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Waves

‘I have no picture of this electromagnetic ﬁeld that is in any sense accurate. . .

I see some kind of vague, shadowy, wiggling lines. . .

So if you have some difﬁculty in making such a picture, you should not be worried that your

difﬁculty is unusual’.

Richard P. Feynman, Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Some of the key properties of electromagnetic waves travelling in free space and in other

uniform media are introduced in this chapter. They establish the basic parameters and

relationships which are used as standard background when considering problems in antennas

and propagation in later chapters. This chapter does not aim to provide rigorous or complete

derivations of these relationships; for a fuller treatment see books such as, [Kraus, 98] or

[Hayt, 01]. It does, however, aim to show that any uniform medium can be speciﬁed by a small

set of descriptive parameters and that the behaviour of waves in such media may easily be

calculated.

The existence of propagating electromagnetic waves can be predicted as a direct consequence

of Maxwell’s equations [Maxwell, 1865]. These equations specify the relationships between

the variations of the vector electric ﬁeld E and the vector magnetic ﬁeld H in time and space

within a medium. The E ﬁeld strength is measured in volts per metre and is generated by

either a time-varying magnetic ﬁeld or a free charge. The H ﬁeld is measured in amperes per

metre and is generated by either a time-varying electric ﬁeld or a current. Maxwell’s four

equations can be summarised in words as

A magnetic field is produced by a time-varying electric field or by a current

ð2:1Þ

Electric field lines may either start and end on charges; or are continuous

Magnetic field lines are continuous

The ﬁrst two equations, Maxwell’s curl equations, contain constants of proportionality which

dictate the strengths of the ﬁelds. These are the permeability of the medium in henrys per

Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems Second Edition Simon R. Saunders and

Alejandro Aragón-Zavala

ß 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

26 Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems

metre and the permittivity of the medium " in farads per metre. They are normally expressed

relative to the values in free space:

¼ 0 r ð2:2Þ

" ¼ "0 "r ð2:3Þ

109

"0 ¼ 8:854 1012 F m1 ð2:5Þ

36

and r ; "r are the relative values (i.e. r ¼ "r ¼ 1 in free space). Free space strictly indicates a

vacuum, but the same values can be used as good approximations in dry air at typical

temperatures and pressures.

Many solutions to Maxwell’s equations exist and all of these solutions represent ﬁelds which

could actually be produced in practice. However, they can all be represented as a sum of plane

waves, which represent the simplest possible time varying solution.

Figure 2.1 shows a plane wave, propagating parallel to the z-axis at time t ¼ 0.

x

l Motion

E0 Ex (Propagation/Poynting vector)

H0 z

Hy

y

Wave front

Figure 2.1: A plane wave propagating through space at a single moment in time

The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are perpendicular to each other and to the direction of

propagation of the wave; the direction of propagation is along the z axis; the vector in this

direction is the propagation vector or Poynting vector. The two ﬁelds are in phase at any point in

time or in space. Their magnitude is constant in the xy plane, and a surface of constant phase

(a wavefront) forms a plane parallel to the xy plane, hence the term plane wave. The oscillating

electric ﬁeld produces a magnetic ﬁeld, which itself oscillates to recreate an electric ﬁeld and so

on, in accordance with Maxwell’s curl equations. This interplay between the two ﬁelds stores

energy and hence carries power along the Poynting vector. Variation, or modulation, of the

properties of the wave (amplitude, frequency or phase) then allows information to be carried

in the wave between its source and destination, which is the central aim of a wireless commu-

nication system.

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves 27

The electric ﬁeld can be written as

where E0 is the ﬁeld amplitude [V m1], ! ¼ 2f is the angular frequency in radians for a

frequency f [Hz], t is the elapsed time [s], k is the wavenumber [m1], z is distance along the

z-axis (m) and ^

x is a unit vector in the positive x direction. The wavenumber represents the rate

of change of the phase of the ﬁeld with distance; that is, the phase of the wave changes by kr

radians over a distance of r metres. The distance over which the phase of the wave changes by

2 radians is the wavelength l. Thus

2

k¼ ð2:7Þ

l

where H0 is the magnetic ﬁeld amplitude and ^ y is a unit vector in the positive y direction.

In both Eqs. (2.6) and (2.8), it has been assumed that the medium in which the wave travels

is lossless, so the wave amplitude stays constant with distance. Notice that the wave varies

sinusoidally in both time and distance.

It is often convenient to represent the phase and amplitude of the wave using complex

quantities, so Eqs. (2.6) and (2.8) become

and

H ¼ H0 exp½jð!t kzÞ^y ð2:10Þ

The real quantities may then be retrieved by taking the real parts of Eqs. (2.9) and (2.10).

Complex notation will be applied throughout this book.

Equations (2.6) and (2.8) satisfy Maxwell’s equations, provided the ratio of the ﬁeld

amplitudes is a constant for a given medium,

rﬃﬃﬃ

jEj Ex E0

¼ ¼ ¼ ¼Z ð2:11Þ

jHj Hy H0 "

where Z is called the wave impedance and has units of ohms. In free space, r ¼ "r ¼ 1 and

the wave impedance becomes

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

0 36

Z ¼ Z0 ¼ 4 107 9 ¼ 120 377 ð2:12Þ

"0 10

28 Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems

Thus, in free space or any uniform medium, it is sufﬁcient to specify a single ﬁeld quantity

together with Z in order to specify the total ﬁeld for a plane wave.

The Poynting vector S, measured in watts per square metre, describes the magnitude and

direction of the power ﬂow carried by the wave per square metre of area parallel to the xy

plane, i.e. the power density of the wave. Its instantaneous value is given by

S ¼ E H ð2:13Þ

Usually, only the time average of the power ﬂow over one period is of concern,

1

Sav ¼ E0 H0^z ð2:14Þ

2

The direction vector in Eq. (2.14) emphasises that E, H and Sav form a right-hand set, i.e. Sav

is in the direction of movement of a right-handed corkscrew, turned from the E direction to the

H direction.

The velocity of a point of constant phase on the wave, the phase velocity v at which wave

fronts advance in the S direction, is given by

! 1

v¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð2:15Þ

k "

v

l¼ ð2:16Þ

f

This book is concerned entirely with frequencies from around 30 MHz to 300 GHz, i.e. free

space wavelengths from 10 m to 1 mm.

In free space the phase velocity becomes

1

v ¼ c ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 3 108 m s1 ð2:17Þ

0 "0

Note that light is an example of an electromagnetic wave, so c is the speed of light in free

space.

So far only lossless media have been considered. When the medium has signiﬁcant con-

ductivity, the amplitude of the wave diminishes with distance travelled through the medium

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves 29

as energy is removed from the wave and converted to heat, so Eqs. (2.9) and (2.10) are then

replaced by

and

The constant a is known as the attenuation constant, with units of per metre [m1],

which depends on the permeability and permittivity of the medium, the frequency of

the wave and the conductivity of the medium, , measured in siemens per metre or per-

ohm-metre [m]1. Together , and " are known as the constitutive parameters of

the medium.

In consequence, the ﬁeld strength (both electric and magnetic) diminishes exponentially as

the wave travels through the medium as shown in Figure 2.2. The distance through which the

wave travels before its ﬁeld strength reduces to e1 ¼ 0:368 ¼ 36:8% of its initial value is its

skin depth , which is given by

1

¼ ð2:20Þ

a

|E|

1.2

E0 1

0.8

0.6

0.4

E0 / e

0.2

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Distance along propagation vector [skin depths]

30 Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems

Thus the amplitude of the electric ﬁeld strength at a point z compared with its value at z ¼ 0 is

given by

Table 2.1 gives expressions for a and k which apply in both lossless and lossy media. Note

that the expressions may be simpliﬁed depending on the relative values of and !". If

dominates, the material is a good conductor; if is very small, the material is a good insulator

or good dielectric.

Table 2.1: Attenuation constant, wave number, wave impedance, wavelength and phase velocity for plane

waves in lossy media (after [Balanis, 89])

Good dielectric

n ¼ ck=! (insulator) Good conductor

in all cases Exact expression ð=!"Þ2 1 ð=!"Þ2 1

vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

#ﬃ rﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Attenuation u "rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2ﬃ !

u"

constant !t 1þ 1

2 "

2

a [m1] 2 !"

vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

#ﬃ

Wave number u "rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2ﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

u" pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ !

k [m1] !t 1þ þ1 ! "

2 !" 2

Wave rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

j! !

impedance ð1 þ jÞ

þ j!" " 2

Z [] sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Wavelength 2 2 2

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2

l [m] k ! " !

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Phase velocity ! 1 2!

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

v [m s1] k "

Example 2.1

A linearly polarised plane wave at 900 MHz travels in the positive z direction in a

medium with constitutive parameters r ¼ 1; "r ¼ 3 and ¼ 0:01 S m1. The electric

ﬁeld magnitude at z ¼ 0 is 1 V m1.

Calculate:

(a) the wave impedance;

(b) the magnitude of the magnetic ﬁeld at z ¼ 0;

(c) the average power available in a 0.5 m2 area perpendicular to the direction of

propagation at z ¼ 0;

(d) the time taken for the wave to travel through 10 cm;

(e) the distance travelled by the wave before its ﬁeld strength drops to one tenth of

its value at z ¼ 0.

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves 31

Solution

Referring to Table 2.1,

0:01

¼ 9 0:07 1

!" 2 900 106 3 10

36

(a) For an insulator, the wave impedance is given by

rﬃﬃﬃ rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

0 Z0 377

Z ¼ ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 218

" "r "0 "r 3

E 1

H¼ ¼ 4:6 mA m1

Z 218

(c) The available average power is the magnitude of the time-average Poynting

vector multiplied by the collection area, i.e.

EH 1 0:005

P ¼ SA ¼ A¼ 0:5 ¼ 1:25 mW

2 2

(d) The time taken to travel a given distance is simply the distance divided by the

phase velocity

t¼ ¼ d " ¼ d 0 "r "0 ¼ "r 3 0:6 ns

v c 3 108

EðzÞ

z ¼ ln

Eð0Þ

where

rﬃﬃﬃ

1 2 " 2

¼ ¼

a Z

and from Table 2.1 the approximation holds for good insulators. Thus

2 EðzÞ 2 1

z¼ ln ¼ ln ¼ 2:11 m

Z Eð0Þ 0:01 218 10

32 Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems

2.4 POLARISATION

2.4.1 Polarisation States

The alignment of the electric ﬁeld vector of a plane wave relative to the direction of

propagation deﬁnes the polarisation of the wave. In Figure 2.1 the electric ﬁeld is parallel

to the x axis, so this wave is x polarised. This wave could be generated by a straight wire

antenna parallel to the x axis. An entirely distinct y-polarised plane wave could be generated

with the same direction of propagation and recovered independently of the other wave using

pairs of transmit and receive antennas with perpendicular polarisation. This principle is

sometimes used in satellite communications to provide two independent communication

channels on the same earth satellite link. If the wave is generated by a vertical wire

antenna (H ﬁeld horizontal), then the wave is said to be vertically polarised; a wire antenna

parallel to the ground (E ﬁeld horizontal) primarily generates waves that are horizontally

polarised.

The waves described so far have been linearly polarised, since the electric ﬁeld vector has

a single direction along the whole of the propagation axis. If two plane waves of equal

amplitude and orthogonal polarisation are combined with a 90 phase difference, the resulting

wave will be circularly polarised (CP), in that the motion of the electric ﬁeld vector will

describe a circle centred on the propagation vector. The ﬁeld vector will rotate by 360 for

every wavelength travelled. Circularly polarised waves are most commonly used in satellite

communications, since they can be generated and received using antennas which are oriented

in any direction around their axis without loss of power. They may be generated as either

right-hand circularly polarised (RHCP) or left-hand circularly polarised (LHCP); RHCP

describes a wave with the electric ﬁeld vector rotating clockwise when looking in the

direction of propagation. In the most general case, the component waves could be of unequal

amplitudes or at a phase angle other than 90 . The result is an elliptically polarised wave,

where the electric ﬁeld vector still rotates at the same rate but varies in amplitude with time,

thereby describing an ellipse. In this case, the wave is characterised by the ratio between the

maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous electric ﬁeld, known as the axial ratio,

AR,

Emaj

AR ¼ ð2:22Þ

Emin

AR is deﬁned to be positive for left-hand polarisation and negative for right-hand polarisation.

These various polarisation states are illustrated in Figure 2.3.

All of the polarisation states illustrated in Figure 2.3 can be represented by a compound

electric ﬁeld vector E composed of x and y linearly polarised plane waves with amplitudes Ex

and Ey ,

E ¼ Ex ^x þ Ey ^y ð2:23Þ

The relative values of Ex and Ey for the six polarisation states in Figure 2.3 are as shown in

Table 2.2, assuming that the peak amplitude of the wave is E0 in all cases and where the

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves 33

y y

x x Linear

x-polarised y-polarised

y y

Right Left

hand hand

x x Circular

y Right Left

y

hand hand

Elliptical

x x

Minor

Major

complex constant a depends upon the axial ratio. The axial ratio is given in terms of Ex and Ey

as follows [Siwiak, 1998]:

2 2 3

1

Ey

61 þ E cos½argðEy Þ argðEx Þ 7

6 7

AR ¼ 6

x

4 Ey 7 5

ð2:24Þ

sin½argðE Þ argðE Þ

E y x

x

The polarisation states considered in the previous section involved the sum of two linearly

polarised waves whose amplitudes were constant. These waves are said to be completely

polarised, in that they have a deﬁnite polarisation state which is ﬁxed for all time. In some

cases, however, the values of Ex and Ey may vary with time in a random fashion. This could

Table 2.2: Relative electric ﬁeld values for the polarisation states

illustrated in Figure 2.3

Polarisation State Ex Ey

p

Linear x E0 = 2 0p

Linear y 0p E0 =p2

Right-hand circular E0p = 2 jE0 =p 2

Left-hand circular E0 = p2 jE0 =p 2

Right-hand elliptical aE0p= 2 jE0 =p 2

Left-hand elliptical aE0 = 2 jE0 = 2

34 Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems

happen if the ﬁelds were created by modulating random noise onto a carrier wave of a given

frequency. If the resultant ﬁelds are completely uncorrelated, then the wave is said to be

completely unpolarised, and the following condition holds:

where E[.] indicates the time-averaged value of the quantity in brackets, or its expectation; see

Appendix A for a deﬁnition of correlation. In the most general case, when Ex and Ey are

partially correlated, the wave can be expressed as the sum of an unpolarised wave and a

completely polarised wave. It is then said to be partially polarised.

2.5 CONCLUSION

Propagation of waves in uniform media can conveniently be described by considering the

properties of plane waves, whose interactions with the medium are entirely speciﬁed by their

frequency and polarisation and by the constitutive parameters of the medium. Not all waves

are plane, but all waves can be described by a sum of plane waves with appropriate amplitude,

phase, polarisation and Poynting vector. Later chapters will show how the characteristics of

propagation and antennas in a wireless communication system can be described in terms of

the behaviour of plane waves in random media.

REFERENCES

[Balanis, 89] C. A. Balanis, Advanced engineering electromagnetics, John Wiley & Sons,

Inc., New York, ISBN 0-471-62194-3, 1989.

[Hayt, 01] W. H. Hayt Jr and J. Buck, Engineering electromagnetics, 6th edn, McGraw-Hill,

New York, ISBN 0-07-230424-3, 2001.

[Kraus, 98] J. D. Kraus and K. Carver, Electromagnetics, McGraw-Hill, New York, ISBN

0-07-289969-7, 1998.

[Maxwell, 1865] J. Clerk Maxwell, A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic ﬁeld, Scientiﬁc

Papers, 1865, reprinted by Dover, New York, 1952.

[Siwiak, 98] K. Siwiak, Radiowave propagation and antennas for personal communications,

2nd edn, Artech House, Norwood MA, ISBN 0–89006-975-1, 1998.

PROBLEMS

2.1 Prove Eq. (2.14).

2.2 How far must a plane wave of frequency 60 GHz travel in order for the phase of the wave

to be retarded by 180 in a lossless medium with r ¼ 1 (a non-magnetic medium) and

"r ¼ 3:5?

2.3 What is the average power density carried in a plane wave with electric ﬁeld amplitude

10 V m1? What electric and magnetic ﬁeld strengths are produced when the same

power density is carried by a plane wave in a lossless non-magnetic medium with

"r ¼ 4:0?

Properties of Electromagnetic Waves 35

2.4 By what proportion is a 400 MHz plane wave reduced after travelling 1.5 m through a

non-magnetic material with constants ¼ 1000, "r ¼ 10?

2.5 A plane wave travels through free space and has an average Poynting vector of

magnitude 10 W m2. What is the peak electric ﬁeld strength?

2.6 Calculate the distance required for the electric ﬁeld of a 5 GHz propagating plane wave

to diminish to 13.5% (e2) given "r ¼ 3, r ¼ 2 and ¼ 100?

2.7 Repeat Example 2.1(e) for the case when ¼ 10. Compare your answer with the 2.11 m

found in Example 2.1(e), and use this to explain why the surfaces of copper conductors

in high-frequency circuits are often gold-plated.

2.8 Compare the attenuation of a plane wave travelling 1 m through a non-magnetic medium

with ¼ 104 S m1 and "r ¼ 3 at 100 MHz, 1 GHz and 10 GHz.

2.9 Describe, in your own words, the physical meaning of Maxwell’s equations and why

they are important for wireless communications.

2.10 A vertically polarised plane wave at 1900 MHz travels in the positive z direction in a

medium with constitutive parameters r ¼ 1, "r ¼ 3 and ¼ 10 S m1 . The electric

ﬁeld magnitude at z ¼ 0 is 1.5 V m1. Calculate: (a) the wave impedance; (b) the

magnitude of the magnetic ﬁeld at z ¼ 0; (c) the average power available in a 1.3 m2

area perpendicular to the direction of propagation at z ¼ 0; (d) the time taken for the

wave to travel through 15 cm; (e) the distance travelled by the wave before its ﬁeld

strength drops to one ﬁfth of its value at z ¼ 0.

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