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Sensorimotor (Birth to 2 years old)

Uses SENSES and MOTOR abilities to understand the world.

Egocentricity at this age : sees the environment as part of himself.

Three (3) phases :

Primary Circular Reactions: birth to four (4) months- the infant

responds to the environment in a reaction that is the same with all stimulus. Eg.
Crying when hungry, crying when, wet, or still crying when in pain (same reaction-
different stimulus).

Secondary Circular reaction: four months to 12 months- starts to

develop OBJECT PERMANENCE: the ability to recognize that because you can’t see
something, doesn’t mean it’s gone.

Tertiary circular reaction: 12 months to 24 months (1-2 years old):

Around 1 ½ years the child is developing MENTAL REPRESENTATION: ability to hold
an image in their mind for a period of time beyond the experience.

Pre-operational Stage : (2-7 years old)

Beginning to use SYMBOLS: words that represent what he wants to communicate.
Egocentricity at this age: seeing themselves as the center of the universe. They
are unable to take the role of another human, therefore having a limited point of
believe they events that occur are caused by his powers. EX. A child cried and
lightning struck a tree; he then believes that his tantrum caused the incident. Two
(2) stages:

Pre operational Preconceptual (2-4 years old): From using symbols as a

representative, now symbols are manipulated in a form of CREATIVE PLAY:
examples, the checkers are cookies, papers are dishes and a large box is a table.
The child begins to think in terms of past, present and future. “Mommy will be home
soon- the reaction of the child will stop crying”. Egocentricity: My point of view is
the only correct view in the universe.

Pre operational Intuitive (4-7 years old): understanding relationships such

as family placement and the different types of family.

Concrete Operations: 7 -12 years old

Law of Conservation of substance: the idea that a quantity remains the same
despite changes in appearance. Eg. Marbles in a row is the same quantity no matter
how you arranged them horizontally or vertically.
Reversibility: chopping the clay and rolling it back, is the same amount and size of
clay molded and unmolded.

Clasiffication and Seriation is noted at this age.

Formal Operations: 12 years to adulthood

Abstract thinking: the use of more complex symbols and critical thinking and
relating it to everyday experiences. (Example: parables, analogy and problem
solving scientific inquiry.