad iqca `ali~ da `pawia megobre-
bi~. ramdenadac XIX saukunis rusuli sinamdvilisaTvis niSandoblivi sabavSvo
literaturis winaSe wayenebuli moTxovnebi arc qarTvel mweralTaTvis yofila
ucnobi, amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom n. lomouris is Txzulebebi, romlebic
bavSvTa sayvarel nawarmoebebad iqcnen, ZiriTadad akmayofileben am moTxov-
nebs.
marTalia, warmodgenaTa feradovnebiT da maTi swrafi monacvleobiT n. lo-
mouris sabavSvo qmnilebebi ar gamoirCevian, magram mwerlis poeturi aRmafrena
mainc iCens Tavs. am moTxrobaTa calkeul pasaJebSi, b. belinskis sityvis perif-
raziT rom vTqvaT, ar SeiZleba ar vigrZnoT gulis `raRac damatkbobeli Sekum-
Sva~, roca gansakuTrebiT mainc, `alsa~ da `qajanaSi~ aRwerili tyis idumalebas,
Tu wminda giorgis eklesiis e.w. saswaulqmedebas eziareba bavSvi... aq, n. lomouri
aRwevs iseT simaRles, rodesac gancdebi saukeTesod gamoxataven zneobriv ide-
als da Txzulebac ganTavisuflebulia sqematizmisa da ganyenebuli sentencie-
bisagan.

niko lomouris TxzulebaTa mxatvruli mxare. niko lomouris


TxzulebaTa Soris Tavisi mxatvruli zemoqmedebis Zala dRemde aqvs SenarCune-
buli swored im moTxrobebs, romlebic imTaviTve ymawvilTa sakiTxav masalad iq-
na miCneuli. `ali~, `qajana~, `yovelis mxridan~ da `pawia megobrebi~ is nawarmoebe-
bia, romlebSic Cans n. lomouris mwerluri SesaZleblobebi. maTTvis damaxasiaTe-
belia dauZabavi da bunebrivi Txroba. qarTuli enis (upiratesad qarTluri dia-
leqtis) sinoyivre.
ver vityviT, rom n. lomouri portretis Seqmnis gamorCeuli ostatia, magram
calkeul situaciebSi, igi qmnis mxatvruli simarTliT savse saxeebs. ase, magali-
Tad, STambeWdavadaa gacocxlebuli mwerlis mier SiSiT enaCavrdnili bavSvis
portreti. moTxrobaSi `qajana~ vkiTxulobT: `qajanam uceb dainaxa raRac ban-
jgvliani da uTavo; did ketze dabjenili SeinZra da is butbutiT wamovida qaja-

213
nasaken. qajana wamoxta, undoda daeyvira, piri daaRo, magram yelidan susti xavi-
lis meti aRara amouvida ra. mainc gamotrialda ukan, gadmodga ramdenime nabiji
da uceb mowyvetili yvaviliviT daeca dedamiwazed~.
maros, babucasa da tarsaiZis daxasiaTebisas aseve dasamaxsovrebeli saxee-
bia Seqmnili moTxrobaSi `pawia megobrebi~.
imis Tqma, rom niko lomouris moTxrobebi gamoirCeva `mxatvruli, mSvenieri,
mZlavri poeturi SedarebebiT, mkveTri epiTetebiT (mix. zandukeli), faqtiur vi-
Tarebas SeiZleba naklebad gamoxatavdes. misTvis ufro martivi, mudmivi mxat-
vruli xerxebis gamoyenebaa damaxasiaTebeli. mag., kato (moTxroba `qajana~), `esaa
saSineli eSmaki da gudiani gogona~, romelsac `kunapetiviT Savi Tvalebi aqvs~.
mSvenieri qali (`gigo RrubelaSvili~) mwerlis TqmiT, `mowyvetil varskvlavs~
hgavs, mas `kalmiT naxati saxe aqvs~, `lamazi loyebi TuraSaul vaSliviT aqvs dab-
rawuli~ da a.S. magram vimeorebT, rom am sada, martivi epiTetebisa da SedarebaTa
gamoyenebis gziTac mwerali garkveul SemTxvevaSi aRwevs saTanado mxatvrul
efeqts.
`qajanaSi~ katos oinbazobani garkveul iumorul donezea ayvanili. n. lomouri
araiSviaTad mimarTavs kontrastuli daxasiaTebis gzas, raTa kidev ufro muq fe-
rebSi warmoaCinos ubedureba-bednierebis, siRaribe-simdidris arsi (mag. moTxroba
`tanjuli~). saerTod unda iTqvas, rom niko lomouri, rogorc mwerali, SedarebiT
srulyofil dones iq aRwevs, sadac igi Sordeba xalxosnuri Teoriis sqemas... da
aseTi swored aris `pawia megobrebi~, `qajana~, `ali~, `yoveli mxridan~... zogierTi
pasaJi.
niko lomouris sxva Txzulebebs, iqneba es `bedi ubedurTa~, `gigo Rrube-
laSvili~, `aRara eSveleba ra~, `qristiani lekebi~ da sxv., xalxosnebad wodebu-
li danarCeni qarTveli mwerlis mraval nawarmoebTa msgavsad, ufro mxatvruli
narkvevebis forma aqvs, narkvevisa im azriT, rom isini garkveuli momentiT arian
gansazRvrulni da garkveuli adgiliT Semofarglulni. adgilisa da drois es
erTgvari lokalizeba, Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT maT SemozRudvas da, maSa-
sadame, erTgvar erTferovnebasac iwvevs.
am moTxrobebSi niko lomouri cdilobs socialurad dapirispirebul ZalTa
Widilis Tema ideuri TvalsazrisiT aqtualuri gaxados. sagangebo daZabva ki-
dev sqematizms warmoSobs da garkveulad zRudavs maTi zemoqmedebis Zalas. yve-
la zemoaRniSnul nawarmoebSi mxatvruli efeqtis Sesustebas xels uwyobs pub-
licisturi elementis moWarbeba. Txrobis procesSi publicisturi paTosi Sei-
niSneba mxatvrulad SedarebiT srulyofil iseT moTxrobaSic ki, rogorc `qa-
janaa~, roca mwerali gadmogvcems kikolas ojaxis istorias.
is garemoeba, rom mwerali literaturas utilitaruli TvalsazrisiT afasebs,
gavlenas axdens imaze, rom am sqematizmis niSniT aRbeWdil qmnilebebSi (`bedi ube-
durTa~, `tanjulni~, `gigo RrubelaSvili~, `qristiani lekebi~), niko lomouri ar
zrunavs nawarmoebis daxvewisaTvis. magaliTad, mxatvruli dauxvewaobis STabeWdi-
lebas iwvevs aseTi adgilebi: `gaCumebuls mindors zemodam dascqeroda gaStere-
buli jaeri~ (`bedi ubedurTa~). babale `ibdRvnida gaTeTrebuls Tmasa; ikawravda
Zvlebzed Savad mimxmar loyebs, iglejda pawawkina, mimWknar ZuZuebs...~
sentimentalobis elferi gadahkravs bavSvis aseTnair ametyvelebasac: `Cveni
dedo cocqalia sida, alaa? hode, dililme, cocqalia Cveni dedoi. sida, pili
lo agal gaago eqla gaagemec...~ da sxv. (`bedi ubedurTa~).
mxolod yalb paTetikad SeiZleba aRiqvas mkiTxvelma socialuri ideebiT
Sepyrobili axalgazrda moRvawis mimarTva mSvenieri asulisadmi: `rogorc Sena
xar mefe Cemis gulisa, amieridgan me viqnebi aCrdili yovelis Senis moZraobi-
sa~... (`gigo RrubelaSvili~), anda aseTi sazeimo SeZaxilebiT savse gancxadebebi:

214
`me var mfarveli yoveli davrdomilisa, me var deda yoveli gaWirvebulisa!~
(`gigo RrubelaSvili~).
saerTod, rogorc aRniSnaven, `xalxosnebi, rogorc mxatvrebi, TavianTi xe-
lovnebis erT-erT gamarTlebas xalxur metyvelebaze dayrdnobaSi xedavdnen.
xalxosnebi gaitaca xalxurma metyvelebam, gaitaca iqamde, rom ganurCevloba
daetyoT da am enobriv masalaSi ise CaiZirnen, rom, rogorc ostatebi, TiTqos
originalurobisa da sakuTari poeturi xmis dakargvamdec ki mividnen. Rirseba
xalxosnebisa — xalxuri enis gabatonebaSi rom iCina Tavi, udides safrTxesac
Seicavda xelovnebisaTvis: individualuri mxatvruli saSualebebisadmi
ugulebelmyofeli damokidebulebis gabatonebas.... xalxosnebma ver SeZles da-
uxvewelisagan Sedevrebis gansxvaveba xalxuri Semoqmedebis did salaroSi da
mxatvrisaTvis esoden arsebiTi mniSvnelobis mqone grZnoba — sityvisa da gamoT-
qmebis esTetikuri Zalis grZnoba — ver gamoiCines. xalxosnebi Seityua da CaiT-
ria xalxuri metyvelebis uZiro morevma~ (grigol kiknaZe).
cxadia, mwerlis niWierebis erT-erTi gamoxatuleba isicaa, Tu ramdenad flobs
igi enas — mxatvruli qmnilebis am saSen masalas. TavisTavad is faqti, rom n. lomou-
ris moTxrobebi, TavianTi Tematikuri yavlgasulobis miuxedavad, dRemde SemorCa
Cvens saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebs da sabavSvo-popularuli literaturis sagan-
Zurs, miuTiTebs imaze, rom isini kvlav ganagrZoben mxatvrul sicocxles...
garda naTeli humanuri grZnobebisa da ideebisa, riTac TavisTavadaa gam-
sWvaluli niko lomouris qmnilebebi, isini Seicaven sayuradRebo da sando masa-
las XIX saukunis qarTuli soflis yofiTi mxaris, am periodis qarTveli glexis
materialurad saarsebo wyarosa da niadagis gasaTvaliswineblad.
am niSniTac niko lomouri yovelTvis darCeba, Cveni cxovrebis garkveul
etapze mainc, qarTuli garemos sando mweral-mematianed.

215
sofrom mgalobliSvili

(1851-1925)

sofrom mgalobliSvilis mxatvruli Semoqmedebis masala amokrefilia qar-


Tuli soflis yofa-cxovrebidan. TviT mweralma bavSvoba sofelSi gaatara, ad-
ridanve SeeCvia igi glexis cxovrebis avsa da kargs, icoda glexis gonebrivi da
qonebrivi viTareba. mxatvrul-publicisturi moRvaweobis pirvel xanebSi s. mga-
lobliSvili asaxavda uRono, upatrono, siRaribesa da uswavleloba-umecreba-
Si myof glexobas, romelic WuWysa da ubedurebaSi ixrCoboda; Semdgom mweralma
gamoxata erTobis ideebis gavrceleba, roca glexobam gaigo da Seigno Tavisi
mdgomareoba da xelSi iaraRi aiRo uflebebisa da Tavisi pirovnebis dasacavad.
pirvel xanebSi mwerali glexis yofa-cxovrebis aRmweria, daufaravad maCvenebe-
li CamorCenilobisa, sofelSi gavrcelebuli epidemiebis saSineli Sedegebisa,
mkiTxav-eqimbaSebis saqmianobisa da CarC-vaWarTa TareSisa; Semdeg ki mwerali
moTxrobebSi xatavs mCagvrelebis mimarT soflelTa winaaRmdegobas, iZleva
medgari socialuri da politikuri brZolis suraTebs. s. mgalobliSvilis
Tvalwin bevri saintereso faqti moxda, rac aisaxa mis mxatvrulsa da publicis-
tur SemoqmedebaSi, agreTve sainteresod daweril mogonebebSi.
sofrom zaqarias Ze mgalobliSvili mRvdlis Svili iyo, daibada 1851 wels,
sofel dirbSi. es sofeli Semdeg man sxvadasxva saxeliT xSirad aRwera Tavis
moTxrobebSi. momavali mwerali jer goris sasuliero saswavlebelSi swavlob-
da, Semdeg Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi, romelic 1873 wels daamTavra. semi-
nariaSi misi maswavleblebi iyvnen: iakob gogebaSvili, giorgi ioseliani, niko
cxvedaZe, romelTa miTiTebiTa da waqezebiT man bevri ram waikiTxa da iswavla.
`amaTi mosvlidan axali xana daiwyo seminariaSi, — werda s. mgalobliSvili. sag-
nebs aswavlidnen kargad, Segirdebs adamianurad epyrobodnen, gvaZlevdnen sa-
kiTxav wignebs, gvayvarebdnen samSoblo enas da literaturas~. igi amave xanebSi
gaecno rusul literaturas, aralegalur gamocemebsa da im mweralTa Semoqme-
debas, romelTa wakiTxvis uflebas moswavleebs seminariis direqcia ar aZlevda,
mag., rus revolucioner-demokratebis Semoqmedebas, ilia WavWavaZisa da sxvaTa
Txzulebebs.
s. mgalobliSvili seminarieli iyo, roca werilebs beWdavda gazeT `droeba-
sa~ da Jurnal `mnaTobSi~, dauaxlovda maT redaqciebsa da TanamSromlebs. semi-
nariis kursis Sesrulebis Semdeg s. magalobliSvili maswavleblobda goris sa-
suliero saswavlebelSi, amave dros iwyebs muSaobas revoluciur organizacia-
Si xalxosnebTan erTad, romelsac am dros xelmZRvanelobdnen mixeil yifiani,
Sio daviTaSvili, egnate ioseliani da sxvani. maT undodaT `gaecnoT xalxisaT-
vis mTavrobis mavne weswyobileba, Caexedebina glexoba Tavis cxovrebaSi, daer-
wmunebia igi, rom umamulod misi ganTavisufleba Zvel batonymobaze uaresi
iyo~...
xalxosnebis krebebze, saidumlo Sekreba-TaTbirebze da konferenciebze
daswrebam masSi ganamtkica azri, rom praqtikulad unda daexmaros glexobas,
magram es praqtikuli nabiji uSedego aRmoCnda, radgan, rogorc TviT s. mgalob-
liSvili wers — `xalxi Cven ar gvikarebda, gansakuTrebiT glexoba~.

216
es saintereso aRiarebani s. mgalobliSvilisa, axasiaTeben xalxosnuri muSa-
obis arapraqtikulobas. qarTvelma xalxosnebma glexoba ver aaRelves da ver
darazmes, amitom maT muSaobis gezi Secvales da glexobasTan kavSiris sxva for-
mis Ziebas Seudgnen. s. mgalobliSvili wers: `raki xalxSi siaruliT vera gavawy-
eT ra, Cven moqmedebis fronti da taqtika SevcvaleT. gadavwyviteT maswavleb-
lebs gvemoqmedna moswavle axalgazrdobaze, xelosnebze, gvemarTna iaffasiani
saxalxo warmodgenebi. am mizniT qal. gorSi davaarseT moyvarulTa wre. warmod-
genebi imarTeboda soflebSic, monawileobas iRebda yvela amxanagebi, sapasuxis-
mgeblo rolebs TamaSobda Sio daviTaSvili, me vkiTxulobdi rafiel erisTavisa
da Cem sakuTar scenebs xalxis cxovrebidan... ufros klasebSi, sadac 14-15 wlis
ymawvilebi isxdnen, Segvqonda revoluciuri xasiaTis literatura, moTxrobebi,
leqsebi~. amisTana muSaobiT s. mgalobliSvili axalgazrdobaSi aRvivebda erTo-
bis, simarTlis, mamuliSvilobis grZnobas. aralegaluri muSaobisaTvis s. mga-
lobliSvili 1878 wels daapatimres cota xniT. amis Semdeg igi kvlav muSaobs
kulturisa da ganaTlebis frontze, goridan TanamSromlobs Jurnal `imedSi~,
gazeT `droebasa~ da `iveriaSi~.
s. mgalobliSvili kargad axasiaTebs xalxosnuri moZraobis raobas Tavis mo-
gonebebSi: `xalxSi ki egre rigaT ver moikida fexi xalxosnurma moZraobam. es
moZraoba utopiuri gamodga. mSvidobiani gziT revolucia vis gaugonia... Cven
vcdilobT xalxi pirdapir gadagveskupebina kapitalisturi xanis gauvlelad,
socializmSi~.
1897 wlidan s. mgalobliSvili TbilisSi dasaxlda; monawileobda kulturul da
Jurnalistur muSaobaSi, TanamSromlobda `moambeSi~, `TemSi~, `Teatrsa da cxovreba-
Si~.
s. mgalobliSvili gardaicvala 1925 wlis noemberSi.
s. mgalobliSvilma samwerlo muSaoba TargmniT daiwyo, romelTac beWdavda
Jurnal `mnaTobSi~. 1872 wels dawera pirveli beletristuli Txzuleba `ra mi-
zezia?~, gamoqveynebuli seminarielebis JurnalSi, romelic male gadaakeTa da
daarqva `deda maia~.
s. mgalobliSvilis Semoqmedebas dasawyisSive hyavda mkiTxvelebi da Semfaseb-
lebi, kerZod, a. wereTeli 1901 wels gazeT `iveriaSi~ gamoqveynebul statiaSi `we-
rili megobarTan~ mimarTavda mgalobliSvils da uxsnida: miuxedavad Seni didi
niWisa, dagixelTa, dagimorCila im senma, ucxoeTidan rom Semogvepara (akaki gu-
lisxmobda rusul `narodnikul~ mwerlobas), ese igi kazmul sityviT qadagebam,
romelic ase udgeba da uxdeba Cvens cxovrebas, znesa da Cveulebas, rogorc `vod-
ka~ kaxurs da `kvasi~ ojaleSs~-o. wereTeli amxelda zogierTi qarTveli mwerlisa
da TviT s. mgalobliSvilis naturalizms, Semoqmedebis primitiulobas, movlena-
Ta fotografirebas.
a. wereTeli miuTiTebda rogorc s. mgalobliSvils, ise sxva qarTvel mwer-
lebs, romelTa Semoqmedebasac is nakli hqonda, rac poetma s. mgalobliSvilis Se-
moqmedebaSi dainaxa. am ukanasknelis erTi patara nawarmoebi — `ukvdavebis wyaro
var~ akakim gamoiyena Tavisi Teoriuli mosazrebisaTvis, rac Semdegnairad gamo-
xata: `Sens niWs Sesaferisi gza aurCevia da Tu aRar gadauxvev, Sen ici! TiTeul
ers Tavisi sakuTari erTi meorisagan gansxvavebuli saxe aqvs da maT literatura-
sac, rogorc sarkes ama Tu im erisa, gansakuTrebiT elferi unda edvas. Cveni mwer-
lobac utyuari sarke unda iyos qarTvelebisa, Sig unda isaxebodes saqarTvelos
mravalferovani buneba misis miwa-wyliT, mTa-bariT, tyiT da veliT da sxvani~.
s. mgalobliSvili qarTveli glexobis cxovrebis bevr uaryofiT mxares aR-
werda Tavis moTxrobebSi, igi aqveynebda naxevrad publicistur, naxevrad mxat-
vrul werilebs, romlebSic mimoxilulia qarTuli provinciis cxovrebis mrava-
li mxare. es iyo seria saTauriT — `provincialuri meTvalyuris Civili da SeniS-

217
vnebi~, romelTa mTavari Tema xalxis yofis CamorCeniloba gaxldaT. mwerali
fiqrobda, rom xalxis ekonomikuri mdgomareoba aris mTavari mizezi misi Cagru-
li da daqveiTebuli yofisa. mweralma kritikulad daaxasiaTa sazogadoebis ma-
Rali fenebi, romelTa arseboba drois uazro kargvasa da cekva-pranWvaSi gamoi-
xateboda. am adamianebis cxovrebas mwerali ulmoblad amxelda. sazogadoebri-
vi sargeblianobisaTvis Tavdadebul adamians igi mxolod glexobaSi xedavda da
fiqrobda, rom mxolod glexobas Seswevs unari Sromisa da, maSasadame, axlis
Seqmnisac. magram glexobas, romelic ekonomiurad da iuridiulad Zalze iyo Se-
borkili, aramcTu saqveyno saqmianobisaTvis, sakuTari Tavisa da ojaxis uzrun-
velyofisaTvisac ar yofnida Rone.
qarTveli glexobis usasoo socialur-ekonomiuri mdgomareobisa da masebSi
revoluciuri ideebis gavrcelebis Temis garda s. mgalobliSvilma mniSvnelo-
vani adgili dauTmo Tavis SemoqmedebaSi maRali wodebis zneobis dacemisa da mis
gonebriv-qonebrivi gaRatakebis, ganaTlebuli, magram usaqmuri axalgazrdobis
cxovrebis aRwerasac. am xasiaTis TxzulebaTa Soris aRsaniSnavia misi moTxroba
`Tavadi ieronime~, romelic, erTgvarad, ilia WavWavaZis moTxroba `kacia-adami-
anis?!~ asociaciurobiTaa aRbeWdili: ieronimesa da misi meuRlis, salomes sax-
lis mowyobiloba luarsab-darejanisas gvagonebs, Tavis megobar kacia luarsa-
biZesTan erTad ieronime ixsenebs batonymobis `netar dros~, swavla-ganaTlebis
Sesaxebac TaTqariZiseburi Sexedulebisaa — Tavadobis daRupvis mizezad wignis
gavrcelebas asaxelebs da sxva. magram, cxadia, personaJTa Soris paralelebis
gavlebisas ganmasxvavebel detalTa SemCnevacaa saWiro: ieronime batonymobas
mistiris, misi gaxsenebiT suldgmulobs, eocnebeba dro, roca yma sikvdilis pi-
ras mihyavda cemiTa da tanjviT. luarsabi Sors dgas aseTi sisastikisagan. per-
sonaJis msgavs niuansTa xazgasma ki saTanadod gansazRvravs mwerliseul cod-
nas cxovrebaze, viTarebaTa saxeobrivad warmodgenis miseul unars.
s. mgalobliSvilis mier daxatuli maRali fenis inteligencia orgvari xasi-
aTisaa. erTni xedaven uTanasworobas, rasac glexoba cud pirobebSi mouqcevia
da laparakSi amtkiceben wodebaTa Soris gansxvavebis xelovnurobas, magram ma-
Ti msjeloba mxolod frazebia da ara praqtikuli saqmianoba; meoreni uazro
cxovrebas ewevian, maTi arseboba daclilia sazogadoebrivi interesebisagan. es
ganaTlebulTa wre momakvdavi Tavadaznauruli yofis dasasrulis gamomxatve-
lia. es is brwyinvale sazogadoebaa, advilad rom gaeqelvina gareSe gavlenebs,
moiRuna da Tavisi sakuTari erovnuli da zneobrivi saxe dakarga. gadajiSebuli
adamianebi monawileobas iReben mejlisebSi, valsis cekvaSi, arSiyobaSi, sakuTari
Rirsebis damcirebaSi. fanatikurad eTayvanebian ucxosa da gareSes, maTi survi-
lebi garegnuli brWyvialis CvenebaSi mdgomareobs, patara kacebs xorcieli sia-
movnebis erTi saaTisaTvis msxverplad miaqvT adamianoba da erovnuli Tavmoyva-
reoba. aseT adamianTa wyeba mweralma daxata moTxrobaSi `did zalaSi~. es moTx-
roba suraTebia da warmoadgens mwerlis werilebis — `provincialuri meTvalyu-
ris Civili da SeniSvnebi~— mxatvrul iersaxes.
s. mgalobliSvilma `provincialuri meTvalyuris Civili da SeniSvnebis~ er-
Ti nawili (1878 wlis `iveria~) glexis sacxovreblis aRweras miuZRvna. am weri-
lebSi laparakia glexis saxlSi dabudebul siRaribeze, usufTaobaze, radgan
adamianebi da pirutyvi erT WerqveS cxovroben, aqedan Cndeba yoveli siave da
avadmyofoba. `aqedan Cndeba civeb-cxeleba, romlis mosarCenadac mkiTxavTan
garbian. imdeni moxerxeba ara aqvT, rom TavisiT gaigon mizezi senisa da mkiTxav-
Tan dakarguli dro Tavis kar-midamos gasufTavebas moandomon. gulis Sematki-
vari ara hyavT, rom tvinSi gauTqvifos es saWiro sagani janmrTelobisa~... gle-
xobis aseTi yofiT Sewuxebuli mwerali erTgan kiTxulobs: `neta veRirsebiT

218
`glaxis naambobis~ mRvdelsa?~. am sagazeTo werilis mxatvruli saxe aris moTx-
roba `deda maia~, agebuli namdvil ambebze da namdvilad arsebul adamianebze.
batonymobis gadavardnis momdevno xanebSi glexoba iZulebuli iyo mZime pi-
robebSi aeRo ijariT `sabatono~ miwa. glexobis umravlesoba CemorCenil meur-
neobas ver aumjobesebda, xSiri mousavlianoba da SimSili atydeboda Tavze mas.
dilidan saRamomde TavauReblad muSaobdnen, ibrZodnen arsebobisaTvis da
lukma purisaTvis, magram wlis sarCos Tavs mainc ver uyridnen. muSaobs yvela,
didi da patara, qali da kaci. sofel marmaraReleSi glexebs ver mouxerxebiaT
sarwyavad gamoiyenon mdinare, igi soflis saxnav-saTess Sors udevs. mindorSi
wyali ki ara, mzisagan Tavis Sesafarebeli adgilic ar aris. marmaraRele gamo-
naklisi araa, is mdgomareoba, rac am sofelSi sufevs, saerToa. glexi did jafas
eweva, mas avadmyofobis droc ara aqvs, radgan lukma puris dakargvis SiSi aC-
rdiliviT Tana sdevs. sandala (`deda maia~) Ramis mexreobaSi gacivda, didi sicxe
misca. gauZalianda igi avadmyofobas, magram veRar SeZlo. sicxisagan pirgam-
Srals amaRelvebeli fiqrebi Tavidan ar scildeba. `TavSi Jruanteli uvlis da
Sublze simwriT Wiris ofls asxams, rom am avadmyofobiT imas erTi dRis alo da-
akldeba, radgan Tavobis amotanamdis guTanze ver dahyo -es uwuxebs guls, es
stanjavs sandalas!~.
sandala tipuri saxea glexisa. mwerali iseT viTarebaSi xatavs mas, rom
mkiTxveli moTxrobis gmirTan erTad ganicdis adamianis gamwarebas. am patara
moTxrobaSi saaSkaraozea gamotanili glexobis CamorCeniloba-gaunaTleblobi-
sa da Zvel, damabrkolebel wes-CveulebaTa faqtebi. `ra hqnas sacodavma glexma,
— kiTxulobs mwerali. yvelgan da yvelasagan amas xvdeba rkinis maTraxi, romlis
daRic sikvdilamdin ar anebebs Tavsa~. roca glexs gauWirdeba, maSin erTaderT
mxsnelad da Wir-varamis Semamsubuqeblad mkiTxavi da Selocva Cndeba. mwerali
deda maias vaebas, romelsac macxovrebeli Svili avad gaxdomia, aseTi detale-
biT gadmogvcems: `maia xan aqeT miawydeba, xan iqiT, vera gaugia-ra, vera mouxer-
xebia-ra, ver upovia mizezi, Tu ram Seawuxa, ram miiyvana misi Svili sikvdilis
pirze. daiwyebs Taviseburad axsnas, RonisZiebis Zebnas~ da, radgan mizezi ver
upovnia, TviT gamoZebnis mas — romeliRac xati aris gamwyrali mis ojaxze da mas
unda pativiscema. `fTilebi da mkiTxavi, — ai pirveli da ukanaskneli misamarTi
RonisZieba Cvenis glexisa~ — daaskvnis mwerali.
maia mkiTxavTan wavida Svilis avadmyofobis mizezis saZebnelad da roca Sin dab-
runda, sandala mkvdari daxvda.
glexis pirovnebis gaqelva da udieri Zaladoba mas zogjer iaraRs aaRebi-
nebda xelSi da arsebobis dacvas ukarnaxebda. d.WonqaZisa da i. WavWavaZis msgav-
sad, s. mgalobliSvilma daxata iseTi adamiani, romelSic gaiRviZa iaraRiT brZo-
lis survilma da SurisZiebam. aseT viTarebaSi xatavs igi sose kaiSaurs (`mTiuli
sose~), romlis erTaderTi imedi da cxovrebis wyaro, samuSao saqoneli, Tavadsa
da mis mouravs — qitesas wauyvaniaT. sasamarTlo da samarTali ZlierTa mxare-
zea, amitomac sosem maT ar mimarTa, tyes Seafara Tavi da SurisZiebisaTvis mza-
deba daiwyo. radgan momavali kargs aras uqadda, gadawyvita sulic waewymida.
`aRar vsaWiroeb amasac~-o, daaskvna man. sosem mokla qitesa mouravis bavSvi. mar-
Talia, amiT mouravis javri amoiyara, magram udanaSaulo bavSvis sisxlma ki ga-
daria. soses deda marTa Tavs datexili ubedurebisagan gagiJda, xolo TviTon
sasamarTloSi gamocxadda da Semdeg cimbirisaken gaemgzavra. mTiulma sosem,
d.WonqaZis nodaris msgavsad, TviT ipova samarTali, Tumca bavSvis mokvlis gamo
sindisis qenjnas ver morCa. s. mgalobliSvilis SemoqmedebaSi sose aris pirveli,
romelic iaraRiT xelSi eqspluatatorTa javrs iyris.
batonymobis naSTebi, uzarmazari gadasaxadebi da miwis gamosasyidi fasi
glexuri meurneobis Semosavals bevrad aRemateboda. es mdgomareoba iwvevda am

219
meurneobis gawriokebas. amisi Sedegi iyo `gaTavisuflebuli~ glexis qalaqSi ga-
dasaxleba lukmapuris saZieblad.
s. mgalobliSvilis moTxrobaSi `demetres saxloba~ daxatulia glexobis
ubedurebiT aRsavse gza, romelic soflidan qalaqisaken miemarTeba. moTxroba-
Si aRwerilia pirveli etapi soflis mosaxleobis qalaqebisaken miswrafebisa. qa-
laqs gadasaxlebuli glexi xelSi uvardeba vaWars da burJuaziuli amoralobisa
da gaumaZRrobis msxverplad iqceva. qalaqSi gadasaxlebuli glexis cxovreba
mweralma daxata metad muqi ferebiT, Tumca simarTliT. qalaqi glexis zneobas
spobs, mas adamianur saxes ukargavs. demetre lazaTiani axalgazrda iyo, Cacma-
daxurva uyvarda, magram roca qalaqSi dasaxlda, Tavis msgavs tanjulTa Soris
gaiTqvifa, dasneulda. demetre xelSi Cauvarda vaWar yazaras `sudebs~, `listeb-
sa~ da `poveskebs~. demetre yazaras validan veRar amovida. qalaqma demetres (da
mravals misTanas) yoveli adamianuri Rirseba axada. `iqnamde gauWirda, — ambobs
masze mwerali, — rom xandisxan TavSi elvasaviT gaurbenda ubeduri, Semzaravi
azri: gaeyidna namusi sacodavi nenesi~... demetre siRaribem, yazarama da burJua-
ziulma qalaqma imsxverpla. misi ukanaskneli sityvebi aris mwerlis mier naTqva-
mi protesti usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg: `maS ra vqnaT?!~ ras Svreba cxvari, yasabi
rom yelSi danas daabjens xolme~. demetre yelSi danadabjenili cxvariviT
msxverpli gaxda burJuaziuli qalaqisa.
aseT beds ver gaeqceva soflidan gadmosaxlebuli verc erTi glexi. moTx-
robaSi `gmiriseulis qali~ mweralma analogiuri ambavi aRwera. aqac ise ucruv-
deba imedi glexs, rogorc `demetres saxlobaSi~. salome, gmiriseulis qalis
asuli `darwmunda, rom aq ufro bloma xarks hkrefavs siRaribe, rom kacs abiwie-
rebs, suls ufuWebs, namuss arTmevs. darwmunda, rom soflad es xarji siRaribi-
sa agre rigad ara xdeba xalxsa~.
demetres sikvdilis Semdeg misi coli nene welebze fexs idgamda, bolos igi
gatexa gaWirvebam da yazaras namusi Searcxvenina. garyvnilma yazaram misi asu-
lis damorCilebac moindoma. nenem es ki veRar aitana da mtarvali mokla. ase
amovarda demetres saxloba.
qalaqis daxatvaSi s. mgalobliSvili da e. ninoSvili erTgvarad iqcevian. qa-
laqi spobs soflis Svilebs. nene, demetre, salome s. mgalobliSvilisa, qristine
e. ninoSvilisa erTgvar pirobebSi moeqcevian qalaqSi, erTgvarad mZimea maTTvis
iqauri garemo. mwerali kritikuli TvaliT ucqeris Tavis Tanamedrove soflis
cxovrebasac — usamarTlobis budes, Tumca igi bevrad maRla dgas burJuaziul-
vaWrul qalaqze. avtobiografiul TxzulebaSi `warsulidan~ mwerali xatavs
idealur sofels, iZleva patriarqaluri yofis gandidebas. mwerlis azriT, Zve-
li sofeli xasiaTdeboda erTsulovnebiT, soflelebma icodnen erTmaneTis ga-
tana da daxmareba. axali sofeli dacemulia, mcxovreblebs vaJkacuri Tvisebebi
dahkargviaT, ojaxebi danawevrebuli da dasustebulia, amitom yvela advilad
ereva Ronegamoclil mosaxleobas. Zvelad glexoba SekavSirebuli yofila da
Ronec hqonia. mgelbabias (`warsulidan~) azriT imitom, rom `Cveni Tavis patron-
ni Cven TviTon viyaviT~-o. ojaxebi winaT mtkice da mravalricxovani yofila.
aseTi ojaxi mwerlis idealia, aseTma simtkicem SeunarCuna sofels mTlianoba,
qarTvelma glexobam amitom gauZlo mtris Semosevebsa da darbevebs. Zveladac
yofila winaaRmdegobani, brZola, magram glexTa mTlianobas yvelaferi gadau-
laxavs. Zveli soflis adamiani faqizi grZnobebiTa da sulgrZelobiT xasiaTde-
boda. glexis darbaisloba da adamianuri buneba mweralma romantikulad dagvi-
xata am TxzulebaSi. s. mgalobliSvili daaskvnis: `...maT yofnas hmowmoben mxo-
lod saflavis qvani.... dRes sofels aRar hyavs mkurnali, gulSematkivari. iRu-
peba yvelaferi, rasac ki Zveli elferi edo~... ase gamoTqva s. mgalobliSvilma
sinanuli soflis Zveli, patriarqaluri wyobis mospoba-danergvis gamo.

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soflis mosaxleobisa da memamuleebis urTierTobas mwerali Tavisi soflis
konkretul magaliTze xatavs. sofeli dirbi Zvelad ekuTvnoda qarTvelTa
qristes saflavis monasters ierusalimSi da adgilobriv Tavadebs. mas Semdeg,
rac qarTvelTa monasteri berZnebis xelSi gadavida, mamulic imaT xelSi Cavar-
da da uzarmazar saxnav-saTess ierusalimidan Camosuli berZeni beri flobda. es
berebi arafriT gansxvavdebodnen danarCen sofelTa baton-patronTagan. qris-
tes saflavis monastris msaxurni glexebTan damokidebulebaSi iviwyebdnen
qristianobas da glexTa winaaRmdeg xSirad mimarTavdnen policiis Zalas. berebi
didZal Rala-kuluxs (xorblisa da Rvinis gadasaxads) axdevinebdnen glexebs.
mosaxleobasTan Suamavlad, Tavadebisa da memamuleTa msgavsad, maTac mourave-
bi hyavdaT.
mweralma Tavis SemoqmedebaSi didi adgili dauTmo memamuleTa da glexTa
urTierTobis asaxvas. amiT gansxvavdeba igi Tavis TanamedroveTagan — niko lo-
moursa da ekaterine gabaSvilisagan. Tu n. lomouri ZiriTad yuradRebas glexTa
uswavlelobaze amaxvilebda da qadagebda mavne Cveulebebisa da crumorwmuneo-
bis winaaRmdeg, s. mgalobliSvili memamuleTa da glexTa urTierTobas da maT
Soris ekonomiur winaaRmdegobas ganixilavs da asaxavs TxzulebebSi.
moTxrobaSi `warsulidan~ mwerals aRwerili aqvs glexTagan berebis sawyo-
bebisa da ambrebis dangreva, glexTa amboxeba qristes saflavis monastris war-
momadgenelTa winaaRmdeg. pirvel xanebSi es protesti stiqiuri iyo da ar gamo-
xatavda ZalTa gaerTianebisa da koleqtiuri brZolis etapebs. soflis mosaxle-
oba konkretul mowinaaRmdeges xedavda, eseni ki berebisa da memamuleebis mou-
ravebi iyvnen. aseTia gigola guliaSvili (`warsulidan~), romelmac kargad ico-
da TanasoflelTa ekonomiuri SesaZleblobani, igi udierad eqceoda Tanasof-
lelebs, aviwroebda mezoblebs Tavisi gamorCenis mizniT. isaka bRunZelaSvili,
fidua eSmakuraSvili, sosika mouravi, gigola guliaSvili sxvadasxva Txzuleba-
Ta personaJebi arian, magram erTi xasiaTis gamovlinebaa, isini erTmaneTs hgva-
nan, rac gamowveulia imiT, rom mwerali namdvil movlenebs iRebda masalad, nam-
dvilad arsebul adamianTa yofa-qcevas aRwerda.
glexobaSi protestis Casaxva-ganviTarebas da maTSi cxovrebis arsis anali-
zis gaCenis interess mwerali gadmogvcems moTxrobaSi `Ramis mexre ceco~. 17-18
wlis biWebi, Ramis mexreebi, ufiqrdebian TavianT yofas, magram mizezs da, miT
umetes, mdgomareobidan Tavis daRwevis gzas ver pouloben. `i, raT ari, ro zogi
duRs da gadmodis da zogs ki SimSiliT kuWi uxmeba, ha, e? Seni ar iyos, ceco,
RmerTmani, ro dRe da Ramis gasworeba Tu aris, ra hqvian, vasworebT da, ra vici,
uniaTo kia Cveni yvelaferi da~ — msjelobs moTxrobis erTi gmiri pako. glexi
faqtiur mdgomareobas ki xedavs, icis, rom misi namuSevar-naRvawi sxvas miaqvs
daumsaxureblad da amaSi cudi Suamavlis rols asrulebs isev glexobidan gamo-
suli mouravi an mamasaxlisi, romelic sakuTar jibes ivsebs glexis, `naTel-mi-
ronis~ monagariT.
batonymobis gadavardnam glexobis mdgomareoba ar Secvala. batoni memamu-
led iqca da glexs mainc ar moscilda tvirTi. mweralma moTxrobaSi `jor-zaqa-
ra~, romelsac qvesaTaurad uweria — `batonymobis win da Semdeg~ — STambeWdavi
saxe daxata baton-memamulisa. batonymobis droso, — wers igi, — iyo erTi Cveu-
leba: iSviaTi yofila iseTi batoni, romelic misdevda saqonlis moSenebas, jo-
gebis yolas, Sinauri frinvelis gamravlebas. roca saWiro iyo yvela zemoCamoT-
vlili, batoni mouravsa da biWebs gausevda sofels da rasac xels waavlebdnen,
ganukiTxavad mihqondaT batonTan diambegisa, mazris ufrosisa Tu sxva romeli-
me stumris saWiroebisaTvis. yvelaferi glexisa — batonisa iyo. es Cveuleba
ZvalSi da rbilSi hqondaT gamjdari batonebs da uxvadac sargeblobdnen miT.
glexoba drtvinavda da SfoTavda, magram araviTari ufleba ar hqonda winaaR-

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mdegobis araTu gawevisa, gamomJRavnebisac ki. mxolod TiTo-orola Tu gamoC-
ndeboda glexobaSi, romelsac moTminebis fiala aevseboda da batonis winaaR-
mdeg xels aRmarTavda. ujiaTi, reformamdeli batonis xasiaTi aris mocemuli
moTxrobaSi `jor-zaqara~. mis xelSi glexi Tavis Svilebzec vera xarobda, misi
adamianuri, mSobliuri grZnobebi Selaxuli iyo: `mSurs roca vucqeriT, rom is-
ini xaroben Tavis SvilebiTa, xels aravin uSlis, aravisi murdali xeli maT na-
muss ar exeba... Cvena varT mxolod dawyevlilebi...~
batonymobis gadavardnis moaxloebam glexoba aamoZrava, kantikuntad dadi-
oda xmebi, rom batonymoba unda gadavardeso. glexoba jer idumalad msjelob-
da, radgan misTvis gaurkveveli iyo, Tu rogori urTierToba damyardeboda ba-
tonymobis gadavardnis Semdeg.
1864 wlis 8 noembers goris mazraSi sazeimod waikiTxes mefis brZaneba da ma-
nifesti, romlis kiTxvasac daeswro rogorc Tavadoba, ise glexoba. am ceremo-
niam saqmeSi Caxedul glexs azri ver Seucvala. zaqara (`jor-zaqara~) daeswro
manifestis kiTxvas gorSi, rogorc glexobis deputati da roca sofel tortla-
Si dabrunda, Tavmoyril Tanasoflelebs uambo batonymobis gadavardnis ambavi:
`teva aRar iyo gorSi, jer martoka imdeni qor-meZebrebi iyo batonebisa, rom is
eyofoda. exla batonebis cxenebis mxleblebi...~
tortlelebis cxovreba ar Seicvala. Tavadi estate maruSaZec Zveleburad
ujiaTi xasiaTisa darCa. igi kbilebs amtvrevda mosamsaxureebs da sofelic SiSis
qveSa hyavda. estate maruSaZem kvlav mxarSi amoiyena mouravi sosika da sxvani.
miwis mizomvis Semdeg glexebi darwmundnen, rom batonymobis gadavardniT ara-
feri miuRiaT ra. sofel tortlas mcxovrebni cud mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndnen:
`iseTi udieri gamodga aqauri batoni, rom venaxis mosavalzedac ki meoTxeds ar-
Tmevda: kitrze, venaxis lobioze, simindze da mwvanilze~. `batonymobis gadavar-
dnis Semdegac sosika mouravi (misi gvari puriWamiaSvilia) daTareSobs soflis
pirutyv saqonelze: daxocda indourebs, qaTmebs, daiWerda kai lamaz, gaTamame-
bul da galaRebuls, RiWiT gasuqebuls kvebula xbosa da moemzadeboda batonis
saxlSi Zveleburad stumrebis dasaxvedrada~.
sofelsa da Tavads Soris damokidebuleba axal fazaSi Sevida. sofeli aRar
uTmobda batonis mouravs TareSs, batoni ki Zveleburs ar iSlida. sosika mou-
ravs yvela win gadaudgeboda xolme da Tavis uflebas icavdnen. s. mgalobliSvi-
li glexTa masidan gamohyofs erTs da mas Caayenebs moZraobis saTaveSi, igi aris
gamomxatveli protestisa. is erTi irgvliv Semoikrebs Tavissave msgavsT, Roni-
er da yoCaR biWebs da nabatonaris winaaRmdeg daiwyeben moqmedebas. glexobaSi
TandaTan izrdeba survili brZolisa. asea daxatuli glexTa martivi organizeba
da darazmva moTxrobebSi `Ramis mexre ceco~ da `jor-zaqara~. axalgazrda ceco
goderZiSvili, yoCaRi Ramis mexre meTaurobs glexobas. mosazrebiTa da saqmia-
nobiT igi yvelasagan gamoirCeva. siRaribeSi da oblobaSi gazrdils ebraleba
yvela obol-Raribi, igi Tavisi pirdapirobiT, grZnobieri guliT yvelas sayva-
rel adamianad iqceva. mas yvela ujerebs, moxucebic ki pativsa scemen cecos. igi
qvrivma dedam vai-vaglaxiT gamozarda. geges axalgazrdobaSive daedga mZime
uReli upatrono ojaxis meTaurisa, puris cxobiT, SeZlebul glexebTan qiriT
muSaobiT, qerisa da lobios glejiT, simindis ToxniTa da bostnis margvliT
aRebuli fuliT gamozarda erTi biWi. siRaribem da gaWirvebam Tavisi daRi daas-
va cecos. avtoris naambobiT, igi iyo `kanti biWi, anu rogorc CvenSi ityvian,
sxarti biWi. imis gamxmar, mgram sufTa saxes siyviTlis feri dascemda... tuCebs
umSvenebda axlad akokrebuli ulvaSebi~. ceco kargad xedavda, rom dovlaTi
uwesrigod nawildeboda, misi da mezoblebis naSromi sxvas mihqonda. man Tavis
tol Ramis mexreebSi Tqva: `egre ar unda iyos, Cemo Zmao. samasi komli kacni varT
ZaRlisxevelebi. samas kacs Tu piri eqneba, rogor gadaudgeba win aTi da oci ka-

222
ci, aba erTi miTxariT! Cven Tu magaT kriWaSi CavudgebiT, avlagmavT, Tavs vaCve-
nebT, SiSi da ridi miecemaT~. ceco aRara hgavs sandalasa da solomanas (`deda
maia~). Tu isini, uRelSi gabmulni, imdenad iyvnen dabeCavebulni, rom sakuTar
mdgomareobas ver gansjidnen, ceco ukve analizs ukeTebs glexobis mdgomareo-
bas da daaskvnis, rom erTaderTi gamosavali aris glexobis gaerTianeba da gam-
Tlianebuli moZraoba. magram ceco jer Tavis sofelsa da adgilobriv memamu-
leTa dapirispirebas ver gascilebia, igi mxolod TavisTan axlo myof eqsplua-
tatorebs xedavs da maT asalagmavad razmavs sofels. cecom fici dado, rom
soflis saqmisaTvis Tavs gamoidebda da sxvebsac mouxmo: `deda SeerTos colad,
vinc erTmaneTs uRalatos, dedai!~. axalgazrdebmac cecos dauWires mxari.
glex cecos exmareba im soflis Raribi aznauri mixa gvaraZe. igic glexTa
mfarveli da damcvelia meruesTan, vaWarTan, mamasaxlisTan, mouravTan urTier-
Tobisas. ceco da mixa TiTqos erTmaneTs avseben. ceco WkuiT moqmedebda, azria-
nad, mixa ufro efeqtis adamiani iyo, orive ki namusiani da glexebis qomagi. `mo-
zardi glexoba, — gadmogvcems avtori, — am or biWs Ziel ugonebda. yvelas eseni
atrialebdnen da hpatronobdnen~.
rogorc n. lomouris SemoqmedebaSi, ise aqac mwerali Rarib aznaurobas glexTa
damcvelad gamoiyvans. sxva TxzulebebSi isini mSromelebad hyavs daxatuli, rom-
lebic glexTa Tanabrad muSaoben, amasTan, maTi mamulebic eSmakuraSvilebisa da
bRunZelaSvilebis xelSia gadasuli.
ZaRlisxevas memamulem glexebs kuluxi ormagad mosTxova, amis Sesruleba
bRunZelaSvilsa da eSmakuraSvils miando. sofelma am survils `gaTqmiT~ (piris
Sekvra) upasuxa. cecos SegonebiT sofelma eklesiis ezoSi moiyara Tavi da ficis
miRebis Semdeg daadgina ZalisdamtanebelTa dasja. ceco da misi amxanagebi te-
roris gzas daadgnen.
cecom, mixam da pakom soflis survili aasrules. kuluxis akrefisas bRunZe-
laSvilsa da eSmakuraSvils ketebiT scemes da amiT soflis qomagebad gamovidnen.
soflelebi aiyolies, umeTaures maT da amiT mizans miaRwies.
ufro vrclad glexTa cxovrebis epopea mwerals aRwerili aqvs moTxrobaSi
`jor-zaqara~. es nawarmoebi did droul manZils iTvaliswinebs, ambavTa aRwera
masSi iwyeba batonymobis gadavardnis wina droidan da midis 1905 wlis revolu-
ciis Semdeg periodamde. moTxrobaSi aRwerilia ekonomikuri da socialuri xa-
siaTis didi cvlilebebi, romelnic XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi xdeboda Cvens
qveyanaSi. yvela es cvlileba gaSuqebulia glexobis cxovrebis fonze. batonymo-
bis gadavardnis ambavma glexs imedi Causaxa da aRafrTovana, axali yofis survi-
li gauRviva, magram glexs imedi ar gaumarTlda. mwerali akritikebs saglexo
reformas, aRniSnavs, rom man glexobas Sveba ar moutana, rom mxolod garegnuli
cvlileba moxda, Sinaarsi ki Zveli darCa.
Tavadma estate maruSaZem ver daTmo batonoba da kvlav moindoma sofelSi
parpaSi. glexobam, zaqaria jiRauris meTaurobiT, winaaRmdegoba gauwia mas, arc
sasoflo wyali daanebes, aRarc ojaxi Searcxvenines, mamapapidan damkvidrebuli
saeklesio miwac waarTves da TavisTvis moxnes. Tavad estates saqmeTa aRmasru-
lebeli iyo sosika mouravi, gaTavxedebuli glexi, darbevebisa da moZaladeobis
monawile. estatem xelisuflebis mxardaWeriT zaqaria jiRauris ojaxi daan-
gria, ramac glexi ufro gaaborota da gaamwara. amis Sedegad zaqariam iaraRs
mohkida xeli. moTminebis fiala aivso da mxolod sisxlis daRvra gadawyvets da-
vas. marTlac, Seuracxyofilma da darbeulma zaqaria jiRaurma wamoiZaxa: `To-
fi! Cemi Tofi! ooh! kacis sisxlSi unda gavisvaro xeli! unda sisxliT movrwyo es
nafuZari~. zaqaria ver daamSvida verc dedis alersma, verc mezoblebis Txovnam.
sofelmac dainaxa, rom yovelgvari sazRvari moTminebisa gadalaxulia da metis
atana aRar SeiZleba, daaskvna: `wyali aimRvra... es ambavi muqTad ar Caivlis...~

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zaqarias miwa waarTves. aman ki mas brZolis unari gaucocxla. didxans atara
man sisxlis daRvris survili, emzada, dros ucada, TandaTan Semoikriba Tanamo-
azreni Tavis irgvliv da maT gaumJRavna: `fiala moTminebisa aivso. unda gzidan
CamoviciloT batoni estate da mouravi sosika. Tqven nu geSiniaT, me vkisrulob,
mxolod Tqven nu momaklebT Tqvens megobrobas, Tqvens siyvarulsa~. zaqariam da
misma Tanamoazreebma Sehfices: `deda SeerTos colada, vinc erTmaneTs uRala-
tos~.
zaqaria jiRaurma sosika mouravi mokla da Tofs Wde daado, — es erTi da
sxva mravalio. es brZolis faqtiuri dawyeba iyo.
sofelSi erTobis kacebma daiwyes siaruli. zaqaria yuradRebiT ismenda maT
saubars da TviTac moqadaged iqca, glexebs esaubreboda gadamwyveti brZolis Ta-
obaze, sulier simtkiceze brZolaSi, Tu yvela gawydeba, erTi xom darCeba mZevla-
do. `ai, es mZevali iseTs ylortebs amoixeTqs, mZlavr ylortebs sisxliT gapoxie-
rebuli niadagidan, rom imis mospoba arafriT aRar SeiZleba~.
Tavadma maruSaZem razmi Seqmna, magram arc soflelebi CamorCnen. erTis Tav-
dadebam mravals auRelva guli. Tavadis razmi sofels musrs avlebda, zaqarias
razmi estate maruSaZes samagieros uxdida. zaqarias Tofs ukve ramdenime gle-
xis Tofi aZlevda xmas.
axlovdeboda 1905 weli da soflis mosaxleoba moZraobda. glex mamakacs
glexi qalis xma da Zala amoudga gverdSi. erTobis mociqulma qalma qalTa sa-
kiTxi wamoayena krebaze da soflis qalebs mouwoda qmrebTan, ZmebTan da mameb-
Tan erTad winaaRmdegobisa da brZolisaken: `yvela qalma, yvela ojaxis dedam
unda mamakacebs mivbaZoT. droebiT unda gadavdoT TiTistari da nemsi, akvanic
mivdgaT gverdze, movikrifoT sulis Zala. Tu iaraRiT vera, basri frCxilebiT
SevebrZoloT usamarTlobas, borotebas. sisxli sisxliT unda moibanos, sisxls
sisxli mosdevs, msxverpls msxverpli. gadavaqcioT saxl-kari, baR-venaxi da
TviT Cveni gulisficari cixe-simagred, sal-klded!~.
revoluciuri moZraoba gaRvivda, sofeli aRfrTovanebulia mopovebuli
gamarjvebiT. mwerlis azriT, es revolucia TiTqos sofliT ifargleba, rome-
lic mowyvetilia qalaqis amRelvarebul revoluciur brZolas. arc erTobis
mqadagebelni acnoben soflelebs proletariatis Tavganwiruli brZolis peri-
petiebs.
sofelSi axali cxovreba daiwyo: aRarc qurdoba, aRarc avazakoba, aRarc er-
TurTis gaukiTxaoba. Tavisuflebis sxivi moefina sofels da igic gardaiqmna.
estate maruSaZe moiTrguna, soroSi daimala, brWyalebic damala. igi Tavis
dros eloda.
es droc daudga estate maruSaZes. sofelSi damsjeli razmebi gamogzavna xe-
lisuflebam. estate maruSaZe, simbolo bneli Zalebisa, kvlav aRorZinda. amas
msxverpli da sisxlis Rvra mohyva.
estate maruSaZem msxverpli Seiwira glexTagan, magram amiT mZlavrad fes-
vgadgmuli siyvaruli Tavisuflebisa maTSi ver aRmofxvra. TavadTan da usamar-
TlobasTan brZoliT gaWaRaravebuli zaqaria jiRauri tribunad iqca, irgvliv
kvlav xalxi Semoikriba da erTobis sasargeblo qadageba iwyo. Zaqaria isev meTa-
uria soflisa, gmiria. misi sityvebi brZolis ganaxlebis Taobaze aRafrTovanebs
glexebs: `sikvdili, sikvdili!... cecxli, cecxli! — gaisma erTxmad krebaze da
are-marem xma gamosca, yovelivem irgvliv gaimeora: sikvdili, cecxli!... gadawy-
da!.... sikvdils da cecxls Txoulobda xalxi!... sikvdils da cecxls Txoulobda
mTeli are-mare. bans aZlevda xalxis guls, taSs ukravda da amxnevebda~... `tkbi-
lia sisxliT naSovni Tavisufleba!~ — daaskvnis Tavisi gmirebis aRfrTovanebiT
aRtacebuli mwerali.

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mamakac revolucionerebTan erTad qalebic aqtiuri mebrZolni arian. mari-
nem, zaqarias meuRlem, Sekrebil glexebs cecxli SeukeTa, brZolis Jini gauZli-
era: `ras CagiqindriaT Tavebi Wiriani indaurebiviTa! gansacdeli karze mogdgo-
miaT, Tqven col-Svils namusis axdas upireben. es-Ra SegvanarCuna RmerTma da
amasac xelidan gamoglejas emuqrebian~. zaqaria glexobas gauZRva da estate ma-
ruSaZisagan cemiT moklulis — sose inauris saflavze fici daadebina xalxs,
rom samagieros miuzRavdnen mtarvals.
xalxis suli aforiaqda da stiqiad iqca, sadac qalTa meTauri marinea. sab-
rZolod gamzadebuli, igi mowodebiT mimarTavs qalebs: `Cvenca gvaqvs iaraRi —
dedis guli. vixmaroT frCxilebi, kbilebi, qva da gunda, bari, Toxi, xeli, fexi, —
warmoTqva mtkiced marinem, kalTa Caikra sartyelSi da qoriviT Semoavlo Tva-
li xalxsa~. marines sityvam yvelas aRuZra SurisZiebis survili. brZola daiwyo
da zaqariam dakarga coli da Svili, magram maTi da sxvaTa bevris javri male amo-
iyara. aRdgomas, litaniaze estate maruSaZe da misi ojaxi wminda dResaswauls
dResaswaulobda da swored maSin gangmira zaqariam estate da misi vaJi arCili.
roca mRvdeli ambobda `qriste aRsdgao!~, zaqariam, Tavis siaTaze dayrdnobil-
ma, gabatonebulTa msaxur mRvdels pirSi uTxra: `styui, mamao, jer xalxisaTvis
qriste ar amdgara, magram mwams, igi odesme aRsdgeba da mogvaniWebs Cvenc sasu-
fevelsa~.
moTxrobis apoTeozSi mweralma momavlis suraTi daxata. aRdgomis batkanma
mzis sxivebSi Caiyuryumelava da cisartyelad gadaiqca — gamodarebisa da sim-
Svidis simbolod. mravalWirgadaxdili zaqariac momavlisaken iyureba da imiT
gulgakeTebuli varams ar eqelvineba. mwerlis azriT, isev zaqaria unda yofili-
yo momavali aRdgomisaTvis mebrZoli. 1907 wels daweril TxzulebaSi xalxosan-
ma mweralma revoluciuri Zala isev zaqarias dautova da moxuci mWeqare, jer
kidev SemZlebeli xmiT aalaparaka.
aRsaniSnavia, rom 1905 wlis revoluciuri ideebis mimarT damokidebulebisa
da brZolis specifikis TvalsazrisiT SeiniSneba zogierTi msgavseba s. mgalob-
liSvilis zaqariasa da l. qiaCelis moTxrobis personaJis, tariel goluas xasia-
Tebs Soris. am nawarmoebebSi gamoxatuli calkeuli situaciebic emsgavsebian
erTmaneTs.
aseTi suraTi daxata mweralma glexTa winaaRmdegobisa da maTi monawileobi-
sa 1905 wlis revoluciaSi, romlis Tema mas damuSavebuli aqvs agreTve eskizebSi
`ukvdavebis wyaro var~ da `pirveli sisxli~.
s. mgalobliSvilma or mozrdil moTxrobaSi (`Ramis mexre ceco~ da `jor-za-
qara~) aRwera glexobis gamofxizleba da revoluciuri brZolis gzaze dadgoma.
TxzulebebSi aRwerili ambebi drois sakmaod did monakveTs moicavs. aseT did
manZilze mwerals sxvadasxva adamiani gamohyavs samoRvaweo asparezze. maT da-
kisrebuli aqvT ara marto sakuTari pirovnebisa da adamianur uflebaTa dacva,
aramed soflis meTaurobac. isini mowinave glexebi arian, romelnic yvelaze ad-
re da ukeTesad erkvevian cxovrebis mouwesrigeblobaSi, ayalibeben brZolisa
da moqmedebis gzebsa da saSualebebs. soflis mosaxleobac maT mihyveba, ceco,
zaqaria midian win, rogorc meTaurni da maT mxars uWers glexoba. am fenidan ga-
mosul meTaurebTan erTad iRwvian sofleli Raribi aznaurebi, romlebic eko-
nomiuri mdgomareobiT glexebisagan ar gamoirCevian.
s. mgalobliSvilis Rrma rwmeniT, xalxSi erTobis sulis Semtani da winaaR-
mdegobis daZlevisaTvis brZolis organizatori isev glexobidan gamosuli ada-
miani unda iyos, radgan man kargad icis Tavisianebis raoba da vinaoba, icis, Tu
ra uWirs glexs, saiT unda warimarTos glexobis SekavSirebuli Zala.
s. mgalobliSvili ar ayalibebs xalxosani moRvawis xasiaTsa da moRvaweobis
programas. aseTi adamianis gza mwerals ambavTa da personaJebis aRweraSi aqvs

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mocemuli. aseTi moRvaweni, inteligentebi, glexobis wridan gamosuli axalgaz-
rdebi, avtoris rwmeniT, xalxisaTvis Tavdadebulni arian, misi gonebisa da iu-
ridiuli uflebebis aRdgenisaTvis mebrZolni.
eskizSi `saflavSi CamomZaxe~ mweralma xalxis erTguli da misi gaTavisufle-
bisaTvis mebrZoli ganaTlebuli adamiani gamosaxa. maTe laSxi xalxosani revolu-
cioneria, Tavisi arseboba mas saxalxo ganaTlebis saqmisaTvis Seuwiravs. bevrma
da Tavdadebulma muSaobam laSxi motexa, daasneula, loginad Caagdo. roca saqmis
gakeTeba aRar SeeZlo, Caufiqrda Tavis mdgomareobas, ganvlil gzas, analizi gau-
keTa Tavis mier gakeTebuls da scada gamoerkvia Tavisi adgili xalxTan urTier-
TobaSi, isic gaaxsenda, rom adre miRebuli hqonda gadawyvetileba, aeRo da et-
virTa mZime jvari xalxis samsaxurisa da Sedgomoda golgoTas. qristem, maTes
sityvebiT, yvelas erTi ram uanderZa — visac ki guli Sestkiva sakacobrio saqmi-
saTvis, unda iRvawos da iSromos. avtorisa da misi gmiris azriT es Sroma soflis
maswavleblis movaleobaa da, maSinac ki, roca revoluciuri brZola da proleta-
riatis moZraoba ruseTis uzarmazar teritorias azanzarebda, xalxisaTvis
zrunva mxolod soflis maswavleblis SromaSi gamoxata mweralma. maTe laSxi, sa-
sikvdilo sarecelze mwoli, darwmunda, rom misi didi gegma Sesrulebuli ki ara,
dawyebulic ar yofila, xalxTan guliTadi kavSiris damyarebac ki ver mouxerxe-
bia. igi did cxovrebas SeeWida da martomebrZolma ver daarRvia misi simagre da
simtkice. mxolod ukanasknel wuTebSi mixvda igi, rom xalxTan urTierToba ver
daamyara: `me mis TvalSi mRvdlis Svili var. Tavi dauRweviaT Cems winaprebs im Wap-
nidan, im uRlidan, romelsac xalxi eweva. xeli aRar SeuSvelebiaT misi mZime tvir-
TisaTvis, ar SeumsubuqebiaT igi~. swored amitomac maTe laSxsa da xalxs Soris,
miuxedavad pirvelis Sromisa, urTierToba ver ganmtkicda. sinanuli mdgomareo-
bas ver cvlis. maTe laSxi acxadebs, rom xalxi mxolod Tavis Svils gahyveba yovel
saqmianobaSi. xalxis Svilad ki mas glexTa wiaRidan gamosuli adamiani miaCnia, nam-
dvili glexis ojaxis Svili.
ara mxolod mRvdlis Svilia aseT mdgomareobaSi, Tavadis asuli Teklec,
romelic maTes msgavsad xalxisaTvis iyo Tavganwiruli. namdvili da SesaniSnavi
memkvidre maTes saqmianobisa unda iyos glexi petre, mxolod is SeZlebs dauax-
lovdes masas.
maTe laSxis pirovnebaSi avtobiografiuli xazebi moCans. mwerali xalxos-
nad darCa bolomde, TviT 1905 wlis revoluciis epoqaSic, Tumca ki dainaxa, rom
xalxosanTa rwmena uZluri aRmoCnda glexobis gaTavisuflebis didi misiis Ses-
rulebisaTvis.
maTesa da Tekles erTmaneTi uyvardaT da maTes ver gaebedna, gamoecxadebina
TeklesaTvis Tvisi grZnoba. maT Soris wodebrivi sxvaobis kedeli idga da maTes
amisi eSinoda. mxolod sikvdilis sidiadem misca maTes SesaZlebloba gaemJRav-
nebina TeklesaTvis siyvaruli.
maTe laSxi Sewuxebulia miT, rom xalxis axal, bednier cxovrebas ver moes-
wreba, Tekles avalebs — saflavSi CamomZaxe Cemi xalxis bednierebisa da gamar-
jvebis dReo.
1905 wlisaTvis samzadisi, TviT revolucia da misi damarcxeba s. mgalobliS-
vils aRwerili aqvs patara moTxrobaSi `da Sehfices~. misi gmiri iliko mSveliZe
maTe laSxTan SedarebiT didi upiratesobis mqonea. iliko glexis Svilia, igi
mSobliur wres ar moscilebia, xalxic endoba mas, uyvarT da afaseben. iliko ma-
sebis organizatoria, erTobis moqadage. igi sargeblobs glexobis gaWirvebuli
mdgomareobiT, rom maT miwa ara aqvs da gadaisvris lozungs — `miwa da Tavisuf-
leba~. xalxi, ilikos sityvebiT aRfrTovanebuli, sixaruliT SesZaxebs: `gaumar-
jos erTobas!~. moTxrobaSi mocemulia suraTebi erToblivi frontis Seqmnisa,
ZalTa konsolidaciisa. magram es revoluciuri Zala mainc calmxrivia, radgan

226
iliko, SesaniSnavi agitatori-propagandisti, namdvili `erTobis kaci~, mxolod
glexuri SeerTebuli ZaliT fiqrobs revoluciis moxdenas. ilikosaTvis sru-
liad garkveulia brZolis gza, man kargad icis da Rrmad swams, rom Tavisufleba
usisxlod ar moipoveba. `marTalia, ar dagimalavT, — mimarTavs igi glexebs, — es
erToba bevr Cvengans Seiwiravs... bevri umanko sisxli daiRvreba, magram gamar-
jveba Cvenia~.
ilikos qadagebaSi, mis mier xalxis darazmvaSi, mis sikvdilsa da saxl-karis
gadawvaSi mwerali iZleva 1905 wlis revoluciis mTavar etapebs. iliko mokles,
misi Tavi straJnikebma margils Camoacves. ilikos saflavze didi xis jvari aR-
marTa viRacam. Svilis saflavze aqamde mdumare luka Sedga da xalxs brZolis
gangrZobisaken, miwisa da Tavisuflebis mopovebisaken mouwoda. moxuci adamiani
mtkiced Sedga Svilis mier arCeul gzaze da Svilis naTeli xsovniT mosilma
xalxs aRmgznebi sityvebiT mimarTa. totebdamtvreul muxasa hgavda luka, mag-
ram im muxas fesvebi da Ziri hqonda magari (aqac Cndeba paralelebi l. qiaCelis
tariel goluasTan). axalgazrda glexma xalxs mouwoda fici daedoT ilikos
saflavTan, rom momavalSi ar Sedrkebodnen da brZolas ganagrZobdnen, ar uRa-
latebdnen im azrebs, erTobis saqmes, rasac iliko msxverplad Seewira... da Seh-
fices!
Tumca brZolis meTauri mokles, magram amiT brZola ar Senelebula, piri-
qiT, igi grZeldeba da Zlierdeba. yvelaferi es mainc calmxrivia, radgan, ro-
gorc am moTxrobas qvesaTaurSi uweria, igi glexTa cxovrebis aRweraa mxolod.
amisTana momentebSi mJRavndeba s. mgalobliSvilis tendenciebi.
`iveriaSi~ dabeWdil werilebSi `provincialuri meTvalyuris Civili da Se-
niSvnebi~ 1878 wels s. mgalobliSvili werda: `me mwvavs, mawuxebs, Cemo megobaro,
e Cveni glexobis bedSavi mdgomareoba. sawyalni da sabraloni! ra SeZleba aqvT,
RmerTo Cemo, amdeni tkipebis gadamkides! kiseri mokirwyluli aqvT wiTeli, yvi-
Teli, Savi — ra feric gnebavT, sul aris. erTs moiglejs, meore mouWers...~ mwe-
rali sxvadasxva juris mZarcvelebs gulisxmobda, vinc ar unda yofiliyo igi,
soflis moxele, didCinosani vinme Tu ugergilo da loTi maswavlebeli. Tavis
SesaniSnav mogonebaSi `warsulidan~ mweralma akaki wereTlis msgavsad gamoiyva-
na usulgulo adamianebi, ugunuri, loTi, ukulturo Cinovniki-maswavleblebi.
maT adamianTa aRzrda abariaT da maswavleblis saxelsac ki atareben, magram ra-
ni arian da vin arian isini? moswavleebs maTTvis maTi xasiaTisa da qcevis Sesafe-
risi zedmeti saxelebi daurqmeviaT. es maswavleblebi arian: qiSmiSa, yeyeCa ivane,
purWyia prokle, burnuTis kolofi, bora da sxvani. saswavlo-pedagogiuri pro-
cesis safuZvlad maT miRebuli aqvT Tmis agleja, yuris aweva, maTraxi da rozgi.
isini zrdian bavSvebs, romlebic maT xelSi eCvevian qurdobas, dabezRebas, usin-
disoba-upatiosnobas. meqrTameoba, e.w. pativiscema da sxva amgvari mowafeTa
Tvalwin xdeba, maswavleblebi mowafeTa daswrebiT erTmaneTs `amkoben~ quCuri
epiTetebiT. amgvar maswavlebelTa xelSi mowafeebs dakarguli hqondaT adamianu-
ri saxe, eseni momavali usulgulo Cinovnikebi unda gamosuliyvnen, xalxs rom da-
awvebodnen mZime tvirTad.
mTavrobis moxele, ucxoa Tu Sinauri, glexis mtrad aris movlinebuli. xal-
xs didi survili aqvs misi Tavidan mocilebisa, rac s. mgalobliSvils xSirad uC-
venebia moTxrobebSi.
biurokratiuli sistemis kritika s. maglobliSvils mZlavri satiruli to-
niT aqvs daxatuli moTxrobaSi `wiTeli sarCuli~. moTxrobis mTavari personaJi
iuda ReWiaSvili, igive ReWovi, warmoSobiT, moRvaweobiT, moqmedebiTa da suli-
an-xorcianad Cinovnikia. orpiri, pirferi, mliqvneli, boroti, sxvisi tyavis gam-
Zrobi, sakuTari WuWyiani pirovnebis pativismcemeli da sazogadoebis xorcme-
ti, yoveli araadamianuri TvisebiT Semkuli, wiTelsarCuliani mundiris mqone

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samoqalaqo samsaxuris generalia. ReWovis mama SezRuduli gonebis patroni yo-
fila, kalendris monad qceuli. Svilis dabadebis dRes kalendarSi amosula iu-
da da, miuxedavad colis survilisa, bavSvisaTvis daerqmiaT aslani, momaval Ci-
novniks iuda uwodes. manac gaamarTla Tavisi saxeli praqtikuli cxovrebiTa da
moRvaweobiT. roca moizarda, iudas eCoTira Tavisi saxeli da mejRanuaSvilis
msgavsad bevri atriala, scada Secvla, magram mizans ver miaRwia da iuda darCa.
man umaRlesi saswavlebeli daamTavra, diplomi arSinnaxevrian aryis totze da-
axvia, rom beWedgautexelad Camoetana samSobloSi. es diplomi misi Cinovnikobis
dasayrdeni da fari iyo. iudas devizi hqonda SemuSavebuli: `ise unda vicxovro,
rom erTis xeliT, ginda piriT sami kurdReli daviWiro~. iudas arseboba sazoga-
doebrivi interesebisagan mTlad daclilia. marTalia, zogjer sazogado krebas
eswreboda, magram mxolod imisaTvis, rom gamoCeniliyo, mis Sesaxeb alaparake-
buliyvnen. s. mgalobliSvilma Camoayaliba Cinovnikis gza, romelzec ReWovma ga-
iara: `namussa da sindiss sqel fardas Camovafareb, rom TvaliTac veravin daina-
xos... erTi mxriv Cems xalxs vasiamovneb, masTan saxels gavikeTeb... meore mxriv
Cem mTavrobas fexqveS gaverTxobi, mis win davdneb-davxoraviWdebi... Tavs ange-
lozad movaCveneb. Tu ase ar moviqeci, win ar wamweven da derefanSi gdebiT da
xoxviT suls amomarTmeven. mesame mxriv, arafers da aravis ar davzogav, yvelas
cecxl-navTSi gavatareb, vinc ki Cemi survilis Sesrulebas win gadaeRobeba... ra
saldaTia is saldaTi, romelic generlobas ar moelis. ai, am Cem paltos meTqi
wiTel sarCuls gamovakrav~. radgan aseTi survili hqonda ReWiaSvils, ReWovad
gardaqmnils, amitom meTodurad daiwyo misi Sesruleba. miznis miRwevisaTvis
mas araferi dauSurebia, vidre patara da usaxo iyo, sxvis xarisxsa da mdgomare-
obas efareboda da sakuTars iqmnida. wiTeli sarCulis xarisxamde asvlisaTvis
xalxs TvalSi nacars ayrida, ufrosebis win iRuneboda, maT xel-fexs ukocnida,
cruobda, angelozad eCveneboda da qvemZromiviT xoxavda. umaRles swavlamiRe-
buli ReWovi TvalTmaqcad, qarTuli kulturis amRorZineblad asaRebda Tavs,
namdvilad ki erovnuli mTlianobis dasayrdenis enis winaaRmdeg moqmedebda da
biurokratiuli xelisuflebis Cinosan warmomadgenlebs aamebda.
iuda ReWovis Cinovnikuri karieris zrda sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisa da re-
voluciuri moZraobis aRmavlobis paralelurad miemarTeboda. iudasa da mis
mfarvels —vorotilovs xalxis amoZraveba SiSis zarsa scemda. marTalia, maT
imedi hqondaT yovlad SemZlebeli imperatorisa, magram xalxi ZalaSeuzRudve-
li aRmoCnda. rac ufro Zlierdeboda moZraoba, miT ufro mJRavndeboda ReWo-
vis antisazogadoebrivi ganwyobileba da xasiaTi. Txzulebis ukanasknel TavebSi
aRwerilia is, Tu rogor miezRo samagiero ReWovsa da mis msgavsT misgan SeZu-
lebuli xalxisagan. qariSxalma dabera da iudas niRabi Camoglija, gamoCnda misi
RvarZliani, sxvisi fexis mtvris lokviTa da laqiobiT aRvsili guli. yvela am-
xedrda mis winaaRmdeg. mTeli aremare ReWovs moRalates misZaxoda. ReWovi uar-
yo xalxma, cxovrebam, Wkuidan Semcdari soflidan sofelSi darboda. ase daan-
gria samSoblos gamyidvelis cxovreba xalxis moZraobam.
s. mgalobliSvilma Tavisi Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi Tema gamoiyena sabavSvo
TxzulebebisaTvisac. bavSvTa da mozardTaTvis dawerili misi Txzulebebi qar-
Tul JurnalebSi qveyndeboda. am moTxrobebSi mwerali glexsa da mis garemos ga-
moxatavda da norCi mkiTxvelis yuradRebas soflis cxovrebis sxvadasxva mxare-
ze amaxvilebda. `yayitas qurdi~, `Tinas giSera~, `melia~, `siymawvilis mogoneba-
ni~ aRsavseni arian mozardi Taobis gonebriv-zneobrivi aRzrdis surviliT. sa-
bavSvo moTxrobebSi mwerali asakis Sesaferis TxrobiTa da ambis ganviTarebiT
mkiTxvels acnobs glexis yoveldRiur cxovrebas, mis bunebasTan urTierTobas,
Sromis process.... mwerali mozards STaagonebs samSoblos Ralatis, flidobis,
TvalTmaqcobis siZulvils; unergavs bunebis siyvaruls, misi dacvis interess. s.

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mgalobliSvili cocxali, amoZravebuli bunebis mxatvaria. buneba ganyenebuli
ki ar aris, aramed adamianTanaa mtkiced dakavSirebuli. swored amitomaa igi mim-
zidveli da mSvenieri.
s. mgalobliSvili glexTa yofa-cxovrebas zedmiwevniT zustad aRwerda.
mxatvrul TxzulebebSi gamoxatuli mdgomareobani da adamianTa urTierTobani,
gmirebi da xalxi namdvili cxovrebidan arian aRebulni. moTxrobaTa moqmedi pi-
rebi mwerlis nacnobebi da maxloblebi arian. mogonebaSi `warsulidan~ Saqro
gegelaSvilis saxeliT TviT mwerali gamodis, xolo mgel-babia, efrosine da
sxvani misi bavSvobis droindeli adamianebi arian. mwerals maTTvis saxelebi Se-
ucvlia mxolod, rogorc sasuliero saswavleblis maswavleblebisa da m