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THE PREFERENCES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN CHOOSING

TEACHING-LEARNING MODALITY: AN AID TO SUPPORT QUALITY


PERFORMANCE

by:
Teon Paolo Adrian A. Guerra
Mira Julianna S. Lacsina
Chico Rico B. Rivera
John Wilbert C. Tan
Joel Ian C. Payawal

Colegio de Santa Philomena


#54 Paltao, Pulilan, Bulacan

December 2020
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certification of Approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Dedication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Scope and Delimitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK


Relevant Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Related Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Related Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
Conceptual Model of the Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Definition of Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16

CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK


Method and Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
Research Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
Population and Sample of the Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18
Data Gathering Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Data Processing and Statistical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
i

APPROVAL SHEET

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject Practical Research II, this

research entitled "The Preferences of Senior High School Students in Choosing

Teaching-Learning Modality: An Aid to Support Quality Performance." has been

prepared and submitted by Teon Paolo Adrian A. Guerra, Mira Julianna S. Lacsina, Chico

Rico B. Rivera, and John Wilbert C. Tan.

Ernie V. Estrella, Ph.D.


Principal
ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Exceedingly special thanks to those who reached us with their support in making

this research. We express our deepest gratitude to:

Zenaida C. Santos, CdSP President, for the support, prayers, and motivation.

Ernie V. Estrella, Ph.D., CdSP Principal, for guiding us each step and teaching us

the concept of research.

Honey Grace P. Dela Cruz, LPT, and Judy Ann C. Ferrer, LPT, our research

teacher, and adviser, for their fruitful pieces of advice while framing our study and for the

motivation and guidance all throughout the process.

Our parents, siblings, relatives, and friends, for impeccable love, earnest

encouragements, and financial support.

Our group mates, for stimulating analyses, solid camaraderie, even on sleepless

nights, and for all the fun while doing this research

Most importantly, we give praise and thanksgiving to God Almighty, for His love,

grace, and mercy, and for all the other good things He has done for us.
iii

DEDICATION

We dedicate this research to our family and friends for the words of

encouragement for perseverance and tenacity, which push us to do our best. We would

like to express our gratitude to them who never left our side. We also dedicate this study

to our teachers, who always appreciate our efforts.


iv

THE PREFERENCES OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN CHOOSING


TEACHING-LEARNING MODALITY: AN AID TO SUPPORT QUALITY
PERFORMANCE.

* Teon Paolo Adrian A. Guerra, Mira Julianna S. Lacsina, Chico Rico B. Rivera, John
Wilbert C. Tan, Joel Ian C. Payawal. *

Keywords: Teaching-Learning Modality, Senior High School, Learning Continuity Plan,

Covid-19.

Abstract: This research expects to decide senior high school students' inclinations

towards the different teaching-learning modalities proposed by the Department of

Education (DepEd) and the variables influencing their choice. This research intends to

address the questions posed by the researchers from the information they accumulated.

To gather data, they will answer a google form questionnaire made by the researchers.
CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

In a blink of an eye, the world as we know it changed. Life is uncertain. Our

world was struck by a pandemic and reshaped every aspect of our lives. It made our way

of life very different from what we were used to. It created a new era of face masks and

social distancing. Many establishments and businesses shut down, compromising the

education of the learners.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has negatively struck education, with

almost 1.6 billion learners worldwide taking the class suspensions' brunt. In the

Philippines alone, almost 25 million students were affected by the school closures in

March 2020, as COVID-19 cases rose. Education in the middle of the Coronavirus

Pandemic is perilous not only for the children but also for the teachers. Many are

suggesting an academic freeze for the academic year 2020-2021. The Department of

Education (DepEd) insisted that it is unnecessary to stop students' learning, even if there

is a pandemic. 2

With the threat of the pandemic still on the way, the Department of Education

under the leadership of Secretary Leonor Briones has implemented the framework known

as the Learning Continuity Plan. In a statement by the department's undersecretary,

Diosdado San Antonio, "Providing opportunities for the Filipino youth to continue

learning even with COVID-19 should not be hindered." To answer the growing petition to

suspend the opening of classes, DepEd proposed different learning methods: Modular
Distance Learning, Online Distance Learning, Homeschooling, TV/Radio-based

Instruction (RBI), and Blended Learning. The department devised these teaching-learning

modalities to ensure that every student can choose what fits their capacity.

According to the Department of Education in their official statement in May 2020,

"For months now, our united efforts against the COVID-19 pandemic are producing

promising results in defeating the unseen threat. Still, our country and the world at large

are facing new challenges brought about by this unforeseen public health crisis."

Educational institutions, teachers, parents, and learners were obliged to adjust for their

safety while ensuring they could continue studying. Modules and teaching materials were

prepared, and educators were given seminars to prepare for the new normal way of

learning. Local Government Authorities created programs to make sure the learners will

get the education they needed. However, there are still those who have a hard time

adjusting. Young learners show difficulty in adjusting to the new system. Other learners

find it hard to understand and study lessons without active participation than traditional

face-to-face learning has.

Some lack the financial stability and resources to participate in distance learning,

especially now that many parents experience difficulties earning their livelihood.

Accessibility to online, radio and television modalities are limited in some impoverished

areas, one of which is the coastal, fishing-dependent town of Sasmuan in Pampanga,

where teachers disseminated modules to students in their houses. 3

Partial data of the Learner Enrollment and Survey Forms, conducted by the

DepEd, showed that 7.2 million enrollees chose distance learning based on modules,

radio, and television, in contrast to just 2 million enrollees who opt for online learning.
Recent statistics from the state agency indicated that 3,885,427 learners favored modular-

based learning modality, 2,074,010 chose online, 1,940,054 for a mixture of blended

learning face-to-face learning, 744,648 for television, 358,270 for radio, and 401,903 for

other types of modalities. (Hernando-Malipot, 2020)

This research aims to determine which teaching-learning modalities do learners

like best and find the most convenient way of studying, especially in this pandemic. The

researchers will be able to identify chosen modalities within the target age and

population. This research intends to tackle factors that affect the learners' choices like the

learners' personal circumstances, previous experience with online courses, academic

expectations, psychological variables, time management, the environment, and social

goal orientation. In this way, the researchers will have the ability to learn what best

teaching-learning modality suits the learners based on the information gathered.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the preferences of Senior High School learners, the

various teaching-learning modalities proposed by the Department of Education (DepEd),

and the factors affecting their decision. This research seeks to answer the following

questions:

1. What do learners seek in choosing a teaching-learning modality?

2. What teaching-learning modality do the learners prefer the most? And the least?

2.1. Traditional Face-to-face learning

2.2. Distance Learning

a. Modular Distance Learning


b. Online Distance Learning 4

c. Blended Learning

d. Homeschooling

3. What are the commonalities between those who chose the same teaching-

learning modality?

4. Which factors affect the learners' decisions in choosing a preferred teaching-

learning modality?

5. Is there any significant relationship between choosing the teaching-learning

modality and the senior high school learners' quality performance?

Significance of the Study

The result of the study is beneficial to the following:

Department of Education (DepEd). The DepEd may use this research to enhance its

existing programs and create new ones that give better attention to all aspects.

Local Government Unit. This research can be an instrument to LGUs in helping and

supporting its constituent in every way possible and giving the proper instruments for any

learning they will choose.

School Administration. The school administration could use the information gathered as

a guide and reference to improve the teaching modality they are using to ensure a quality

education for every learner.

Teachers. This research could aid them in improving their teaching modalities.

Parents. This study will help the parents guide their children in choosing the most

suitable learning modality for their child.


5

Students. This research will aid them in choosing their preferred learning modality to

secure a high calibre education.

Future Researchers. This research will serve as a foundation for new developments in

this case study.

Scope and Delimitations of the Study

This study focuses on senior high school learners' preferences when choosing

teaching-learning modalities included in the Learning Continuity Plan proposed by

DepEd, namely: traditional face-to-face learning, online distance learning, modular

distance learning, blended learning, and homeschooling.

Definition of Terms

Blended Learning. Refers to a learning delivery that combines face-to-face with any or a

mix of online distance learning, modular distance learning, and TV/Radio-based

Instruction.

COVID-19. It is a disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus. 'CO' stands for corona,

'VI' for a virus, and 'D' for the disease. The disease's former name was '2019 novel

coronavirus' or '2019-nCoV.' The COVID-19 virus is a new virus linked to the same

family of viruses as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and some types of

common cold. 6

DepEd. Formulates, implements, and coordinates policies, plans, programs, and projects

in formal and non-formal primary education. It supervises all elementary and secondary

education institutions, including alternative learning systems, both public and private, and
provides for the establishment and maintenance of a complete, adequate, and integrated

system of primary education relevant to national development goals.

Homeschooling. It is an alternative delivery mode (ADM) that aims to provide learners

with equal access to quality primary education through a home-based environment

facilitated by qualified parents, guardians, or tutors who have undergone relevant

training.

Learning Continuity Plan. Adoption of the Basic Education Learning Continuity Plan

for School Year 2020-2021 in the Light of the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency

Local Government Unit. Local government units (LGUs) oversee local governance in

81 provinces, 144 cities, 1,490 municipalities, and 42,028 barangays. LGU officials are

responsible for providing direct and essential services to the people and ensuring peace

and order within communities.

Online Distance Learning. It features the teacher facilitating learning and engaging

learners' active participation using various technologies accessed through the internet

while they are geographically remote from each other during instruction.

Pandemic. A pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new disease.

Teaching-Learning Modality. The learning delivery modalities that schools can adopt

may be one or a combination of the following, depending on the COVID-19 restrictions

and the learners' particular context in the school or locality.

Modular Distance Learning. Learning is in the form of individualized instruction that

allows learners to use self-learning modules (SLMs) in print or digital format/electronic

copy, whichever is applicable in the context of the learner and other learning resources
like Learner's Materials, textbooks, activity sheets, study guides, and other study

materials.

CHAPTER 2

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter presents the relevant theories, literature, studies the conceptual

framework, and the definition of variables used in the study.

Related Theories

Decision Theory. According to Steele (2020), decision theory is concerned with

the reasoning underlying an agent's choices. Decision theory is a theory of beliefs,

desires, and other relevant attitudes as it is a theory of choice; what matters is how these

various attitudes cohere together.

This theory is relatively connected as the learners will consider their own beliefs

and desires in choosing what teaching-learning modality they prefer. The research will

explore the reason behind the students' decisions.

Operant Conditioning Theory. The law of effect principle developed by Edward

Thorndike suggested that: "responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular

situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce

a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation." (McLeod,

2018)

The learners' experiences or the experiences of those around them regarding the

teaching-learning modalities will affect their choice. Those who struggle with one
teaching-learning modality would choose a different one, and those who experience

positive results would prefer the teaching-learning modality they are using. 8

Cognitive Learning Theory. As stated by Lawless (2019), Cognitive Learning

Theory suggests that the learner is an active participant in the process. They come to the

table with their skills, knowledge, memories, and relevant information they have learned

in the past; when learning something new, individuals process and construct their

understanding of a topic based on their past experiences and knowledge.

The past experiences of the learners have a massive impact on what the students

prefer. Those with experienced good things while studying face-to-face would prefer

traditional Face-to-face Learning over Distance Learning, and vice versa.

Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory. According to McLeod (2020), Vygotsky's

theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition

(Vygotsky, 1978), as he firmly believed that community plays a central role in the process

of "making meaning."

The people's opinions and beliefs affect the students' perception of different

teaching-learning modalities. The learners will hear or read arguments saying one is

better than the other and will believe it to be true.

Constructivism. A significant theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is

that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based

upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information,

constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so.

Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to
experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given." (Culatta,

2020).

This theory is relatively connected to our research as the learners' decisions will

be based on the information they have gathered. This past and present knowledge will be

the basis for the learners in choosing what they prefer. 9

Related Literature

According to Henrikson (2020), in the COVID-19 shift to online education, many

educators have sought out video conference technologies (such as Zoom) to replicate

traditional classrooms online. At face value, the synchronous video appears to offer more

immediate replicability of existing f2f synchronous teaching than asynchronous

modalities. However, moving pedagogy from one medium to another is not always a

smooth transition. The COVID-19 situation forced urgent transitions, and without

adequate opportunities to design for a new medium, some instructors have struggled with

old challenges, made new by the medium. We suggest reifying and rejuvenating Bruner's

folk pedagogies concept to help teachers consider the affordances and constraints of

different teaching and learning modalities to suggest ways of designing learning in

synchronous settings, remarkably. We highlight issues and offer possible approaches and

implications for teaching via video conferencing technologies, offering a new view on

folk pedagogies as a model for teacher educators to ground themselves through shifts in

learning modalities. 10

In the words of Cheng (2020), "School is Out, But Class's On," i.e., "suspending

classes without stopping learning," specifically refers to China's education and teaching
activities during the postponement period during the COVID19 pandemic prevention and

control. It was an emergency measure to prevent and control the pandemic in education

in China, and it was also a continuation of school education in this particular period.

During the pandemic period, how school education should operate has become a topic of

social concern. I herein discuss the origin and connotation of the concept of "School's

Out, But Class's On," analyze the challenges of "School's Out, But Class's On" to school

education, and then put forward measures for schools to respond to "School's Out, But

Class's On" and explain the practical significance of "School's Out, But Class's On" for

school education.

As stated by Toquero (2020), Covid-19 affected higher educational institutions

not just in Wuhan, China, where the virus originated but all other higher educational

institutions in 188 countries as of April 06, 2020. Educational countermeasures are taken

to continue educating the students despite the COVID-19 predicaments. Based on the

author's experiences, research, observations in the academe, COVID-19 guidelines, and

the need for alternative solutions, this article introduces how higher education is affected

and how it can respond to future challenges. This article recommends educational

institutions to produce studies to proliferate and document the pandemic's impact on the

educational system. There is also a greater need for educational institutions to strengthen

the curriculum practices and make them more responsive to the students' learning needs

even beyond the conventional classrooms. 11

Per Renzuilli (2020), this book is a manual for administering and interpreting the

Learning Styles Inventory, Version III (LSI-III). Part 1 is reproducible (so each teacher

who administers the LSI can have a copy) and answers the following concerns: what the
LSI-III is and what it measures; administering and scoring the LSI-III; interpreting

students' scores on the LSI-III; and altering teaching styles to accommodate students'

learning styles. Part 2 reports the research that established the technical qualities of this

revised edition of the LSI and includes sections that describe the content validity,

construct validity and reliability. Appendix A describes the theoretical rationale and

underlying research that supports the usefulness of information about student learning

styles and reviews the major theoretical perspectives on human abilities, interests, and

styles. Appendix B describes other instruments that can help educators evaluate student

abilities, interests, and learning and expression styles. Appendix C provides sample pages

from some of these other instruments. Finally, Appendix D includes samples of both the

elementary and middle school versions of the LSI-III and the teacher edition. (Contains

approximately 110 references.) (DB)

This report aims to support education decision-making to develop and implement

effective education responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. The report explains why the

necessary social isolation measures will disrupt school-based education for several

months in most countries worldwide. Absent an intentional and effective strategy to

protect the opportunity to learn during this period; this disruption will cause severe

learning losses for students. (Reimers, 2020)

These literature pieces are relatively connected to our study as they tackle the

factors that influence our studies. The literature of Henrikson (2020), Cheng (2020),

Toquero (2020), Reimers (2020) discuss the effects of the pandemic on educational

institutions. They talked about how the schools should operate during the pandemic and
gave suggestions to strengthen the curriculum's current practices. Renzuilli's (2020) book

focuses on modifying teaching styles to accommodate different students' learning styles.

Related Studies 12

Yilmaz Ince (2020) stated that distance education is an education model where

individuals are free from learning resources and have no time constraints. During the

pandemic period, Isparta University of Applied Sciences continued its 2019-2020

Academic Year Spring semester with distance education with asynchronous lecture notes

and synchronous live courses. This research aims to determine the knowledge and views

of students about distance education in the Pandemic Process. The survey method was

used in the research; the research participants were 1011 students at Isparta University of

Applied Sciences during the COVID-19 pandemic process. In order to collect the data, a

5-point Likert questionnaire with 21 items was applied. The average, standard deviation,

and t-Test analysis of the data were done in the SPSS program. According to this research

results, the participants' opportunities as having a computer and the internet affect their

views on distance education. 13

According to Sintema (2020), with all learning institutions pre-maturely closed on

March 20, 2020, and all citizens advised to self-isolate in a bid to control the spread of

COVID-19, it was hypothesized that COVID-19 would negatively impact the

performance of students in the 2020 Grade 12 national examinations vis-à-vis

mathematics, science and design, and technology subjects. An observed steady increase

in the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases and the low levels of technology use in

secondary schools in Zambia due to limited technology resources signifies a challenging

period in a young country that has just rolled out a nation-wide implementation of STEM
education. This study collected data from three teachers at a public secondary school in

Chipata District of Eastern Province in the Republic of Zambia. The Head of Department

for Mathematics, the Head of Natural Sciences Department, and one science teacher were

interviewed. Semi-structured interviews via mobile phone were used to collect views of

what these specialists thought would be the COVID19 effects on students' general

performance in their subject areas. Results of this study revealed that there is likely to be

a drop in the pass percentage of secondary school students in this year's national

examinations if the COVID-19 epidemic is not contained in the shortest possible time,

considering that the school academic calendar was abruptly disturbed by the untimely

early closure of all schools in the country.

According to Alharbi (2017), the present study aimed to identify the most

common learning preferences among nursing students in Saudi Arabia and investigate

certain demographic variables' associations with the learning preferences. All the

undergraduate nursing students in the nursing college were requested to participate in this

descriptive cross-sectional study for the methods. An Arabic version of the Felder-

Silverman learning style model (FSLSM) questionnaire was used to examine the learning

preferences among undergraduate nursing students. Results show that a total of 56 (43%)

completed questionnaires were included in the final analysis. Results of the present study

indicate that the most common learning preferences among the nursing students were

visual (67.9%), followed by active (50%) and sequential (37.5%) learning preferences.

The vocal style was the least common learning preference (3.6%) among the nursing

students. There was no association between gender and learning preferences (p > .05).

The present study concluded that the visual, active, and sequential styles are the
commonest learning preferences among nursing students. Nursing educators should

emphasize using this information in their teaching methods to improve learning skills

among nursing students. 14

According to Beal (2020), this study's objective was to determine pharmacy

students' preferences and perceptions of in-person and video evaluations. The relationship

between student perceptions and academic achievement has been established, but little

research on student perceptions of evaluation methods exists. A mixed-methods survey

was administered to 447 first-, second-, and third-professional year pharmacy students

enrolled in one public United States Doctor of Pharmacy program. Fourteen 5-point

Likert-type scale quantitative items and four qualitative items measured student

perceptions. Eight response choice items measured preferences. Paired t-tests compared

perceptions; independent t-tests compared perceptions between students exposed and not

exposed to video evaluations. Two researchers performed a thematic content analysis of

the qualitative responses. For the results, students (n=444, 99.3% response rate)

perceived in-person and video evaluations as significantly different, with in-person

evaluations being perceived more positively on all items except for nervousness. Students

exposed to video felt significantly more positive towards video evaluations than video-

naïve students on nine items but felt significantly less favorable towards video

evaluations in quality (Δ=1.24 vs. 0.83) and amount (Δ=1.14 vs. 0.77) of written

feedback. Students valued interactions with a more diverse pool of evaluators afforded by

video evaluations but did not view the video technology as applicable to future practice.

We conclude that students viewed in-person evaluations significantly more positively

than video evaluations. This effect is mitigated by exposure to video, suggesting that
concerns regarding video evaluations are based on conjecture rather than experience. This

study highlights the need to reduce technological issues and improve written feedback

associated with video evaluations. 15

From O'Neill (2020), scholarly understanding is limited regarding what influences

students' choice to take a particular course fully online or in-person. We surveyed 650

undergraduates at a Canadian public university enrolled in both modalities during the

same semester, roughly the same tuition cost. The courses spanned a wide range of

disciplines, from archaeology to computing science. Twenty-five variables were gauged,

covering areas including students' circumstances, their competence in the language of

instruction, previous experience with online courses, grade expectations, and

psychological variables including their regulation of their time and study environment,

work avoidance, and social goal orientation. Two logistic regression models (of the

modality of enrolment and modality of preference) both had an excellent fit to the data,

each correctly classifying roughly 75% of cases using different variables. Implications for

instructional design and enrolment management are discussed.

These studies are relatively connected as the research topic focuses on variables

related to our research. Yilmaz Ince (2020) researched the learners' opinions on studying

distance learning during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Sintema's (2020) research discussed the

pandemic's effects on the students' scores in the exam. Alharbi's (2017) research

determined the learning preferences of nursing students. Beal (2020) studied the students'

perception of in-person and video evaluations, and O'Neill's (2020) study focused on

what influences the students to take online or in-person courses.

Conceptual Model of the Study


Figure 1.
It shows the independent variables affecting the learners' preference for teaching-learning 16
modalities during the Covid-19 Pandemic.
Conceptual Framework

In response to the pandemic, the DepEd proposed the Learning Continuity Plan,

giving the learner's choices between these teaching-learning modalities: Traditional face-

to-face learning and Distance learning, which may be online distance learning, modular

distance learning, blended learning, or homeschooling. Figure 1 shows the independent

variables (learners' circumstances, previous experiences, academic expectations, and

psychological variables) affecting the learners' preferences during the pandemic.

Hypothesis

The researchers hypothesize that traditional face-to-face learning would be the

most preferred teaching-learning modality, and modular distance-learning would be the

least.

Definition of Variables
Personal circumstances. Health problems, family problems, financial problems, or other

conditions or situations affect his views and outlooks regarding teaching-learning

modalities.

Previous experiences. The students' experiences regarding different teaching-learning

modalities before the current school year.

Academic expectations. Educational standards the students expect from a teaching-

learning modality.

Psychological variables. Variables that affect the mood of the students. It may include

regulation of time, study environment, and social goal orientation.

Regulation of time. Schedule and management of assignments and objectives the

students find comfortable doing within the allotted time. 17

Study environment. The noise, location, and the experiences of the students while

studying.

Social goal orientation. The students' learning through interpersonal experiences,

performance approach, or performance-avoidance.


CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Methods and Techniques

This study will be using a causal design as the study focuses on the variation in

the dependent variables as the independent variables vary. It will employ an online survey

(Google Form) type of questionnaire to analyze senior high school students' preference in

choosing their preferred learning-teaching modality.

Research Instrument

The researchers will use a survey form entitled, "Preferences of Senior High

School Students in Choosing Teaching-Learning Modalities" created by the researchers

and will be validated by experts to obtain the required data. The survey is created on an

online survey, which also records statistical data. It will consist of a check-box survey,
multiple-choice, and some personal insight from the respondents. The questions will be

based on the learners' possible preference in choosing their learning-teaching modality

and the factors that may affect their decision during the Covid–19 Pandemic.

Population and Sample of the Study

The study respondents are currently enrolled senior high school learners from

various schools around Pulilan, Bulacan.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers will conduct the survey online through an online survey. Presently

enrolled senior high school students from Pulilan, Bulacan will have access to the list to

answer the questions. Through the help of online survey' easy collection of statistical

data, the researchers will organize them and produce an output. 19

Data Processing and Statistical Treatment

The data gathered will be evaluated by the following statistical treatment:

1. Frequency distribution will display the number of times the learners choose

each teaching-learning modality.

2. Descriptive statistics will be used. The researchers aim to summarize the data

from senior high school students in Pulilan, making it easier to comprehend.

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