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The rationale of this experiment is to determine the lift, drag and pitching mom
ent characteristic of the wing by changing the angle of incidence (attack) at co
nstant wind speed. Two-dimensional wind flow conditions applied during the exper
iment. The angle of incident at yaw and pitch determined and generated by comput
The pressure (force) applied at lift, drag, pitch, side and yaw to the aerofoil
section also tabled. The experiment also enables the study of disparity with spe
ed of lift coefficient for a fixed incidence (angle of attack).
Determine the lift, drag, pitching moment aerodynamic coefficients by using the
force and moment measurements taken during the experiment on the model wing. The
wing is a rectangular plan-form and has circular end plates to simulate, approx
imately, two dimensional flow conditions. Another purpose is to verify that the
lift and drag curves for various configurations are and to illustrate the utilit
y of some of the equations to reduce aerodynamic data to useful dimensionless fo
rms. The aerodynamic characteristics of a NACA 23012 airfoil determined and then
use the model data to predict the behaviour of a full-scale wing under differen
t incidence.
The wind tunnel must be calibrated to that the flow angularity as well as the ve
locity of the wind throughout the test section is known. Furthermore the test se
ction pressure, temperature and speed must be recorded accurately for the test r
esults to be meaningful. The balance must be calibrated and checked for accuracy
before each test. In addition, the balance must be mounted in the model so that
no disturbance occur causing incorrect readings. The model itself must be scale
d appropriately from the full scale aircraft.
The aerofoil model is a NACA 23012 suspended from a six component balance in an
inverted position. Reading of lift (positive downwards), drag and pitching momen
t are logged automatically by software. The zero corrected using the data acquis
ition system. The aerofoil model constructed with chord of 160 mild. The wind tu
nnel is 750 mild in length and generate wind speed of 231324 m/s.
The airfoil model will be placed and will have been rigged and the circuits of t
he balance engaged (for at least one hour).
The atmospheric pressure, initial temperature and pressure (sea level) is import
ant and noted at the beginning of the experiment. Calculate the speed of wind by
using given formula.
The wing incidence is adjusted to zero degree on the computer. Visually verify t
hat the wing is correctly positioned and at zero degrees incidence. Than make su
re check that the tunnel is free of loose objects, and closes the access door se
The lift, drag and pitching moment readings been zeroed by selecting ‘Auto Zero’ on
the computer before start varying the angle of attack. Very gradually, the wind
tunnel motor speed increased until the digital manometer reads 81 mm of water. U
sing the computer set the wing incidence changed to -4 degrees.
A set of readings taken as the wing incidence is varied, in steps of one degree,
from -4 to 20 degrees. The technician in-charge demonstrated how to log the rea
dings. The data saved for further analysis from the results.
The procedure repeated for different wind tunnel air speed, below that correspon
ding to 81 mm of water. An incidence angle of 10 degrees used and few log readin
g taken. All the data for the varying wind tunnel speeds log as well. The techni
cian in charge demonstrated other data acquisition techniques on the wind tunnel
L = qSCL = 1/2qV^2SCL
D = qSCD = 1/2qV^2SCD
M = qSCm = 1/2qV^2SCm
Xac = a – dCm ( Xac - Aerodynamic Center)
c c dCL
Wind Tunnel Speed = 4(mmH2O)^1/2
CL/ CD/Cm - Non-dimensional lift, drag and moment coefficients respectively.
q - Dynamic pressure
S - Wing plan-form area (for this wing S = 0.119m²)
p - Air density
V - Free stream velocity
c - Aerodynamic mean chord