Sie sind auf Seite 1von 889

��# � �###>################�#ࡱ

## � ### � ### � ### � ### � ### � ### � ### � ### # � � � � ####### � ########### � #################
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ### � ### � ### � ### � ### � ### � ### � ### � ### � ### � #
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ���
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ���
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ���
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ���
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ���
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � ���
#7 � � � � � � � � � � � � ###############2 � # � ###�####bjbjU#U###################
###"�
#7|##7|
###�##############################��##########��##########��##################l####
#############################�!######�!######�!##############�!
######".######".######".######".##�####/##�###�!######�e######�:##
###�<######�<######�<######�<#######�##&###?�##
###K�######`e######be######be######be######be######be######be##$###�g##
####j##R###�e######################�!
######S�######################e�##�1###�######S�######S�######�e######s############
###########�<##############�<##�s##�e######s#######s#######s#######S�##
######�###�<######�!
######�<######`e##############s####################################################
###S�######`e######s###�###s#######3###�####1##L##�###L###�!
##############################################################$O######�<######�:##
### NQTd �#�!##(
##".######_�###,##`>##Z###########$O##<###�e##0###�e######�?
##j###Sj######s#######Sj######$O######s#######�!######�!
########################################�###1. Explain about the System Concepts
INPUTS--( PROCESSES--(OUTPUTS System can be regarded as a set of interacting
element responding to inputs to produce outputs.Sub-systemEach system is composed
of subsystem, which is they made up of other subsystem; the subsystems, elements of
the system to which they belong are themselves defined by the boundaries. The
interconnections between subsystems are known as interfaces. A subsystem at the
lowest level, whose processes are not defined, is called black box system; here
inputs and outputs are defined.(A). Factoring into subsystemsThe process of
factoring continues until the subsystem is of appropriate size for the
analysis/design project. The subsystems will usually factor into a hierarchical
structure.The hierarchy diagram does not show that each of the subsystem is an
integral part of the subsystem or a system to which it belongs. The problem of
factoring is that it leads to a very large number of input/output interfaces
between the subsystems. The number of interfaces is given by 1/2n(n-1), when n=the
number of subsystems. Not all subsystem will interface, but clearly even a small
number of subsystems will generate a large number of interfaces. One of the ways to
overcome this problem is to group together those subsystems, which have very close
relationships. Such a grouping would be a likely design outcome in any case.(B)
INTEGRATION OF SUBSYSTEMS: THE CONCEPT OF
INTEGRATION IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR THE SYSTEM ANALYST:IT DRAWS ATTENTION TO THE
PRIMARY IMPORTANCE OF THE WHOLE SYSTEM. IT IS THE WHOLE WHICH DICTATES THE ROLE OF
SUBSYSTEM; THE SUBSYSTEM AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS SHOULD EVOLVE FROM THE CONCEPT OF
THE WHOLE, EACH BEING DEPENDENT ON THE WHOLE SYSTEM FOR ITS POSITION AND ITS
RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER SUBSYSTEM.THE DIFFICULTY, IS IDENTIFICATION OF THE WHOLE
SYSTEM. It should be clear that the major task
of the system analyst is to define the system in terms of its objectives, input,
processes, output, boundary and the interfaces between its subsystems.� THE
BEHAVIOUR OF SYSTEM: A number of concepts
assist in the analysis of behaviour.Deterministic and probabilistic systems
A deterministic system is one which the occurrence of all events is perfectly
predictable.Given a description of the system state at a particular time,and ofIts
operation,the next state can be perfectly predicted.An example of such a system is
a numerically-controlled machine tool. A
probabilistic system is one in which the occurance of events cannot be perfectly
predicted.An example of such a system is a warehouse and its contents.Given a
description of the contents at one time,and of the next point in time could not be
perfectly predicted. The system analyst
deals almost entirely with probabilisticSystemCLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS
----------------------------------------- A
closed system is one which does not interact wioth its environment.Such systems are
rare,but relatively closed system are common.An exampleOf systems are rare,but
relatively closed system is a computer program which processes predefined inputs in
a predefined way.A relatively closed system is one which controls its inputs,and so
is protected from environmental disturbance.Closed and relatively closed system are
subject to increase in entropy or disorder ,because they do not interact with their
changing environment.For example,a firm which is not sensitive to customer demand
will eventually decline.An open system is one which does interact with its
environment,being able to receive unexpected inputs.open system are organic in that
by their nature they tend to react with the environment; a human being is an
example of an open system.Open system are usually adaptive,ie their interaction
with the environment is such as to favour their continued existence. A firm which
is sensitive to changes in customer demand, and in consequence adjusts its prices,
charges its products or looks for new markets, is being adaptive. The systems
analyst usually deals with adaptive, open system and must aim to change them to
make them more adaptive(D) Stable Systems. A Stable system is one in
which relationships are well defined but which whenDisturbed by environmental
factors, is capable of returning to its desired state.The Stability is measured in
terms of certain elements remaining within previously set limits.For example, a
stock control systems using a reorder level based on forecasts of demand would
immediately cause a purchase order to be made when the stock reaches the reorder
level.This is known as a negative feedback mechanism which records when the system
is tending to deviate from its limits.CONTROLS IN SYSTEM
The simple system above does not provide for effective measurement and control of
the system. A suitable modification is shown. In
this model, output is fed to the measurement/control function and compared to the
desired limits, Any deviation from those limits causes a message to be send to
adjust either the processes or the inputs.(It is also quite possible for the
control response to lead to a change in the system objectives or in the predefined
limits.) Controls mechanisms, like systems, can
be opened or closed. An open control mechanism is one subject to unknown and
unexpected changes, which would normally be associated with human control; a closed
control mechanism (such as the thermostat on a central heating system) is automated
and subject only to expected disturbances. Again, open and closed are the extremes
of a wide spectrum. THE LAW OF REQUISITE VARIETY:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
This law states that, in order to control each possible state of the system, there
must be a corresponding control mechanism. For every way in which the system can
get out of control, there must be a way of restoring controls. This requirement
may related to a mass of information. The law of requisite variety suggestsThat
one cannot use purely computer control for open systems. There must be a man-
machine approach to the problem. Information systemThe subsystem of the
business have been considered as related to specific business functions, such as
marketing, production &accounting .the business has been described as a system
which receives resource (capital, people, plant, material)&produces goods or
services.Data processingData denotes facts of the business represented by numbers,
alphabetic characters or symbols signifying condition, value or state. Data may be
an amount on a bill, a customer�s name or reference code, an, address or a stock
item reference. Data is processed to provide information.Data processing refers to
this conversion of data to information. Electronic data processing (EDP) refers
specifically to computerized data processing systems.The computer can use the same
data, which has been input or stored for the payroll as the basis for producing a
management report. This concept of integrated data processing. An operation such as
sales invoicing is integrally linked with order processing, delivery documentation,
sales forecasting, inventory control,Sales statistics, and the sales ledger. This
emphasizes the importance of integratedSystems planning based on the sub-division
of the total system into meaningfulSubsystem. A
production planning information system To give
some idea of the role of the information system in a business organization, it is
perhaps best to look at a typical system, eg production planning. In an
organization where sales are made from stock the role of production planning is to
ensure that sufficient stock is available. A simplified chart of the information
flow might look like this.#####
Schedule ##Thus an information system for production planning must have
available to it as input, data on customers orders, production availability,
production stock availability: this data is of course required are generated by
other subsystems .The system process this data by expending the orders into
material requirements, determining the production process required, and working out
a production scheduleOrganization structure In order to
achieve its ojectives the organization must be structured on principles having the
benefits of specification without losing overall coordination and integration
;and the formality of the structure must be tempered by the need to allow(and
encourage) informal contacts between staff. The
traditional principles on which organisations have been structured aim achieve
parity of authority and responsibility;harmony of objectives(all staff working to a
common end); unity of command(each person having only one immediate superior);
unity of direction (one manager and one plan for each major objective or set of
objectives); appropriate span of control(the number of subordinates which one
person can manage);and control by exception(freedback of deviations from an agreed
plan).
In recent years increasing attention has been devoted to the informal structure
of the organization,ie the relationships which people make which cut across the
formal structure.often the informal structure reflects more closely power structure
of the organisation,and certainly it facilitates quicker and smoother operation
at all levels than does the formal structure.the formal structure defines nominal
responsibilities and authority in relation to the use of resources. A typical
organizations structure for an engineering company is given below in the figure.
The formal organisation structure tending to be rather static,is
important to the systems analyst:information flows are often determined by the
organisation structure. The system analyst needs to be aware of
relationships between people and to realise that boundaries of departments are
usually jealously guarded. Various approaches to organisation structure have been
adopted: Line organization This is the simplest form of
business organization:the lines of communication flow directly through a
hierarichal from top management downwardsFunctional organization
Functional organization is usually adopted where business efficiently can best be
achieved by �one person� management responsibility being transferred to more than
one person,according to assigned supervirsory specialistion.Authority still flows
from the top but supervisory specialization staff,organized functionally,have a
degree of authority over all personal at the level below.The aim is to achieve
efficiency by promoting co-operation between specialized supervisors.Line and staff
organization This approach characterizes most large business.
SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN PART_A QUESTIONS:1.Define system. The system is an
orderly grouping of interdependent components linked together according to a plan
to achieve a specific objective.2.What are the elements of the system?The elements
of the system are outputs and inputs, processor(s), control, feedback,
environment, boundaries and interface. 3.What are the characteristics of the
system? The characteristics of the system are organization, interaction,
interdependence, integration and central objective.4.What do you mean by
integration? Integration refers to the holism of the system. Integration is
concerned with how the system is tied together. It is more than having a physical
part or location.5.What are the types of the system? The systems have been
classified in different ways. Common classifications are 1.Physical or
abstract system 2.Open or closed system 3.Man-made information system6.What
do you mean by physical system? Physical systems are tangible entities there
may be static or dynamic in operations. For example, the physical parts of the
computer center are the offices, desks and chairs that facilitate operations of the
computer.7.What do you mean by abstract system? Abstract system is conceptual or
non-physical entities. They may be as straightforward as formulas of relationship
among sets of variables or modules.8.What do you mean by open system? An open
system has many interfaces with its environment. It permits interaction across its
boundary. It receives inputs from and delivers output to the outside.9.State the
merits and demerits of a Database system? Merits:Processing time and the number
of programs written are substantially reduced.All applications share centralized
files.Storage space duplication is eliminated.Data are stored once in the database
and are easily accessible when needed.Demerits:Cost of specialized personnel.Need
to support the protect sensitive data from unauthorized access10.Mention the
various stages for the system development life cycle?Recognition of need.
Feasibility study.Analysis.DesignImplementationPost-implementation and Maintenance.
11.Define prototyping? It recognizes problem of cognitive style and uses
advance computer technology. It advocates building a simple system through trial
and error and refining it through and interactive process.12.Where does information
originate? External sources:Vendors.Government documents.Newspaper and
professional journals. Internal sources:Financial reports.Personnel staff
Professional staffSystem documentation.User or user staffReports & transaction
documents. 13.What is structured analysis? It is a set of techniques and
graphical tools that allow the analyst to develop a new kind of systems
specifications that are easily understandable to the user.14.What are the
attributes of the structured analysis? It is graphic.The process is partitioned.It
is logical rather than physical.It calls for a rigorous study of the user area.
Certain tasks are carried out late in the SDLC.15.What are the tools of the
structure analysis? Data flow diagram.Data dictionary.Decision tree and structured
English.Decision table.16.What are the steps involved in system performance
definition?Statements of constraints.Identification of specific system objectives.
Description of outputs. 18.What are the various steps involved in feasibility
study?Form a project team and appoint a project leader.Prepare system flow chart.
Enumerate potential candidate system.Describe and identify characteristics of
candidate system.Determine and evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of
the each candidate system.Weight system performance and cost date.Select the best
candidate system.Prepare and report final project directive to the management.
19.Define input design? It is the process of connecting user-originated inputs to
a computer-based format.20.What are the input media and devices available? Poach
cards.Key-to-diskette.MICR.Mark sending reader.OCR.Optical bar code reader.CRT
screen.21.What are the 3 major approaches for entering data into the computer?
Menus.Formatted forms.Prompts22.Define output design A major form of output
is a hard copy from the printer. The output devices to consider depend on factors
such as compatibility of the device with system response time requirements expected
print and number of copies needed.23.What are the various media devices available?
MICR reader.Printer.Computer output microfilm.CRT screen displays.Graph plotter.
Audio response.24.What is a form? It is a tool with a message. It is the
physical carrier of data of information. It also can constitute authority for
action.25.What are the various classifications of forms?Action.Memory.Report.
26.What are the various requirements of forms design?Identification and wording.
Maximum readability and use.Physical factor.Order of data items.Ease of data entry.
Size and arrangement.Use of instructions.Efficiency considerations.Type of report.
27.What are the various types of forms?Flat forms.Unit-set/snap out forms.
Continuous strip/ fanfold forms.NCR (No Carbon Required) paper.28. Define
subsystemSubsystem is an part of main system, which is also system by itself.29.
What do you mean by analysisIt is the detail study of existing business system and
the independence with other systemsWithin and outside the boundry.30. What are the
various feasibility?Economic feasibility: Economic benefits created by
the information systems for the investment made are determined.\Technical
feasibility: Software and hardware technology available for developing and
implementing the information project is determinedOperational feasibility:The
usability of the information system after development until implementation is
determined.31. What is system testing?It is the process to ensure that the system
run according to the specification and the users expectations.32. What are the two
types of questionnaires? Structured questionnaireClosed questionnaire restricts the
respond to choose from the provided specific response unstructured questionnaires
An open questionnaire helps in determining the feelings problems and the
reactions of the respondents.33. What are the basic terminologies in file design?
Byte: A byte is the 8bits representing a character.Data Item: Data item is the
combination of one or more bytes that represent an attribute of an object. For
example, a student object may have the attributes like Roll Number, Name Age and
Sex. Other names for data items are fields or items. Record: Record is the
combination of data items related to an object. Student object having man data
items like Name, Roll number, Age and Sex is an ideal example for record. Record
key: Record key is the unique data item of the record that differentiates one
record from the other of a file. In the case of student object, roll number is th
erecord key that is useful in identifying the unique student object of a file.
Entity: An entity is any person or place having definite characteristics about
which data are collected and of interest to the organization.File: A file is the
group of closely related records.Database: Collection of interrelated files stores
necessary data for processing and problem solving.34. What are the key terms?User�s
view: Features user expects from the report.Processing: Required changes
made to produce the output reportData model: It is the frame work depicting the
user�s view of the systemData file: It is the storage for actual files sequence of
storage depends on the data model.Dml: It is the data definition language used
for describing a dataDBMS: This software program manages the data according to
the defined DML and DDL
statements. 35. What are the logical and physical data views?Logical
view deals with the data look independent of how it stored.Physical view deals with
the way data exist in the physical storage. It is mainly concerned with the data
storage and retrieval.36. Define schema This view makes the dbms to act of the
data requested by application. It is known as schema.37. Define subschema?
Programmers are usually concerned with how the data travels securely over the
internet. This view of the programmer is known as subschema.38. Define data
structure? Ds is the relationship between the entities.39. What are the types of
relationships?One to one It is the type of relationship to entities are
related to each otherOne to many In this type of relationship an entity will be
related to two or more entities.Many to Many In this type of relationship
entities will have man relationships with other each other40. Define code A code
is a title or set of numbers or symbols that represents lengthy or confusing item
of data.41. Define communication skills Communication is the process of passing
ideas facts opinions, information and understanding from one person to another.42.
What are the characteristics of quality information?Timely: Updated
information should be readily available.Complete: It should satisfy all the
needs of the users of the systemConcise: It must contain user needed information.
Relevant: It must reflect the behavior of the situation.Precise: It should be
exact and specific to the need of the users of the system.From: The display format
and the quantitative and qualitative of the information must be related to the
situation.43. What are the types of software Software is generally classified
into two typesSystem software: Software programs written to manage the
resources of the computer system.Application software: Software programs
written to perform a specific high level activity.Part-B1. Explain the various
Types of systemSystem been have classified based on the output the system produce
and the degree of information exchange with the environment.The different types of
systems areDeterministic systemA deterministic system is the one, which has
definite know inputs, the process and the outputs.The output of the deterministic
is also predictable with certainty.Accounting system is the example of the
deterministic system. Generally, deterministic system also falls under the closed
system category.Probabilistic systemA probabilistic system is the one, whose output
normally predicted in probabilistic term. Example for the probabilistic system is
demand forecasting system.Generally, probabilistic system also falls under the pen
system category.Physical or abstract systemsReal or concrete entities that are
static or dynamic in nature form the physical systems.Example for the physical
system can be this book �system analysis and design� itself. In this case, it is
static physical system. On the other hand, the programmed computer is the dynamic
system since it produces different outputs based on the inputs. The conceptual or
nonphysical entities are abstract systems.Example for the abstract system may be
formulas of relationship of the set of variables or models. An abstract concept
view of the physical situation. The use of models greatly helps the systems analyst
by providing the details about the key elements and the key relationships of a
complex system.System modelsThe system analyst mostly uses models to study the
systemThe different kinds of models used by the system analyst are 1
Schematic 2 Flow system model 3 Static system model 4 Dynamic
system model Schematic model A two dimensional chart clearly describes
each system elements and their relationship .Flow System Models This model
clearly shows the flow of material,energy and information of the system.From this
model orderly flow of the logic can be easily determined.example for this model is
PERT(Program Evaluation and Review Technique).Static System Model This model
shows one pair of relationship exhibited by the attributes of the system.Example
for this model may be activity-time or cost �quantityDynamic System Model As
business are dynamic system this model clearly depicts the nature of the
organization or the application that system analyst work with.It also gives the
clear picture about the constant change of the system.Open or closed system
This is another way of classification of systems based on their level of
interdependence. An open system is the one which has many interfaces with
the environment. An open system interacts across the boundary of the
system receives inputs from and delivers outputs outside the boundary. As
the system has to adopt to the varying demands of the user ,information system
naturally falls into this category. A closed system is the one which is
completely isolated from the environment. Completely closed system is
impossible in reality.In general system analysis is usually for open,dynamic
systems influenced by the environment. System analyst of the open system
must consider factors like �security controls, computer fraud ,and invasion of
privacy when designing the new system. The important characteristic of an
open system are Input from outside EntropyProcess,output and cyclesDifferentiation
Equifinality Input from outside Open systems are generally self regulating
and self adjusting in nature.open system will be in steady state when it functions
properly.It is also very sensitive in absorbing and adapting to the environmental
changes.Entropy Entropy is the loss of energy.All dynamic system loss
energy due to run down over time . Open systems always resist entropy to be in
steady state by seeking new inputs or modifying the process . Process,output and
cycles Open system by following a continuous path produces a useful
output,and operates in cycles.Differentiation An open system clearly
differentiates the components of the system based on their specialized functions.
This characteristic adds value to the concept of systems in the systems analysts
thinking.Equifinality * It is the process of achieving the goals by following
different courses of action . * System analyst must clearly understand
the system characteristic to identify his role and to focus on the organization
objectives.Man Made Information System The major purpose of the information system
is to reduce the uncertainty about the state or event.Information system forms
the basis for the interaction between the user and the system analyst.Information
system also determines the nature of the relationships between the decision makers
of the organization .It is defined as a �a set of hardware devices,computer
procedures and operating systems designed specifically for the user needs
based on the user requirement to produce useful information and communicate in an
understandable format to the user for making decision such as planning,control and
performance�.Different types of information systems areFormal information system.
Informal information system.Computer based information system.Formal information
system * organization chart clearly representing the organization in terms of
position and authority forms the basis for the formal information systems.It
clearly depicts the relationship between the position and the authority.The main
areas of interest for formal information systems are pattern of
authority,communication and work flow.Information usually flows in the form of
reports,memos and instructions to the intended user from the top management.
Informal information system * formal information system is the carefully
Written reports There are two basic kinds of written and formal communication
with which system analysts will be directly concerned.Reports Written to
persuade management to authorize proposals for change Reference manuals to provide
user and computer operation staff with a description of a new system together with
instruction to cover all likely events. Report writingSummaryIntroductionReport
writingWhat is a report?PreparationFormat of the reportText layoutWriting the
reportStyleUse of the diagrams/visualsPackaging the report.Conclusions and
recommendationsAppendix a further readingDistribution1. Summary Report are
essential tools of communication for the systems analyst and are often the major
contact with senior managers.Report should bewell preparedwell writtenwell
presentedThe format of report should be title pagecontents listsummary page
introductionfindingsconclusions and recommendationsappendices The contents
of reports should beat the right levelimpersonalpersuasivepreciseclearconcise
comprehensivecourteous2. IntroductionTerms of reference: To produce a document
which would contain advice on preparing and producing reports and which would
itself be an example of such a report.Method of investigation This
report has been written after a certain amount of consultation with other staff and
in the light of various publication on writing which are listed in appendix a.3.
Reprot writing3.1 what is a report? The word report can cover a multitude of
documents which vary in seze and in purpose from informing to persuading.3.2
Preparation the report writer cannot just sit down and produce a report it has to
be palnned carefully before writing commences and this involves the author in
considering the following points. Questions
about purposeWhat is the subject of the report?Why is the report needed?Who will
read it?Authority for the report Usually a report is written by a subordinate to
a superior at the latter�s request. It is always wise to obtain authority for a
report from the people where are able to act on it.Format of the report The
report must be organized so that the readers can easily find their way through it
basically they will want to answer three questions what is the problem? and how has
it been investigated? what has been discovered?title pagecontentssummary
introductionfindingsconclusions and recommendationsappendicesdistribution3.4 Text
layout some organistions have established rules for the preparation and layout
of text and systems analysts must be guided by these.the layout should be of a
uniform and pleasing appearance with the contents organized so that they can be
easily understooda logical arrangement of headings and subheadings contributes to
ease of reading.a logical paragraph numbering system maintains the relative
importance of paragraphs and assists cross referencing in the text by section and
paragraphabbreviations should be preceded by the full name the first time they
appear in the first time they appear in the texttechnical words should be defined
the first time they are used in the text separately in a glossary.It will also
assist typists if the typing requirements qre stated before the text such as
stationery sizesize of both left and right hand marginsthe use of capitals and
underlining for headings and sub headings3.5 Writing the reportlevel of
understanding reports are normally written by a knowledgeable person for the
benefit of someone less knowledgeablewrite impersonally it is essential that a
report is believed to be objective and one way of achieving this is by the
avoidance of personal pronouns and adjectives.Write persuasively The author must be
honest in presenting ideas and should non distory the evidence but should organize
the report to achieve the purposeWrite precisely Vague phrased such as large
percentage tend to make the reader suspicious and suppressed or distorted
information will cast doubt on both the report and author integrity.#Write clearly
The writer mst ensure that the report has a clear structure which can be
easily followed and avoid jargon.Write concisely Words should only be included
if ther are essential facts likewiseWrite comprehensively The author should set
out to answer as many questions as possible that are likely to arise in the readers
mindWrite courteously The tone of the report is very important it should avoid
upsetting the reader for the wrong reasonsstyle The style of a report will relect
the writers personality and background and it is not possible to legislate about
perfect style.passages should be broken up into well constructedsetences should be
shorta thread should run through all sections and in passage points should be
linked and emphasizedwords should be carefully chosen familiar to the reader
essential and clear the following points are worth consideringshort words are
better than long onesadjectives should be used sparinglyprepositions and
conjunctions should be simpleUse of diagrams./visuals The use of visual aids in
reports instrongly recommended for tow reasons they break up solid texttey can
often put a point across more quickly and more succinctly]the kinds of visual that
misght well be included are tables Classifications Reference Interpretation
Frequency distributioncharts Bar charts Histograms Gantt charts
Pictogramsgraphs relationships ratios breakeven points Packaging
the report The first impression created by a report is often a lasting impression
and it is usually formed from the appearance of the document when it is handed to
the reader.Cover and binding The cover should be smart and have the right impact
the binding should be secure btu also allow easy access.Typing and reproduction
Ideally all reports should be typed on an electric typewriter with a clear
typeface and using the same typeface throughout the report.Layout The layout
of the report should be to the organizations standards but should aim for brevity
Timings The timings of the report can be crucial for achieving the right impact
and so should be carefully considered.4.Conclusions and recommendations Report
writing is not easy it requires a lot of thought and planning even for the person
who enjoys writing.Reports clearly reflect their authors they are the authors main
contact with senior management it is worth spending time to do a good job.Reports
should aim to persuade they must be well presented and well arguedto read
extensivelyto observe the advice given in this reportto spend adequate time in
prodcing good reportsApendix a further reading Lee - introducing system analysis
and design Balagurusamy- object oriented programming with c++ Distribution
The names of the recipients hould be listed to inform the readers of the
report of others that are concerned.The presenter is advised to follow these hints
make contact with each member of the audience by looking at each one from time to
timeavoid as far as possible distracting mannerismsmake use of well rehearsed
visual aidsallow time for questions and feedback from the audienceadopt a natural
and comfortable stance and gestureaim by choice of languages to express rather than
impressvisual aids There are many kinds of visual aids they areFilms - are
useful as introductorm matrial but need to be carefully chosen. The requirement
for a darkened room and for time to load and unload the projector may be
distractingSlides - are more useful especially if employed with a daylight screen
because they can be made directly relevant to the presentationBlack or white board
are very flexible but have the disadvantages of not being portable tending to be
dirty to use and requiring the speakers to have his back to the audienceFlannel
boards and magnetic boards are useful for building up piecemeal diagrams and are
potable but require a lot of preparation for effective useFlipcharts are the
cheapest type of visual aid and can be used anywhere but they need to be neatly
drawn and cannot be reused if extra material is added during the presentation
Overhead projectors are the most successful visual aid they can be used in normal
lighting portable versions can be purchased.Standard documentation Firstly
standard documentation aids communication between people in the organization
because each person knows what to expect. If a user were to receive different
flowcharting symbols and conventions fro different analyst confusion would result.
Second standard documents assist in control of the data processing
development server staff can work simultaneously on projects and completion of
documents can be measure of progress and under standing by the team. Thirdly
standards help with training in that they are themselves an aid to learning because
they provide rules fro carrying out analysis and design activities they ensure
compatability of work between old staff and new documents aid the systems anlyst in
analysis and design work they provide a checklist of facts that have to be gathered
and considerd they speed up assimilation of new information and they promote early
transmission of facts from the investigation to the design stage..Old system file
It containing documents relating to the system at the time of the
investigation including related analysis document.New system file It contain
all documents related to the developing or implemented systemHistory file It
containing all ideas and proposals considered and rejected a copy of every
superseded document amendment notification and amendment logs.Project ReportsSTUDY
PROPASALTitle Page : report title and reference; author and department; month
and year of publication; distribution list.Summary : brief descripition of
the nature of the proposal; origination of the proposal; costs of the study;
anticipated completion date for the study;Proposed terms of reference :
description of the problem(s) of other requirement; the purpose and scope of
the study; constraints on the study in terms of cost ,timescale ,resources;
constraints to be placed on the outcome of the study;reporting mechanisms:
method ,timing ,method ,including progress control.Resource requirements :
manpower required for the study; departments directly or indirectly
involved in the study; additional resources anticipated. eg consultancy , computer
time ;Timetable for the studyOrganization and membership of the study team.SYSTEM
PROPOSALTitle page :-report title and references;-author and department; -month
and year of publication; -space for authorisation stamp/signature; -
distribution list.Contents list : -main and sub-headings with section/sheet
numbers.Summary : -objectives and proposals showing, in succinct form , the
identified needs of the user and how they will be met ; indicating if the needs
can be met using existing facilities or the extent to which new development and/or
equipment is required ; -costs of development , implementation , operation ; -
benefits; -(The Summary should not extend beyond one typewritten page.)
Recommendations : -a statement of the management decisions required for immediate
and future action assuming acceptance of the proposal ; -drafts terms of
reference for future work.Introduction and scope of study :-background to the study
; -references to previous reports ; -terms of references of study ; -scope
and objectives of the study and constraints(other systems both existing and
proposed) ; -the objectives to be met by the proposal and constraints on these
objectives ; -time and cost targets ; -modifications made during the
preceding study.Existing system : -relvant information on the organisaton and its
development ; -outline and evaluation of the existing system -existing and
anticipated problem areas.System requirements : -design requirements and
constraints of a new system ; interfaces with other systems(existing ,
proposal); -rules govering operations ;accuracy ;quality ;schedules ; cost ;
-evaluation criteria for the system when implemented ; -future
projections , extensibility , fluctuations.Proposed system : -outline of system
; -alternatives considered and rejected with reasons ; -implications of the new
system of interest to management ; -details of necessary re-organisation
(accommodation , staff ,deployment); -hardware and software ;
-support services ; -training ; -operating schedule ;
-security and/or audit ; -insurance ; -union interests.
Development and implementation plans : -outline showing main features of
organization proposed , major control points, manpower and external requirements ;
-broad schedule.Costs :-expenditure to date ;-estimate of costs to
continue/complete development ;-implementation/installation costs ;-operating
costs, compared with existing costs ;-(costs should be broken down into : manpower,
equipment ,software ,support services, consumables ,etc.)Benefits, quantified where
possible : -savings on current costs ; -better resource utilization ; -
information quality ; -improved control ;Appendices : -existing system
supporting information ; -proposed system supporting information ; -description
and evaluation of hardware, software, communications, environmental, power and
back-up requirements ; -detailed implementation plans, including additional
services required, file conversion, training, integration, changeover , controls
,target dates ; -development project organization ; -glossary of technical terms.
USER SYSTEM SPECIFICATION Introduction : brief introduction to the system ;
reasons for introducing changes ; statement of problems ; objectives of the
new system and expected benefits.Procedure summary : one page summary showing
major changes and explaining principles of the new system ;system outline ; system
flowchart.Procedure specifications : description of the clerical and
interactive procedures within the system ; brief description, using non-
technical terminology , of the objectives of the new/revised computer procedures.
Data : samples of mock-ups of input and output documents and displays ;
specification of new clerical files : summary description of computer
based data files, showing which files they replace,Supporting information :
organization chart showing lines of responsibility in terms of the new system
; document/department grid ;Changeover : plans for change to a new system ;
timescales, critical activities and workloadsOperations : anticipated
schedules deadlines and critical points.PROGRAM SUITE SPECIFICATION
USER MANUALTitle Page : title , author and author�s department ; month and year of
publication ; name ,department and telephone number of contact(s) in the event
of problems during the operation of the system and for general enquiries
concerning use of the system.Contents list : main and sub-heading with
section/sheet numbersSystem summary : as brief as possible and explained non-
technically. It should not to extend beyond one typewritten page.Clerical and
terminal input procedures : System Flowchart and description of the whole
system , including options, part-runs, etc ; Procedures Flowchart and procedure
description for each department involved or , for smaller systems, for each
function involved ; batching, controls, error detection and correction ;
timetable for any time-critical activities.Computer input documentation :
completed example of each document/display facing a page of description and
supported, as necessary by a Clerical Department Specification or Display
Specification ; conversation tables , codes ; handling of incorrect/incomplete
documents ; error correction.Computer output documentation : sample of each
output and explanation of contents ; distribution of output ; description
of possible error reports ; handling of errors.Non- computer documentation :
completed example of each document facing a page of description and supported
by Clerical Document Specification ; handling of faulty documents ; error
correction.Glossary of terms : explanation of any technical terms which the
user may be requires to understand. This may include the program names.Amendment
list.Operations Manual Title page : report title and reference; author and
department; month and year of initial publication; implementation date of
version to which manual refers.Contents list : main and sub-headings with
section/sheet numbers.Application details : Brief description of the
application including options, alternatives and exceptions to the main pattern.
Place of systems : brief note showing the inter-relationship(if any) of this
system with others.Summary of operations : System Outline ; System Flowchart
Computer Run Chart ; File/program grid ;Timetable : frequency of
runs(all types); relationship to calendar periods/weeks ; min/max/average duration
; priorities ; commencement date (actual/expected).Computer reqirements :
store/partition size ; input/output and backing ; peripherals job
streaming(for multiprogramming); priority ranking(where used);Input data : source
of input documents ; samples of each type of document ; min/max/average
quantities ; punching and verification instructions and layout ; controls ,eg
batching ; arrival schedule ,estimated punching times ; Procedure Flowchart ;
who is responsible for queries/checking ; destination of input documents when
punched.Files : purpose of each file ; medium requirements min/max ; number of
reels, packs ,etc ; identifiers ; labels to be provided before
/during run cycling ; purge dating ; retention ; references from/to other
systems ; security ; physical position in library ;Output data : samples of
each type of output media ; off-line requirements ; Document specification(s);
other requirements, eg retention, collating, enveloping ; Procedure
Flowchart.Programs : identifiers of programs involved ,including packages and
software ; authors ; dates of current versions ; who is responsible for faults
;Operating procedures(normal); sequence of events through each run ;
controls, actions required of operator ; full list of monitor reports ,
replies with samples ; peripheral loading and unloading ;Operating
procedures(abnormal); full list of failure reports and actions to be taken;
actions to be taken for other failures ; contacts in event of failures.
Operating procedures(restart); actions to be taken to restart runs , after a
failure, with particular reference to any other system which may need rerunning
prior to restart.Amendment list.TEST DATA FILESTitle Page :title and reference ;
author and department ; date ;Contents : Main and sub-headings with
chapter/sheet numbers.Testing philosophy : describe the approach to testing of
the system ; identify and distinct stages or timing considerations ; if the
testing involves the creation of complex conditions ,explain how these may set
up ; emphasize any aspects of the test which are likely to be overlooked or areas
which may prove troublesome or critical ;File creation : test data for creation
programs will be in the same form as the data for setting up the live master
files .Files will be checked for validity of format and accuracy of data. Check
record controls and file security.Program suite input : data conversion ; data
transmission/Remote Job Entry ; data control ; computer validation ; error
routines and correction procedures.Program suite output : user acceptance of
program output ; form design ; data control procedures ; data
transmission ;Input/output handling : each procedure will be checked for
accuracy and understanding, ambiguity, timing and staff confidence ; completion
of input documents ; maintenance of clerical files ; checking the documents ;
delivery of output and inspection ; distribution of output ;
actioning and turn-round of documents ; error procedures ; contact with
computer operations department.Test data : test data listing and data
preparation documents.CHANGEOVER INSTRUCTIONSUser Departments Changeover
InstructionsTitle page : title, author and author�s department ; month and
year of publication ; name ,department and telephone number of contact(s) in the
event of problems during the period of changeover and/or for general enquiries
concerning the changeover itself.Contents list : main-subheading with
section/sheet numbers.Introduction brief introduction to the new system ;
reasons for introducing changes ; outline of the method of
changeover, including main schedule dates ; brief description of ancillary
services available for the changeover.Clerical and terminal input procedures *
Procedure flowchart and produce description for each department involved in
the changeover or for smaller system for each function involved ; controls ,
error detection and correction ; start and finish dates for each stage or phase
in the changeover.Computer input documentation : completed example of each
document/display facing a page of description and supported, as necessary by a
Clerical Department Specification or Display Specification ; conversation
tables , codes ; handling of incorrect/incomplete documents ; error correction.
Computer output documentation : sample of
each output and explanation of contents ; distribution of output ;
description of possible error reports ; handling of errors.Non- computer
documentation : completed example of each document facing a page of description
and supported by Clerical Document Specification ; handling of faulty
documents ; error correction.Glossary of terms : explanation of any technical
terms which the user may be requires to understand.Amendment listOperations
Department Changeover InstructionsTitle page : title author ,author�s department ;
month and year of publication ; start and finish dates of changeover
period ;Contents list : main and sub-headings with section/sheet numbers.
Introduction : for a new application ,a brief description: for a replacement
,reference to the old system and a brief description of the changes to be made
outline of the methods of changeover and of integration with other systems.
Timetable :schedule of the file creation conversion runs showing expected
durations and volumes ;schedule of any other special runs required during the
changeover period ;fallback and recovery requirements in the event of a halt being
called to the changeover. the contents of these
sections of the Computer requirements changeover instructions will
be as for the Input data Operations Manual but will
describe the Files :- procedures etc
necessary to accomplish Output data the
changeover and also any non-normalPrograms
activities on other systems and on the Operating Procedures system being
replaced, during the period of changeover.SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTTitle page :
title ,references ; author(s) and department(s); month and
year of publication ; distribution list ;Contents list : main and
sub-headings with section/sheet numbers.Summary : brief re-appraisal of the
objective of the system; reference to original proposals; brief statement of
conclusions, indicating any aspects of the system which are unsatisfactory and
stating what objectives have been achieved ; brief statement of any difference
of opinion between users, designers and operations;Recommendations : proposed
changes to the system or its environment and justification for the proposals ;
effects of proposals on user and operations departments; recommended short-
term management decisions, assuming acceptance of the proposed changes ; draft
terms of reference for further work.System performance : summary of all available
performance statistics and comparison with estimates; computer time charged
resources related to data volumes and transaction ; growth rate of files and
transactions; manpower requirement for clerical system ;
turn-round times for user department and operations efficiency of
security procedures and quality control checks; error rates for clerical
operation and data conversion entry; delays attributable to operational
problems ; suitability of rerun and restart procedures , back-up and
standby arrangements ; the effect of changes in the environment on the
performance of the system ; summary of program amendments and the causes ;
relevance to the system of any new techniques or technological advances ;
changes in company policy or other external influences which affect the
performance of the system ; the attitude to the system of the user at all levels
from management to operative ; reactions from the customers or external bodies
; attitude of the computer staff ; comparison the user being made of
computer output with the potential usefulness ; any unplanned uses for output or
any redundancies ; verification that superseded clerical system have been
discontinued ; effect on related system which have been influenced by system
under review ; outstanding problems arising from this appraisal of performance
of the system
, including a statement of the degree of adherence to standards and relevance of
instruction and procedures specified in User and Operations Manuals.Cost/benefit
reviewpresent system operation cost;unplanned development or activities which have
provided additional benefit;any excessive cost with possible justification ;
explanation of benefits expected but not achieved;a subjective, independent
assessment of the expected intangible benefits ;forecast of any long term benefits
which could yet be realized.
Chapter 8 Analysing user requirementsTools of analysis The
tools of analysis are not complex. They consist of list, structure charts, grid
charts and flowcharts.Lists Objectives, decisions, data etc, need to be recorded.
If each such item is a separate entity (is no item is a subclass of any other), a
simple list of the items and their attributes is adequate. The items of data on the
Clerical Document Specification provide an example. Where one item in a list can be
divided into several items at a lower level of detail, it is necessary to show this
in some form of structure.Structure charts Probably the best known
representation of a structure is the �family tree�, as used in the organization
chart. Where the structure is very complex, or where there are many items at one
level, a structured list provides a more convenient and compact format. Having
divided the factor we are considering into its component parts we now need a means
of systematically comparing each part with each other part. The appropriate tool is
the grid chart.Grid Charts Grid charts were examined in the last chapter as an
aid to fact-finding. Their use in analyzing facts is now indicated. A grid chart
consists essentially of two lists, one enter vertically, the other horizontally,
with the intersecting squares showing the relationship. Different sets of facts are
entered, and different codes used to show different relationships. Thus the grid
chart can assist in moving from one complex set of factors to the next. Flow charts
A flowchart caters fro both parts of the analysis process. It divides a
procedure into its parts and shows the logical relationships between the pats. It
can also show relationships between steps in a procedure and the date used by, or
produced by, the procedure. A flowchart can be analysis in detail, with each symbol
being queried ( �How does the operation document, or file contribute to system
objectives?�)Steps in Analysis The logical steps in analysis are shown. In
outline, in figure. # SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT #### At each step it is necessary to:
-identify the relevant facts, and establish the relationships between them:-
compare that set of facts with the set at each adjoining step and establish the
relationships between the fact in these sets.Objectives results Analysis starts
with the objectives of the system. Before considering details such as data or
procedures, a list of the results of the system needs to be rigorously compared
with a list of the stated objectives. If there is no discrepancy, then either there
is no point in continuing g the investigation or the objectives have not been
properly formulated. An example of such a combination is shownResults/actions
If the investigation is to continue, similar lists need to be drawn up
comparing the results with the actions which cause those results. The actions may
be clerical processes, in which case they are within the scope of the systems
analysts, or they may be physical processes which fall outside that scope. In
either case, if there is reason to suspect that the source of dissatisfaction lies
in any of these processes, a case needs to be made to management for an
investigation by appropriately qualified staff.Actions/instructions Action other
than accidental ones, occur as a result of instructions. The same list of actions
now needs to be compared with a list of the instructions which give rise to those
actions. The instructions may emanate from a data processing function or from
management. They may be ambiguous, indecipherable, mutually contradictory, late or
may never arrive at all. If incorrect actions are taken as a result of some fault
in the instructions, this needs to be followed up and the faults identified. It is
worth nothing that there are often several different views of a system given to the
systems analyst, e.g.:what the manager thinks is done;what the operator thinks the
manager wants done;what the manager tells the operator to do;what the instructions
say should be done;what the operator thinks the systems analyst wants to know.
Actions/notification If the data held is to be accurate, there must be a
feedback of each action completed into the data processing system (which need not
of course be computer-based). The notification may be for individual actions, or
for the total number of a given action taking place per our, day or week. It may be
done on paper, by word of mouth, or be some mechanical or electronic means. In
order to be sure that this is being carried out accurately, it is necessary to
compare the actions taken with a representative sample of the notifications of
those actins as received by the data processing system.Instructions/decisions
If the instructions derive routinely from the data processing system them it
is time to start examining the processes. If the instructions come from management,
there is a need to compare the instructions which reach the action point with the
decisions taken by management, to ensure that there is no failure in communication.
Again, tow lists should be all that is necessary for rigorous and effective
comparison to be made.Decisions/information Decisions are taken on the
basis of information. Not all the information that a manager uses fro a given
decision comes from a data processing system. It may come from specialist adviser�s
external sources, or the manager�s own files or memory.Information/data and
data/procedures Information is data organized in meaningful from. The various
items or information required now need to be compared with the items of data
available. The source of such data my be outside the system (from suppliers,
customers, government departments, etc) or from within the system, in the from of
notifications. The data may be input on each occasion or may be stored as master
data within the system. The formal comparison is carried out using an Input/Output
grid cart. A separate grid is drawn up fro each individual output. Some of the
items required as output may be identical to items already is the system, while
some may be produced a s result of some procedure acting on one or more items in
the system. These different categories will become apparent as a result of the
comparison made on the input/output grid.Analyzing the procedures The main
check to be done on any procedures developed at this stage is to see that no
unnecessary steps are included. The method consists simply of questioning what is
achieved by each procedure. A comparison also needs to be made between the
procedures required to produce routine outputs and those required to produce
management information, particularly with regard to frequency. If the system is to
be computer-based, effort has to be devoted to identifying the procedures suited to
computerization, and those to be handled manually.Analyzing the organization
structure As part of all the above steps the systems analyst will be considering
the appropriateness of the current organization structure, but at some stage this
question must be tackled specifically. Initially the analyst must take a conceptual
approach, treating the organization as though new, and asks the questions �why does
the department exist? Why does the application exist? What is its purpose? Is it
fulfilling that purpose efficiently?� then the activities of each department must
be examined carefully. The analyst must look for unnecessary or redundant
functions, duplication of responsibilities, and too much or too little
communication, complaints from people who deal with the department, high
absenteeism, and frequent, heavy overtime. These are all indicative of a need for
changes.Statistical analysis Statistical techniques should be used whenever
applicable, e.g. to determine sample sizes, to classify data into useful, logical
groupings, to isolate the important/significant from the irrelevant, to compare
relative values, and to illustrate and compare trends and rates of change. This
quantitative information will assist in the design of the computer system as well
as pinpoint problem areas at the analysis stage. Chapter 9 Logical system
DefinitionDesign Obejectivies At an early stage in defining a new system, the
systems analyst must have clear understanding of the objectives which the design is
aiming to fulfill. Theses objectives must b established by management and included
in the terms of reference fro the project. There is usually more than one way of
achieving a desired set of results. The acceptable design is likely to be a
compromise between a number of factors; particularly, cost, reliability, accuracy,
security, control, integration, expansibility, availability, and acceptability.Cost
Cost is associated with the two activities of development and operation.
Development comprises all the stages from initial design to successful
implementation. Operation includes data preparation, processing, and handling of
output and consumables (particularly paper).Reliability This includes the
robustness of the design, availability of alternative computing facilities in the
event of breakdown, and the provision of sufficient equipment and staff to b handle
peak loads (whether seasonal or cyclical).Accuracy The level of accuracy needs
to be appropriate to the purpose. For instance, the accounts of an individual
customer will probably be kept to the nearest penny, whereas the monthly sales fro
a region may only be required to the nearest $1000. for each defined level a
balance needs to be achieved between avoidance of error and the cost of avoiding
the errors.Security There are many aspects to security, but the ones which
particularly concern the systems analyst are confidentiality, privacy, and security
of data. ConfidentialitySome information, vital to the success of a firm, could
cause severe damage if it reached the hands of competitors. The system has to
ensure that only authorized staffs have access to such information. PrivacyThis
concerns information about the individual employee or members of the employee�s
family. If the personnel file or the payroll file if held on the computer, the
design of the system must guard against any unauthorized access to the information.
Data securityIf the data held on computer files is incorrect, then the system
objectives cannot be achieved. Measures are needed to guard against alteration or
destruction of data, whether accidental or intentional.Control The system would
give management the facility to exercise effective control over the activities of
the organization. One way is the provision of relevant and timely information,
particularly by extracting the important information from the mass of available but
less important information: this is the principle of �exception reporting�, able to
produce ad hoc reports. Another essential approach is routing control of goods and
monies handled.Integration The different systems which make use of any item of
information may be designed at different points in time: there is a need for
consistent documentation, regardless of who is doing the design.Expansibility
Any system needs to be able to cope with seasonal or cyclical variations in
volume. Estimates need to be made of volume tends, and there has to be provision
fro handling whatever load the trends predict fro the expected life of the system.
Availability It is the responsibility of the systems analyst to ensure that
all the resources required to make the system work are available at the planed
implementation time. These can include buildings, hardware, software, stationery,
computer operations staff and procedure manuals, as well as the fully tested and
working system.Acceptability A system which the analyst believes to be perfect is
certain to fail unless it has the support of the user departments and management,
as well as the support of programming and computer operations.Outline design of
outputs and inputs# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS Once THE
outputs, inputs and stored data have been definer, it is necessary to decide what
procedures ar required to process the inputs, keep the records up-to-date and
produce the outputs. There are two major areas fro concern here: firstly, which
procedures should be handled by the computer and which b human beings; and
secondly, what type of computer processing required.Partitioning into computer and
manual subsystems This is one of the major problem areas for the systems analyst-
deciding which parts of the system can/should be computerized � and is one in which
judgement and experience are important. One essential point is that the systems
analyst should not set out to �put everything on the computer�; this is not
feasible in most instances, because complex, open systems require human
interaction.Batch or on-line processing The decision about the nature of
processing in the system will be influenced by a large number of factors, including
response time, frequency, data volumes, hardware constraints(especially for data
collection), security requirements, and cost.Response time Response time refers to
the maximum acceptable time interval between a request for information and its
receipt by a user. There are not many system which require immediate response after
full processing of input data; a day and sometimes even a week is perfectly
adequate in most cases. But for those systems which require fast response, some
type of on-line system is required.Frequency Frequency refers to how often the
users require to retrieve information from the computer system. This may be at
regular or varying intervals, but is not usually time �critical. For systems which
require up-to-date information about the state of a file , again the file will need
to be updated in on-line mode.Data volumes One of the factors which will
greatly affect the cost of an on-line system is the volume of data at specific
points in time. For example, if sales orders are entered on-line, the n the system
must be able to cope with the peak loading which may be seasonal. The order entry
load in the weeks before Christmas for a mail order company may require a system
fro that period which is much larger than is needed for the rest of the year.
Hardware constraints One of the major constraints on the type of processing is
of course hardware availability in the organization. Data which cannot be easily
keyed in cannot be handled easily in an on-line transaction processing system.
Usually, data collection facilities are the limiting factor in the decision whether
to go on-line.Security requirements The security requirements of a system can have
a significant impact on the nature of processing in the proposed system. Security
is more expensive and more difficult to achieve in an on-line system. This makes
severe demands on the system designer.Cost Finally, cost can be an inhibiting
factor. Usually the cost of on-line processing cannot be justified in simple
comparison with the previous system. User system specification #
Physical System design
Interactive Nature of logical and Physical design#CHAPTER 14SYSTEM SECURITYRISK
MANAGEMENTThe major steps in the method known as the risk management approach for
providing cost-effective security are:identification of assets;identification of
threats;measurement of threats;identification and measurement of
countermeasures(safeguards);selection of countermeasures for the risk control
programme on a cost-effectiveness basis;implementation of the risk control
programme;Monitoring and review of the risk control programme.Threats can should be
described quantitatively so that someone can decide how much protection each should
receive.For any threat, the exposure equation E=N * I expresses the exposure (E) of
the threat (the expected value of the loss per year due to the threat) in pounds
(�), dollars ($), etc, per year as the product of the expected frequency of
occurrence (N) of the threat (the number of times per year that the threat is
expected to occur) and the impact (I) of the threat ( the expected value of the
loss per occurrence of the threat).A study by IBM has indicated that classes of
threats may be arranged in the following order according to their frequency of
occurrence:errors and omissions (over 50% of all threats)dishonest employees;fire;
disgruntled employees;water;intruders and other threats (under 5% of all threats).
THE PROTECTION OF A COMPUTER SYSTEMThere are four possible ways of handling a
threat. One is to avoid it by altering the design or the specification of the
system in some way. This may mean deleting some feature from the system or
deferring the introduction of some feature.Another method is to transfer the threat
to another organization by means of a contract or by insurance. Insurance will
always have an important role to play in any risk control programme, including the
computer security programme.A third method is threat retention. An organization
can carry many trivial threats itself. This means that the systems analyst (or a
specialist on this problem) estimates what the loss will be and is prepared to bear
that loss, as though it were a affixed operational overhead. This is referred to
as active retention.Finally there is threat reduction. This means that the value
of the exposure (E) of the threat is reduced by a countermeasure, which has the
effect of reducing the frequency of occurrence (N) of the threat, or the impact (I)
of the threat, or both.Specifying security measuresSecurity measures for a computer
system should be specified at an early stage in the life cycle of the system, so
that they can be planned in detail during the system design stage and the system as
it is being developed.During system operation, management should allocate
responsibility for the enforcement of security procedures. Each employee should
knew and understand what procedures each is required to comply with and what the
penalties are for non-compliance.Responsibilities for security may be allocated for
the following areas of a system;hardware;software;data and documentation;
communications;environmental;personnel;physical access;system access;administrative
procedures;the development and implementation of contingency and recovery paln;the
testing and review ( the auditing) of normal and stand-by modes of system
operation.SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSThe controls which are built into a system
must not only detect the occurrence of an error but also locate it and provide some
means of recovery from it; where necessary they should also restrict access to
particular data and users.ErrorsThe principle sources of error in computer systems
are hardware failure on a file handling device which destroys a file physically or
prevents access to it, software errors, operator mistakes, invalid data and program
errors causing corruption of files.Hardware failureHardware errors on peripheral
devices are normally handled by the operating system. The errors which persist
after recovery measures have been exhausted are considerable to be permanent
errors.Permanent errors fall within the scope of program level and system level
error recovery. Recovery from a permanent input/output error depends, to some
extent, on the hardware considerations.Software errorsThese are unpredictable. If
they could be predicted, they would not be permitted to exist. Prevailing
conditions largely determine to what extent a particular software error is
acceptable.Operator mistakesNo manual procedure is entirely reliable and for that
reason systems should always be designed to minimize operator intervention. To
minimized in any necessary intervention, the action required from the operator
should be standardized as far as possible.Invalid dataErrors in primary input data
should be detected by the validation procedures. Under no circumstances should
errors in data to be allowed to cause unscheduled interruptions in the operation of
a system. Such an interruption would, therefore, be deemed a program error, caused
either by faulty programming or inadequate system design. Errors can occur in
system control data, such as job control parameters; where software checks are
inadequate to detect these at the earliest possible time, the system should check.
Program errorsThese may be caused by the systems analyst or the programmer but the
systems analyst should anticipate possible errors and design the system with as
little ambiguity and as much clarity as possible. The system should detect errors
as early as possible in the operating cycle.Data preparation and captureControls
for data preparation and capture should be established as near the point of data
capture as possible. Data input to a system must be accurate, and the integrity of
data held in the system must be maintained.A number of points should be borne in
mind:precautions should be taken to prevent the deliberate entry of corrupt data or
the accidental loss of genuine data (e.g. use of serial numbers on input
documents);controls should be established for batches of input documents ( or
individual ones) which can be reconciled with computer produced controls and
batches should be sequenced;inaccurate input data should be corrected and re-input
within a well-defined timescale and subject to rigorous controls;control and
validation procedures should be equally strict for normal processing and for
emergency processing.Master file protection and reconstructionThe procedure for
preventing data loss or corruption and providing for reconstruction of data in the
event of a loss constitute a most important aspect of security.File protectionThis
is provided by interacting hardware, software and system factor. Protection
provided by hardware includes;device interlocks;file mask facility on direct access
devices;parity checking;the use of write/permit rings.Device interlocks prevent any
interruption or termination of input or output, once commenced and contribute
towards prevention of corruption of data by any hardware or operator error.A file
mask can be set for any direct access file, specifying hardware rejection of
specific sets of commands: - all seek instructions, thus preventing inadvertent
head movement; - all write instructions, thus preventing corruption of an input
file;- all subsequent attempts to set the file mask, thus protecting the integrity
of the hardware protection system.Software protection includes comprehensive
label checking. Direct access labelsusually incorporate complex controls for
read/write or read only, where multiple programs are to access a file.File
reconstructionThis involves different approaches to the two principal types of file
organization: Sequential organization, including serial files;Random
organization, including indexed sequential files which are nor processed strictly
sequentially.Back-upBack-up for the hardware, the data and the system is totally
bound up with file reconstruction. It refers to the support available to an
installation for use when one or more pieces of equipment necessary for the normal
operation of any system become inoperable for any significant period of time.
Hardware back-upThis can be illustrated by considering a magnetic tape
installation. It is often advisable to have at least one tape deck more than is
required for the running of any system. Either one deck more than the maximum
requirement should be provided or al applications should be designed to run with
one deck less than the total complement. In the event of failure to one tape deck,
processing can continue.Data back-upThis represents insurance against actual loss
of data due to equipment malfunction, program failure for accident. The type of
data back-up feasible depends largely on the size of master files.System back-upA
system maintaining a large file, on a fixed disk, may have a requirement to
continue operating, even when the disk is inoperable. If so, an alternative
processing scheme must be designed which will permit the system to continue
functioning. In the worst situation the system may require back-up clerical
procedures to ensure continued operation in the event of a prolonged breakdown.
Checklist of back-up copiesBack-up copies are required ideally for the following:
system documentation;program documentation;operating procedures documentation;
program source desk or tapes;operating system tapes or disk packs;master files,
transaction files, report files;form masters.File controlsThe file security and
processing checks imposed by hardware and software go a long way towards ensuring
accurate processing. It is necessary, however, to ascertain that not only have
files been read and written accurately but also that all the
transaction data has been accurately processed. There are two main methods of
controlling this.One is to recreate the control totals established on input as a
check against the input control totals. These may be;quantity or value totals;hash
totals;item counts;Control against misuseA file consists of many differing types of
information and it is necessary to consider how confidential information, such as,
the overall state of trading of a given commercial company or information relating
to criminal convictions can be kept secure. Two main areas of security must be
considered:- the prevention of access to stored data without permission, i.e. the
exclusion of invalid enquiries;- prevention of unauthorized alternation, such as, a
salesman entering incorrect statistics into a system so as to receive,
fraudulently, commissions not due, or the alteration of a credit limit.Controls can
be exercised at two points:access to the system;access to individual files.Access
to the system The first security measure is to predefine all actions which are
allowed at particular terminals; it is useful to be able to identify the channel or
line used by the terminal. Then appropriate measures should be provided for access
control.Access can be restricted to certain users, certain terminals, groups of
users or groups of terminals, or a combination of these. Passwords should be only
known by staff who need to know them and should be periodically changed; if a
password falls into the hands of an unauthorized user it should be possible to
delete it from the system immediately and to monitor any attempts to use it.Access
to filesAccess to given files can be restricted, using software routines which
compare the access authority of a given user trying to access a file with the
authority required for access, stored within the leader or header of the file.
Such restrictive checks must be incorporated into the executive program, and store
accesses routed via such a portion of the executive. In certain instances this can
apply a high overhead to the processor time to executive a job.Database management
system (DBMS)Database Management Systems present particular problems for various
reasons, one of which is the fact that they are implemented by vendors or mainframe
manufacturers and are shared software systems. Thus their mode of working is well
known to anyone working elsewhere with the same implementation. Control is
essentially in the hands of the Database Administrator (DBA), or a staff member
charged with that extra responsibility, who is the key figure in terms of both the
efficiency and security of the database. Moreover, the increased integration of
files creates additional problems.OutputSecurity measures need to be applied to
output just as much as input. Output must be clearly and legibly addressed to
avoid mis-direction; and where confidential data is involved, there should be clear
definition of who is allowed to access various classes of output. Output
validation checks should be carried out by program to ensure the credibility and
integrity of the output data.The cost of security measuresMeasures can be justified
in terms of the amount of computer time that would be wasted if no recovery
mechanism were included in the system; also by showing that these maximize the
productive computer time available, as opposed to alternative methods; and finally,
in terms of the service the computer installation provides for the organization.The
cost of error recovery may be considered in two categories:immediate cost;
continuing cost.Immediate costError recovery procedures require more designing,
programming, coding, testing and documentation time. Sometimes the additional
programming can be separated into independent programs and subroutines included in
processing programs. The more work each recovery subroutines performs, the more
main storage will be required for each program accessing direct access files. This
can affect the ability to multiprogram. Additional main storage requirements need
to be balanced against the impact on the size of the independent recovery programs.
Continuing costThe cost of maintaining several generations of reconstruction data
needs to be evaluated against the cost of having to reconstruct data manually. The
degree of data protection required will depend on:the type of amount of data to be
protected;the extent to which data is vulnerable to destruction;the frequency of
processing;the extent to which data is altered during proessing.CHAPER 15FORMS
DESIGNCONTENTThe content of the form involves all the words, spaces, boxes, etc,
that are to appear on the blank form, including the title of the form and any
instructions for its use.TitleThe title should be brief and meaningful to the
users, and normally the last word should be a noun. If a form has a long title
such as �Advice of Goods ready for Inspection and Despatch�, it is not surprising
to find users substituting a shorter name. if the particular form was pink in
colour, then it might be called �The Pink�, which of course would cause confusion
with any other pink forms. Most forms include a stationary reference number to be
used for ordering supplies.Detailed headingsThe words used for detailed headings
will depend on the background of the typical users form, their level of
intelligence, and whether or not the form is part of their job.Headings should
always be as brief as possible but meaning should not be sacrificed for be sake of
brevity. The typical user�s need should be borne in mind, including both
originators and subsequent interpreters of the information, and headings should
always be tried out before they are included in the eventual form.Instructions for
completionIdeally, item headings will be self explanatory, and, if separate
instructions are required, great care should be taken to keep them clear and crisp.
If possible, instructions should be seen at the same time as the heading or
question. It is annoying to have to search for instructions.When as instruction is
critical, such as �USE CAPITAL LETTERS�, it should be seen before the person fills
in the entry and not following the entry or at the foot of the page.Pre-printed
optionsThis method is particularly useful for questionnaires, where a free-form
reply would give a problem if interpretation before analysis. This does not
dispose of the problem of interpretation, however; it transfers it to the person
completing the form. It therefore imposes on the designer the responsibility for
ensuring that the words used have the same meaning for all possible originators,
and that the options are mutually exclusive and cover all normal answers. If there
can be other possible answers, a space should be given for a free-form reply.LAYOUT
Having determined the content of the form the next stage is to design an
appropriate layout.Direction of paperBefore planning any detail of the layout, it
is necessary to decide whether to layout the form vertically or horizontally.
Factors to be taken into consideration are: amount of data, environment of the
originator, equipment used, mailing and filing.It is usually easier to handle and
file paper with the long side vertical, and it is probably convenient to regard
this as the standard. Exceptions are such things as ledger cards, designed to be
filed upright, and usually requiring a number of columns, and any other form
requiring either a number of columns or some particularly wide columns.Title and
referencesOnce the form has been completed, the identification which matters is not
either the title or the stationary reference, but the filing reference. This
should be in a prominent position. Where the form will be filed by its left-hand
edge, the best position for the reference is the top right-hand corner. This
leaves the top left-hand corner as the obvious place for the title. The position
of the stationary reference is not important, so long as it is standard for all
forms in the organization and does not obtrude on the space required for the filing
reference.Entry headingsIt is important the printed words and headings be close to
or within the space to which they refer. A common fault is to allow so much space
for the heading that it is not clear whether the entry is to go in the same space
as the heading or in a alongside or breath it. If the heading is within the box,
it should be placed as far as possible into the top left-hand corner.Entry
sequencesIt is not uncommon for the ideal sequence for the originator to be
different from the ideal sequence for an interpreter, or even for different
interpreters to require different sequences. It is essential to capture the data
correctly; it is no good having a perfect layout for transcribing nonsense. The
originator should not necessarily be expected to arrange data in the order it will
be used by the computer: rearranging data is one job that computers do extremely
well.Size and shape of entry spacesA from giving a satisfactory overall appearance
is likely to be a series of compromises, but an ideal size and shape should be
decided on for each entry before any compromise begins.The space allowed should be
more than that required for the average entry, but for some exceptional entries it
may be necessary to use a �notes� space, the reverse of the form or an attached
sheet.The kind of data will determine the shape allowed are more important than the
actual dimension must be greater, or if it consists of several sets of figures then
the vertical dimension should be the greater.Filing and gripping marginsIt is not
necessary for every form to have a margin drawn all the way round it; this only
serves to decrease the space available for entries. If one edge is to be punched
for filing, it should be left
completely clear of information. If the form is to be used with particular
equipment, such as a typewriter or a duplicator, it is important to see that
appropriate gripping edges are kept free of information. If it is to be used with
particular input devices then clearly the layout and especially the margins must be
related to the special equipment requirements.MAKE-UPThe term make-up is used to
denote all the physical features of a form apart from the printing and the paper.
It includes the joining together of forms as sets, in pads or as continuous
stationary, the provision by the printer of interleaved carbons or of any chemical
coating for making copies, and any punching or perforating required. Making-up may
well cost more than both paper and printing. A comparison needs to be made between
the additional cost of make-up and the saving in user time, stationary wastage, or
errors which would arise from not incurring the make-up cost/PRINTINGThe printer
should not be expected to guess at requirements; orecise instructions need to be
given, especially on critical dimensions, to enable him to realize the design, and
should produce proofs to allow the designer to approve the finished product a large
quantity is run off.Single or double sided printingThe question of whether to print
a form on both sides assumes that the amount of information required needs more
than one side of the paper; there is no merit in spreading over two sides if one
side is sufficient. Multi-sheet forms should be avoided if at all possible, since
they cause additional problems in storing, mailing, typing and retrieving.Double
sided forms are not possible with chemically coated copying papers. Loose carbons
can be used, but this is time-consuming. There is also a limitation on the number
of copied that can be produced by this method, since double-sided forms need to be
of thicker paper than single sided ones.Serial numberingThe price of a form is only
marginally increased by serial numbering, since this facility is available on
standard printing machines. However, there is no reason for specifying serial
numbering on every form. It adds to the problem of storing and issuing forms,
since, to satisfy the purpose of serial numbering, there is normally a requirement
to use the lower serial numbers first.The advantage that serial numbering provides
is security, particularly with documents such as cheques or invoices, which could
be used as a means of obtaining money.Use of linesThe essential purpose of lines on
forms is to separate one area from another. On aesthetic grounds the use of many
different line thicknesses is to be avoided; two thicknesses are usually adequate.
A thick line can be useful to separate different group of items, or to make
individual items stand out, for instance, where selected items are to be punched.
Where related entries are to be made by hand in a number of columns, faint
guidelines are desirable, particularly from the point of view of later
interpretation of the entries.Type facesThe number of different type faces should
also be kept to a minimum. A mixture of upper and lower case is to be preferred to
all capitals, being easier to read. It is best to reserve capitals for use as
headings for grouped items.Type sizesSize of type face is expressed in �points�, a
point being approximately 1/72� vertically. This is not the size of the letter
itself, but the distance between rows. The size selected must obviously depend on
the space available, but other criteria are the age of the typical user-since
eyesight deteriorates with age-and the lighting conditions in which the form will
be used.ColourA form is to be completed in black ink, the entries will stand out
better if the headings are in different colour, green being the colour recommended
for best legibility. It is important that what stands out after completion is the
entry rather than the heading, but this can usually be adequately catered for with
black printing by position and type size of the heading. The exception is where
the only printing required is a guide-line, as on line-printer stationary.Internal
or external printingWhere the organization is equipped with offset litho machines,
there will be a useful economy in printing all straightforward forms internally,
even if the artwork is done externally. Using this method, it is possible to get
professional results but at a low cost of printing, and with the facility to print
and store small quantities. It is usually uneconomic to use internal facilities
for printing complex forms, particularly multi-part forms, for which specialist
printers are properly equipped.PAPERIt is not enough to get the design right; the
right design with the wrong paper may make the system unworkable.SizeThe minimum
size of a form is determined by the sum of the spaces required for the individual
entries, where these can be pre-determined. If the space required for some entries
is not predictable, the space allowed should cater for all but the rare exceptions,
with directions for where any �overflow� should be entered.The normal size is based
on the �A� series of the ISO. The most common size is A4, which measures 210mm X
297mm. A5 is half this size and so on through A6, A7 etc,WeightPaper is measured
in grams per sq meter (gsm). The most common weights are- 49 gsm: normally
used for typing copy paper and suitable for most internal single-sided forms- 61
gsm: used for normal letterheads and suitable for any single-sided form not
subject to long term repeated handling;- 73 gsm: suitable for any double-sided
printing and repeated handling;- 96 gsm: standard for use with high-speed optical
reading devices.ConstructionThe internal construction of the paper determines its
strength and opacity. For most purposes it is not critical, but there are
exceptions, where paper is to be used in high-speed equipment, subjected to
handling over a number of years or repeated impressions and erasures, or where
translucency for copying is required.CHAPTER 21MAINTENANCE AND REVIEWAMENDMENT
PROCEDURESSystems should not be changed casually following informal requests.
Changes in one area may affect others. Major amendments should be treated as
small-scale development projects, requiring resources, terms of reference,
planning, scheduling and controlling. The tasks can be specified, allocated to
individuals, scheduled and controlled to target dates.To avoid unauthorized
amendments, all requests for changes should be channeled to a person nominated by
management. The nominated person should have sufficient knowledge of the
organization�s computer-based systems to be able to judge the relevance of each
proposed change.All amendments should be completed to their priority and scheduled
target dates, especially where a discretionary priority rating exists.Procedure
requirementsIn defining local procedures, certain general objects may be
identified:any member of staff should have the means available for raising an
amendment;any amendment must receive a suitable level of authorization;each
amendment must be scrutinized by someone not involved with the original proposal;a
procedure should be designed to minimize delay in implementing the amendment;the
procedures must nor violate existing channels of communication.Procedure selection
and definition will depend on local priorities which determine the importance of
the amendment. The following factors be considered:effect of the amendment on the
objectives of the system;present state of the system (development, projected or
operational);source of the amendment;complexity and size of the changes required;
effect of the amendment on other systems;effect of the amendment on users or other
parts of the organization;effect of the amendment on data security.Amendment
documentationMost data processing departments have forms for authorizing and
controlling amendments. Examples of three such forms are:Amendment Notification
Amendment LogAmendment ListThe Amendment Notification is designed for this purpose;
it provides, independently of the author for verification and authorization of the
amended specification.The Amendment Log, prepared initially with the Amendment
Notification, records the estimated and actual completion of each of the activities
defined by the author.The Amendment List provides a permanent record of all the
amendments made to any of the documents within a documentation file: it is useful
reference to keep at the end of each file. The serial number is the amendment
number entered on the corresponding Amendment Notification.Maintenance group
Responsibility for the maintenance of a particular system must be allocated before
any requirement for changes arises. It is unwise for this responsibility to rest
with the original designer after �changeover�. SYSTEMS AUDITThe systems audit is an
investigation to review the performance of an operating system. The investigation
and evaluation may be carried out: by a systems analyst, preferably one who was not
responsible for the original design; by representatives of users, computer
operations, or internal auditors; or by a team composed of these representatives.
The detailed tasks to be carried for this investigation are based on a checklist of
the contents required for the systems audit report. They are summarized under two
main headings:system performacecost/benefitSystem performanceThe investigation
should start by making contact with the manager of the user departments, not only
to deal with the normal formalities but, in particular, to establish:whether or not
the manager is satisfied with the performance of the system, and if not, what are
the reasonsthe operational aspects: whether the procedures are causing prolems, and
if any change
have been madechanges in volumes of data, information, paper handling and their
effect on the systemamendment requests: whether they have been implemented
correctly; whether there are any pendingCost/benefitsHere the actual costs and
benefits are compared with those planned, showing any deviation from expectations.
The causes of any deviation of costs or benefits from those planned should be
established and stated. This may arise from:unplanned pay increaseschanged methods
of computer-charginginaccurate estimates of data volume and timingAuthorized, or
unauthorized changes to procedures and documents.Deviations may be either
advantageous or disadvantageous, and all details should be reported. An increased
cost may, of course, produce a better service, perhaps giving higher value.The
performance statistics should first show the comparison of actual with planned, and
only then should the effect on these of any amendments and improvements be shown.
These comparison records can be fed back to the planning and estimating section, to
system analysts and programmers, to improve future forecasting methods.Quality
assuranceThe level of control within the system deserves special attention. It is
essential that adequate control procedures are built into the system as it is
designed. These should be checked to ensure that they are working effectively, one
being maintained, and that the system is secure. The following checklist gives a
summary of the questions which should be asked.Control environmentsis there clear
segregation of control responsibilities?can user involvement be adequately
demonstrated?how will the user monitor system operation?are there procedure of
authorization to check the quality of data?are documentation standards maintained?
Source data collectionhave batch sizes been defined and maintained for maximum
control?have batch control records been defined and maintained?are batch controls
established as soon as possible?are the following procedures defined and maintained
correctly.registration of receipts?verification of receipts?data conversion
control?error procedures?Validationis all input verified to the required standard
before processing?are all fields validated for range, format and size?are check-
digits used where appropriate?Error controlare control reports adequate both for
errors and successful runs?are any errors processed with acceptable data, and if so
are suitable safeguards included?Computer procedure and file controlsare file
controls adequate in the form of labels or special control records?could separate
control files be usefully kept?is there appropriate provisioning of an audit trail?
Output proceduresdo output programs validate new fields created for output
purposes?are key fields rechecked for credibility?are output control reports
produced?is there an output control register?are control totals verified by output
control section?Use of terminalsdoes terminal dialogue have built-in redundancy for
error detection?is input distinguished from output?is the terminal design best for
this application in terms of keyboard, screen format, security, etc.?what data
protection facilities are provided for data transmission?Fallback and recoveryare
fallback clerical input procedures defined?is there a specified procedure for re-
establishing controls?are all messages logged on receipt, and are these logs
retrievable for recovery purposes?External requirementshave all appropriate
external authorities been consulted?has the auditor approved the system controls?
RecommendationsWays to improve system performance should be given: either to meet
or exceed expectations. If additional work is needed, then the terms of reference
should be formulated in detail.MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
PART - A1. What are the Phases in the decision � making process:
Intelligence: Searching the environment for conditions calling for decisions.
Data inputs are obtained, processed, and examined for clues that may identify
problems or opportunities. Design: Inventing, developing, and analyzing possible
courses of action. This involves processes to understand the problem, to generate
solutions, and to test solutions for feasibility.Choice: Selecting an alternative
or course of action from those available. A choice is made and implemented.2.
Difference between programmed and nonprogrammed decisions:Programmed decision#Non �
programmed decision##Programmed decisions are those decisions that can be
prespecified by a set of rules or decision procedures. These are reflected in rule
books, decision tables and regulations. Programmed decisions imply decision making
under certainty because all outcomes must be known.#Non � programmed decision have
no preestablished decision rules or procedures. These may range from one � time
decisions relating to a crisis.(such as civil war in A country where a plant is
located)## PART � B INTRODUCTION TO MANGEMENT
INFORMATION SYSTEMMANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMDefinition: MIS is an integrated,
user machine system for providing information to support operations, management,
and decision making functions in an organization. The system utilizes computer
hardware and software, manual procedures, models for analysis, planning, control
and decision making, and a database.MIS versus Data processing:A data processing
system processes transactions and produces reports. It represents the automation of
fundamental, routine processing to support operations. Prior to computers, data
processing was performed manually or with simple machines.A MIS is more
comprehensive, it encompasses processing in support of a wider range of
organizational functions and management processes.Every MIS will also include
transaction processing as one of its functions.One main difference is the
capability to provide analysis, planning, and decision-making support.An MIS
orientation means users have access to decision models and methods for querying the
database on an ad hoc basis.MIS and Decision support systems:A decision support
system (DSS) is an information system application that assists decision making. DSS
tend to be used in planning, analyzing alternatives, and trial and error search for
solutions. They are generally operated through terminal-based interactive dialogs
with users. They incorporate a wide variety of decision models. DSS represents a
significant class of MIS.MIS and information resource management:Information
resource management(IRM) is an approach to management based on the concept that
information is an organizational resource.The scope of IRM includes data
communications,word processing and personal computers as well as traditional data
processing.The IRM concept tends to emphasise the organisational effectiveness of
the information system resource rather than the technical sophistication or
efficiency of the hardware and software.SUBSYSTEMS of an MIS:There are two
approaches to define the subsystems of an MIS. They are1.According to the
organisational functions2.According to the managerial activities.According to the
organisational functions:Major functional subsystem
uses1.Marketing Sales forecasting, sales
planning,
customer and sales
analysin.2.Manufacturing Production planning and
scheduling, cost control
analysis.3.Logistics Planning and control of
purchasing, inventories,
distribution.4.Personnel Planning personnel
requirements, analyzing
performance, salary
administration.5.Finance and accounting Financial analysis, cost
analysis, capital
requirements planning, income
measurement.6.Information processing Information system planning,
cost effectiveness
analysis.7.Top management Strategic plannin, resource
allocation.#Functional subsystems in an MIS used by a manufacturing concern.
#######################According to the managerial function:Activity subsystem
uses1.Transaction processing processing of
orders,shipments
and receipts.2.Operational control Scheduling
of activities and
performance reports.3.Management control.
Formulation of budgets and
resource allocation.4.Strategic planning
Formulation of objectives and strategic
plans.ACTIVITIES######################Strategic planning#Management control
#Operational control#Transaction processing#########
MIS AS SEEN BY THE USER:The main users of MIS are1.clerical personnel2.First-level
managers3.Staff specialists4.Management. Their uses are:Clerical personnel: Handle
transactions, process input
data and answer inquiries.First-level managers: Obtain operations data. Assistance
with planning, scheduling, identifying out of control situations, and making
decisions.Staff specialists: Information for analysis. Assistance with analysis,
planning, and reporting. Regular reports.Management: Regular reports. Ad hoc
retrieval requests. Ad hoc reports. Assistance in identifying problems and
oppurtunities.
1. Explain the Behavioral Models of the Decision Maker.1. Classical Economical
model of decision maker:A normative model of the decision maker in organizations is
described by the classical economic model. It has the following assumptions:All
alternatives and all outcomes are completely known.The decision maker seeks to
maximize profit or utility.The decision maker is infinitely sensitive to difference
in utility among outcomes.The first criterion can be relaxed to assume decision
making under risk, i.e., probability can be attached to each outcome. It is then
assumed that the decision maker will maximize expected value.The classical
economical model is a prescriptive model of the decision make completely rational,
having complete information, always choosing the �best� alternative. It describes
how a person should make a decision but, in fact, all criteria of the model are
rarely met in a decision situation.2. Administrative model of Decision Maker.The
administrative model of the decision maker is descriptive. It explains how
decision-making actually does take place.The administrative model assumes that the
decision maker:1. Does not know all alternatives and all outcomes. 2. Makes a
limited search to discover a few satisfactory alternatives. 3. Makes a decision
which satisfies his or her aspiration level (i.e. satisfices) 3 Human Expectations
and Decision-making Humans display a variety of responses in decision-making.
Some are related to individual differences, such as cognitive style; others are
related to expectations. Some of these responses are summarized in this section
.The role of expectations in decision making can be partially explained by the
theory of cognitive dissonance, commitment theory, and the theory of anticipatory
regret.General model of the human as an information processorA simple model of
human as an information processor consist of sensory receptors(eyes, ears, nose,
etc.) that pick up signals and transmit them to the processing unit(brain with
storage). The results of the processing are output responses (physical, spoken,
written, etc.). This model is diagrammed in figure � 1.The filter may result from.
Frame of reference of the individual based on prior knowledge and experienceNormal
decision procedure.Decision making under stress.# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
Filter Figure � 1 Model of human as information processor.Individuals
establish filters based on their experience, background, customs, etc. Decision
procedures identify relevant data and therefore provide a filter to screen factors
considered unnecessary to the decision. The filtering mechanism may be changed by
decision � making stress. The stress of making decisions under time pressure will
cause filtering to increase, thereby reducing the amount of data to be processed by
the decision maker. For example, a production line supervisor will, during a period
of crisis and stress, concentrate on the most important problems and will not
accept stimuli that are related to less important problems.Figure -2 Performance of
human as information processor. Output
(or) #Response information overload Input (or)
stimuli rateFigure -2 Performance of human as information processor.# SHAPE \*
MERGEFORMAT ##### Filtering under normal decision making conditions## SHAPE \*
MERGEFORMAT #### Filtering under decision making stressFigure � 3 Filtering of
information to reduce processing requirements.The concept of frame of reference
applies to both input and processing. To develop a new processing routine for each
new stimulus would use processing capacity and reduce the stimuli that could be
processed. Over an extended period of time, and on a continuing basis, the brain
establishes patterns or categories of data, which define the human understanding of
the nature of the environment. These patterns or frames of reference are called
into use in processing the input (figure � 4), thereby reducing processing
requirements. Effective use of relevant frames of reference, which have been
accumulated over a long period, is one characteristic of expertise in a particular
field.Besides blocking unwanted data, filtering may work to block data that is
inconsistent with an established frame of reference. This factor and the natural
limits on the human sense receptors may lead to information perception errors such
as omissions, distortions, and inferences. The writer of a report may mean one
thing; the reader may perceive another. These errors of perception increase
uncertainty as to the message being transmitted, and reduce information content.
Input data# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####DecisionUse of input data, stored data, and
frame of reference to process a decision.Long term Memory: It has essentially
unlimited capacity. Its content consists of symbols and structures of chunks.Short-
term memory: It is part of the processor and it is quite small. It holds only five
to seven symbols.External memory: The external memory in the human processing
system consists of external media such as a pad of paper or a chalkboard. The
access time for the eye to locate the symbols at a known location is quite fast,
and read times are estimated at about 50 milliseconds.#Internal
# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
External memory##### SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT #### Figure 7 the three memories of
Newell � Simon modelThe processor of the information processing system contains
three parts. The elementary processor, the short � term memory, and the
interpreter, which interprets part or all the program of instructions for problem
solving (figure � 7). The program used by an individual will depend on a number of
variables such as the task and the intelligence of the problem solver.Power in the
chalk: When a value is compared to the anchor, the adjustment process tends to
undervalue the importance of the new evidence since it is only considered relative
to somewhat arbitrary anchor point.Cognition Theory: The activities by which an
individual resolves differences between an internalized view of the environment and
what is actually perceived in that same environment.Semantic knowledge: It refers
to general functional concepts which are important for programming in general but
independent of any specific programming language.Example: a subscripted array, an
assignment statement, a sort or merge algorithm.Syntactic knowledge: It includes
the specific grammar, syntax, and format of a particular language.Characteristics
of human information processing performance:Earlier in this chapter it was
explained that humans have constraints on their information processing abilities,
and individual characteristics such as cognitive style affect their decision �
making processes. In this section, other characteristics of individuals that affect
their cognitive processes and the effectiveness of their decision-making will be
discussed.1) Need for feedback: In computer systems, various mechanisms are used to
determine that output has been received. The printer returns a signal to the
central processor to indicate that it has been activated. A data terminal returns a
signal to indicate receipt of a block of data. Similar feedback mechanisms must be
provided in human processing situations not only for error control but also to meet
the psychological needs of human processors for assurance that output was received.
In an online system, an important aspect of feedback is response time: the time
between the user entering a message and some response being returned. In the design
of online transaction processing systems, an important design goal is to achieve
response times which maximize the speed of entry and minimize error rates. The most
common problem is too long a response time, so that the user becomes restless and
loses concentration. However, response times can also be too short, so that the
user feels �driven� by the system and errors increase.2) Psychological Value of
Unused data: The basic theory of value of unused opportunities is that people
attach a significant value to opportunities even though they are not used.The
theory of unused opportunities may be applied to explain the phenomenon of apparent
uneconomic accumulation and storage of data. The value is not the actual use, given
any expected frequency of access, but is a psychological value assigned by the
recipients to having data available.Explanations for the conspicuous over
consumption information.Organizations are designed with incentives for gathering
extra information. Examples are the separation of information gathering function
from information using.Much of the information gathered by organizations for
surveillance and not for decision-making. Information is often gathered and
communicated to persuade and even to misrepresent.Information use is a symbol of
commitment to rational choice.3) Information overload: The human capacity to accept
inputs from the environment is limited. In addition, humans have built � in
filtering or selection processes to handle information overload.A more immediate
implication of
the problem of information overload is in the design of information systems. The
decreasing cost of computers, increasing capacity of data storage, and availability
of communications technology permit organizations to process, transmit, and store
greater amounts of data than were ever possible before.4) Individual differences:
Individual differences#Explanation#Effect on information processing##Locus of
control (internal � External)#Extent to which events are perceived to be controlled
by internal processes versus controlled by external forces#Internal locus of
control related to more information search activity than external locus of control
##Dogmatism(low � high)#Extent to which person is positive about beliefs and
opinions.#Low dogmatism related to more information search activity, more
deliberation, and less confidence in decisions.##Risk � taking propensity (low �
high)#Extent to which person is willing to take risks.#High risk � taking
propensity related to more information search activity than low risk � taking
propensity.##Intelligence(low � high)#Measured by ability to perform well on
intelligence tests.#High intelligence related to faster information processing,
more effective information selection, better retention, faster decisions, and
better internal organization of information.##Verbal abilities(low � high)#Extent
of vocabulary development and use in expressing thoughts.#High verbal abilities
related to more effective short � ter m memory.##Experience in decision
making#Extent of experience in formal decision making#Experience related to more
effective information selection, less effective integration, greater flexibility,
and less confidence.##Task knowledge(low � high)#Extent of knowledge of how to
perform the task.#High task knowledge related to less information search compared
to low task knowledge.##Age#Chronological age.#Older subjects use more information
search, select information more effectively, are more flexible, and require more
decision time than younger subjects.## 5) Nonverbal information input:
Subsystem#Description##Hand movements#There are 3 types of hand movements:Emblems
are hand movements that are understood in a specific culture or occupation. An
example is a thumbs � up gesture.Illustrations are gestures that relate to what is
being said, such as pointing or accentuating.Adaptors are touching of oneself or
other objects. Self � adaptors are often associated with anxiety, guilt, hostility,
and suspicion.##Facial expression#When used, these are generally understood,
Examples are smiling and frowning. Even when people suppress facial expressions,
they may make very short expressions lasting only a fraction of a second that
reflect their true feelings.##Eye contact#Eye contact is a major regulator of
conversation. Although there are individual differences, eye contact suggests
understanding and interest.##Posture#Posture is the way people position their
bodies with regard to other people. This can be a closed position with arms folded
to reflect exclusion or the opposite to show inclusion. Having congruent
positioning reflects agreement or acceptance.##Proxemics#How people use
interpersonal space can express intimacy, social distance, and public distance. For
example, standing close indicates intimacy, and sitting at the head of a table
indicates status. Sitting alongside a desk indicates openness; sitting behind the
desk while the other person is in front indicates a superior � subordinate
relationship.##Body rhythms#How people move in relation to others, frequency of
speaking, and speaking turns provide clues to meaning being
conveyed.##Speech#Choice of words can reflect involvement or distance, or
enthusiasm or lack of it.##MANAGERS AS INFORMATION PROCESSORS:A study by Henry
Mintzberg of managers in their jobs characterizes managerial work as follows:1)
Much work at an unrelenting pace. Managers seldom stop thinking about their jobs;
during the regular work day the pace of activity is high and constant.2) Activity
characterized by brevity, variety, and fragmentation. Half of the activities of
chief executives took less than nine minutes and only one � tenth took more than an
hour. In a study of factory foremen, Guest found that the average activity took 48
seconds, and in a study of MIS executives, Ives and Olson found that the average
duration of an activity was 10.3 minutes.3) Preference for live action. According
to Mintzberg, there is strong indication that the manager gravitates toward the
more active elements of work � activities that are current, specific, concrete, and
nonrouting.4) Attraction to the verbal media. Mintzberg estimated that managers
spend up to 80 percent of their time in verbal communication, a result which was
also found in the study of MIS executives.5) Network of contacts. Managers maintain
a complex network of relationships with a variety of contacts outside the
organization, comprising as much as 50 percent of all contacts. In the study of MIS
executives, there were fewer contacts outside of the organization but many with
other departments within it. The remaining contacts are primarily with superiors
and subordinates of which the former is as little as 10 percent of all contacts.6)
The manager�s job is a blend of rights and duties. Managers can exert control over
their activities through proper manipulation of these rights and duties.# SHAPE \*
MERGEFORMAT ##### SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####Distribution of time by managersSYSTEM
STRESS AND CHANGE:A stress is a force transmitted by a system�s suprasystem that
causes a system to change, so that the suprasystem can better achieve its goals.
Types of stress: There are two basic form of stresses which can be imposed on a
system, separately or concurrently:A change in the goal set of the system. New
goals may be created or old goals may be eliminated.A change in the achievement
levels desired for existing goals. The level of desired achievement may be
increased or decreased.Organizational efficiency and Effectiveness:
Measurement#Explanation##Effectiveness#Outputs from the system. These represent the
reason the system exists. Being effective implies doing the �right� thing
(producing the right result).##Efficiency#The use of inputs to produce outputs,
i.e., the use of system resources to achieve results. Being efficient implies the
system is operating the �right� way.##The relationship between effectiveness and
efficiency is that effectiveness is a measure of �goodness� of output, while
efficiency is a measure of the resources required to achieve the output. This
relationship is shown in below figure. Efficiency measures
Effectiveness measures The relative cost of
outputs against desired producing outputs outputs#Inputs
of#######resources Relationship of efficiency and effectivenessSYSTEM CONCEPTS
APPLIED TO MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS:Information system as a system: The
information system receives inputs of data and instructions, processes the data
according to the instructions, and outputs the results. The basic system model of
input process and output is suitable in the simplest case of an information
processing system in which all inputs come in at the same time, but this rarely
true. The information processing function frequently needs data collected and
processed in a prior period. Data storage is therefore added to the information
system model, so that the processing activity has available both current data and
data collected and stored previously ( Figure 10). When data storage is added, the
information processing function includes not only the transformation of data into
information but also the storing of data for subsequent use. This basic information
processing model is useful in understanding not only the overall information
processing system but also the individual information processing applications. Each
application may be analyzed in terms of input, storage, processing and output. The
information processing system has functional subsystems such as the hardware
system, the operating system, the communication system, and the database system. It
also has application subsystems such as order entry and billing, payroll, and
personnel.The application subsystems make use of the functional subsystems(figure �
11)The information system can be divided into five major subsystems, each of which
can be further divided. The five major subsystems are:# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
Figure � 10 Basic information systems model
H/w Utility s/w OS data communications database
system#######Application subsystems#Order entry and billing#Payroll and personnel#
Marketing management#Inventory accounting #And management###EtcFigure � 11
functional subsystem and application subsystems in information system.
Subsystem#Description##Hardware and system software #The computer hardware and the
system software necessary for hardware operation.##Management and
administration#Planning,budgeting, staffing, training evaluation and related
management functions.##Operations#Operation of the computer facilities in
processing applications.##Applications system development and maintenance #The
development of new application systems and the maintenance of existing
systems.##Application systems#The systems which perform activities necessary to
process transactions, update data, produce output, etc.##System analysis and
design: Plan for an information system or application, development of the system
can begin the following systems concepts can be applied in the development of
information
system projects:The information system is defined and overall responsibility
assigned.Major information processing subsystems are defined. Boundaries and
interfaces are carefully specified.A development schedule is prepared.Each
subsystem, when ready for development, is assigned to a project. The project leader
factors the job into subsystems and assigns responsibility for each.The control
system is used to monitor the development process.Decoupling of information
systems: Decoupling can be achieved by defining subsystems so that each performs a
single complete function; thus, connections between subsystems are minimized.
Decoupling#Application to information system design##1) inventory, buffer or
waiting line#In computer processing, the input � output systems operate at
different rates from those of the processor. A buffer memory is used to hold data
to compensate for the different rates. In human � machine systems, it is essing
system but also the individual information processing applications. Each
application may be analyzed in terms of input, storage, processing and output. The
information processing system has functional subsystems such as the hardware
system, the operating system, the communication system, and the database system. It
also has application subsystems such as order entry and billing, payroll, and
personnel.The application subsystems make use of the functional subsystems(figure �
11)The information system can be divided into five major subsystems, each of which
can be further divided. The five major subsystems are:# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
Figure � 10 Basic information systems model
H/w Utility s/w OS data communications database
system#######Application subsystems#Order entry and billing#Payroll and personnel#
Marketing management#Inventory accounting #And management###EtcFigure � 11
functional subsystem and application subsystems in information system.
Subsystem#Description##Hardware and system software #The computer hardware and the
system software necessary for hardware operation.##Management and
administration#Planning,budgeting, staffing, training evaluation and related
management functions.##Operations#Operation of the computer facilities in
processing applications.##Applications system development and maintenance #The
development of new application systems and the maintenance of existing
systems.##Application systems#The systems which perform activities necessary to
process transactions, update data, produce output, etc.##System analysis and
design: Plan for an information system or application, development of the system
can begin the following systems concepts can be applied in the development of
information system projects:The information system is defined and overall
responsibility assigned.Major information processing subsystems are defined.
Boundaries and interfaces are carefully specified.A development schedule is
prepared.Each subsystem, when ready for development, is assigned to a project. The
project leader factors the job into subsystems and assigns responsibility for each.
The control system is used to monitor the development process.Decoupling of
information systems: Decoupling can be achieved by defining subsystems so that each
performs a single complete function; thus, connections between subsystems are
minimized.Decoupling#Application to information system design##1) inventory, buffer
or waiting line#In computer processing, the input � output systems operate at
different rates from those of the processor. A buffer memory is used to hold data
to compensate for the different rates. In human � machine systems, it is not
possible for the person to receive or send whenever the computer sends or asks for
a response. The computer is not always available to accept messages. This means
that there must be a buffer in which to store messages to allow for this
difference.In cases where prompt service is expected but there are variations in
arrival rates of people or messages, etc., to be serviced, a waiting line provides
a decoupling mechanism. For example, in a telephone information service, a waiting
line is established by asking the person on the telephone to wait until an
information operator is free to process the call.##2) Stack resources#Computer
hardware systems are generally designed with slack resources. A computer system is
rarely fully loaded with work � some hours are not scheduled. This allows the
system to handle fluctuations in processing load. The accounts receivable
department does not need to inform data processing that the number of receivable
for processing will be 25 percent above normal. The slack resources of the computer
will normally handle this input variation without strain. In human � machine
systems, human processors will be able to respond to significant short � term
variations in activity. For example, a clerk receiving payments may be able to
handle an average of 15 per hour. However, the clerk can temporarily increase
processing to handle an increased demand � say, of a doubled rate for up to one
hour.##Standards#The use of standards can eliminate or reduce the need for
communication among information subsystems. For instance, the use of documentation
standards reduces the need for communication among programmers and systems analysts
working on a project. A database normally represents a simplification of the
relations of the program to the data. A programmer does not have to consider all
the other programs communicating with the database. A standard method is provided
for accessing the database, thereby eliminating the need for close coordination
with other subsystems.##Chapter 7 CONCEPT OF INFORMATION.DEFINITION OF INFORMATION:
Information in data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to
the recipient and is of real or perceived value in current or prospective actions
or decisions.INFORMTION PRESENTATION: 1.Method that increase the sending &
efficiency of a system: Two methods for more efficiently providing
information are summarization and message routing.Within organization message
summarization is commonly utilized to reduce the amount of data transmission
required without changing the essential meaning of the original message.Formal
summarization is illustrated by accounting classification. Another method of
increasing the efficiency of the system is message routing .Any particular message
is only disturbed to those individuals or organizational units which require the
information for some action or decision.This is illustrated by the transmission of
copies of purchase orders to only those departments which take direct action based
on the information on the order. 2.Methods to exercise information content or
distribution discretion:# Methods Reason for use#
Message delay To avoid overload To
distort,inhibit,or suppress Transmission Message
modification To modify by summarization or filtering
To block certain data by filtering Uncetanity absorption To reduce
data transmission Presentation bias To bias by order and
grouping in data Presentation.
To bias by selection of limits that determine whether items are
presented.#To bias by selection of graphics layout.QUALI TY OF INFORMATION:
I.Utility of information: He identifies four information utilities:Form
utility:-As the form of information more closely matches the requirements of the
decision maker, its value increases.Time utility:-Information has greater value to
the decision maker if iot is available when needed.Place utility:-Information has
greater value if it can be accessed or delivered easily.Online system maximize both
time &place utility.possession utility:-The possesser of information strongly
affects its value by controlling its dissemination to others.If the cost of
acquiring information exceeds its value there are two alternatives: 1.Increase
its value by increasing accuracy and/or increasing utilities. 2.Reduce
its cost by decreasing accuracy and.or reducing utilities.II.Information
satisfaction: One substitute measure for the utility of information in decision
making is information satisfication,the degree to which the decision maker is
satisfied with the output of the formal information system.III.Error &bias:Bias is
caused by the ability of individuals to exercise receiver discretion in
information presentation.If the bias of the presenter is known to the receiver of
the information he /she can make adjustments.the problem is to detect the bias;the
adjustment is generally fairjy simple. Error is a more serious problem because
there is no simple adjustment for it.Error may be a result of: 1.Incorrect data
measurement and collection methods. 2.Failure to follow correct
processing procedures. 3.Loss or nonprocessing of data. 4.Wrong recording or
correcting of data.5.Incorrect history file.6.Mistake in processing procedure.
7.Delibrate falsification. The difficulties with errors may be overcome by:
1.Internal control to detect errors. 2.Internal and external
auditing. 3.Addititon of �confidence limits� to data. 4.User
instruction in measurement and processing procedures,so users can
evaluate possible errors.AGE OF INFORMATION: Two types of data are defined:
1.Conditional data which pertains to a point in time such as December 31.
An example is the inventory at 12/31/84 as reported on the balance
sheet . 2.Operating data which reflects changes over a period
of time.Examples are inventory used during a onth or sales for a week.
An information interval(i) is defined as the interval between reports.For
weekly Reports,the information interval in one week;for monthly reports,one
month.The Processing deleay(d) is defined as the processing delay between the end
of the Information interval and the issuance of the report for use.
APPLICATION OF INFORMATION CONCEPTS TO INFORMATION SYSTEM DESIGN:
1.Information has surprise value. 2.Information reduces uncertainty.
3.Redudancy is useful for error control of communication. 4.Information only
has value if it changes a decision. 5.Not all data that is communicated has
information value. CONCEPTS OF ORGANISATIONAL PLANNING:Planning is an ongoing
organizational function that provides the framework for operational activities and
decision making.Setting of Goals and Objectives:Term#Definition and
example##Mission#Broad statement of the purpose of the organization. �To provide a
high � quality product and convenient customer service�.##Goals #General statement
of what is to be accomplished. �Reduce tiem to respond to service request without
increasing number of service personnel.�##Strategies#General approaches to
achieving goals. �Improve procedures for handling service requests; provide
procedures for reducing time required at each site.�##Objectives#Statement of
measurable results to be achieved. �Reduce average time from request to completion
of service call�.##Plans and budgets #Schedule of specific activities and actions
to achieve objectives. �Revise service call request procedures; revise servicing
procedures to improve use of diagnostic tools.�##Policy#Limits to acceptable
behaviour expres ethical and moral values, decision limits, and standards. �System
interfaces shall be designed to enhance and enrich the job performed by users.�##
Hierarchy of planning:Level of management#Anthony framework#Definition##Strategic
planning#Same#What function will the organization serve and what will it be like in
future (five years and beyond)? Strategic plan should include business to be in,
market it should sell to, etc.##Tactical planning#Management control #Physical
implementation of strategic plans(one to five years. Reflected in capital
expenditure budget and long � range staffing plan.##Operations Planning#Operations
Control#Allocation of tasks to each organizational unit in order to achieve
objectives of tactical plan (one to twelve months). Yearly budget.##Scheduling and
dispatching#-#Assign specific units of organizational activity to achieve
operational objectives(immediately).##The planning process:Planning is a
significant activity for management and many other positions in the organization,
but it is frequently neglected. The reasons for the neglect of an activity
recognized as very important center around four characteristics of planning as a
human activity.Planning is a very difficult cognitive activity. It is hard mental
work. Because of the cognitive strain involved in doing planning work. People avoid
planning.Planning makes evident the uncertainty of future events. By making
explicit of the various uncertainties, the future may appear more uncertain after
planning than before. There is a human tendency to avoid uncertainty, and this may
be reflected in planning avoidance. Planning reduces perceived freedom of action.
When plans are made, individuals are committed to a narrower range of actions than
when no formal plans are made.Planning is a very intensive effort, and it is
difficult, given the nature of managerial work, to take the time for planning. This
is one reason that organizations have retreats where all other activities are shut
out in order to concentrate on planning.Planning is computationally tedious. Each
change in planning assumptions affects other figures in the plans. Analysis of past
data and current expectations requires significant computational work. The
popularity of planning software reflects the need for computational assistance in
planning.Plans are often made and then ignored. One reason they may be ignored is
that they don�t represent real agreement. However, if they are ignored, people
become reluctant to be involved in planning.Quantifying and Classifying
Expectations:Statistical methods: Trends, projections, correlation analysis, and
sampling provide expectations based on statistical analysis of historical data.
These methods are surveyed later in the chapter.Objective analysis of value and
priority: Where quantitative measures of value are available, they can often be
applied to alternatives to arrive at priorities for use in planning. Examples are
rate of return computation for revenue � marginal cost analysis for expenditures
such as advertising.Judgment: Judgment is used to formulate expectations in cases
where there are no statistical or other quantitative bases for forecasting.The
reliability of planning data is influenced by such factors as the following:Source
of data: Data from outside sources will receive different evaluations by different
planners because of uncertainty as to its quality. Etc.Influence of plan on
outcome: Some plans, such as an appropriation type of budget, have a strong
determining influence on the outcome itself, i.e., units spend whatever is
budgeted.Intended accuracy: Planning estimates do not require a uniform standard of
accuracy since certain figures are more critical than o Information system
planning, cost
effectiveness analysis.7.Top management Strategic
plannin, resource allocation.#Functional subsystems in an MIS used by a
manufacturing concern.#######################According to the managerial function:
Activity subsystem uses
1.Transaction processing processing of
orders,shipments
and receipts.2.Operational control Scheduling
of activities and
performance reports.3.Management control.
Formulation of budgets and
resource allocation.4.Strategic planning
Formulation of objectives and strategic
plans.ACTIVITIES######################Strategic planning#Management control
#Operational control#Transaction processing#########
MIS AS SEEN BY THE USER:The main users of MIS are1.clerical personnel2.First-level
managers3.Staff specialists4.Management. Their uses are:Clerical personnel: Handle
transactions, process input data and answer inquiries.First-level managers: Obtain
operations data. Assistance with planning, scheduling, identifying out of control
situations, and making decisions.Staff specialists: Information for analysis.
Assistance with analysis, planning, and reporting. Regular reports.Management:
Regular reports. Ad hoc retrieval requests. Ad hoc reports. Assistance in
identifying problems and oppurtunities.
1. Explain the Behavioral Models of the Decision Maker.1. Classical Economical
model of decision maker:A normative model of the decision maker in organizations is
described by the classical economic model. It has the following assumptions:All
alternatives and all outcomes are completely known.The decision maker seeks to
maximize profit or utility.The decision maker is infinitely sensitive to difference
in utility among outcomes.The first criterion can be relaxed to assume decision
making under risk, i.e., probability can be attached to each outcome. It is then
assumed that the decision maker will maximize expected value.The classical
economical model is a prescriptive model of the decision make completely rational,
having complete information, always choosing the �best� alternative. It describes
how a person should make a decision but, in fact, all criteria of the model are
rarely met in a decision situation.2. Administrative model of Decision Maker.The
administrative model of the decision maker is descriptive. It explains how
decision-making actually does take place.The administrative model assumes that the
decision maker:1. Does not know all alternatives and all outcomes. 2. Makes a
limited search to discover a few satisfactory alternatives. 3. Makes a decision
which satisfies his or her aspiration level (i.e. satisfices) 3 Human Expectations
and Decision-making Humans display a variety of responses in decision-making.
Some are related to individual differences, such as cognitive style; others are
related to expectations. Some of these responses are summarized in this section
.The role of expectations in decision making can be partially explained by the
theory of cognitive dissonance, commitment theory, and the theory of anticipatory
regret.General model of the human as an information processorA simple model of
human as an information processor consist of sensory receptors(eyes, ears, nose,
etc.) that pick up signals and transmit them to the processing unit(brain with
storage). The results of the processing are output responses (physical, spoken,
written, etc.). This model is diagrammed in figure � 1.The filter may result from.
Frame of reference of the individual based on prior knowledge and experienceNormal
decision procedure.Decision making under stress.# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
Filter Figure � 1 Model of human as information processor.
Individuals establish filters based on their experience, background, customs, etc.
Decision procedures identify relevant data and therefore provide a filter to screen
factors considered unnecessary to the decision. The filtering mechanism may be
changed by decision � making stress. The stress of making decisions under time
pressure will cause filtering to increase, thereby reducing the amount of data to
be processed by the decision maker. For example, a production line supervisor will,
during a period of crisis and stress, concentrate on the most important problems
and will not accept stimuli that are related to less important problems.Figure -2
Performance of human as information processor.
Output (or) #Response information overload
Input (or) stimuli rateFigure -2 Performance of human as information processor.#
SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ##### Filtering under normal decision making conditions##
SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT #### Filtering under decision making stressFigure � 3
Filtering of information to reduce processing requirements.The concept of frame of
reference applies to both input and processing. To develop a new processing routine
for each new stimulus would use processing capacity and reduce the stimuli that
could be processed. Over an extended period of time, and on a continuing basis, the
brain establishes patterns or categories of data, which define the human
understanding of the nature of the environment. These patterns or frames of
reference are called into use in processing the input (figure � 4), thereby
reducing processing requirements. Effective use of relevant frames of reference,
which have been accumulated over a long period, is one characteristic of expertise
in a particular field.Besides blocking unwanted data, filtering may work to block
data that is inconsistent with an established frame of reference. This factor and
the natural limits on the human sense receptors may lead to information perception
errors such as omissions, distortions, and inferences. The writer of a report may
mean one thing; the reader may perceive another. These errors of perception
increase uncertainty as to the message being transmitted, and reduce information
content. Input data# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####DecisionUse of input data,
stored data, and frame of reference to process a decision.Long term Memory: It has
essentially unlimited capacity. Its content consists of symbols and structures of
chunks.Short-term memory: It is part of the processor and it is quite small. It
holds only five to seven symbols.External memory: The external memory in the human
processing system consists of external media such as a pad of paper or a
chalkboard. The access time for the eye to locate the symbols at a known location
is quite fast, and read times are estimated at about 50 milliseconds.#Internal
# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
External memory##### SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT #### Figure 7 the three memories of
Newell � Simon modelThe processor of the information processing system contains
three parts. The elementary processor, the short � term memory, and the
interpreter, which interprets part or all the program of instructions for problem
solving (figure � 7). The program used by an individual will depend on a number of
variables such as the task and the intelligence of the problem solver.Power in the
chalk: When a value is compared to the anchor, the adjustment process tends to
undervalue the importance of the new evidence since it is only considered relative
to somewhat arbitrary anchor point.Cognition Theory: The activities by which an
individual resolves differences between an internalized view of the environment and
what is actually perceived in that same environment.Semantic knowledge: It refers
to general functional concepts which are important for programming in general but
independent of any specific programming language.Example: a subscripted array, an
assignment statement, a sort or merge algorithm.Syntactic knowledge: It includes
the specific grammar, syntax, and format of a particular language.Characteristics
of human information processing performance:Earlier in this chapter it was
explained that humans have constraints on their information processing abilities,
and individual characteristics such as cognitive style affect their decision �
making processes. In this section, other characteristics of individuals that affect
their cognitive processes and the effectiveness of their decision-making will be
discussed.1) Need for feedback: In computer systems, various mechanisms are used to
determine that output has been received. The printer returns a signal to the
central processor to indicate that it has been activated. A data terminal returns a
signal to indicate receipt of a block of data. Similar feedback mechanisms must be
provided in human processing situations not only for error control but also to meet
the psychological needs of human processors for assurance that output was received.
In an online system, an important aspect of feedback is response time: the time
between the user entering a message and some response being returned. In the design
of online transaction processing systems, an important design goal is to achieve
response times which maximize the speed of entry and minimize error rates. The most
common problem is too long a response time, so that the user becomes restless and
loses concentration. However, response times can also be too short, so that the
user feels �driven� by the system and errors increase.2) Psychological Value of
Unused data: The basic theory of value of unused opportunities is that people
attach a significant value to opportunities even though they are not used.The
theory of unused opportunities may be applied to explain the phenomenon of apparent
uneconomic accumulation and storage of data. The value is not the actual use, given
any expected frequency of access, but is a psychological value assigned by the
recipients to having data available.Explanations for the conspicuous over
consumption information.Organizations are designed with incentives for gathering
extra information. Examples are the separation of information gathering function
from information using.Much of the information gathered by organizations for
surveillance and not for decision-making. Information is often gathered and
communicated to persuade and even to misrepresent.Information use is a symbol of
commitment to rational choice.3) Information overload: The human capacity to accept
inputs from the environment is limited. In addition, humans have built � in
filtering or selection processes to handle information overload.A more immediate
implication of the problem of information overload is in the design of information
systems. The decreasing cost of computers, increasing capacity of data storage, and
availability of communications technology permit organizations to process,
transmit, and store greater amounts of data than were ever possible before.4)
Individual differences: Individual differences#Explanation#Effect on information
processing##Locus of control (internal � External)#Extent to which events are
perceived to be controlled by internal processes versus controlled by external
forces#Internal locus of control related to more information search activity than
external locus of control##Dogmatism(low � high)#Extent to which person is positive
about beliefs and opinions.#Low dogmatism related to more information search
activity, more deliberation, and less confidence in decisions.##Risk � taking
propensity (low � high)#Extent to which person is willing to take risks.#High risk
� taking propensity related to more information search activity than low risk �
taking propensity.##Intelligence(low � high)#Measured by ability to perform well on
intelligence tests.#High intelligence related to faster information processing,
more effective information selection, better retention, faster decisions, and
better internal organization of information.##Verbal abilities(low � high)#Extent
of vocabulary development and use in expressing thoughts.#High verbal abilities
related to more effective short � ter m memory.##Experience in decision
making#Extent of experience in formal decision making#Experience related to more
effective information selection, less effective integration, greater flexibility,
and less confidence.##Task knowledge(low � high)#Extent of knowledge of how to
perform the task.#High task knowledge related to less information search compared
to low task knowledge.##Age#Chronological age.#Older subjects use more information
search, select information more effectively, are more flexible, and require more
decision time than younger subjects.## 5) Nonverbal information input:
Subsystem#Description##Hand movements#There are 3 types of hand movements:Emblems
are hand movements that are understood in a specific culture or occupation. An
example is a thumbs � up gesture.Illustrations are gestures that relate to what is
being said, such as pointing or accentuating.Adaptors are touching of oneself or
other objects. Self � adaptors are often associated with anxiety, guilt, hostility,
and suspicion.##Facial expression#When used, these are generally understood,
Examples are smiling and frowning. Even when people suppress facial expressions,
they may make very short expressions lasting only a fraction of a second that
reflect their true feelings.##Eye contact#Eye contact is a major regulator of
conversation. Although there are individual differences, eye contact suggests
understanding and interest.##Posture#Posture
is the way people position their bodies with regard to other people. This can be a
closed position with arms folded to reflect exclusion or the opposite to show
inclusion. Having congruent positioning reflects agreement or
acceptance.##Proxemics#How people use interpersonal space can express intimacy,
social distance, and public distance. For example, standing close indicates
intimacy, and sitting at the head of a table indicates status. Sitting alongside a
desk indicates openness; sitting behind the desk while the other person is in front
indicates a superior � subordinate relationship.##Body rhythms#How people move in
relation to others, frequency of speaking, and speaking turns provide clues to
meaning being conveyed.##Speech#Choice of words can reflect involvement or
distance, or enthusiasm or lack of it.##MANAGERS AS INFORMATION PROCESSORS:A study
by Henry Mintzberg of managers in their jobs characterizes managerial work as
follows:1) Much work at an unrelenting pace. Managers seldom stop thinking about
their jobs; during the regular work day the pace of activity is high and constant.
2) Activity characterized by brevity, variety, and fragmentation. Half of the
activities of chief executives took less than nine minutes and only one � tenth
took more than an hour. In a study of factory foremen, Guest found that the average
activity took 48 seconds, and in a study of MIS executives, Ives and Olson found
that the average duration of an activity was 10.3 minutes.3) Preference for live
action. According to Mintzberg, there is strong indication that the manager
gravitates toward the more active elements of work � activities that are current,
specific, concrete, and nonrouting.4) Attraction to the verbal media. Mintzberg
estimated that managers spend up to 80 percent of their time in verbal
communication, a result which was also found in the study of MIS executives.5)
Network of contacts. Managers maintain a complex network of relationships with a
variety of contacts outside the organization, comprising as much as 50 percent of
all contacts. In the study of MIS executives, there were fewer contacts outside of
the organization but many with other departments within it. The remaining contacts
are primarily with superiors and subordinates of which the former is as little as
10 percent of all contacts.6) The manager�s job is a blend of rights and duties.
Managers can exert control over their activities through proper manipulation of
these rights and duties.# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ##### SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
Distribution of time by managersSYSTEM STRESS AND CHANGE:A stress is a force
transmitted by a system�s suprasystem that causes a system to change, so that the
suprasystem can better achieve its goals.Types of stress: There are two basic form
of stresses which can be imposed on a system, separately or concurrently:A change
in the goal set of the system. New goals may be created or old goals may be
eliminated.A change in the achievement levels desired for existing goals. The level
of desired achievement may be increased or decreased.Organizational efficiency and
Effectiveness:Measurement#Explanation##Effectiveness#Outputs from the system. These
represent the reason the system exists. Being effective implies doing the �right�
thing (producing the right result).##Efficiency#The use of inputs to produce
outputs, i.e., the use of system resources to achieve results. Being efficient
implies the system is operating the �right� way.##The relationship between
effectiveness and efficiency is that effectiveness is a measure of �goodness� of
output, while efficiency is a measure of the resources required to achieve the
output. This relationship is shown in below figure. Efficiency
measures Effectiveness measures The relative
cost of outputs against desired producing outputs
outputs#Inputs of#######resources Relationship of efficiency and effectiveness
SYSTEM CONCEPTS APPLIED TO MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS:Information system as a
system: The information system receives inputs of data and instructions, processes
the data according to the instructions, and outputs the results. The basic system
model of input process and output is suitable in the simplest case of an
information processing system in which all inputs come in at the same time, but
this rarely true. The information processing function frequently needs data
collected and processed in a prior period. Data storage is therefore added to the
information system model, so that the processing activity has available both
current data and data collected and stored previously ( Figure 10). When data
storage is added, the information processing function includes not only the
transformation of data into information but also the storing of data for subsequent
use. This basic information processing model is useful in understanding not only
the overall information processing system but also the individual information
processing applications. Each application may be analyzed in terms of input,
storage, processing and output. The information processing system has functional
subsystems such as the hardware system, the operating system, the communication
system, and the database system. It also has application subsystems such as order
entry and billing, payroll, and personnel.The application subsystems make use of
the functional subsystems(figure � 11)The information system can be divided into
five major subsystems, each of which can be further divided. The five major
subsystems are:# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####Figure � 10 Basic information systems
model H/w Utility s/w OS data
communications database
system#######Application subsystems#Order entry and billing#Payroll and personnel#
Marketing management#Inventory accounting #And management###EtcFigure � 11
functional subsystem and application subsystems in information system.
Subsystem#Description##Hardware and system software #The computer hardware and the
system software necessary for hardware operation.##Management and
administration#Planning,budgeting, staffing, training evaluation and related
management functions.##Operations#Operation of the computer facilities in
processing applications.##Applications system development and maintenance #The
development of new application systems and the maintenance of existing
systems.##Application systems#The systems which perform activities necessary to
process transactions, update data, produce output, etc.##System analysis and
design: Plan for an information system or application, development of the system
can begin the following systems concepts can be applied in the development of
information system projects:The information system is defined and overall
responsibility assigned.Major information processing subsystems are defined.
Boundaries and interfaces are carefully specified.A development schedule is
prepared.Each subsystem, when ready for development, is assigned to a project. The
project leader factors the job into subsystems and assigns responsibility for each.
The control system is used to monitor the development process.Decoupling of
information systems: Decoupling can be achieved by defining subsystems so that each
performs a single complete function; thus, connections between subsystems are
minimized.Decoupling#Application to information system design##1) inventory, buffer
or waiting line#In computer processing, the input � output systems operate at
different rates from those of the processor. A buffer memory is used to hold data
to compensate for the different rates. In human � machine systems, it is not
possible for the person to receive or send whenever the computer sends or asks for
a response. The computer is not always available to accept messages. This means
that there must be a buffer in which to store messages to allow for this
difference.In cases where prompt service is expected but there are variations in
arrival rates of people or messages, etc., to be serviced, a waiting line provides
a decoupling mechanism. For example, in a telephone information service, a waiting
line is established by asking the person on the telephone to wait until an
information operator is free to process the call.##2) Stack resources#Computer
hardware systems are generally designed with slack resources. A computer system is
rarely fully loaded with work � some hours are not scheduled. This allows the
system to handle fluctuations in processing load. The accounts receivable
department does not need to inform data processing that the number of receivable
for processing will be 25 percent above normal. The slack resources of the computer
will normally handle this input variation without strain. In human � machine
systems, human processors will be able to respond to significant short � term
variations in activity. For example, a clerk receiving payments may be able to
handle an average of 15 per hour. However, the clerk can temporarily increase
processing to handle an increased demand � say, of a doubled rate for up to one
hour.##Standards#The use of standards can eliminate or reduce the need for
communication among information subsystems. For instance, the use of documentation
standards reduces the need for communication among programmers and systems analysts
working on a project. A database normally represents a simplification of the
relations of the program to the data. A programmer does not have to consider all
the other programs communicating with the database. A standard method is provided
for accessing the database, thereby eliminating the need
for close coordination with other subsystems.##Chapter 7 CONCEPT OF INFORMATION.
DEFINITION OF INFORMATION: Information in data that has been processed into a
form that is meaningful to the recipient and is of real or perceived value in
current or prospective actions or decisions.INFORMTION PRESENTATION: 1.Method
that increase the sending & efficiency of a system: Two methods for more
efficiently providing information are summarization and message routing.Within
organization message summarization is commonly utilized to reduce the amount of
data transmission required without changing the essential meaning of the original
message.Formal summarization is illustrated by accounting classification.
Another method of increasing the efficiency of the system is message
routing .Any particular message is only disturbed to those individuals or
organizational units which require the information for some action or
decision.This is illustrated by the transmission of copies of purchase orders to
only those departments which take direct action based on the information on the
order. 2.Methods to exercise information content or distribution discretion:#
Methods Reason for use# Message delay To avoid
overload To distort,inhibit,or suppress Transmission
Message modification To modify by summarization or filtering
To block certain data by filtering Uncetanity absorption To reduce
data transmission Presentation bias To bias by order and
grouping in data Presentation.
To bias by selection of limits that determine whether items are
presented.#To bias by selection of graphics layout.QUALI TY OF INFORMATION:
I.Utility of information: He identifies four information utilities:Form
utility:-As the form of information more closely matches the requirements of the
decision maker, its value increases.Time utility:-Information has greater value to
the decision maker if iot is available when needed.Place utility:-Information has
greater value if it can be accessed or delivered easily.Online system maximize both
time &place utility.possession utility:-The possesser of information strongly
affects its value by controlling its dissemination to others.If the cost of
acquiring information exceeds its value there are two alternatives: 1.Increase
its value by increasing accuracy and/or increasing utilities. 2.Reduce
its cost by decreasing accuracy and.or reducing utilities.II.Information
satisfaction: One substitute measure for the utility of information in decision
making is information satisfication,the degree to which the decision maker is
satisfied with the output of the formal information system.III.Error &bias:Bias is
caused by the ability of individuals to exercise receiver discretion in
information presentation.If the bias of the presenter is known to the receiver of
the information he /she can make adjustments.the problem is to detect the bias;the
adjustment is generally fairjy simple. Error is a more serious problem because
there is no simple adjustment for it.Error may be a result of: 1.Incorrect data
measurement and collection methods. 2.Failure to follow correct
processing procedures. 3.Loss or nonprocessing of data. 4.Wrong recording or
correcting of data.5.Incorrect history file.6.Mistake in processing procedure.
7.Delibrate falsification. The difficulties with errors may be overcome by:
1.Internal control to detect errors. 2.Internal and external
auditing. 3.Addititon of �confidence limits� to data. 4.User
instruction in measurement and processing procedures,so users can
evaluate possible errors.AGE OF INFORMATION: Two types of data are defined:
1.Conditional data which pertains to a point in time such as December 31.
An example is the inventory at 12/31/84 as reported on the balance
sheet . 2.Operating data which reflects changes over a period of
time.Examples are inventory used during a onth or sales for a week.
An information interval(i) is defined as the interval between reports.For
weekly Reports,the information interval in one week;for monthly reports,one
month.The Processing deleay(d) is defined as the processing delay between the end
of the Information interval and the issuance of the report for use.
APPLICATION OF INFORMATION CONCEPTS TO INFORMATION SYSTEM DESIGN:
1.Information has surprise value. 2.Information reduces uncertainty.
3.Redudancy is useful for error control of communication. 4.Information only
has value if it changes a decision. 5.Not all data that is communicated has
information value. CONCEPTS OF ORGANISATIONAL PLANNING:Planning is an ongoing
organizational function that provides the framework for operational activities and
decision making.Setting of Goals and Objectives:Term#Definition and
example##Mission#Broad statement of the purpose of the organization. �To provide a
high � quality product and convenient customer service�.##Goals #General statement
of what is to be accomplished. �Reduce tiem to respond to service request without
increasing number of service personnel.�##Strategies#General approaches to
achieving goals. �Improve procedures for handling service requests; provide
procedures for reducing time required at each site.�##Objectives#Statement of
measurable results to be achieved. �Reduce average time from request to completion
of service call�.##Plans and budgets #Schedule of specific activities and actions
to achieve objectives. �Revise service call request procedures; revise servicing
procedures to improve use of diagnostic tools.�##Policy#Limits to acceptable
behaviour expres ethical and moral values, decision limits, and standards. �System
interfaces shall be designed to enhance and enrich the job performed by users.�##
Hierarchy of planning:Level of management#Anthony framework#Definition##Strategic
planning#Same#What function will the organization serve and what will it be like in
future (five years and beyond)? Strategic plan should include business to be in,
market it should sell to, etc.##Tactical planning#Management control #Physical
implementation of strategic plans(one to five years. Reflected in capital
expenditure budget and long � range staffing plan.##Operations Planning#Operations
Control#Allocation of tasks to each organizational unit in order to achieve
objectives of tactical plan (one to twelve months). Yearly budget.##Scheduling and
dispatching#-#Assign specific units of organizational activity to achieve
operational objectives(immediately).##The planning process:Planning is a
significant activity for management and many other positions in the organization,
but it is frequently neglected. The reasons for the neglect of an activity
recognized as very important center around four characteristics of planning as a
human activity.Planning is a very difficult cognitive activity. It is hard mental
work. Because of the cognitive strain involved in doing planning work. People avoid
planning.Planning makes evident the uncertainty of future events. By making
explicit of the various uncertainties, the future may appear more uncertain after
planning than before. There is a human tendency to avoid uncertainty, and this may
be reflected in planning avoidance. Planning reduces perceived freedom of action.
When plans are made, individuals are committed to a narrower range of actions than
when no formal plans are made.Planning is a very intensive effort, and it is
difficult, given the nature of managerial work, to take the time for planning. This
is one reason that organizations have retreats where all other activities are shut
out in order to concentrate on planning.Planning is computationally tedious. Each
change in planning assumptions affects other figures in the plans. Analysis of past
data and current expectations requires significant computational work. The
popularity of planning software reflects the need for computational assistance in
planning.Plans are often made and then ignored. One reason they may be ignored is
that they don�t represent real agreement. However, if they are ignored, people
become reluctant to be involved in planning.Quantifying and Classifying
Expectations:Statistical methods: Trends, projections, correlation analysis, and
sampling provide expectations based on statistical analysis of historical data.
These methods are surveyed later in the chapter.Objective analysis of value and
priority: Where quantitative measures of value are available, they can often be
applied to alternatives to arrive at priorities for use in planning. Examples are
rate of return computation for revenue � marginal cost analysis for expenditures
such as advertising.Judgment: Judgment is used to formulate expectations in cases
where there are no statistical or other quantitative bases for forecasting.The
reliability of planning data is influenced by such factors as the following:Source
of data: Data from outside sources will receive different evaluations by different
planners because of uncertainty as to its quality. Etc.Influence of plan on
outcome: Some plans, such as an appropriation type of budget, have a strong
determining influence on the outcome itself, i.e., units spend whatever is
budgeted.Intended accuracy: Planning estimates do not require a uniform standard of
accuracy since certain figures are more critical than others. For example, an error
of 50 percent in the calculation of the cost of office pencils for the budget
period is not nearly so serious as a 50 percent error in the cost of raw materials.
Time: The predictability of future events generally decreases with
the prediction time span. When the forecast period is extended, the planning data
tends to become less accurate as an expression of what is to be expected.
Expenditure classification#Examples##Object of expenditure #The classes of items
being purchased, e.g., salaries, supplies, travel.##Reason for
expenditure(functions, activities, or programs)# Examples of functions are
manufacturing or marketing. Examples of programs (say, for a government) are health
care, sanitation and protection.##Outputs#Output classification for, say an
appliance manufacturer might be based on end products such as refrigerators and
washing machines .##Organization unit.Cost behavior.#Departments and other
organizational units.Classification by variability with changes in activity and by
controllability by management.##Sources of planning data: Data banks should be
considered instead of direct data collection when the following conditions
apply( assuming the appropriate databank is available)The body of information is
large and expensive to collect.The databank requires frequent, expert updating.A
large databank, or an unpredictable subset of one, is needed only on an infrequent
or adhoc basis.No competitive advantage will be lost, nor any significant security
risk incurred, by relying on an outside source.Technique#Description##Scenario
writing#Individuals are asked to write scenarios of events they think may occur.
These represent a set of plausible future events that the organization should
consider in its planning.##Simulation#The effect of external events is simulated.
Examples are the effect of a change in age distribution of the population, the
effect of changes in worldwide interest rates, etc.##Cross impact analysis#The
impact on the organization of events in one of the environments is estimated.
Environments are social, political, physical, technological, and institutional �
legal. For example, estimate the impact of a change in import policy in the Common
Market on demand for company products.##Econometric model#If the organization has
an econometric model that estimates demand for its products or services and costs,
environmental scanning will look for environmental changes affecting the factors in
the mode. For example, if construction activity is an important variable, then
factors affecting interest rates are of concern##Input � output analysis#The
effects of activities or changes in one sector of the economy are traced to other
sectors. For example, if the price of oil is increased, the cost effect can be
traced to all sectors using oil or oil � based products.##Delphi projection#Those
concerned with estimating the future are asked to specify their projections. The
projections are summarized, and participants are asked whether they wish to revise
their estimates based on the average estimate. The process may go through several
iterations in order to find areas of consensus or reasons for differences in
projections.##Historical data analysis techniques: Historical data is analyzed to
discover patterns or relations that will be useful in projecting the future values
of significant variables.Historical Extrapolation Techniques: Historical data
describes the past, but planning involves the future. Estimating is generally based
on analysis of past history combined with various techniques to generate data for
planning purposes.Financial planning Computations: Depreciation: It is a
significant computation in most financial planning. It affects profit computations
because it is an expense, and it affects cash flow because of its impact on taxes.
There are several methods for computing depreciation, all of which should be
available to the planner. These methods are straight � line, double � declining �
balance, sum � of � the � year�s � digits, and production or use � basis.Rate of
return analysis is a method for computing the profitability of an investment,
taking into account the timing of the investment and the cash flows stemming from
the investment. There are several methods for computing the rate of return which
should be a part of the planning model.Break � even analysis is a fairly simple but
very useful computation for determining the volume of activity at which there is no
loss or profit. In evaluating alternatives, two situations may have identical
expected profits, but the one with a lower break � even point is to be preferred.
Characteristics of control processes:Control consists of procedures to determine
deviations from plans and indicate corrective action. Every major organizational
function has a set of controls associated with it.Control in Systems: The basic
model of a system as inputs, process, and outputs, didn�t include regulation and
control of the system. For control purposes, a feedback loop is added to the basic
model. In its simplest form, outputs from the systems are compared with the desired
output(standard), and any difference causes an input to be sent to the process to
adjust the operations so that output will be closer to the standard.##########
Input Output Feed back control for a systemFeedback, which seeks to
dampen and reduce fluctuations around the standards, is termed negative feedback.
It is used in feedback control loops. Positive feedback reinforces the direction in
which the system is moving. In other words, positive feedback causes the system to
repeat or amplify an adjustment or action.2) Negative feedback control:Negative
feedback control in a system means keeping the system operating within certain
limits of performance. For example, an automated production system is in control if
inputs of material and energy are converted to output of produced items using a
standard amount of material and energy and with the percentage of defective items
falling within allowable limits.# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####Negative Feedback
control elementsLaw of Requisite variety:The law of requisite variety means that
for a system to be controlled, every controller must be provided with a) enough
control responses to cover all possible conditions the system may face, b) decision
rules for generating all possible control responses, c) the authority to become a
self � organizing system in order to generate control responses.THE BASIC MODEL OF
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE:1)Hierarchy of authority: Authority is evidenced by
control over resources, rewards, and tasks, and authorization to make decisions
regarding them. As a rule, authority is distributed according to the level in the
hierarchy; i.e., the higher the level of a position, the greater its authority.
Each position has span of control. This describes the number of immediate
subordinates that a manager is to supervise. Figure � 1# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
Figure � 1 Basic hierarchical organization with functional specialization In
figure � 2 On the top, a �tall� hierarchy results from narrow spans of control at
each level. On the bottom, a �flat� hierarchical structure is shown with the chief
executive having a very wide span of control.2) Specialization: Specialization
refers to the division of labor within the organization. A typical organization is
divided along functional lines (e.g. marketing, production, accounting, etc.),
which encourages specialization within each function (figure � 1). Generally, there
are two different ways in which tasks can be divided and assigned. The first is to
give broadly trained specialists a comprehensive range of activities to perform;#
SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####Effective of span of control on structure.The second is
to subdivide the activities into small, well � specified tasks that nonspecialists
can be easily trained to perform. Examples of the former are professionals and
craft workers; the latter is exemplified by an assembly � line occupation.There are
several important reasons for this functional specialization:The two functions
require different training and expertise. An analyst needs different skills and
training than an operator.b) Segregating the two functions improves internal
control because the design of procedures is separated from their execution. If the
person who designs and implements an application also operates it, there is more
opportunity for fraud or unauthorized changes in executing the procedures.
Formalization: The degree of formalization is the extent to which rules and
procedures exist to handle organizational activities. One indication of
formalization is the degree to which decisions for handling various situations are
programmed, i.e., decision rules are specified in advance. The more formalized the
organization, the less discretion individual organization members have in making
decisions.4) Centralization: Organizational centralization generally refers to the
level in the organization where decision-making occurs. In a highly centralized
organization, most decision-making occurs at the top of the hierarchy; the more
decision � making authority is delegated to lower levels, the greater the
decentralization.A flat hierarchy with a wide span of control is more likely to be
associated with decentralization of authority and decision-making.In a highly
formalized organization, operating personnel at low levels make decisions based on
rules and procedures provided to them; exceptions are referred to higher levels for
decisions.Lateral Relations: Organizational methods for reconciling the functional
organization with product or service objectives are termed lateral relations.
Organizational Learning: Organizational learning is the process by which an
organization identifies action � outcome relationships, identifies and corrects
errors, stores the experience in organizational personnel who teach new employees,
and stores the experience in procedures, forms, systems, rules,
computer programs, and other forms for transferring experience. In other words, it
exhibits adaptive behavior. For example, a new employee in the data entry function
is instructed in entry procedures plus error control and error handling procedures.
Concepts of sociotechnical design:A sociotechnical approach to organizational
change has been defined as one which recognizes organizations as purposive entities
which have a variety of goals and which, in order to survive, and have to interact
successfully with their surrounding social and business environments. Viewing
organizations as sociotechnical systems requires making explicitly the
interrelationships between the subsystems in the Leavitt model. Specifically, it
focuses on human as well as technical and organizational objectives in effecting
organizational change.ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE IMPLICATIONS FOR INFORMATION
Concept#Implications for information systems##Hierarchy of authority#A tall
hierarchy with narrow span of control may mean that more formal control information
is needed by upper levels than a flat hierarchy with wide span of
control##Specialization#Information system applications are specialized to fit the
specialization of the organization.##Formalization#Information systems are a major
method for increasing formalization.##Centralization#Information systems can be
assigned to suit any level of centralization.##Modification of basic model
#Information systems can be designed to support product or service organization,
project organization, lateral relations, and matrix organization.##Information
model of organisation#Organizational mechanisms reduce the need for information
processing and communication. Vertical information systems are an alternative to
lateral relations. Information systems are used to coordinate lateral
activities.##Organizational culture#Organizational culture affects information
requirements and system acceptance.##Organizational power#Organizational power
affects organizational behavior during information system planning, resource
allocation, and implementation. Computer systems can be an instrument of
organizational power through access to information.##Organizational growth cycle
#Information systems may need to change for different stages of growth.##Goal
displacement#When identifying goals during requirements determination, care should
be taken to avoid displaced goals.##Organizational learning#Suggests need for
information system design for both efficiency measures to promote single loop
learning and effectiveness measures for double loop learning.##Project model of
organizational change #Describes general concept for managing change with
information system projects.##Case for stable systems#Establish control over
frequency of information system changes.##Systems that promote organizational
change#Reporting critical change variables or relationships and use of multiple
channels in a semi confusing system may be useful for promoting responses to a
changing environment.##Organizations as sociotechnical systems #Provides approach
to requirements determination and job design when both social and technical
considerations are involved.##STRATEGIES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF INFORMATION
REQUIREMENTSA STRATEGY APPROACH TO THE DETERMINATION OF INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
There are four major reasons it is difficult to obtain a correct and complete
set of requirements :The constraints on humans as information processors and
problem solvers.The variety and complexity of information requirements.The complex
patterns of interaction among users and analysts in defining requirements.
Unwillingness of same users to provide requirements.THE THREE LEVELS OF INFORMATION
REQUIREMENTSThere are three levels at which information requirements need to be
established in order to design and implement computer based information systems.
Organization-level information requirementsInformation requirements determination
at the organization or enterprise level is a key element in developing an
information system master plan. Often termed enterprise analysis, the process of
organization-level information requirements determination obtains, organizes and
documents a complete set of high level requirements.Database RequirementsDatabase
requirements arise both from applications and ad hoc queries. The overall
architecture for the databases to meet these requirements can be defined as part
of organizational information requirements. The process of obtaining and organizing
more detailed database requirements can be divided into defining data requirements
as perceived by the users and defining requirements for physical design of the
databases. The process of obtaining and organizing more detailed database
requirements can be divided into defining data requirements as perceived by the
users and defining data requirements for physical design of the databases. User
requirements are referred to as conceptual or logical requirements because the user
views of data are separated from the organization of data in physical storage.
Application-Level Information RequirementsAn application is a subsystem of the
overall information system structure; it provides information processing for an
organizational unit or an organizational activity. There are essentially two types
of information system application requirements social and technical. The social or
behavioral requirements, based on job design, specify objectives and assumptions
such as the following :Work organization design objectives.Individual role
assumptions.Responsibility assumptions.Organization policies.The technical
requirements are based on the information needed for the job or task to be
performed. They specify outputs, inputs, stored data, and information processes. A
significant part of the technical requirements are associated with the structure
and format of data.STRATEGIES FOR DETERMINING INFORMATION REQUIREMENTSAsking#Asking
method Description Conditions suggesting use#Closed questions
Each question has a When set of factual response are known or
defined set of possible respondent may not be able to recall all
answers from which the possibilities. Analyst must know all possible
respondent selects. responses.Open questions No answers
provided. When feelings or opinions are important or Respondent is
allowed when respondent has knowledge and ability to formulate response.
to formulate responses.Brainstorming Group method for eliciting Used
to extend boundaries of problem space wide variety of suggestions of
participants and elicit nonconventional by open flow of ideas. solutions.
Guided Participants are asked to Used to guide brainstorming to �ideal�
brainstorming define ideal solutions and solutions. Useful where
participants have then select the best feasible system knowledge, but may be
locked into an ideal solution. The IDEALS anchoring and adjustment behavior.
method is an example.Group consensus The participants are asked Used
to arrive at �best� judgmental for their estimates or estimate of
variables that are difficult or expectations regarding impossible to estimate
quantitatively. Significant variables. Delphi method and group norming are
examples.#Deriving from an Existing Information SystemExisting information system
that have an operational history can be used to derive requirements for a proposed
information system for the same type of organization or application. The types of
existing information systems that are useful in deriving requirements for future
systems are :Existing system that will be replaced by the new system.Existing
system in another, similar organization.Proprietary system or package.Description
in textbooks, handbooks, industry studies, etc.Synthesis from Characteristics of
the Utilizing SystemNormative analysis methods are based on the fundamental
similarity of classes of object systems. For example, all billing applications
perform a set of basic functions that can be prescribed in advance.Strategy set
transformation is a methodology primarily for describing organization-level
information requirements from the objectives of the organization. For example, if
an organizational objective is to improve profits and the selected strategy is to
change the sales mix to a larger proportion of higher gross margin products, the
information system requirement derived from this objective is a gross margin
analysis application.In the critical factors analysis approach, information
requirements are derived from the critical factors for operating and managing an
enterprise. There is therefore a two step process of eliciting the critical factors
and then deriving information requirements. An example of critical analysis is the
Critical Success Factors (CSF) method. The analyst asks users to define the factors
that are critical to success in performing their functions or making decisions.
Process analysis is another approach to the synthesis of requirements. The idea
underlying this approach is that business processes are the basis for information
system support. Processes remain relatively constant over time, and the
requirements derived from the process will reflect the nontransient needs of the
organization. An example of a process-based methodology is Business Systems
Planning (BSP).Ends-means analysis is a technique for determining requirements
based on systems theory. The technique can be used to determine information
requirements at the organizational, departmental, or individual manager level. The
technique separates definition of ends or outputs generated by an organizational
process from the means used to accomplish them. The ends or output from one process
is the input to some other process. For example, the inventory process provides a
part to the production process, the
accounting process provides budget information for other organizational processes,
and the marketing process products to customer processes.The decision analysis
method for information requirements determination is performed by the following
steps :Identify and prescribe the decision.Define the decision algorithm or
decision process. Various documentation methods may be used. Examples are decision
flowcharts, decision tables, and decision trees.Define information needed for the
decision process.The sociotechnical analysis approach consists of 2 parts : social
analysis and technical analysis. The social analysts determines system requirements
relative to the social, human interaction system of the organization. These
requirements include system design features and implementation procedures. The
social analysis is performed by studying patterns of social interaction and group
behavior in the current system.Input-process-output analysis is a system approach.
A system is defined in terms of its inputs, outputs, and transformation processes
for receiving inputs and producing outputs. The approach starts in a top-down
fashion on an object system. Subsystems of the object system are analyzed to
subdivide them into smaller subsystems, etc., until information processing
activities are defined as separate activities within a subsystem. Example is data
flow diagrams.SELECTING A STRATEGY FOR DETERMINING INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
Identifying the Characteristics of Elements in the Development Process that Affect
Uncertainty#Elements in characteristics that reduce characteristics
that increasedevelopment reduce uncertainty uncertainty
process#Utilizing system Stable, well-defined system not in Unstable, poorly
understood system process of change. in process of
change. Programmed activities or Nonprogrammed activities
or decisions. decisions.Information system
Traditional, simple set of Complex or unusual set of
requirements. requirements. Clerical
support system. Management support system.Users One or few
users. Many users. High user system experience.
Low user system experience.Analysts Trained and experienced with
Little prior training or experience similar information system.
With similar information system.#Evaluating the Effect of the Characteristics
on Process UncertaintyThe characteristics of the four elements in the development
process affect the uncertainty of determining the information requirements by
affecting three process uncertainties: Uncertainty with respect to existence and
stability of a usable set of requirements.Uncertainty with respect to users ability
to specify requirements.Uncertainty with respect to analyst�s ability to elicit
requirements and evaluate their correctness and completeness.Evaluating the
Combined Effect of the Process Uncertainties on Overall Requirements Uncertainty
Evaluate the effect of characteristics of the four elements on the three process
uncertainties.Evaluate the three process uncertainties to arrive at an estimated
overall level of requirements process uncertainties. Selecting a Primary Strategy
for Determining Requirements and One or More MethodsUncertainty StrategyLow
Asking## Deriving from an existing system
Synthesis from characteristics of utilizing systemHigh
Discovering from experimentation DATABASE REQUIREMENTSDATABASES AND
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS The database is central to a management information
system. Although the term �database� is often used to refer any data available for
information processing or retrieval operations, the term implies a particular
structuring of the data, both conceptually and in physical storage.The Database
Approach There are three classes of users who interact with database management
systems. There are languages and instruction procedures appropriate for each of
them :The nonprogramming user � User who is not writing a program to use the
database. Usually an analyst or end user with special training. Programs ad hoc
queries and reports using a database query language.The programming user � An
applications programmer who does the analysis and programming of applications. Uses
special database interface instructions to program application access to the
database through the database management system. The instruction call the database
management system to request data, perform updates, etc. The programming user can
also use the database query language for special assignments.The database
administrator (DBA) � The DBA uses special instructions and facilities of the
database management system to define, create, redefine, and restructure the
database and to implement integrity controls.(REFER PAGE 503 � FIGURE 16-1)DATA
MODEL CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY Database design can be divided into three
phases :#Phase Description#Requirements determination
Determination of the data requirements of individual users and applications.
Conceptual (logical) design Integration of the individual user and application
views into an overall conceptual view that resolves view conflicts. There are two
parts to this phase : an unconstrained or natural conceptual design and a
conceptual design constrained for a particular DBMS.Physical design Translating
the conceptual design into physical storage structures.#Review of Definitions
Data modeling is the process of abstraction and documentation using a data
model.Aggregation identifies data items as parts of a higher level, more aggregate
descriptor. For example, project number is associated with a project which is part
of an assignment.Generalization creates categories into which a data item may be
classified. For example, employees may be categorized as to age, type of job, type
of pay plan, etc. Examples of generalization of employees by type of job are
secretaries, truck drivers, and salespersons.(REFER PAGE 508 � FIGURE 16-3)# Term
Definition#Entity Any type of �thing� about which information is
maintained. A more formal definition is �a category, arbitrarily defined so that
membership within the category can be established.Attribute A characteristic
of an entity.Instance A specific instance of an entity or relationship. Consists
of a set of values for attributes of an entity or relationship.Relationship
Association between entities.Identifiers Set of attributes which uniquely
identify an instance of an entity or relationship.#Constraints Constraints define
conditions that must be met for the data to be complete and correct. Three major
types of constraints are on values, dependencies, and referential integrity.#
Constraint Description#Values The allowable, valid values for
attributes may be stated as a list, a range, types of characters, etc. for example,
values may be 1, 2, or 3 only range from 0 to 60, or be numeric only.Dependencies
The allowable values for attributes may depend on some other value. For
example, the allowable values for an employee skill classification are determined
by the allowable skills that are part of the employee�s department. An employee�s
eligibility for overtime pay is dependent on his or her employee status code.
Referential integrity Entities and relationships often have reference conditions
that must be met. For example, there may be existence dependencies, in which for
one entity to exist, a second entity must also exist. An illustration of this is a
sales order for an order to exist, there must be a customer.#Schemas and Mappings
External schema or user schema is the user�s view of a part of the database.
Conceptual schema is the overall logical view of the database.Internal schema or
data storage definition is the way the data is physically organized in storage.
(REFER PAGE 512 � FIGURE 16-6)Anticipatory Development Strategy The data
requirements in the conceptual data modeling strategy are developed from a
description of the entities and relationships among entities in the organization or
other object system requiring databases. The graphic approach is the entity-
relationship (E-R) model usually associated with Chen; the sentence-predicate
calculus approach is Nijssen�s information analysis.USER INTERFACE REQIUREMENTS
CLASSIFICATION OF USERSDevelopers versus Non developers System developers
are those who develop information processing applications and tools for use by
others workers whereas end users are workers who input, manipulate or retrieve
information using the applications and tools.Novices versus experts A novice who
is unfamiliar with both the system�s specific syntax and generalizable (semantic)
knowledge about use of computers should be able to get explanations or assistance
through the system.Occasional versus frequent users A frequent user will become
more expert, particularly in syntactic knowledge, than an occasional one. An
occasional user will probably use the system for ad hoc, non repetitive processing.
A system receiving frequent use is more likely to be used fro routine, repetitive
activities. Occasional users therefore need to be able to refresh their knowledge
of system functions and commands. Commands that use words common to the user and
formats that are fairly aid in this recall and refreshing of memory. The occasional
user has a significant need for online assistance, manuals that have comprehensive
indexes, and examples of command use. Frequent users use are more willing to learn
and use �unnatural� commands and command structures.Primary versus secondary users
A primary user is one who benefits from the system�s output, while a
secondary user is responsible fro input into the system and sometimes for output
but does not use the output directly in his or her job.DIVISION OF FUNCTIONS
BETWEEN USER AND SYSTEM A system
should be designed so that the user controls the interaction rather than the
system. In the long run, a system that is designed well from the user�s point of
view will result in increased overall performance. INTERACTIVE USER DIALOG The
dialog between user and machine can follow many different structures: command
languages, menus, forms, graphics and natural language.Command languages A
command language generally has a specified format fro each command. Typically, a
command to perform an operation is followed by one or more arguments that specify
the details fro it. For instance, there may be a command to rename a file. The user
specifies the command RENAME followed by the user-defined current file name and the
new file name. Two methods are commonly used: Keyword. The user specifies
keywords for the arguments: RENAME OLD=TEXTFIL2 NEW=TEXTFIL3 Position.
The meaning of the arguments is determined by their position: RENAME
TEXTFIL2 TEXTFIL3 The advantage of the keyword format is that the user does not
have to remember the order of the arguments, whereas in the position format the
order is significant and must be memorized.Menus With the menu format, the
user is shown a list of options, usually numbered, and is expected to chose the
appropriate option by positioning a cursor or by keying the associated number. A
series of menus allows the user to step through a series of hierarchical levels of
increasing specificity. The advantage of a well-designed menu is that it provides a
familiar format and a clear set of choices which are well understood by the user.
Menus therefore require less training to use than command languages. One important
feature of a menu structure is the capability of backtracking to a higher or of
returning to the highest level and starting over. Another useful feature is to
refer to similar commands by similar numbers. One of the major drawbacks to menu
selection is its inefficiency for the expert user who wants to go directly to a
specific command.Forms In a forms-based interface design, the user �fills in the
blanks� on a screen. This type of interface dialog is particularly appropriate for
data entry of transactions. The design and programming of screen dialog can be time
consuming and difficult is performed using procedural languages such as COBOL.
Icons, Graphs, and Color Graphical symbols commonly called icons may be used
in system dialog instead of menus or command languages. A workstation display may
show a menu of icons: a desk, an in box, an out box, a file cabinet, a wastebasket.
Graphics interfaces have had limited use in database query systems via a method
known as spatial data management.The ability to combine graphics with color
provides potential for enhancing communication. Color can be used to highlight a
particular aspect of a cluttered display, highlight a change, or separate
information categories. Color is especially valuable in tasks involving
identification, searching, and counting.Natural Language The development of
natural language interfaces is generally considered part of the domain of
artificial intelligence. The goal is for a novice user to communicate with the
computer through a natural language such as English. The ultimate objective is for
computers to be able to understand natural language in the spoken voice, which
would make many of the interface designs. Natural language systems now being
developed are �restricted natural language� systems. That is, they are based on a
limited domain of inquiry and contain a data dictionary of words and meanings
referencing that limited domain. Several other drawbacks to the practical
implementation of natural language systems should be noted:( The creation of a
dictionary and grammar for a particular application is very labor-intensive and the
finished product is tied to the particular database and database management system
in use. This work must be redone every time the system is installed on a new
database. ( One of the advantages of a database is that it can be changed
easily. This requires new words to be understood by the natural language interface
that were not in its original vocabulary. The interface needs to evolve over time
through additions to and changes in its grammar and data dictionary, a problem
which is presently difficult . (A computer system is deterministic and
relatively closed, even with a natural language interface. Therefore, it can give a
literal answer which may actually be misleading.ALTERNATE INTERACTION MECHANISMS
Direct Manipulation systems Termed direct manipulation systems, they are
characterized by the following: (Visibility of the object of interest
(Rapid reversible actions (Replacement of a command language by
direct manipulation of the object of interest. The system encourages the user to
explore its more
QUALITY ASSURANCE AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMSTHE CONCEPT OF QUALITY
IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS Quality is defined as excellence or fitness. It is not an
absolute concept; it is defined within a context. The following are some of the
characteristics included in the concept of quality in information systems :#
Information System Implementation of Quality ConceptsQuality
Characteristic#Complete data All data items are captured and stored for use. Data
items are properly identified with time periods.Accurate data
The correct data values
are recorded.Precise data Measurement of variables
meets user needs for precision.Understandable The output of the
system is understandable to the users.Timely output The output of the application
is available in time for actions and decisions.Relevant output The outputs are
relevant to the actions and decisions to be taken.Meaningful output The format,
labeling, data provided, and context in which data is presented makes the output
meaningful for actions and decision making.User friendly operation The system
provides user interfaces that are understandable and designed to conform to human
capabilities.Error resistant operations Suitable error prevention and detection
procedures are in place. There are procedures for reporting and correcting errors.
Various audit procedures are applied.Authorized use Only authorized personnel
have access to facilities, applications, and data.Protected system and operations
The system and its operations are protected from various environmental and
operational risks. There are provisions for recovery in the event of failure or
destruction of part or all of the system.#ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS FOR CONTROL AND
QUALITY ASSURANCETop Management Information System Control and Quality Assurance
DutiesThe role of top management in information system quality control is to
establish the overall organization structure, select the information system
executive, approve the information system plan and budget, and evaluate
performance. Some examples of top management duties are :Establish domain of
responsibility and authority of information systems function.Select information
systems executive.Approve the information system charter, the information system
long-range plan, and the yearly budget.Approve major hardware and software systems.
Approve major applications.Review results against plan and evaluate information
system performance.Review and approve information system procedures for quality
assurance and control.Information Systems Management Control and Quality Assurance
DutiesThe information systems executive has the responsibility for organizing and
supervising the various control and quality assurance activities in information
systems. Examples of duties are :Establish and supervise quality assurance
procedures for applications developed in-house or obtained as packages.Establish
and supervise various information system control functions.Establish and monitor
procedures to measure and report evidence of quality errors, downtime, reruns,
application repair maintenance, etc.Information System Control and Quality
Assurance FunctionsLibrarian � This function maintains custody of programs, files,
and documentation. These resources are issued based on an unauthorized schedule of
use or special authorization. The custodial activities include record keeping.
Proceeding control � This includes logging in and checking input, checking progress
of jobs, reconciling control information for applications, checking output and
distributing it to authorized recipients, maintaining error logs, and following up
an error correction.Access control - This function is responsible for control of
physical access to the installation and control of access through terminals. Duties
include followup on violations of system access rules.Database administration �
This includes control over access to and use of the database, enforcement of data
integrity rules, and establishment and enforcement of standards.Backup and recovery
� This function is responsible for preparing backup copies of programs, files, and
databases, etc.Application development quality assurance � This function includes
review of controls planned for an application and review of adequacy of testing
during development.User Control and Quality Assurance DutiesUsers have quality
assurance duties as participants in application and database development and
maintenance. There are also special control and quality assurance considerations
when users develop their own systems.User quality assurance duties require
knowledge of context of data, user participation in both input and output, and the
organizational control principle of separation of functions. Knowledge of context
means that users are able to identify invalid data because it does not fit or is
not responsible. This ability represents situation-dependent data validation
because the validation criteria may not be formulated until the user is faceted
with the specific invalid instance.When a user prepares input for a batch system
and also receives the output, this is one basis for quality control duties. For
instance, the user may develop a control total of input data provided to data
processing and check control totals on output against the input control total. The
user may check output with other data such as checking the total on a listing of
accounts receivable with the accounting ledger total for accounts receivable.
The division of function is manifest in :Requirements that a transaction in
error be returned to the initiating area rather than being corrected by data
processing.Policy that data processing may not initiate transactions or master file
changes.User controls and user control duties in applications.QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR
APPLICATIONSConditions for Quality AssuranceThe organizational commitment to
quality in the results of information processing is not merely a statement of
support; quality assurance requires extra effort and extra expense both in
development and in operation. However, there are significant differences in quality
requirements among applications.Information processing discipline is an element in
overall organizational discipline. The term �discipline� is used in the sense of
diligently following established procedures. It implies an acceptance of the need
for careful attention to quality, and procedures for input, output, and error
handling. It is transmitted to new employees by training, supervision, and example.
Redundancy in information processing consists of an extra element, process, or
procedure that would not be required if there were complete assurance that the data
and procedures were without error. Some examples of redundancy in computer data
processing are :Parity bit to detect errors in electronic circuitry or data
communication lines.Longitudinal parity bit (check characters) on magnetic tape
blocks to detect and correct errors.Check digit added to identification codes.
Control totals on batches of data.Run-to-run control totals.Echo of input at VDT
entry.Verification of input data by rekeying and comparing.Quality Assurance in
Application DevelopmentThe development cycle is designed to support quality
assurance in terms of developing a system that meets requirements. Some quality
processes are :Information requirements determination processes to ensure complete
and correct requirements.Sign-offs at each phase of development to assure adequate
review and agreement on the system to that point.Program development procedures for
quality control. These include structured design, structured programming,
independent review of program logic, and program testing.Conventional installation
testing.Post audit evaluation.Application Design for QualityApplications designed
with high regard for quality assurance in operation tend to have low error rates
are the following :Design of input documents and screens to elicit input in natural
sequences with labels, boxes, and menus that clearly identify what is to be input.
Expanded echo of input data to provide opportunity for visual verification.
Maintenance of Application QualityFor information system applications, the negative
entropy is application maintenance; this refers to either repairs of errors or
enhancements. If repairs are not made, users lose confidence in the system and fail
to use it or provide inputs. If enhancements are not made, users may switch to
alternative sources of information. The process of maintenance follows a cycle of
identification, analysis, performing change, and testing. The identification of
errors and proposed enhancements is crucial to the maintenance of system quality.
Maintenance of Data QualityThe principle of entropy also applied to stored data.
The maintenance of data quality requires continuous inputs of resources. In
assessing the establishment of databases, an important factor to be considered is
the probability that the integrity of the data can be maintained. The ability of an
organization to maintain data quality depends on both organizational factors and
data factors.Length of error-effect cycle � If errors have an immediate effect,
organizational resources will be applied more readily than if the effect of error
is longer term. Errors in the billing file are therefore more likely to receive
attention than errors in the employee information file.regularity of measurements �
Data collection that is scheduled at frequent, regular intervals is more likely to
be forgotten or done properly. A regular, weekly report of competitor intelligence
from sales staff as part of expense reports is more likely to have high integrity
than an occasional intelligence report.user-provider link � It is more difficult to
maintain high quality data when the function providing the data has no
organizational link with its users. If the data is received from an external
source, the organization cannot impose its own quality control standards.Provider
data discipline � The extent of data discipline in a function is a result of the
background, training, and culture of the function. For example, the accounting
function tends to have greater data discipline than marketing.Ease of verification
� Some data items can be easily checked by comparison with other stored data or by
comparison with physical
evidence. The credits to accounts receivable are easily verified by the debits to
cash.POST AUDIT EVALUATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEM APPLICATIONSEvaluation of System
Value#Significant task relevance Results of system use are directly observable.
For instance, an office support system results in improved turnaround of documents.
For a decision support system, task relevance is improved decision quality, which
is often difficult to observe but sometimes possible to approximate through users
subjective estimates.Willingness to pay Users may be asked to specify how much
they are willing to pay for a specific report or system capability. This type of
estimate will be very imprecise unless it is linked to an actual transfer price.
System usage System logs may permit measures of system use, or users may be
asked to estimate their use of the system. This is only appropriate for systems
whose usage is voluntary.User information Users are asked to rate their
satisfaction with such aspects of the system satisfaction as response time,
turnaround time, vendor support, accuracy, timeliness, format of outputs, and
confidence in the system.#Technical EvaluationThe questions asked during a
technical evaluation are similar to those used to determine whether the application
was technically feasible. Some examples are :Is the data transmission rate fast
enough to handle the data ?Is there sufficient secondary storage to keep the
necessary data ?Does the CPU respond to all requests within the specified time
period ?When applications are installed, subsequent evaluation may disclose that
they operate ineffectively because the technical capabilities of the hardware or
software cannot support them properly.Operational EvaluationOperational
considerations relate to whether the input data is properly provided and the output
is usable and used appropriately. Evaluation of applications should examine how
well they operate with special reference to input, error rates, timeliness of
output, and utilization.Economic EvaluationThe original proposal for an application
included an economic evaluation. In the post audit economic evaluation, the actual
costs are compared with actual benefits. The costs can be estimated with reasonable
accuracy at post audit, but many benefits may still be difficult to measure. After
making these estimates, a revised return on investment may be calculated. The
economic evaluation may be useful beyond the specific application examined.
EVALUATION OF EXISTING HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE The purpose of evaluation of
existing hardware and software is to determine if all resources are needed, if some
resources should be replaced with improved hardware or software, if a rearrangement
of resources will improve effectiveness, or if additional resources will increase
the effectiveness of the system. Some examples of actions resulting from
performance evaluation of the existing hardware-software system are :Addition of a
new data channel or dropping a data channel not being used.Replacement of a low-
speed data channel with a high-speed channel.Addition to main memory capacity.
Change in disk storage units.Change in disk storage organization.Change in database
management software.Change in communication network.Replacement of order entry
application package.Evaluation by Use of Performance MonitorsHardware monitors are
sensing devices attached to selected signal lines in the computer hardware to
measure the presence or absence of electrical impulses. For example, a sensor might
be attached to measure the time that the CPU is in wait state. Another sensor might
measure channel activity. The monitoring device does not affect the operation of
the computer hardware. It requires no primary storage and no CPU cycle times. The
data from the sensor probes is routed to counters.Software monitors are computer
programs. They reside in main memory and require execution time; they interrupt the
program being executed to record data about the execution. They therefore slow down
the execution of the programs they are monitoring. One approach to reduce the
amount of interruption is to sample the activities being executed rather than to
measure them continuously. Software monitors can identify particular programs or
program modules within the operating system environment. Peripheral device activity
is not measured directly but can be estimated from the CPU commands.Hardware and
software monitors can be used to detect idle resources, bottlenecks, and load
imbalance.Evaluation by Use of System Logs and Observation The system log may
provide data useful for evaluation. This is especially true of small installations
which maintain simple logs of jobs, job times, etc. An analysts of the system log
may indicate problems with reruns, variations in job running times or excessive
machine failure. Some signs of inefficient scheduling or poor operating procedures
are :Processing delays for operator to locate files, mount tapes or disks, load
forms, or perform similar functions.Excessive requirements for operator response at
console.Delays caused by lack of training in proper restart procedures when
processing is interrupted.AUDITING 0F INFORMATION SYSTEMSIndependent AuditorsA
major role of independent auditors is to attest to the fairness of financial
statements. This professional judgement is based on evidence obtained and evaluated
by the auditor during an examination.If computers are used in activities that
affect the financial statements, independent auditors must include a study of
internal control in EDP systems as part of the overall study and evaluation of
internal control. This process includes the following procedures :Preliminary phase
of the review in which an initial assessment is made of the role of computer data
processing in the preparation of financial records. A preliminary evaluation is
made of the existence of general controls over data processing and controls in
applications relevant to the audit. The assessment from the preliminary phase is
the basis for planning the completion of the review. The result may be to
tentatively rely on the internal control in data processing and proceed to complete
the review or not to rely and to collect alternative evidence.Complete the review
of internal control in computer data processing by more detailed study of controls.
By interviews, checklists, study of documentation, and observation, the auditor
determines the set of controls the company says are operating. If these controls
provide a reasonable basis for internal control, the auditor proceeds to test
whether the controls are functioning.Compliance tests of the controls. Controls may
be established but not operating or operating improperly, incorrectly, or
irregularly. The purpose of the compliance tests is to obtain evidence on how well
the controls are operating. The tests include examination of evidence of compliance
such as signatures when they are required, control total comparisons, library
control records, etc.Evaluation of the reliance that can be placed on internal EDP
control and decision on the substantive tests that need to be performed to provide
evidence other than internal control.Internal AuditorsInternal auditors are
employees of the company. They usually have a reporting relationship within the
company that provides independence from those they are auditing. Internal auditors
perform control assignments, do more detailed auditing than that performed by
external auditors, and do evaluations. Internal auditors may perform frequent
testing of data processing using software where appropriate. They may participate
in post audit evaluations of applications and periodic tests of security and backup
procedures.ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE INFORMATION RESOURCES FUNCTIONTHE
CHANGE FROM INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT TO INFORMATION RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
The management of information systems in many organizations is experiencing a
transition from computers and data-based information processing to information as a
strategic resource and to an expanded role for information technology. This has
resulted in an expanded responsibility for the information systems executive. This
expanded role is often termed information resources management (IRM). The term
usually includes the related activities of data processing, data communications,
and office automation.The Information Resources FunctionData Processing � In a
traditional information systems environment, information resources are synonymous
with data processing. In organizations where information systems have a broader
charter, data processing continues to play a significant role.Telecommunications �
traditionally, data communications have been the responsibility of data processing
operations, while voice communications were assigned elsewhere. The advances in
communication technology support corporate-wide telecommunications capabilities
that integrate voice and data communications. Data communications are also an
integral component of both data processing and office automation applications.
Office automation � this component typically began as the word processing function
under the responsibility of office administrators who were separate from data
processing.ORGANIZATION OF THE INFORMATION RESOURCES FUNCTIONPressures for
Centralized versus Decentralized Control of Information ResourcesPressures for
decentralized control :Available of low-cost technology � Personal computers,
intelligent workstations, and terminals plus software for end-user computing permit
many applications to be user-developed that previously required centralized
development and permit many tasks to be user-operated and user-controlled that
previously required centralized operation.Backing of development work � The
shortage of qualified information systems professionals combined with increasing
demand for new major applications has created a three to five year backlog of new
development in many organizations.User control over operations � Having direct
control over their own information systems operation is very attractive to users,
particularly if information systems play a measurable role in their performance.
Organizational behavior � There are psychological and organizational behavior
reasons for the accumulation of information. Some of the reason may explain
pressures for local control of information resources. These include :Psychological
value of unused information. Knowing it is there if needed or �just in case� seems
to have a positive value.Information is often gathered and communicated to
persuade. This function is most easily performed by information systems under local
control.Information use is a symbol of commitment to rational choice. Local control
of information resources thus represents local competence.Pressures for centralized
control :Staff professionalismA large development and operation support staff
provides challenging work, creates an environment of shared expertise and learning,
and provides alternative career paths. It also makes standards for information
system development and operation easier to enforce.Corporate database control.The
philosophy behind development of a corporate database is centralized control over
data accessibility, integrity, and security. User-designed systems with their own
databases are incompatible with the global database approach.Technical competence
and research.A central unit can specialize and thus develop sufficient expertise to
evaluate technologies. It can also function as a research unit for high-risk,
leading-edge pilot projects that an individual user would not be able to undertake.
Comparative cost advantage.When extra communications costs required with
decentralization are included, the net comparative cost advantage of centralized
facilities may be relatively small. Each system must be evaluated to determine
whether or not there is a cost advantage; it cannot be assumed. The cost advantage
from centralization of personnel with technical expertise persists.Alternative
Organizational Forms for Information SystemsFUNCTIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM
ORGANIZATION#####################The most common organizational structure for
information systems is a functional organization. Personnel are grouped by the
function they perform such as application system development and operations. The
above figure shows a typical functional organization. The advantage of a functional
organization is specialization of personnel. In information systems, specialization
is important for training and maintaining technical competence. As the organization
grows, there can be fairly narrow specialization to meet specific technical
requirements. The disadvantage is the narrow view promoted by specialization.
Centralization � Decentralization of Systems OperationsThere are three elements of
system operation that may be centralized or decentralized : computer hardware
location, computer processing control, and location of data. There are a number of
factors that may affect the location of computer hardware :#Factors affecting
location Comments#Economies of scale for computer Historically,
economies of scale strongly favored large, centralizedcomputer equipment
computers. This is no longer true. In fact, considering communications costs
as well as overhead required for operating a large complex computer, there may be
diseconomies of scale for hardware; large, central computers may be justified by
the need for speed and power but not by lower cost per unit of processing.
Integration of processing If there is significant integration of processing
performed for different locations or functions, a central computer facility reduces
the problems of incompatible hardware interfaces.Data communication costs Data
communications costs reflect the type of processing, the configuration of
equipment, and the distances between locations. Dispersing equipment may increase
or decrease communication costs depending on all these factors.Technological
expertise to support There must be a certain level of technological expertise to
support computer operations the use of computer equipment, and the level of
expertise tends to be higher with larger, more complex hardware configurations. The
large installation requires on-site expertise; smaller installations must be
assured to access to expertise when needed.Hardware installation risk A company
with a single, large hardware installation can maintain adequate security, but the
entire data processing capacity of the organization is at risk in the event of
disasters such as fire, tornado, explosion, riot, etc. It is more difficult and
costly to arrange backup for a single large installation than for smaller ones.
With multiple small installations, work can be shifted temporarily to where there
is unused capacity if one installation is out of service.# There are a number of
alternatives for hardware location and control. The list below is arranged in
approximate order from highly decentralized to highly centralized.Distributed
computer hardware with no central control over configurations and no
communications.Distributed computer hardware with no central control over equipment
configurations.Distributed computer hardware with communications network for
communicating between hardware at different locations.Distributed computer hardware
for local processing and a central computer for larger jobs.Distributed computer
hardware with communications network controlled by a central computer that
allocates jobs to local computers.Centralized computer hardware with remote job
entry stations for input/output.Centralized computer hardware with remote terminal
access to specify jobs to be run.Centralized computer hardware with remote terminal
access only for input and output.Another aspect of system operations that can be
centralized or decentralized is storage of and access to data. As with hardware,
there are a number of alternatives for achieving central or local storage and
control. They are arranged below in approximate order from decentralized to
centralized.Each distributed computer has its own files, and there is no
interchange or central control.Each distributed computer has its own files, but
there are organization-wide standards on naming, integrity checks, etc.Each
distributed computer has files, but the data can be accessed by other computers.
There is a centrally controlled network of distributed files and databases. A file
or database is assigned to a local computer, and data records are transferred to
other computers as needed.There is a central database with subfiles downloaded to
local computers for local use; file changes and transaction data are sent to the
central computer for updating of the database.A central computer has all files and
databases.Centralization � Decentralization of Systems DevelopmentCentralization-
decentralization of application system development is achieved through the
organizational location of systems analysts and programmers or other control
mechanisms. Locating systems analysis personnel within the user organization has
the advantage of making the analysts more responsive to the needs of the using
group. In general, they can design applications and interact with operating
personnel much better than systems analysts coming in from outside groups.If
systems analysts remain in a centralized group, project organization may be used to
gain some of the advantages of decentralization. Each application to be developed
is organized as a project with a project leader and systems analysts assigned to
it. The advantages are reduction in communication difficulties between project
phases and the focusing of responsibility for system success on a single group.
DATABASE DESIGN Database objectives The following are main
objectives.Controlled redundancy: Redundant data occupies space and
therefore wateful.. A unique aspect of database design is storing data only
once,which controls redundancy and improves system performance.Ease of learning and
use: A major use of user-friendly data base package is how easy is to
learn and use. The data can be modified without interfering with established ways
of using the data.Data independence: Changing hardware and storage
procedures or adding new data without having to rewrite application program.More
information at low cost: Although software prices are
falling software and programming cost are on rise. So they should be kept simple
and easy to update.Accuracy and integrity: The accuracy ensures
that data quality and content remain constant. Integrity controls detect data
inaccuracies where they occur.Recovery from failure: With multiuser
access to data base the system must recover quickly,after it is down with no loss
of transactions.Privacy and security: Security measures must be taken to
prevent unauthorized access. Data are protected from various forms of destruction.
Performance: This objective emphasizes response time to inquiries suitable to
the use of the data.Logical and physical data: The
logical view is what the data look like, regardless of how they are stored.
The physical view is the way data exist in physical storage. It deals with
how the data are stored,accessed,or related to other data in storage.Schemas and
subschemas: The schema is the view that helps the DBMS decide what data
in storage it should act upon as requested by the application program.
The subschema is a programmer�s view. Many subschemas can be derived from one
schema. Different
application programmers visualize different subschemas.Physical data organization:
There are three basic means of superimposing a different logical
sequence of records on an existing physical sequence: -a partioned file -a chain
file -an inverted file.A partitioned file This is made up of subfiles
called members,and each member file is referenced by a directory which may have a
number of levels according to the speed of retrieval required. Within each member
subfile,the records are held in sequence,and this structure is sometimes called a
physically contiguous file. Portioned files may be created without
directories; these are often called sequential hierarchies. Here, two or more
record types are used and partitioned.Chain files Records which have been
stored in particular sequence can be processed in a completely different sequence
using chain techniques. Records are linked together using pointers. There are three
main type of pointers. -the direct access device address of the record being
pointed to; -the relative address of the record being pointed to;this is
usually the page number -the primary key of the record pointed to.The first type of
pointer,the disk address,is fastest in accessing,but provides no data independence
and is very poor for volatile files. The second type of pointer is nearly as fast
as the disk address, is nearly as fast as the disk address, is usually shorter and
gives some data impendence,when paging of data is heavily used. The third type of
pointer,the primary key is slowand may need a number of seeks, it is not useful in
chains.Skip searching: Skip searching involves dividing the records into groups;
the page number of the lowest key record in the group before the head of the chain
is the pointer in the own record. The record primary key is tested,and if still too
high then the pointer to the lowest record in the next lower group is followed,
this being in the record under examination, and so on.Multilist: Here a sequenced
chain is divided into sections. A directory gives a list of the beginning page
number of eavh section, thus the mean searches are reduced to:
((Nc/Ns)+1) /2where Nc is the number of records in the chain,and Ns the
number of sections.The main limitations of chaining techniques are the search times
and the duration of insertions and deletions.Inverted filesInverted files are
organized so that records may be retrieved by giving values of any data items to
find a record or group of records. Searching each record in the file and retaining
only those which meet the specifications, or by accessing only those records with
the correct specifications by means of an inverted file.There are four basic
methods of organizing inverted files: -secondary indexing -partial inversion
-full inversion -bit map indexingSecondary indexing: The records are
held in primary key sequence,and secondary indexes are maintained giving the value
of secondary keys. The secondary indexing can be used when records are held in
any sequence and are not indexed on primary key.Partial inversion The pointer
array is used in a partially inverted file as an indexing technique. Selected
attributes are stored in indexes, and each entry in the index is a pointer to part
of the main data. With partial inversion, changing of records is used although the
main feature of these files is that the length of the chain is limited.Full file
inversion A fully inverted file contains an index for each attribute of data
held,each field in the record being a potential search key. There are four main
parts:-an attribute index-a values index-an occurance index-data values.Bit map
indexing In bit map indexing, an inverted index is maintained with an entry for
each attribute/value pair. A bit position in each is reserved for each record in
the file, and if the record contains the attribute/pair, then the corresponding bit
is 1, otherwise it is 0.Physical organization of data Partitioning
A partitioned file may be used where a large files is to be reduced to sub-
files,and where selective accessing of subfiles is required. The partitioning file
may be held as a sequential hierarchy if direct access to each subfile is not
required.Chaining Chaining is a common technique in databases. It may be used in
several ways to provide both flexibility and speed of access. If real-time response
is required, then either chaining may be avoided and some inventory technique used
instead or use of skip searching, multilisting or sequenced chain employed.
Inversion Each of the major inversion techniques is appropriate to particular
circumstances. Secondary indexing is used where the file is regularly processed in
primary key sequence, the required retrieval time is fairly fast, the file is
active, and the maintenance requirement is low. Full file inversion is appropriate
when the search criteria are highly variable and the required retrieval time is
fast. If the file is not too large for a bot array of the data to be accomadated in
main store, then bit map searching gives good results where each criteria are mixed
and variable. 1. Explain about the System ConceptsINPUTS--( PROCESSES--(OUTPUTS
System can be regarded as a set of interacting element responding to
inputs to produce outputs.Sub-systemEach system is composed of subsystem, which is
they made up of other subsystem; the subsystems, elements of the system to which
they belong are themselves defined by the boundaries. The interconnections between
subsystems are known as interfaces. A subsystem at the lowest level, whose
processes are not defined, is called black box system; here inputs and outputs are
defined.(A). Factoring into subsystemsThe process of factoring continues until
the subsystem is of appropriate size for the analysis/design project. The
subsystems will usually factor into a hierarchical structure.The hierarchy diagram
does not show that each of the subsystem is an integral part of the subsystem or a
system to which it belongs. The problem of factoring is that it leads to a very
large number of input/output interfaces between the subsystems. The number of
interfaces is given by 1/2n(n-1), when n=the number of subsystems. Not all
subsystem will interface, but clearly even a small number of subsystems will
generate a large number of interfaces. One of the ways to overcome this problem is
to group together those subsystems, which have very close relationships. Such a
grouping would be a likely design outcome in any case.(B) INTEGRATION OF
SUBSYSTEMS: THE CONCEPT OF INTEGRATION IS VERY
IMPORTANT FOR THE SYSTEM ANALYST:IT DRAWS ATTENTION TO THE PRIMARY IMPORTANCE OF
THE WHOLE SYSTEM. IT IS THE WHOLE WHICH DICTATES THE ROLE OF SUBSYSTEM; THE
SUBSYSTEM AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS SHOULD EVOLVE FROM THE CONCEPT OF THE WHOLE, EACH
BEING DEPENDENT ON THE WHOLE SYSTEM FOR ITS POSITION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER
SUBSYSTEM.THE DIFFICULTY, IS IDENTIFICATION OF THE WHOLE SYSTEM.
It should be clear that the major task of the system analyst is to define the
system in terms of its objectives, input, processes, output, boundary and the
interfaces between its subsystems.� THE BEHAVIOUR OF SYSTEM:
A number of concepts assist in the analysis of behaviour.Deterministic and
probabilistic systems A deterministic system
is one which the occurrence of all events is perfectly predictable. Given a
description of the system state at a particular time, and ofIts operation, the next
state can be perfectly predicted. An example of such a system is a numerically-
controlled machine tool. A probabilistic
system is one in which the occurrence of events cannot be perfectly predicted. An
example of such a system is a warehouse and its contents. Given a description of
the contents at one time, and of the next point in time could not be perfectly
predicted. The system analyst deals almost
entirely with probabilisticSystemCLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS
----------------------------------------- A
closed system is one which does not interact with its environment. Such systems are
rare, but relatively closed system are common. An example Of systems are rare, but
relatively closed system is a computer program which processes predefined inputs in
a predefined way. A relatively closed system is one which controls its inputs, and
so is protected from environmental disturbance. An open system is one which does
interact with its environment, being able to receive unexpected inputs. open system
are organic in that by their nature they tend to react with the environment; a
human being is an example of an open system. Open system are usually adaptive, ie
their interaction with the environment is such as to flavor their continued
existence. (D) Stable Systems. A Stable system is one in which
relationships are well defined but which whenDisturbed by environmental factors,
is capable of returning to its desired state. The Stability is measured in terms of
certain elements remaining within previously set limits.For example, a stock
control systems using a reorder level based on forecasts of demand would
immediately cause a purchase order to be made when the stock reaches the reorder
level. This is known as a negative feedback mechanism which records when the system
is tending to deviate from its limits.CONTROLS IN SYSTEM
The simple system above does not provide for effective measurement and control of
the system. A suitable modification is shown.
In this model, output is fed to the measurement/control function
and compared to the desired limits, Any deviation from those limits causes a
message to be send to adjust either the processes or the inputs.(It is also quite
possible for the control response to lead to a change in the system objectives or
in the predefined limits.) Controls mechanisms,
like systems, can be opened or closed. An open control mechanism is one subject to
unknown and unexpected changes, which would normally be associated with human
control; a closed control mechanism (such as the thermostat on a central heating
system) is automated and subject only to expected disturbances. Again, open and
closed are the extremes of a wide spectrum. THE LAW OF REQUISITE VARIETY:
This law states that, in order to control each possible state of the system, there
must be a corresponding control mechanism. For every way in which the system can
get out of control, there must be a way of restoring controls. This requirement
may related to a mass of information. The law of requisite variety suggestsThat
one cannot use purely computer control for open systems. There must be a man-
machine approach to the problem. Information systemThe subsystem of the
business have been considered as related to specific business functions, such as
marketing, production &accounting .the business has been described as a system
which receives resource (capital, people, plant, material)&produces goods or
services.Data processingData denotes facts of the business represented by numbers,
alphabetic characters or symbols signifying condition, value or state. Data may be
an amount on a bill, a customer�s name or reference code, an, address or a stock
item reference. Data is processed to provide information.Data processing refers to
this conversion of data to information. Electronic data processing (EDP) refers
specifically to computerized data processing systems.The computer can use the same
data, which has been input or stored for the payroll as the basis for producing a
management report. This concept of integrated data processing. An operation such as
sales invoicing is integrally linked with order processing, delivery documentation,
sales forecasting, inventory control,Sales statistics, and the sales ledger. This
emphasizes the importance of integratedSystems planning based on the sub-division
of the total system into meaningfulSubsystem. A
production planning information system To give
some idea of the role of the information system in a business organization, it is
perhaps best to look at a typical system, eg production planning. In an
organization where sales are made from stock the role of production planning is to
ensure that sufficient stock is available. A simplified chart of the information
flow might look like this.#####
Schedule ##Thus an information system for production planning must have
available to it as input, data on customers orders, production availability,
production stock availability: this data is of course required are generated by
other subsystems .The system process this data by expending the orders into
material requirements, determining the production process required, and working out
a production scheduleOrganization structure In order to
achieve its objectives the organization must be structured on principles having the
benefits of specification without losing overall coordination and integration
;and the formality of the structure must be tempered by the need to allow(and
encourage) informal contacts between staff. The
traditional principles on which organizations have been structured aim achieve
parity of authority and responsibility; harmony of objectives(all staff working to
a common end); unity of command(each person having only one immediate superior);
unity of direction (one manager and one plan for each major objective or set of
objectives); appropriate span of control(the number of subordinates which one
person can manage);and control by exception(feedback of deviations from an agreed
plan). In recent years increasing attention has
been devoted to the informal structure of the organization, ie the relationships
which people make which cut across the formal structure. often the informal
structure reflects more closely power structure of the organization, and certainly
it facilitates quicker and smoother operation at all levels than does the formal
structure. the formal structure defines nominal responsibilities and authority in
relation to the use of resources. A typical organizations structure for an
engineering company is given below in the figure.
The formal organization structure tending to be rather static, is important to the
systems analyst: information flows are often determined by the organization
structure. The system analyst needs to be aware of relationships
between people and to realize that boundaries of departments are usually jealously
guarded. Various approaches to organization structure have been adopted:Line
organization This is the simplest form of business
organization: the lines of communication flow directly through a hierarchal from
top management downwardsFunctional organization Functional
organization is usually adopted where business efficiently can best be achieved by
�one person� management responsibility being transferred to more than one person,
according to assigned supervisory specialization. Authority still flows from the
top but supervisory specialization staff, organized functionally, have a degree of
authority over all personal at the level below. The aim is to achieve efficiency by
promoting co-operation between specialized supervisors.Line and staff organization
This approach characterizes most large business. SYSTEM ANALYSIS
AND DESIGN PART_A QUESTIONS:1.Define system. The system is an orderly grouping of
interdependent components linked together according to a plan to achieve a specific
objective.2.What are the elements of the system?The elements of the system are
outputs and inputs, processor(s), control, feedback, environment, boundaries and
interface. 3.What are the characteristics of the system? The characteristics
of the system are organization, interaction, interdependence, integration and
central objective.4.What do you mean by integration? Integration refers to the
holism of the system. Integration is concerned with how the system is tied
together. It is more than having a physical part or location.5.What are the types
of the system? The systems have been classified in different ways. Common
classifications are 1.Physical or abstract system 2.Open or closed system
3.Man-made information system6.What do you mean by physical system? Physical
systems are tangible entities there may be static or dynamic in operations. For
example, the physical parts of the computer center are the offices, desks and
chairs that facilitate operations of the computer.7.What do you mean by abstract
system? Abstract system is conceptual or non-physical entities. They may be as
straightforward as formulas of relationship among sets of variables or modules.
8.What do you mean by open system? An open system has many interfaces with its
environment. It permits interaction across its boundary. It receives inputs from
and delivers output to the outside.9.State the merits and demerits of a Database
system? Merits:Processing time and the number of programs written are
substantially reduced.All applications share centralized files.Storage space
duplication is eliminated.Data are stored once in the database and are easily
accessible when needed.Demerits:Cost of specialized personnel.Need to support the
protect sensitive data from unauthorized access10.Mention the various stages for
the system development life cycle?Recognition of need.Feasibility study.Analysis.
DesignImplementationPost-implementation and Maintenance.11.Define prototyping?
It recognizes problem of cognitive style and uses advance computer technology. It
advocates building a simple system through trial and error and refining it through
and interactive process.12.Where does information originate? External sources:
Vendors.Government documents.Newspaper and professional journals. Internal
sources:Financial reports.Personnel staffProfessional staffSystem documentation.
User or user staffReports & transaction documents. 13.What is structured analysis?
It is a set of techniques and graphical tools that allow the analyst to develop a
new kind of systems specifications that are easily understandable to the user.
14.What are the attributes of the structured analysis? It is graphic.The process is
partitioned.It is logical rather than physical.It calls for a rigorous study of the
user area.Certain tasks are carried out late in the SDLC.15.What are the tools of
the structure analysis? Data flow diagram.Data dictionary.Decision tree and
structured English.Decision table.16.What are the steps involved in system
performance definition?Statements of constraints.Identification of specific system
objectives.Description of outputs. 18.What are the various steps involved in
feasibility study?Form a project team and appoint a project leader.Prepare system
flow chart.Enumerate potential candidate system.Describe and identify
characteristics of candidate system.Determine and evaluate the performance and cost
effectiveness of the each candidate system.Weight system performance and cost date.
Select the best candidate system.Prepare and report final project directive to the
management. 19.Define input design? It is the process of connecting user-
originated inputs to a computer-based format.20.What are the input media and
devices available? Poach cards.Key-to-diskette.MICR.Mark sending reader.OCR.Optical
bar code reader.CRT screen.21.What are the 3 major approaches for entering data
into the computer?Menus.Formatted forms.Prompts22.Define output design A
major form of output is a hard copy from the printer. The output devices to
consider depend on factors such as compatibility of the device with system response
time requirements expected print and number of copies needed.23.What are the
various media devices available? MICR reader.Printer.Computer output microfilm.CRT
screen displays.Graph plotter.Audio response.24.What is a form? It is a tool
with a message. It is the physical carrier of data of information. It also can
constitute authority for action.25.What are the various classifications of forms?
Action.Memory.Report.26.What are the various requirements of forms design?
Identification and wording.Maximum readability and use.Physical factor.Order of
data items.Ease of data entry.Size and arrangement.Use of instructions.Efficiency
considerations.Type of report.27.What are the various types of forms?Flat forms.
Unit-set/snap out forms.Continuous strip/ fanfold forms.NCR (No Carbon Required)
paper.28. Define subsystemSubsystem is an part of main system, which is also system
by itself.29. What do you mean by analysisIt is the detail study of existing
business system and the independence with other systemsWithin and outside the
boundary.30. What are the various feasibility?Economic feasibility:
Economic benefits created by the information systems for the investment made
are determined.\Technical feasibility: Software and hardware technology available
for developing and implementing the information project is determinedOperational
feasibility:The usability of the information system after development until
implementation is determined.31. What is system testing?It is the process to ensure
that the system run according to the specification and the users expectations.32.
What are the two types of questionnaires? Structured questionnaireClosed
questionnaire restricts the respond to choose from the provided specific response
unstructured questionnaires An open questionnaire helps in determining the
feelings problems and the reactions of the respondents.33. What are the basic
terminologies in file design?Byte: A byte is the 8bits representing a character.
Data Item: Data item is the combination of one or more bytes that represent an
attribute of an object. For example, a student object may have the attributes like
Roll Number, Name Age and Sex. Other names for data items are fields or items.
Record: Record is the combination of data items related to an object. Student
object having man data items like Name, Roll number, Age and Sex is an ideal
example for record. Record key: Record key is the unique data item of the record
that differentiates one record from the other of a file. In the case of student
object, roll number is th erecord key that is useful in identifying the unique
student object of a file.Entity: An entity is any person or place having definite
characteristics about which data are collected and of interest to the organization.
File: A file is the group of closely related records.Database: Collection of
interrelated files stores necessary data for processing and problem solving.34.
What are the key terms?User�s view: Features user expects from the report.
Processing: Required changes made to produce the output reportData model: It is
the frame work depicting the user�s view of the systemData file: It is the storage
for actual files sequence of storage depends on the data model.Dml: It is the
data definition language used for describing a dataDBMS: This software program
manages the data according to the defined DML and DDL statements. 35.
What are the logical and physical data views?Logical view deals with the data look
independent of how it stored.Physical view deals with the way data exist in the
physical storage. It is mainly concerned with the data storage and retrieval.36.
Define schema This view makes the dbms to act of the data requested by
application. It is known as schema.37. Define subschema? Programmers are usually
concerned with how the data travels securely over the internet. This view of the
programmer is known as subschema.38. Define data structure?Ds is the relationship
between the entities.39. What are the types of relationships?One to one It is
the type of relationship to entities are related to each otherOne to many In
this type of relationship an entity will be related to two or more entities.Many to
Many In this type of relationship entities will have man relationships with other
each other40. Define code A code is a title or set of numbers or symbols that
represents lengthy or confusing item of data.41. Define communication skills
Communication is the process of passing ideas facts opinions, information and
understanding from one person to another.42. What are the characteristics of
quality information?Timely: Updated information should be readily available.
Complete: It should satisfy all the needs of the users of the systemConcise:
It must contain user needed information.Relevant: It must reflect the
behavior of the situation.Precise: It should be exact and specific to the need of
the users of the system.From: The display format and the quantitative and
qualitative of the information must be related to the situation.43. What are the
types of software Software is generally classified into two typesSystem software:
Software programs written to manage the resources of the computer system.
Application software: Software programs written to perform a specific high level
activity.Part-B1. Explain the various Types of systemSystem been have classified
based on the output the system produce and the degree of information exchange with
the environment.The different types of systems areDeterministic systemA
deterministic system is the one, which has definite know inputs, the process and
the outputs.The output of the deterministic is also predictable with certainty.
Accounting system is the example of the deterministic system. Generally,
deterministic system also falls under the closed system category.Probabilistic
systemA probabilistic system is the one, whose output normally predicted in
probabilistic term. Example for the probabilistic system is demand forecasting
system.Generally, probabilistic system also falls under the pen system category.
Physical or abstract systemsReal or concrete entities that are static or dynamic in
nature form the physical systems.Example for the physical system can be this book
�system analysis and design� itself. In this case, it is static physical system. On
the other hand, the programmed computer is the dynamic system since it produces
different outputs based on the inputs. The conceptual or nonphysical entities are
abstract systems.Example for the abstract system may be formulas of relationship
of the set of variables or models. An abstract concept view of the physical
situation. The use of models greatly helps the systems analyst by providing the
details about the key elements and the key compliance tests is to obtain evidence
on how well the controls are operating. The tests include examination of evidence
of compliance such as signatures when they are required, control total comparisons,
library control records, etc.Evaluation of the reliance that can be placed on
internal EDP control and decision on the substantive tests that need to be
performed to provide evidence other than internal control.Internal AuditorsInternal
auditors are employees of the company. They usually have a reporting relationship
within the company that provides independence from those they are auditing.
Internal auditors perform control assignments, do more detailed auditing than that
performed by external auditors, and do evaluations. Internal auditors may perform
frequent testing of data processing using software where appropriate. They may
participate in post audit evaluations of applications and periodic tests of
security and backup procedures.ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE INFORMATION
RESOURCES FUNCTIONTHE CHANGE FROM INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT TO INFORMATION
RESOURCES MANAGEMENT The management of information systems in many organizations
is experiencing a transition from computers and data-based information processing
to information as a strategic resource and to an expanded role for information
technology. This has resulted in an expanded responsibility for the information
systems executive. This expanded role is often termed information resources
management (IRM). The term usually includes the related activities of data
processing, data communications, and office automation.The Information Resources
FunctionData Processing � In a traditional information systems environment,
information resources are synonymous with data processing. In organizations where
information systems have a broader charter, data processing continues to play a
significant role.Telecommunications � traditionally, data communications have been
the responsibility of data processing
operations, while voice communications were assigned elsewhere. The advances in
communication technology support corporate-wide telecommunications capabilities
that integrate voice and data communications. Data communications are also an
integral component of both data processing and office automation applications.
Office automation � this component typically began as the word processing function
under the responsibility of office administrators who were separate from data
processing.ORGANIZATION OF THE INFORMATION RESOURCES FUNCTIONPressures for
Centralized versus Decentralized Control of Information ResourcesPressures for
decentralized control :Available of low-cost technology � Personal computers,
intelligent workstations, and terminals plus software for end-user computing permit
many applications to be user-developed that previously required centralized
development and permit many tasks to be user-operated and user-controlled that
previously required centralized operation.Backing of development work � The
shortage of qualified information systems professionals combined with increasing
demand for new major applications has created a three to five year backlog of new
development in many organizations.User control over operations � Having direct
control over their own information systems operation is very attractive to users,
particularly if information systems play a measurable role in their performance.
Organizational behavior � There are psychological and organizational behavior
reasons for the accumulation of information. Some of the reason may explain
pressures for local control of information resources. These include :Psychological
value of unused information. Knowing it is there if needed or �just in case� seems
to have a positive value.Information is often gathered and communicated to
persuade. This function is most easily performed by information systems under local
control.Information use is a symbol of commitment to rational choice. Local control
of information resources thus represents local competence.Pressures for centralized
control :Staff professionalismA large development and operation support staff
provides challenging work, creates an environment of shared expertise and learning,
and provides alternative career paths. It also makes standards for information
system development and operation easier to enforce.Corporate database control.The
philosophy behind development of a corporate database is centralized control over
data accessibility, integrity, and security. User-designed systems with their own
databases are incompatible with the global database approach.Technical competence
and research.A central unit can specialize and thus develop sufficient expertise to
evaluate technologies. It can also function as a research unit for high-risk,
leading-edge pilot projects that an individual user would not be able to undertake.
Comparative cost advantage.When extra communications costs required with
decentralization are included, the net comparative cost advantage of centralized
facilities may be relatively small. Each system must be evaluated to determine
whether or not there is a cost advantage; it cannot be assumed. The cost advantage
from centralization of personnel with technical expertise persists.Alternative
Organizational Forms for Information SystemsFUNCTIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM
ORGANIZATION#####################The most common organizational structure for
information systems is a functional organization. Personnel are grouped by the
function they perform such as application system development and operations. The
above figure shows a typical functional organization. The advantage of a functional
organization is specialization of personnel. In information systems, specialization
is important for training and maintaining technical competence. As the organization
grows, there can be fairly narrow specialization to meet specific technical
requirements. The disadvantage is the narrow view promoted by specialization.
Centralization � Decentralization of Systems OperationsThere are three elements of
system operation that may be centralized or decentralized : computer hardware
location, computer processing control, and location of data. There are a number of
factors that may affect the location of computer hardware :#Factors affecting
location Comments#Economies of scale for computer Historically,
economies of scale strongly favored large, centralizedcomputer equipment
computers. This is no longer true. In fact, considering communications costs
as well as overhead required for operating a large complex computer, there may be
diseconomies of scale for hardware; large, central computers may be justified by
the need for speed and power but not by lower cost per unit of processing.
Integration of processing If there is significant integration of processing
performed for different locations or functions, a central computer facility reduces
the problems of incompatible hardware interfaces.Data communication costs Data
communications costs reflect the type of processing, the configuration of
equipment, and the distances between locations. Dispersing equipment may increase
or decrease communication costs depending on all these factors.Technological
expertise to support There must be a certain level of technological expertise to
support computer operations the use of computer equipment, and the level of
expertise tends to be higher with larger, more complex hardware configurations. The
large installation requires on-site expertise; smaller installations must be
assured to access to expertise when needed.Hardware installation risk A company
with a single, large hardware installation can maintain adequate security, but the
entire data processing capacity of the organization is at risk in the event of
disasters such as fire, tornado, explosion, riot, etc. It is more difficult and
costly to arrange backup for a single large installation than for smaller ones.
With multiple small installations, work can be shifted temporarily to where there
is unused capacity if one installation is out of service.# There are a number of
alternatives for hardware location and control. The list below is arranged in
approximate order from highly decentralized to highly centralized.Distributed
computer hardware with no central control over configurations and no
communications.Distributed computer hardware with no central control over equipment
configurations.Distributed computer hardware with communications network for
communicating between hardware at different locations.Distributed computer hardware
for local processing and a central computer for larger jobs.Distributed computer
hardware with communications network controlled by a central computer that
allocates jobs to local computers.Centralized computer hardware with remote job
entry stations for input/output.Centralized computer hardware with remote terminal
access to specify jobs to be run.Centralized computer hardware with remote terminal
access only for input and output.Another aspect of system operations that can be
centralized or decentralized is storage of and access to data. As with hardware,
there are a number of alternatives for achieving central or local storage and
control. They are arranged below in approximate order from decentralized to
centralized.Each distributed computer has its own files, and there is no
interchange or central control.Each distributed computer has its own files, but
there are organization-wide standards on naming, integrity checks, etc.Each
distributed computer has files, but the data can be accessed by other computers.
There is a centrally controlled network of distributed files and databases. A file
or database is assigned to a local computer, and data records are transferred to
other computers as needed.There is a central database with subfiles downloaded to
local computers for local use; file changes and transaction data are sent to the
central computer for updating of the database.A central computer has all files and
databases.Centralization � Decentralization of Systems DevelopmentCentralization-
decentralization of application system development is achieved through the
organizational location of systems analysts and programmers or other control
mechanisms. Locating systems analysis personnel within the user organization has
the advantage of making the analysts more responsive to the needs of the using
group. In general, they can design applications and interact with operating
personnel much better than systems analysts coming in from outside groups.If
systems analysts remain in a centralized group, project organization may be used to
gain some of the advantages of decentralization. Each application to be developed
is organized as a project with a project leader and systems analysts assigned to
it. The advantages are reduction in communication difficulties between project
phases and the focusing of responsibility for system success on a single group.
DATABASE DESIGN Database objectives The following are main
objectives.Controlled redundancy: Redundant data occupies space and
therefore wateful.. A unique aspect of database design is storing data only
once,which controls redundancy and improves system performance.Ease of learning and
use: A major use of user-friendly data base package is how easy is to
learn and use. The data can be modified without interfering with established ways
of using the data.Data independence: Changing hardware and storage
procedures or adding new data without having to rewrite application program.More
information at low cost: Although software prices are
falling software and programming cost are on rise. So they should be kept simple
and easy to update.Accuracy and integrity: The
accuracy ensures that data quality and content remain constant. Integrity controls
detect data inaccuracies where they occur.Recovery from failure: With
multiuser access to data base the system must recover quickly,after it is down with
no loss of transactions.Privacy and security: Security measures must be
taken to prevent unauthorized access. Data are protected from various forms of
destruction.Performance: This objective emphasizes response time to inquiries
suitable to the use of the data.Logical and physical data:
The logical view is what the data look like, regardless of how they are
stored. The physical view is the way data exist in physical storage. It
deals with how the data are stored,accessed,or related to other data in storage.
Schemas and subschemas: The schema is the view that helps the DBMS
decide what data in storage it should act upon as requested by the application
program. The subschema is a programmer�s view. Many subschemas can
be derived from one schema. Different application programmers visualize different
subschemas.Physical data organization: There are three basic means
of superimposing a different logical sequence of records on an existing physical
sequence: -a partioned file -a chain file -an inverted file.A partitioned
file This is made up of subfiles called members,and each member file is
referenced by a directory which may have a number of levels according to the speed
of retrieval required. Within each member subfile,the records are held in
sequence,and this structure is sometimes called a physically contiguous file.
Portioned files may be created without directories; these are often called
sequential hierarchies. Here, two or more record types are used and partitioned.
Chain files Records which have been stored in particular sequence can be processed
in a completely different sequence using chain techniques. Records are linked
together using pointers. There are three main type of pointers. -the direct access
device address of the record being pointed to; -the relative address of the
record being pointed to;this is usually the page number -the primary key of the
record pointed to.The first type of pointer,the disk address,is fastest in
accessing,but provides no data independence and is very poor for volatile files.
The second type of pointer is nearly as fast as the disk address, is nearly as fast
as the disk address, is usually shorter and gives some data impendence,when paging
of data is heavily used. The third type of pointer,the primary key is slowand may
need a number of seeks, it is not useful in chains.Skip searching: Skip
searching involves dividing the records into groups; the page number of the lowest
key record in the group before the head of the chain is the pointer in the own
record. The record primary key is tested,and if still too high then the pointer to
the lowest record in the next lower group is followed, this being in the record
under examination, and so on.Multilist: Here a sequenced chain is divided into
sections. A directory gives a list of the beginning page number of eavh section,
thus the mean searches are reduced to: ((Nc/Ns)+1) /2where Nc is the
number of records in the chain,and Ns the number of sections.The main limitations
of chaining techniques are the search times and the duration of insertions and
deletions.Inverted files Inverted files are organized so that records may be
retrieved by giving values of any data items to find a record or group of records.
Searching each record in the file and retaining only those which meet the
specifications, or by accessing only those records with the correct specifications
by means of an inverted file.There are four basic methods of organizing inverted
files: -secondary indexing -partial inversion -full inversion -bit
map indexingSecondary indexing: The records are held in primary key
sequence,and secondary indexes are maintained giving the value of secondary keys.
The secondary indexing can be used when records are held in any sequence and
are not indexed on primary key.Partial inversion The pointer array is used in
a partially inverted file as an indexing technique. Selected attributes are stored
in indexes, and each entry in the index is a pointer to part of the main data. With
partial inversion, changing of records is used although the main feature of these
files is that the length of the chain is limited.Full file inversion A fully
inverted file contains an index for each attribute of data held,each field in the
record being a potential search key. There are four main parts:-an attribute index-
a values index-an occurance index-data values.Bit map indexing In bit map
indexing, an inverted index is maintained with an entry for each attribute/value
pair. A bit position in each is reserved for each record in the file, and if the
record contains the attribute/pair, then the corresponding bit is 1, otherwise it
is 0.Physical organization of data Partitioning A partitioned file
may be used where a large files is to be reduced to sub-files,and where selective
accessing of subfiles is required. The partitioning file may be held as a
sequential hierarchy if direct access to each subfile is not required.Chaining
Chaining is a common technique in databases. It may be used in several ways
to provide both flexibility and speed of access. If real-time response is required,
then either chaining may be avoided and some inventory technique used instead or
use of skip searching, multilisting or sequenced chain employed.Inversion Each
of the major inversion techniques is appropriate to particular circumstances.
Secondary indexing is used where the file is regularly processed in primary key
sequence, the required retrieval time is fairly fast, the file is active, and the
maintenance requirement is low. Full file inversion is appropriate when the search
criteria are highly variable and the required retrieval time is fast. If the file
is not too large for a bot array of the data to be accomadated in main store, then
bit map searching gives good results where each criteria are mixed and variable.
1. Explain about the System ConceptsINPUTS--( PROCESSES--(OUTPUTS System
can be regarded as a set of interacting element responding to inputs to produce
outputs.Sub-systemEach system is composed of subsystem, which is they made up of
other subsystem; the subsystems, elements of the system to which they belong are
themselves defined by the boundaries. The interconnections between subsystems are
known as interfaces. A subsystem at the lowest level, whose processes are not
defined, is called black box system; here inputs and outputs are defined.(A).
Factoring into subsystemsThe process of factoring continues until the subsystem is
of appropriate size for the analysis/design project. The subsystems will usually
factor into a hierarchical structure.The hierarchy diagram does not show that each
of the subsystem is an integral part of the subsystem or a system to which it
belongs. The problem of factoring is that it leads to a very large number of
input/output interfaces between the subsystems. The number of interfaces is given
by 1/2n(n-1), when n=the number of subsystems. Not all subsystem will interface,
but clearly even a small number of subsystems will generate a large number of
interfaces. One of the ways to overcome this problem is to group together those
subsystems, which have very close relationships. Such a grouping would be a likely
design outcome in any case.(B) INTEGRATION OF SUBSYSTEMS:
THE CONCEPT OF INTEGRATION IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR THE SYSTEM ANALYST:IT DRAWS
ATTENTION TO THE PRIMARY IMPORTANCE OF THE WHOLE SYSTEM. IT IS THE WHOLE WHICH
DICTATES THE ROLE OF SUBSYSTEM; THE SUBSYSTEM AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS SHOULD EVOLVE
FROM THE CONCEPT OF THE WHOLE, EACH BEING DEPENDENT ON THE WHOLE SYSTEM FOR ITS
POSITION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER SUBSYSTEM.THE DIFFICULTY, IS IDENTIFICATION
OF THE WHOLE SYSTEM. It should be clear that
the major task of the system analyst is to define the system in terms of its
objectives, input, processes, output, boundary and the interfaces between its
subsystems.� THE BEHAVIOUR OF SYSTEM: A
number of concepts assist in the analysis of behaviour.Deterministic and
probabilistic systems A deterministic system
is one which the occurrence of all events is perfectly predictable. Given a
description of the system state at a particular time, and ofIts operation, the next
state can be perfectly predicted. An example of such a system is a numerically-
controlled machine tool. A probabilistic
system is one in which the occurrence of events cannot be perfectly predicted. An
example of such a system is a warehouse and its contents. Given a description of
the contents at one time, and of the next point in time could not be perfectly
predicted. The system analyst deals almost
entirely with probabilisticSystemCLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS
----------------------------------------- A
closed system is one which does not interact with its environment. Such systems are
rare, but relatively closed system are common. An example Of systems are rare, but
relatively closed system is a computer program which processes predefined inputs in
a predefined way. A relatively closed system is one which controls its inputs, and
so is protected from environmental disturbance. An open system is one which does
interact with its environment, being able to receive unexpected inputs. open system
are organic in
that by their nature they tend to react with the environment; a human being is an
example of an open system. Open system are usually adaptive, ie their interaction
with the environment is such as to flavor their continued existence. (D) Stable
Systems. A Stable system is one in which relationships are well defined but
which whenDisturbed by environmental factors, is capable of returning to its
desired state. The Stability is measured in terms of certain elements remaining
within previously set limits.For example, a stock control systems using a reorder
level based on forecasts of demand would immediately cause a purchase order to be
made when the stock reaches the reorder level. This is known as a negative feedback
mechanism which records when the system is tending to deviate from its limits.
CONTROLS IN SYSTEM The simple system above does
not provide for effective measurement and control of the system. A suitable
modification is shown. In this model, output is
fed to the measurement/control function and compared to the desired limits, Any
deviation from those limits causes a message to be send to adjust either the
processes or the inputs.(It is also quite possible for the control response to lead
to a change in the system objectives or in the predefined limits.)
Controls mechanisms, like systems, can be opened or closed. An open control
mechanism is one subject to unknown and unexpected changes, which would normally be
associated with human control; a closed control mechanism (such as the thermostat
on a central heating system) is automated and subject only to expected
disturbances. Again, open and closed are the extremes of a wide spectrum. THE LAW
OF REQUISITE VARIETY: This law states that,
in order to control each possible state of the system, there must be a
corresponding control mechanism. For every way in which the system can get out of
control, there must be a way of restoring controls. This requirement may related
to a mass of information. The law of requisite variety suggestsThat one cannot use
purely computer control for open systems. There must be a man-machine approach to
the problem. Information systemThe subsystem of the business have been
considered as related to specific business functions, such as marketing, production
&accounting .the business has been described as a system which receives resource
(capital, people, plant, material)&produces goods or services.Data processingData
denotes facts of the business represented by numbers, alphabetic characters or
symbols signifying condition, value or state. Data may be an amount on a bill, a
customer�s name or reference code, an, address or a stock item reference. Data is
processed to provide information.Data processing refers to this conversion of data
to information. Electronic data processing (EDP) refers specifically to
computerized data processing systems.The computer can use the same data, which has
been input or stored for the payroll as the basis for producing a management
report. This concept of integrated data processing. An operation such as sales
invoicing is integrally linked with order processing, delivery documentation, sales
forecasting, inventory control,Sales statistics, and the sales ledger. This
emphasizes the importance of integratedSystems planning based on the sub-division
of the total system into meaningfulSubsystem. A
production planning information system To give
some idea of the role of the information system in a business organization, it is
perhaps best to look at a typical system, eg production planning. In an
organization where sales are made from stock the role of production planning is to
ensure that sufficient stock is available. A simplified chart of the information
flow might look like this.#####
Schedule ##Thus an information system for production planning must have
available to it as input, data on customers orders, production availability,
production stock availability: this data is of course required are generated by
other subsystems .The system process this data by expending the orders into
material requirements, determining the production process required, and working out
a production scheduleOrganization structure In order to
achieve its objectives the organization must be structured on principles having the
benefits of specification without losing overall coordination and integration
;and the formality of the structure must be tempered by the need to allow(and
encourage) informal contacts between staff. The
traditional principles on which organizations have been structured aim achieve
parity of authority and responsibility; harmony of objectives(all staff working to
a common end); unity of command(each person having only one immediate superior);
unity of direction (one manager and one plan for each major objective or set of
objectives); appropriate span of control(the number of subordinates which one
person can manage);and control by exception(feedback of deviations from an agreed
plan). In recent years increasing attention has
been devoted to the informal structure of the organization, ie the relationships
which people make which cut across the formal structure. often the informal
structure reflects more closely power structure of the organization, and certainly
it facilitates quicker and smoother operation at all levels than does the formal
structure. the formal structure defines nominal responsibilities and authority in
relation to the use of resources. A typical organizations structure for an
engineering company is given below in the figure.
The formal organization structure tending to be rather static, is important to the
systems analyst: information flows are often determined by the organization
structure. The system analyst needs to be aware of relationships
between people and to realize that boundaries of departments are usually jealously
guarded. Various approaches to organization structure have been adopted:Line
organization This is the simplest form of business
organization: the lines of communication flow directly through a hierarchal from
top management downwardsFunctional organization Functional
organization is usually adopted where business efficiently can best be achieved by
�one person� management responsibility being transferred to more than one person,
according to assigned supervisory specialization. Authority still flows from the
top but supervisory specialization staff, organized functionally, have a degree of
authority over all personal at the level below. The aim is to achieve efficiency by
promoting co-operation between specialized supervisors.Line and staff organization
This approach characterizes most large business. SYSTEM ANALYSIS
AND DESIGN PART_A QUESTIONS:1.Define system. The system is an orderly grouping of
interdependent components linked together according to a plan to achieve a specific
objective.2.What are the elements of the system?The elements of the system are
outputs and inputs, processor(s), control, feedback, environment, boundaries and
interface. 3.What are the characteristics of the system? The characteristics
of the system are organization, interaction, interdependence, integration and
central objective.4.What do you mean by integration? Integration refers to the
holism of the system. Integration is concerned with how the system is tied
together. It is more than having a physical part or location.5.What are the types
of the system? The systems have been classified in different ways. Common
classifications are 1.Physical or abstract system 2.Open or closed system
3.Man-made information system6.What do you mean by physical system? Physical
systems are tangible entities there may be static or dynamic in operations. For
example, the physical parts of the computer center are the offices, desks and
chairs that facilitate operations of the computer.7.What do you mean by abstract
system? Abstract system is conceptual or non-physical entities. They may be as
straightforward as formulas of relationship among sets of variables or modules.
8.What do you mean by open system? An open system has many interfaces with its
environment. It permits interaction across its boundary. It receives inputs from
and delivers output to the outside.9.State the merits and demerits of a Database
system? Merits:Processing time and the number of programs written are
substantially reduced.All applications share centralized files.Storage space
duplication is eliminated.Data are stored once in the database and are easily
accessible when needed.Demerits:Cost of specialized personnel.Need to support the
protect sensitive data from unauthorized access10.Mention the various stages for
the system development life cycle?Recognition of need.Feasibility study.Analysis.
DesignImplementationPost-implementation and Maintenance.11.Define prototyping?
It recognizes problem of cognitive style and uses advance computer technology. It
advocates building a simple system through trial and error and refining it through
and interactive process.12.Where does information originate? External sources:
Vendors.Government documents.Newspaper and professional journals.
Internal sources:Financial reports.Personnel staffProfessional staffSystem
documentation.User or user staffReports & transaction documents. 13.What is
structured analysis? It is a set of techniques and graphical tools that
allow the analyst to develop a new kind of systems specifications that are easily
understandable to the user.14.What are the attributes of the structured analysis?
It is graphic.The process is partitioned.It is logical rather than physical.It
calls for a rigorous study of the user area.Certain tasks are carried out late in
the SDLC.15.What are the tools of the structure analysis? Data flow diagram.Data
dictionary.Decision tree and structured English.Decision table.16.What are the
steps involved in system performance definition?Statements of constraints.
Identification of specific system objectives.Description of outputs. 18.What
are the various steps involved in feasibility study?Form a project team and appoint
a project leader.Prepare system flow chart.Enumerate potential candidate system.
Describe and identify characteristics of candidate system.Determine and evaluate
the performance and cost effectiveness of the each candidate system.Weight system
performance and cost date.Select the best candidate system.Prepare and report final
project directive to the management. 19.Define input design? It is the process of
connecting user-originated inputs to a computer-based format.20.What are the input
media and devices available? Poach cards.Key-to-diskette.MICR.Mark sending reader.
OCR.Optical bar code reader.CRT screen.21.What are the 3 major approaches for
entering data into the computer?Menus.Formatted forms.Prompts22.Define output
design A major form of output is a hard copy from the printer. The output
devices to consider depend on factors such as compatibility of the device with
system response time requirements expected print and number of copies needed.
23.What are the various media devices available? MICR reader.Printer.Computer
output microfilm.CRT screen displays.Graph plotter.Audio response.24.What is a
form? It is a tool with a message. It is the physical carrier of data of
information. It also can constitute authority for action.25.What are the various
classifications of forms?Action.Memory.Report.26.What are the various requirements
of forms design?Identification and wording.Maximum readability and use.Physical
factor.Order of data items.Ease of data entry.Size and arrangement.Use of
instructions.Efficiency considerations.Type of report.27.What are the various types
of forms?Flat forms.Unit-set/snap out forms.Continuous strip/ fanfold forms.NCR (No
Carbon Required) paper.28. Define subsystemSubsystem is an part of main system,
which is also system by itself.29. What do you mean by analysisIt is the detail
study of existing business system and the independence with other systemsWithin and
outside the boundary.30. What are the various feasibility?Economic feasibility:
Economic benefits created by the information systems for the investment
made are determined.\Technical feasibility: Software and hardware technology
available for developing and implementing the information project is determined
Operational feasibility:The usability of the information system after development
until implementation is determined.31. What is system testing?It is the process to
ensure that the system run according to the specification and the users
expectations.32. What are the two types of questionnaires? Structured questionnaire
Closed questionnaire restricts the respond to choose from the provided specific
response unstructured questionnaires An open questionnaire helps in
determining the feelings problems and the reactions of the respondents.33. What are
the basic terminologies in file design?Byte: A byte is the 8bits representing a
character.Data Item: Data item is the combination of one or more bytes that
represent an attribute of an object. For example, a student object may have the
attributes like Roll Number, Name Age and Sex. Other names for data items are
fields or items. Record: Record is the combination of data items related to an
object. Student object having man data items like Name, Roll number, Age and Sex is
an ideal example for record. Record key: Record key is the unique data item of the
record that differentiates one record from the other of a file. In the case of
student object, roll number is th erecord key that is useful in identifying the
unique student object of a file.Entity: An entity is any person or place having
definite characteristics about which data are collected and of interest to the
organization.File: A file is the group of closely related records.Database:
Collection of interrelated files stores necessary data for processing and problem
solving.34. What are the key terms?User�s view: Features user expects from
the report.Processing: Required changes made to produce the output reportData
model: It is the frame work depicting the user�s view of the systemData file:
It is the storage for actual files sequence of storage depends on the data
model.Dml: It is the data definition language used for describing a dataDBMS:
This software program manages the data according to the defined DML and DDL
statements. 35. What are the logical and physical data views?Logical view
deals with the data look independent of how it stored.Physical view deals with the
way data exist in the physical storage. It is mainly concerned with the data
storage and retrieval.36. Define schema This view makes the dbms to act of the
data requested by application. It is known as schema.37. Define subschema?
Programmers are usually concerned with how the data travels securely over the
internet. This view of the programmer is known as subschema.38. Define data
structure? Ds is the relationship between the entities.39. What are the types of
relationships?One to one It is the type of relationship to entities are
related to each otherOne to many In this type of relationship an entity will be
related to two or more entities.Many to Many In this type of relationship
entities will have man relationships with other each other40. Define code A code
is a title or set of numbers or symbols that represents lengthy or confusing item
of data.41. Define communication skills Communication is the process of passing
ideas facts opinions, information and understanding from one person to another.42.
What are the characteristics of quality information?Timely: Updated
information should be readily available.Complete: It should satisfy all the
needs of the users of the systemConcise: It must contain user needed information.
Relevant: It must reflect the behavior of the situation.Precise: It should be
exact and specific to the need of the users of the system.From: The display format
and the quantitative and qualitative of the information must be related to the
situation.43. What are the types of software Software is generally classified
into two typesSystem software: Software programs written to manage the
resources of the computer system.Application software: Software programs
written to perform a specific high level activity.Part-B1. Explain the various
Types of systemSystem been have classified based on the output the system produce
and the degree of information exchange with the environment.The different types of
systems areDeterministic systemA deterministic system is the one, which has
definite know inputs, the process and the outputs.The output of the deterministic
is also predictable with certainty.Accounting system is the example of the
deterministic system. Generally, deterministic system also falls under the closed
system category.Probabilistic systemA probabilistic system is the one, whose output
normally predicted in probabilistic term. Example for the probabilistic system is
demand forecasting system.Generally, probabilistic system also falls under the pen
system category.Physical or abstract systemsReal or concrete entities that are
static or dynamic in nature form the physical systems.Example for the physical
system can be this book �system analysis and design� itself. In this case, it is
static physical system. On the other hand, the programmed computer is the dynamic
system since it produces different outputs based on the inputs. The conceptual or
nonphysical entities are abstract systems.Example for the abstract system may be
formulas of relationship of the set of variables or models. An abstract concept
view of the physical situation. The use of models greatly helps the systems analyst
by providing the details about the key elements and the key relationships of a
complex system.System modelsThe system analyst mostly uses models to study the
systemThe different kinds of models used by the system analyst are 1
Schematic 2 Flow system model 3 Static system model 4 Dynamic
system model Schematic model A two dimensional chart clearly describes
each system elements and their relationship .Flow System Models This model
clearly shows the flow of material, energy and information of the system.From this
model orderly flow of the logic can be easily determined. example for this model is
PERT(Program Evaluation and Review Technique).Static System Model This model
shows one pair of relationship exhibited by the attributes of the system.Example
for this model may be activity-time or cost �quantityDynamic System Model As
business are dynamic system this model clearly depicts the nature of the
organization or the application that system
analyst work with. It also gives the clear picture about the constant change of
the system.Open or closed system This is another way of classification of
systems based on their level of interdependence. An open system is the one
which has many interfaces with the environment. An open system interacts
across the boundary of the system receives inputs from and delivers outputs outside
the boundary. As the system has to adopt to the varying demands of the
user ,information system naturally falls into this category. A closed
system is the one which is completely isolated from the environment.
Completely closed system is impossible in reality. In general system analysis is
usually for open, dynamic systems influenced by the environment. System
analyst of the open system must consider factors like �security controls, computer
fraud ,and invasion of privacy when designing the new system. The important
characteristic of an open system are Input from outside EntropyProcess, output and
cyclesDifferentiationEquifinality Input from outside Open systems are
generally self regulating and self adjusting in nature. open system will be in
steady state when it functions properly. It is also very sensitive in absorbing and
adapting to the environmental changes.Entropy Entropy is the loss of
energy. All dynamic system loss energy due to run down over time . Open systems
always resist entropy to be in steady state by seeking new inputs or modifying the
process . Process, output and cycles Open system by following a continuous
path produces a useful output, and operates in cycles.Differentiation An
open system clearly differentiates the components of the system based on their
specialized functions. This characteristic adds value to the concept of systems in
the systems analysts thinking.Equifinality * It is the process of achieving
the goals by following different courses of action . * System analyst
must clearly understand the system characteristic to identify his role and to
focus on the organization objectives.Man Made Information System The major purpose
of the information system is to reduce the uncertainty about the state or event.
Information system forms the basis for the interaction between the user and the
system analyst.Information system also determines the nature of the relationships
between the decision makers of the organization .It is defined as a �a set of
hardware devices, computer procedures and operating systems designed
specifically for the user needs based on the user requirement to produce useful
information and communicate in an understandable format to the user for making
decision such as planning, control and performance�.Different types of information
systems areFormal information system.Informal information system.Computer based
information system.Formal information system * organization chart clearly
representing the organization in terms of position and authority forms the basis
for the formal information systems.It clearly depicts the relationship between
the position and the authority.The main areas of interest for formal information
systems are pattern of authority, communication and work flow.Information usually
flows in the form of reports, memos and instructions to the intended user from the
top management.Informal information system * formal information system is
the carefully Role of Systems AnalystAnalyzing, designing and implementing the
intelligent information systems to satisfy or exceed the needs of the organization
are the primary function of the Systems Analyst.Systems Analyst plays different
roles to perform their functions.The role of the Systems Analyst is very dynamic in
nature and depends on the emerging technologies.Some of the major roles a Systems
Analyst plays are Change AgentInvestigatorMonitorArchitect / DesignerPsychologist
SalespersonMotivator / LeaderProgrammer AnalystPolitician andConsultantsChange
AgentChange agent is one of the most significant roles played by the Systems
Analyst.An information system has a profound effect on the way people work and the
process of the organization.System Analyst must convey effectively the change
process to the user for acceptance.The best way to secure user acceptance is by
making the end user to participate in the design and implementation phase of the
system development.During the process of planning, monitoring and implementing
change into the user work domain, the people inherently resist change and can
become ineffective due to excessive change should be taken care.The Systems Analyst
adapts the persuader or catalyst (helper) style when the users have a tolerance for
the change.On the other hand, when the change is drastic, the confronter or the
imposer style is more suited.Therefore, the Systems Analyst play different role for
the success of the system.InvestigatorIn the role of an investigator, the Systems
Analyst extracts the real problem from the existing system by using the information
gathered and identifies the changes to correct the problem.As an investigator
Systems Analyst also uncover the previously unknown trends that may have a direct
impact on the organization.MonitorMonitor role relates closely with the role of
investigator.In order to execute and successfully complete a project, the Systems
Analyst should constantly monitor the progress of the development stages by
comparing time, cost and quality against the planned target.Among these three, time
is the most important factor.If time exceeds the targeted limit, then it directly
affects the project in terms of increased costs and wasted human resources.If time
extends beyond the scheduled date of the project then it directly affects the cost
of the project.Effective project management technique can reduce the cost of the
project.Quality is the important factor for the success of the system development.
Sufficient quality assurance program can eliminate the deviations in the
requirements. Architect / DesignerThe architect primarily acts a binding force
between the clients� abstract design requirements and contractors� detail building
plan.Similarly, systems analyst acts as a binding force between the users� logical
design requirements and the physical design of the user.In this role, the systems
analyst also designs the physical design of the system.Systems analyst assists
users by shaping the abstract ideas and providing details to build the complete
system.PsychologistAs people are key in each process of the systems development,
systems analyst role as a psychologist becomes significant.In this role, he/she
studies people thoughts and behavior to draw conclusions from the analysis.
Understanding people makes it easy to interact in an efficient manner.Listening
skill of the systems analyst plays an important role in evaluating responses and
feedback.SalespersonAs a salesperson, systems analyst sells the change initiated by
the new system.Selling takes place at the end of each stage of the system
development life cycle.Sales skills, dealing with others and ability to convince
others plays a key role in the success of the system.Motivator / LeaderAfter the
design process of the systems analyst, the most important work of the systems
analyst is to make user to accept the new system.User acceptance of the new system
is achievable through user participation in the design process, effective user
training and motivation to use the system.Programmer AnalystIn recent times most of
the software companies create Programmer Analyst post.Systems analyst in this
usually conducts systems investigation, develops systems design specification and
develops software program to implement the design.Politician This role of the
systems analyst closely relates with the role of motivator.In this role, the
systems analyst tries to appease all the concerned people during the implementation
phase of the system.Acceptance of the system can improve through diplomacy and
finesse in dealing with people.As politician has the support of his/her
constituency, the system analyst must also have the support of the users� of the
system.ConsultantsIn this role, systems analyst gives advice to the application
programmers on the type of user interface, the right type of packaged software and
the programming language.He also gives suggestions regards choosing the right kind
of hardware for implementing the newly developed system.Thus, the multiple role of
the systems analyst require to be structured, logical and methodological in
approaching the problem and paying great attention to the details of the problem.
Characteristics of Systems AnalystThe systems analyst should have several unique
characteristics to effectively perform his/her job. We will discuss these
characteristics now.General Business KnowledgeA systems analyst must have sound
knowledge about the various functions of the organizations.Knowledge about the
management structure and interdependencies of the departments of the organization
is necessary.As development of systems is for simplifying complex operations of
marketing, accounts, logistics, Human Resource, customer relationship and materials
management, it becomes necessary to have basic knowledge about these conditions.
Knowledge of Information Technology, Computer Systems and Programming ExperienceA
systems analyst must constantly update with the latest developments in the field of
information technology.He must have a basic programming knowledge to effectively
communicate with the application programmers and the computer managers.He must also
guide the application programmers in using packaged software,
computer programming language, environment and the technique of information
presentation.Knowledge about the computer systems is essential in determining the
feasibility of the required system for the given hardware configuration.Good
Interpersonal Relations SkillsAn analyst must be a good listener and a good
diplomat to effectively gather the needs of the user of the system.He must have the
ability to understand, influence and win people in order to resolve conflicting
requirements and to reach consensus.In order to motivate the user he must
understand the needs of the user.Good Communications SkillsAs systems analyst
frequently gives oral presentations to the non-technical users of the existing
system, it becomes to have good communication skill.Communication skill plays a
dominant role in presenting the information to the user in an easily understandable
manner.An analyst must also have good writing skill to convey information smoothly
and efficiently to all categories of users of the system.Problem-Solving SkillsThe
job of systems analyst involves finding solutions for many problems.An analyst must
have good analytical ability to find quick and efficient solution of the problem.
Systems analyst can use relevant analytical tools and commonsense to arrive at a
solution.Flexibility and AdaptabilityEach systems development projects developed by
systems analyst have unique challenges and hurdles.Systems analyst should be
flexible and have the ability to adapt to the new challenging environment.EthicsAn
analyst must protect the confidentiality of the important information known to him
during the system development process.Systems analyst must have high moral values
to successfully discharge his/her duty.#Survey of IS TechnologyThe information
System (IS) Technologies are# Database Management Systems# Object-Oriented
Technology# Client Server Architecture# Networks and Telecommunications# Data
Warehouse# Electronic Commerce TechnologyDatabase Management SystemsA database is
the centrally controlled collection of related and well-defined data and
information, created and stored in a typical structure of an organization.A Data
Base Management System is the set of software that manages the data and shares the
data with the different independent applications.It generally supports the
management in the decision making process.Database reduces the data processing
efforts of the organization that is previously carried out by conventional methods.
Database approach enables the users of the system to easily interact with the
database by using Structured Query Language.Accuracy and timeliness will be
achieved by using database.Object-Oriented TechnologyConventional design approaches
do not efficiently handle the enormous changing information needs of the business.
To handle speedy and complex changes of the business Object-Oriented Technology
(OOT) approach is required for design.In OOT approach, every entity of the business
enterprise is treated as objects.Object Oriented Analysis consists of the following
steps:Determine the objects.Organize the objects.Determine the object interaction.
Define the operations of each object.Construct the objects.The Unified Modeling
Language (UML) is used for constructing and documenting a computer system.Client
Server ArchitectureThe Client Server Architecture increases the performance of the
information system.A custom design of the client server architecture will serve
particular needs of the business.A topical client server consists of client at the
front end and server at the back end.In simple client server architecture, the
processing load is broken between the client and the server.The most advanced
second-generation multi-tier client server architecture helps in building efficient
information system for decision-making process at all levels of the management.
Networks and TelecommunicationsThe advent of network technologies such as LAN
(Local Area Network) and Internet (Network of Networks) has made the information
very lean and more efficient.The network enhances the e-commerce business of the
organization.The major components of data communication system are Computer
Communication device � MODEMCommunication link � Telephone lines.Receiving computer
Communication softwareNetwork enables easy transfer of files and emails.It allows
sharing of information between sections of the departments.Data WarehouseData
warehousing concept has evolved because of information needs of user.Today�s
decision makers require enterprise wide information. Data warehousing is the only
solution that delivers the required information effectively.According to Bill
Inmon, data warehousing is defined as �A collection of data related to the business
subjects, which drawn from different sources and stored in a manner to make a quick
analysis of the business�.Data warehousing helps in making decisions based on
facts. Some important decisions such as growth probability, diversification and
expansion are dependent on the data warehousing in the modern business.Electronic
Commerce TechnologyElectronic commerce is the most important technology developed
during the 20th century.With the advent of electronic commerce technology four
business models have evolved.Business to business (B2B)Business to customer (B2C)
Customer to Business (C2B)Customer to Customer (C2C)Business communities carry out
businesses using electronic methods in the web.The following figure illustrates the
web architecture used for e-commerce.########### Client
Server Database -Netscape
-IIS -Oracle -Internet Explorer
-Apache Server -MS SQL ServerTHE WEB ARCHITECTURESome
examples of the e-business are e-banking, e-publishing, e-retailing, e-selling and
so on.E-business increases the scope globally.Systems Prototype MethodIn this
method, the user of the system is involved in large during the analysis and design
phase of the system development.This method is more useful only under certain
circumstances.Following figure shows the prototyping in systems development.
############### SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####PROTOTYPING IN THE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
Prototyping in the Systems DevelopmentPrototypePrototype is the initial product of
the system developed to test the actual requirements and assumptions of the new
system.It is the working product like any other computer based system that accepts
inputs, processes the inputs and produces outputs in printed or other meaningful
formats.The users of the system evaluate the prototype effectively with the help of
real time data.Advantage of systems prototypingPrototyping is more suitable when
the users of the system wants more advanced system to manage some complex
activities but they do not have clear idea about the need.This method is useful for
high-cost, high-risk or untested design of the system.As the prototype is the test
model, the design of the system evolves through the usage of the prototype.The
preliminary working concept of the system is determined through this method.It is
useful in identifying the features that is difficult to identify even through
careful analysis of the system.This system helps the user of the system to identify
the shortcomings and to indicate the like and dislikes of the system more easily
because the users feel more comfortable with the working system than the
theoretical system.Steps involved in the prototyping process areFind out the users
known requirements and features for the system.Convert the requirement and features
into prototype.From the use of the prototype, determine the additional requirements
and features for the system.Change the prototype with the latest requirements and
features.Repeat the above process until a satisfied system is developed.Before
developing the prototype, the systems analyst and the users of the system discuss
to determine requirements.The development of the prototype is the responsibility of
the systems analyst.The prototype must provide user interface, processing routines
and output for the users to interact with the system.After determining the
requirements of the system through prototype, the systems analyst and the users of
the system decide the following:Redevelopment of the prototype.Prototype has all
the features of the complete system.Abandon the project.Another prototype is
needed. Prototype Development MethodsThe development time of the prototype is more
important than the processing speed of efficiency.The cost of the prototype is
usually inexpensive compared to the conventional system because it takes few days
or weeks to develop prototype.Prototype development can use conventional
programming languages with minimal features.Processing controls and documentation
of the system can be minimal.File organization and the record structures can be
incomplete.The main idea is to capture additional requirements and not to develop
complete system.Prototype can use program segments from the reusable program code.
This helps in getting the system running.After finalizing the requirements, the
system development starts from the scratch to increase the efficiency.In some case
where the system is used rarely the prototype itself may become the final working
system.2. Written reports There are two basic kinds of written and formal
communication with which system analysts will be directly concerned.Reports
Written to persuade management to authorize proposals for change Reference
manuals to provide user and computer operation staff with a description of a new
system
together with instruction to cover all likely events. Report writingSummary
IntroductionReport writingWhat is a report?PreparationFormat of the reportText
layoutWriting the reportStyleUse of the diagrams/visualsPackaging the report.
Conclusions and recommendationsAppendix a further readingDistribution1. Summary
Report are essential tools of communication for the systems analyst and are
often the major contact with senior managers.Report should bewell preparedwell
writtenwell presentedThe format of report should be title pagecontents listsummary
pageintroductionfindingsconclusions and recommendationsappendices The
contents of reports should beat the right levelimpersonalpersuasivepreciseclear
concisecomprehensivecourteous2. IntroductionTerms of reference: To produce a
document which would contain advice on preparing and producing reports and which
would itself be an example of such a report.Method of investigation
This report has been written after a certain amount of consultation with
other staff and in the light of various publication on writing which are listed in
appendix a.3. Reprot writing3.1 what is a report? The word report can cover a
multitude of documents which vary in seze and in purpose from informing to
persuading.3.2 Preparation the report writer cannot just sit down and produce a
report it has to be palnned carefully before writing commences and this involves
the author in considering the following points. Questions about purposeWhat is the
subject of the report?Why is the report needed?Who will read it?Authority for the
report Usually a report is written by a subordinate to a superior at the
latter�s request. It is always wise to obtain authority for a report from the
people where are able to act on it.Format of the report The report must be
organized so that the readers can easily find their way through it basically they
will want to answer three questions what is the problem? and how has it been
investigated? what has been discovered?title pagecontentssummaryintroduction
findingsconclusions and recommendationsappendicesdistribution3.4 Text layout some
organizations have established rules for the preparation and layout of text and
systems analysts must be guided by these.the layout should be of a uniform and
pleasing appearance with the contents organized so that they can be easily
understooda logical arrangement of headings and subheadings contributes to ease of
reading.a logical paragraph numbering system maintains the relative importance of
paragraphs and assists cross referencing in the text by section and paragraph
abbreviations should be preceded by the full name the first time they appear in the
first time they appear in the texttechnical words should be defined the first time
they are used in the text separately in a glossary.It will also assist typists if
the typing requirements are stated before the text such asstationery sizesize of
both left and right hand marginsthe use of capitals and underlining for headings
and sub headings3.5 Writing the reportlevel of understanding reports are
normally written by a knowledgeable person for the benefit of someone less
knowledgeablewrite impersonally it is essential that a report is believed to be
objective and one way of achieving this is by the avoidance of personal pronouns
and adjectives.Write persuasively The author must be honest in presenting ideas
and should non distort the evidence but should organize the report to achieve the
purposeWrite precisely Vague phrased such as large percentage tend to make the
reader suspicious and suppressed or distorted information will cast doubt on both
the report and author integrity.#Write clearly The writer must ensure that the
report has a clear structure which can be easily followed and avoid jargon.Write
concisely Words should only be included if their are essential facts likewise
Write comprehensively The author should set out to answer as many questions as
possible that are likely to arise in the readers mindWrite courteously The tone of
the report is very important it should avoid upsetting the reader for the wrong
reasonsstyle The style of a report will reflect the writers personality and
background and it is not possible to legislate about perfect style.passages should
be broken up into well constructedsentences should be shorta thread should run
through all sections and in passage points should be linked and emphasizedwords
should be carefully chosen familiar to the reader essential and clear the
following points are worth consideringshort words are better than long ones
adjectives should be used sparinglyprepositions and conjunctions should be simple
Use of diagrams./visuals The use of visual aids in reports in strongly
recommended for tow reasons they break up solid textthey can often put a point
across more quickly and more succinctly]the kinds of visual that might well be
included are tables Classifications Reference Interpretation Frequency
distributioncharts Bar charts Histograms Gantt charts Pictogramsgraphs
relationships ratios breakeven points Packaging the report The
first impression created by a report is often a lasting impression and it is
usually formed from the appearance of the document when it is handed to the reader.
Cover and binding The cover should be smart and have the right impact the binding
should be secure btu also allow easy access.Typing and reproduction Ideally all
reports should be typed on an electric typewriter with a clear typeface and using
the same typeface throughout the report.Layout The layout of the report should be
to the organizations standards but should aim for brevityTimings The timings of the
report can be crucial for achieving the right impact and so should be carefully
considered.4.Conclusions and recommendations Report writing is not easy it
requires a lot of thought and planning even for the person who enjoys writing.
Reports clearly reflect their authors they are the authors main contact with senior
management it is worth spending time to do a good job.Reports should aim to
persuade they must be well presented and well arguedto read extensivelyto observe
the advice given in this reportto spend adequate time in producing good reports
Appendix a further reading Lee - introducing system analysis and design
Balagurusamy- object oriented programming with c++ Distribution The
names of the recipients hold be listed to inform the readers of the report of
others that are concerned.The presenter is advised to follow these hintsmake
contact with each member of the audience by looking at each one from time to time
avoid as far as possible distracting mannerismsmake use of well rehearsed visual
aidsallow time for questions and feedback from the audienceadopt a natural and
comfortable stance and gestureaim by choice of languages to express rather than
impressvisual aids There are many kinds of visual aids they areFilms - are
useful as introductory material but need to be carefully chosen. The requirement
for a darkened room and for time to load and unload the projector may be
distractingSlides - are more useful especially if employed with a daylight screen
because they can be made directly relevant to the presentationBlack or white board
are very flexible but have the disadvantages of not being portable tending to be
dirty to use and requiring the speakers to have his back to the audienceFlannel
boards and magnetic boards are useful for building up piecemeal diagrams and are
potable but require a lot of preparation for effective useFlipcharts are the
cheapest type of visual aid and can be used anywhere but they need to be neatly
drawn and cannot be reused if extra material is added during the presentation
Overhead projectors are the most successful visual aid they can be used in normal
lighting portable versions can be purchased.Standard documentation Firstly
standard documentation aids communication between people in the organization
because each person knows what to expect. If a user were to receive different
flowcharting symbols and conventions fro different analyst confusion would result.
Second standard documents assist in control of the data processing
development server staff can work simultaneously on projects and completion of
documents can be measure of progress and under standing by the team. Thirdly
standards help with training in that they are themselves an aid to learning because
they provide rules fro carrying out analysis and design activities they ensure
compatability of work between old staff and new documents aid the systems anlyst in
analysis and design work they provide a checklist of facts that have to be gathered
and considerd they speed up assimilation of new information and they promote early
transmission of facts from the investigation to the design stage..Old system file
It containing documents relating to the system at the time of the
investigation including related analysis document.New system file It contain
all documents related to the developing or implemented systemHistory file It
containing all ideas and proposals considered and rejected a copy of every
superseded document amendment notification and amendment logs.Project ReportsSTUDY
PROPASALTitle Page : report title and reference; author and department; month
and year of publication; distribution list.Summary : brief description of the
nature of the proposal; origination of the proposal; costs of the study;
anticipated completion date for the study;Proposed terms of reference :
description of the problem(s) of other requirement; the purpose and scope of
the study; constraints on the study in terms of cost ,timescale ,resources;
constraints
to be placed on the outcome of the study; reporting mechanisms: method
,timing ,method ,including progress control.Resource requirements : manpower
required for the study; departments directly or indirectly involved in the study;
additional resources anticipated. eg consultancy , computer time ;Timetable
for the studyOrganization and membership of the study team.SYSTEM PROPOSALTitle
page :-report title and references;-author and department; -month and year of
publication; -space for authorization stamp/signature; -distribution list.
Contents list : -main and sub-headings with section/sheet numbers.Summary :
-objectives and proposals showing, in succinct form , the identified needs of
the user and how they will be met ; indicating if the needs can be met using
existing facilities or the extent to which new development and/or equipment is
required ; -costs of development , implementation , operation ; -benefits; -(The
Summary should not extend beyond one typewritten page.)Recommendations : -a
statement of the management decisions required for immediate and future action
assuming acceptance of the proposal ; -drafts terms of reference for future
work.Introduction and scope of study : -background to the study ; -references
to previous reports ; -terms of references of study ; -scope and objectives of
the study and constraints(other systems both existing and proposed) ; -the
objectives to be met by the proposal and constraints on these objectives ; -time
and cost targets ; -modifications made during the preceding study.Existing
system : -relevant information on the organization and its development ; -
outline and evaluation of the existing system -existing and anticipated problem
areas.System requirements : -design requirements and constraints of a new system
; interfaces with other systems(existing , proposal); -rules governing
operations ;accuracy ;quality ;schedules ; cost ; -evaluation
criteria for the system when implemented ; -future projections , extensibility
, fluctuations.Proposed system : -outline of system ; -alternatives considered
and rejected with reasons ; -implications of the new system of interest to
management ; -details of necessary re-organization (accommodation , staff
,deployment); -hardware and software ; -support services ;
-training ; -operating schedule ; -security and/or audit ;
-insurance ; -union interests.Development and implementation plans
: -outline showing main features of organization proposed , major control
points, manpower and external requirements ; -broad schedule.Costs :-expenditure
to date ;-estimate of costs to continue/complete development ;-
implementation/installation costs ;-operating costs, compared with existing costs ;
-(costs should be broken down into : manpower, equipment ,software ,support
services, consumables ,etc.)Benefits, quantified where possible : -savings on
current costs ; -better resource utilization ; -information quality ; -
improved control ;Appendices : -existing system supporting information ; -
proposed system supporting information ; -description and evaluation of hardware,
software, communications, environmental, power and back-up requirements ; -
detailed implementation plans, including additional services required, file
conversion, training, integration, changeover , controls ,target dates ; -
development project organization ; -glossary of technical terms.USER SYSTEM
SPECIFICATION Introduction : brief introduction to the system ; reasons for
introducing changes ; statement of problems ; objectives of the new system and
expected benefits.Procedure summary : one page summary showing major changes
and explaining principles of the new system ; system outline ; system flowchart.
Procedure specifications : description of the clerical and interactive
procedures within the system ; brief description, using non-technical
terminology , of the objectives of the new/revised computer procedures.Data :
samples of mock-ups of input and output documents and displays ;
specification of new clerical files : summary description of computer
based data files, showing which files they replace,Supporting information :
organization chart showing lines of responsibility in terms of the new system
; document/department grid ;Changeover : plans for change to a new system ;
timescales, critical activities and workloadsOperations : anticipated
schedules deadlines and critical points.PROGRAM SUITE SPECIFICATION
USER MANUALTitle Page : title , author and author�s department ; month and year of
publication ; name ,department and telephone number of contact(s) in the event
of problems during the operation of the system and for general enquiries
concerning use of the system.Contents list : main and sub-heading with
section/sheet numbersSystem summary : as brief as possible and explained non-
technically. It should not to extend beyond one typewritten page.Clerical and
terminal input procedures : System Flowchart and description of the whole
system , including options, part-runs, etc ; Procedures Flowchart and procedure
description for each department involved or , for smaller systems, for each
function involved ; batching, controls, error detection and correction ;
timetable for any time-critical activities.Computer input documentation :
completed example of each document/display facing a page of description and
supported, as necessary by a Clerical Department Specification or Display
Specification ; conversation tables , codes ; handling of incorrect/incomplete
documents ; error correction.Computer output documentation : sample of each
output and explanation of contents ; distribution of output ; description
of possible error reports ; handling of errors.Non- computer documentation :
completed example of each document facing a page of description and supported
by Clerical Document Specification ; handling of faulty documents ; error
correction.Glossary of terms : explanation of any technical terms which the
user may be requires to understand. This may include the program names.Amendment
list.Operations Manual Title page : report title and reference; author and
department; month and year of initial publication; implementation date of
version to which manual refers.Contents list : main and sub-headings with
section/sheet numbers.Application details : Brief description of the
application including options, alternatives and exceptions to the main pattern.
Place of systems : brief note showing the inter-relationship(if any) of this
system with others.Summary of operations : System Outline ; System Flowchart
Computer Run Chart ; File/program grid ;Timetable : frequency of
runs(all types); relationship to calendar periods/weeks ; min/max/average duration
; priorities ; commencement date (actual/expected).Computer requirements :
store/partition size ; input/output and backing ; peripherals job
streaming(for multiprogramming); priority ranking(where used);Input data : source
of input documents ; samples of each type of document ; min/max/average
quantities ; punching and verification instructions and layout ; controls ,eg
batching ; arrival schedule ,estimated punching times ; Procedure Flowchart ;
who is responsible for queries/checking ; destination of input documents when
punched.Files : purpose of each file ; medium requirements min/max ; number of
reels, packs ,etc ; identifiers ; labels to be provided before
/during run cycling ; purge dating ; retention ; references from/to other
systems ; security ; physical position in library ;Output data : samples of
each type of output media ; off-line requirements ; Document specification(s);
other requirements, eg retention, collating, enveloping ; Procedure
Flowchart.Programs : identifiers of programs involved ,including packages and
software ; authors ; dates of current versions ; who is responsible for faults
;Operating procedures(normal); sequence of events through each run ;
controls, actions required of operator ; full list of monitor reports ,
replies with samples ; peripheral loading and unloading ;Operating
procedures(abnormal); full list of failure reports and actions to be taken;
actions to be taken for other failures ; contacts in event of failures.
Operating procedures(restart); actions to be taken to restart runs , after a
failure, with particular reference to any other system which may need rerunning
prior to restart.Amendment list.TEST DATA FILESTitle Page :title and reference ;
author and department ; date ;Contents : Main and sub-headings with
chapter/sheet numbers.Testing philosophy : describe the approach to testing of
the system ; identify and distinct stages or timing considerations ; if the
testing involves the creation of complex conditions ,explain how these may set
up ; emphasize any aspects of the test which are likely to be overlooked or areas
which may prove troublesome or critical ;File creation : test data for creation
programs will be in the same form as the data for setting up the live master
files .Files will be checked for validity of format and accuracy of data. Check
record controls and file security.Program suite input : data conversion ; data
transmission/Remote Job Entry ; data control ; computer validation ; error
routines and correction procedures.Program suite output : user acceptance of
program output ; form design ; data control procedures ; data
transmission ;Input/output handling : each procedure will be checked for
accuracy and understanding, ambiguity, timing and staff confidence ; completion
of input documents ; maintenance of clerical files ; checking the documents ;
delivery of
output and inspection ; distribution of output ; auctioning and
turn-round of documents ; error procedures ; contact with computer
operations department.Test data : test data listing and data preparation
documents.CHANGEOVER INSTRUCTIONSUser Departments Changeover InstructionsTitle page
: title, author and author�s department ; month and year of publication ;
name ,department and telephone number of contact(s) in the event of problems
during the period of changeover and/or for general enquiries concerning the
changeover itself.Contents list : main-subheading with section/sheet numbers.
Introduction brief introduction to the new system ; reasons for introducing
changes ; outline of the method of changeover, including main schedule
dates ; brief description of ancillary services available for the changeover.
Clerical and terminal input procedures * Procedure flowchart and produce
description for each department involved in the changeover or for smaller system
for each function involved ; controls , error detection and correction ; start
and finish dates for each stage or phase in the changeover.Computer input
documentation : completed example of each document/display facing a page of
description and supported, as necessary by a Clerical Department Specification or
Display Specification ; conversation tables , codes ; handling of
incorrect/incomplete documents ; error correction.Computer output
documentation : sample of each output and explanation of contents ; distribution
of output ; description of possible error reports ; handling of errors.Non-
computer documentation : completed example of each document facing a page of
description and supported by Clerical Document Specification ; handling of faulty
documents ; error correction.Glossary of terms : explanation of any technical
terms which the user may be requires to understand.Amendment listOperations
Department Changeover InstructionsTitle page : title author ,author�s department ;
month and year of publication ; start and finish dates of changeover
period ;Contents list : main and sub-headings with section/sheet numbers.
Introduction : for a new application ,a brief description: for a replacement
,reference to the old system and a brief description of the changes to be made
outline of the methods of changeover and of integration with other systems.
Timetable :schedule of the file creation conversion runs showing expected
durations and volumes ;schedule of any other special runs required during the
changeover period ;fallback and recovery requirements in the event of a halt being
called to the changeover. the contents of these
sections of the Computer requirements changeover instructions will
be as for the Input data Operations Manual but will
describe the Files :- procedures etc
necessary to accomplish Output data the
changeover and also any non-normalPrograms
activities on other systems and on the Operating Procedures system being
replaced, during the period of changeover.SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTTitle page :
title ,references ; author(s) and department(s); month and
year of publication ; distribution list ;Contents list : main and
sub-headings with section/sheet numbers.Summary : brief re-appraisal of the
objective of the system; reference to original proposals; brief statement of
conclusions, indicating any aspects of the system which are unsatisfactory and
stating what objectives have been achieved ; brief statement of any difference
of opinion between users, designers and operations;Recommendations : proposed
changes to the system or its environment and justification for the proposals ;
effects of proposals on user and operations departments; recommended short-
term management decisions, assuming acceptance of the proposed changes ; draft
terms of reference for further work.System performance : summary of all available
performance statistics and comparison with estimates; computer time charged
resources related to data volumes and transaction ; growth rate of files and
transactions; manpower requirement for clerical system ;
turn-round times for user department and operations efficiency of
security procedures and quality control checks; error rates for clerical
operation and data conversion entry; delays attributable to operational
problems ; suitability of rerun and restart procedures , back-up and
standby arrangements ; the effect of changes in the environment on the
performance of the system ; summary of program amendments and the causes ;
relevance to the system of any new techniques or technological advances ;
changes in company policy or other external influences which affect the
performance of the system ; the attitude to the system of the user at all levels
from management to operative ; reactions from the customers or external bodies
; attitude of the computer staff ; comparison the user being made of
computer output with the potential usefulness ; any unplanned uses for output or
any redundancies ; verification that superseded clerical system have been
discontinued ; effect on related system which have been influenced by system
under review ; outstanding problems arising from this appraisal of performance
of the system
, including a statement of the degree of adherence to standards and relevance of
instruction and procedures specified in User and Operations Manuals.Cost/benefit
reviewpresent system operation cost;unplanned development or activities which have
provided additional benefit;any excessive cost with possible justification ;
explanation of benefits expected but not achieved;a subjective, independent
assessment of the expected intangible benefits ;forecast of any long term benefits
which could yet be realized. INDIVIDUAL APPLICATIONS APPROACHThis approach
to system development involves the design of individual computer based system to
serve specific application areas in an isolated wayWithout regard to possible
integration .This approach has a number of a number of advantages. The systems are
easier to analyse,design ,program and implement ,because they are small and
relatively simple .Each system is easy to evaluate in strict cost-benefit terms
because costs can be more precisely allocated.This approach provides a way of
allowing firstime users to move graduallyIn to computerization. The approach cuts
across many of the systems conceptsIt reinforces the departmental problem and
creates difficulties for subsequent linking of systems.# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT
####- PROCESS OR DECISION-ORIENTED APPROACHThis approach to system
development is in many ways similar to the top down approach just decribed but is
an approach to individual application design.Its seeks to identify the process
with which a manager or supervisor or operative is involved to analyse the
decisions within these process and to define the data Required to faciliate the
decisions . The outcome of this approach is a system which collects and stores
only the data which is useful to the process And decisions which have been analysed
. INTEGRATED SYSTEM APPROACHThe objectives of an integrated
system approach areto develop an integrated computer �based information systemto
determine the development sequence for subsystem in a uniform andcoherent wayto
minimize the cost of subsystem integrationto avoid the inefficiency of overlapping
subsystemThe integrated system aims to satisfy total information requirements
rather than To solve departmental problems to capture and store data once only for
all subsequent processing and to provide up to date records of the state of all
operations within the organization .The design of an integrated system is a
complex task requiring careful identification of information requirements
consolidation and rationalization of data and standardisation.It also demandsTop
management involved because of its effect on the whole organization the
considerable cost involved and the likely need for structural changes to the
organization.Bottom-up approach to an integrated system: Often called the
evautionary approach. This method suggest that the developmet should initially
concentrate of processing of transactions and updating of files at operational
level within the organizations. Subsequently the management activities of
planning ,controlling and decision �models are added. The process might begin with
the design in an integrated way of separet applications with their own files to
support operational activites.then the files would be physically integrated in a
database thus providing grater facilty for information retrieval.next the planning
and control activities of management might be developed.Top-down approach to an
intergrated system: The top-down approach involves the
identification at the beginning of system development of a model of the
organizations information needs and the design of subsystem in the light of this
model.the intergratioin of the system is planned as far as possible. The plan
requires the ifdentificatioin of theobjectives of the organization,the functions
and the actions which serve these objectives the decisions made by the functions
and the actions which result and the information which serves the deciosn.DATA
BASE APPROACHThe data base approach to systems development cab be described as
bottom up.It seeks to design the overall system by placing emphasis on the
collections ,storage,manipulation and retrieval of data which is currently in use
in the organization or can
be foreseen as being valuable .The philosophy behind this approach is that it is
impossible to anticipate managements requirements are known.The database approach
involves the systems analysts in identifying and analyzing current data in the
organization and attempting to eliminate redundant data and to include potentially
usefully data which is not currently used.DATA BASE APPROACHThe data base approach
to systems development cab be described as bottom up.It seeks to design the overall
system by placing emphasis on the collections ,storage,manipulation and retrieval
of data which is currently in use in the organization or can be foreseen as being
valuable .The philosophy behind this approach is that it is impossible to
anticipate managements requirements are known.The database approach involves the
systems analysts in identifying and analyzing current data in the organization
and attempting to eliminate redundant data and to include potentially usefully data
which is not currently used.USER INVOLVEMENTThe extent to which users are involved
in the development of computer based systems tends to depend on the philosophy of
the organization and the individual attributes of system analyst.Conditions for
user involvementThe users must know that their jobs are secured.The users must
trust the system analyst. The system analyst trust the users. Both the system
analyst and users must have a common view of what they are trying to achieve. The
users and the system analyst must be regular in contact. Management must finance
the extra time required for user involvement in the various stages of the project.
METHODS OF INVOLVEMENTFormal methods of involvement will include user department
representatives on project teams and committees. Less formally, there should be
regular meetings of working groups to allow staff to familiarize themselves with
the development , to provide an opportunity for computer education, and to
encourage participation in the design.For example, they will have knowledge which
the systems analyst cannot Gain from elsewhere, aboutexception and error
procedures enquiries made of the files task relationships problems of the system.
RECORDING THE INVESTIGATIONDOCUMENT REFERENCINGThe NCCs document referencing scheme
provides nine main areas in to which a system file can be divided. They are
defined in sufficiently broad terms to accommodated any document arising from the
activities of analysis and design .BACKGROUND .Terms of reference, objective
,constraints.COMMUNICATIONS .Information gathered concerning purpose and scope
Discussions , meetingsCorrespondenceAssociated documents PROCESS Information
about methods and actionsoverviewuser clerical proceduresoperations preparatory
processing distribution of resultsComputer process organizationComputer process
detailsDATA .Information about data used or producedclerical datasource data files
output data files Stored data files/logical data baseSource data records.Output
data records.Stored data recordsInternal data SUPPORT. Information supporting
processes and data.Analyses and interactionsData item usageHardware ,software other
supporting facilitiesTESTS .Information about action taken to prove the design
Specifications of test requirementsTest plansTest operationsTest logsCOSTS.
Information about equipment and development costsPERFORMANCE. Information about
timings volume ,growth,etcDOCUMENTATION CONTROL. Information about use of
documentation.Copy controlAmendment listOutstanding amendments
PRINCIPLES OF FLOWCHARTING It is essential to keep the flow chart clear
and easy to follow bymarking the start and end pointsusing standard symbolsavoiding
crossed flow lines using simple decisionsworking in a consistent directionFLOW
CHARTSA flow chart using words to indicate a sequence of events ,differs from
normal narrative in that it does not use sentences. The words are enclosed in
symbols with conceptual meanings indicated by their shape. Flowcharting is the most
common method of describing procedures in a computer based system whether for the
benefit of a line manager a clerk or a programmer.-they show logical
interrelationship clearly- they are easy to follow-they allow tracing of actions
which depend on conditions-they can be produced in a standard way and so allow
several people to work on them simultaneously-they are useful to the systems
analysts for experimenting with different approaches to a particular problem.
DECISION TABLESWhere more complex interactions have to be portrayed ,a decision
table often provides a suitable alternative . Decision tables must show all
possible conditions and combinations of conditions and the actions to be taken for
each. Decision tables are divided in to four parts .The condition stub is a list of
all the conditions to be taken in to account;Conditions entries are a tabular
representation of the combination of conditions to be satisfied . The Action stub
is a list of all possible actions which are taken and the action entries are a
tabular representation of the sequence of actions to be taken when particular
conditions are satisfied.The steps to be followed in constructing a decision table
are as follows-identify conditions and write down in any order;-identify actions
and write down in correct order;-identify all probable combinations of conditions
and create a rule for each combination showing appropriate actions;-if all possible
combinations have not been specified add on else rule with appropriate actions.
METHODS OF INVESTIGATIONOBSERVATION:Many important clues can be picked up by the
trained observer.for instance:-office
conditions:noise,lighting,temperature,vetillation;-layout:whether the staff have to
do a lot of walking about ,whether access to desks,filing cabinets and other
equipment is easy or difficult;-office furniture:is there enough filing equipment
or are files stacked on the floor?is there a standard for filing equipment or a
random assortment?-supervision:do the staff seem to be getting on with their work
or they chatting or reading magazines?are there frequent interruptions?-work
load:do the piles of documents waiting for attention stay constant or do they
fluctuate from one part of the day or week to another?-bottlenecks:are there
operations at which there is constantly a heavy load of work waiting for attention?
-pace of work:this requires training ,and the trained observer can recognize a slow
, a normal,or a fast peace of work;-methods of work:this is not something gained
from casual observation but needs deliberate attention.it is unlikely that this
knowledge can be gained without conscious co-operation of the person being observed
,and the analyst shoult always arrange to be introduced to the person and give
examplanation of what is going to be done and why.some interviewing may also be
necessary to explain the logic behind some of the operations.The clues which are
picked up should always be followed up by questioning in interviews.Record
searchingThe main purpose of a record search is to establish quantitative
information-volumes, frequencies, trends, ratios. It will also help to establish
how reliance can be put on the estimates given by the staff or the management of a
department. It may also indicate whether the departmental objectives (eg the time
from receipt of order to dispatch of goods) are being achieved and whether
information needed for decision-making is available when required. It may disclose
exceptions and additions to the information obtained from interviews-such as
documents not mentioned, or received and filed without any action. Among
existing records may be found written procedures (perhaps from an earlier O & M
investigation) or job descriptions which can of course be extremely reliable for
background information.Special purpose recordsSometimes the existing records do not
supply the information required, and the only way of obtaining reliable information
may be to install, for a limited period, special-purpose records. The missing
information is likely to be quantitative, concerned with volumes, frequencies,
trends or ratios, or it may relate to management information requirements. The kind
of information that one might wish to gather in this way would include, for
example, the time at which documents arrive in a department, the number of times
files have to be consulted, the volume and frequency of telephone conversations,
the number of queries to management, the type of enquiries from management, etc.
Sampling: Where there is a high volume of documents or a number of recurring
activities,it may not be necessary or practical to measure the total number.the
economical way may be take a sample.the safest way way is to use random numbers,but
it can be be acceptable to count every �n�th document or take a reading every
�n�minutes,so long as �monodies not concede with some cycle in the occurrence of
the types of document or activity. INTERVIEWS AND
QUESTIONARIESInformation gathering tools can be categorized by their degree of
directness. Most of the information gathering tools used in systems analysis are
relatively direct. This is a strength because much of the information needed can be
acquired by direct questions .There is information of a more difficult nature that
user staff may be reluctant to give directly .When asked by direct questions the
respondent may yield information that is invalid yet properly handled information
can be successfully obtained with interviews or questionnaires.
INTERVIEWSThe interview is a face top face interpersonal role situation in which
a person called the interviewer asks a person being interviewed questions designed
to gather information about a problem area. The interview is the oldest and most
often used device for gathering information in systems work. It can be used for two
main purposes as an exploratory device to identify relations or verify information
to capture information as it exits If the interview is considered a requirement the
interviewer might gain the respondent time and attention but cannot be certain of
the accuracy of the information gathered during the interview.There are four
primary advantages of the interview:Its flexibility makes the interview a superior
technique for exploring areas where not much is known about what questions to ask
or how to formulate questions.It offers a better opportunity then the questionnaire
to evaluate the validity of the information gathered .The interviewer could observe
not only what subjects say but also how they say it.It is an effective technique
for eliciting information about complex subjects and for probing the sentiments
underlying expressed opinions.Many people enjoy being interviewed, regardless of
the subject. THE ART OF INTERVIEWING Interviewing is an art .Few analyst
learn it in school, but most of them develop expertise through experience .The
interview s art consists of creating a permissive situation in which the answers
offered are reliable. Respondent�s opinion is offered with no fear of being
criticized. Primary requirements for a successful interview proceeds with asking
questions, obtaining reliable responses and recording them accurately and
completely. ARRANGING THE INERTVIEW The interview should be arranged so that the
physical location ,time of the interview and order of interviewing assure
privacy and minimal interruption .Appointments should be made well in advance and
fixed time period adhered to as closely as possible .Interviews schedules
generally begin at the top of the organization structure and work down so as not
to offend anyone.GUIDELINES TO SUCCESSFUL INTERVIEW Interviewing should be
approached as logically as programming .In an interview the following stepsSet the
stage for the interview.Establish rapport ; put the interview at easePhrase
questions clearly and succinctlyBe a good listener ,avoid argumentsEvaluate the
outcome of the interviewSTAGE SETTING During stage setting the interviewer
evaluates the cooperation of the interviewee. Both the content and tone of the
responses are evaluated .The direction of the interview is controlled by
discouraging distracting conversation.The job of the analyst should be that of a
reporter rather than a debaterESTABLISHING RAPPORT. In one respect data collection
is an imposition on user staff time and an intrusion into their privacy. Even
though the procedure we authorized by management in advance, many staff members are
reluctant to participate.1. Do not deliberately mislead the user staff about the
purpose of the study. A careful well thought out briefing of participants should
not provide any more detail than is necessary.2. Assure interviewees
confidentiality that no information they offer will be released to unauthorized
personnel.3. Avoid personal involvement in the affairs of the users department or
identification with one faction at the cost of another.4. Avoid showing off your
knowledge or sharing information received from other sources.5. Avoid acting like
an expert consultant or confidant.6. Do not promise anything you cannot or should
not deliver such as advice or feedback.7. Dress and behave appropriately for the
setting and the circumstances of the user contact.8. Do not interrupt the
interviewee.ASKING THE QUESTIONSExpect in unstructured interviews, it is important
that each question is asked exactly as it is worded. The questions must also be
asked in the same order as they appear on the interview schedule. Finally each
question must be asked unless the respondent in answering previous questions ,has
already answered the next one.DATA RECORDING AND THE NOTEBOOKMany system studies
fail because of poor data recording .Care must be taken to record the data, their
source and time of collection. The form of notebook varies according to the type of
study; the amount of data may be a card file, a set of carefully coded file folders
or a loose-leaf binder. It should be bound and the pages numbered. QUESTIONAIRESBy
its nature a questionnaire offers the following advantage1. It is economical and
requires less skill to administer than the interview.2. Unlike the interview, which
generally questions one subject at the time, a questionnaire can be administered to
large numbers of individuals simultaneously.3. The standardized wording and order
of the questions and the standardized instructions for reporting responses ensure
uniformity of questions.4. The respondents feel greater confidence in the anonymity
of a questionnaire than in that of an interview.5. Respondents have time to think
the questions over and do calculate to provide more accurate data.The principal
disadvantage is a low percentage of returns .Another disadvantage is that many
people have difficulty expressing them in writing, especially when responding to
easy questions.THE UNSTRUCTURED ALTERNATIVEThe unstructured interviews is a
relatively information gathering technique. it allows respondents to answer
questions freely in their own words .the responses are spontaneous rather than
forced .they are self revealing and personal rather than general and superficial.
This is best achieved in a permissive atmosphere in which the subjects have no
feeling of disapproval.THE STRUCTURED ALTERNATIVEStructured interviews and
questionnaires may differ in the amount of structuring of the questions. Questions
may be either closed or open ended. An open ended questions requires no response
directions or specific responseFive major varieties of closed questions 1. Fill in
the blanks questions request specific information 2. Dichotomous questions that
offer two answers .The question sequence and content are also important.3. Ranking
scales questions ask the respondent to rank a list of items in order of importance
or preference.4. Multiple choice questions offer respondent�s specific answer
choices .This offers the advantage of faster tabulation and less analyst bias due
to the order in which the answers are given.5.Rating scales questions are an
extension of the multiple choice design .The respondents is offered a range of
responses along a single dimension.PROCEDURE FOR QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION1.
Decide what data should be collected; that is defining the problem to be
investigated.2. Decide what type of questionnaire should be asked.3. Outline the
topics for the questionnaire and then write the questions.4. Edit the questionnaire
for technical defects or biases that reflect personal values.5. Pretest the
questionnaire to see how well it works.6. Do a final editing to ensure that the
questionnaire is ready for administration. This includes a close look at the
content form and sequence of questions as well as the appearance and clarity of the
procedure for using the questionnaire.Chapter 8 Analyzing user requirementsTools of
analysis The tools of analysis are not complex. They consist of list, structure
charts, grid charts and flowcharts.Lists Objectives, decisions, data etc, need to
be recorded. If each such item is a separate entity (is no item is a subclass of
any other), a simple list of the items and their attributes is adequate. The items
of data on the Clerical Document Specification provide an example. Where one item
in a list can be divided into several items at a lower level of detail, it is
necessary to show this in some form of structure.Structure charts Probably the
best known representation of a structure is the �family tree�, as used in the
organization chart. Where the structure is very complex, or where there are many
items at one level, a structured list provides a more convenient and compact
format. Having divided the factor we are considering into its component parts we
now need a means of systematically comparing each part with each other part. The
appropriate tool is the grid chart.Grid Charts Grid charts were examined in the
last chapter as an aid to fact-finding. Their use in analyzing facts is now
indicated. A grid chart consists essentially of two lists, one enter vertically,
the other horizontally, with the intersecting squares showing the relationship.
Different sets of facts are entered, and different codes used to show different
relationships. Thus the grid chart can assist in moving from one complex set of
factors to the next. Flow charts A flowchart caters fro both parts of the
analysis process. It divides a procedure into its parts and shows the logical
relationships between the pats. It can also show relationships between steps in a
procedure and the date used by, or produced by, the procedure. A flowchart can be
analysis in detail, with each symbol being queried ( �How does the operation
document, or file contribute to system objectives?�)Steps in Analysis The logical
steps in analysis are shown. In outline, in figure. # SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT #### At
each step it is necessary to: -identify the relevant facts, and establish the
relationships between them:-compare that set of facts with the set at each
adjoining step and establish the relationships between the fact in these sets.
Objectives results Analysis starts with the objectives of the system. Before
considering details such as data or procedures, a list of the results of the system
needs to be rigorously compared with a list of the stated objectives. If there is
no discrepancy, then either there
is no point in continuing g the investigation or the objectives have not been
properly formulated. An example of such a combination is shownResults/actions
If the investigation is to continue, similar lists need to be drawn up
comparing the results with the actions which cause those results. The actions may
be clerical processes, in which case they are within the scope of the systems
analysts, or they may be physical processes which fall outside that scope. In
either case, if there is reason to suspect that the source of dissatisfaction lies
in any of these processes, a case needs to be made to management for an
investigation by appropriately qualified staff.Actions/instructions Action other
than accidental ones, occur as a result of instructions. The same list of actions
now needs to be compared with a list of the instructions which give rise to those
actions. The instructions may emanate from a data processing function or from
management. They may be ambiguous, indecipherable, mutually contradictory, late or
may never arrive at all. If incorrect actions are taken as a result of some fault
in the instructions, this needs to be followed up and the faults identified. It is
worth nothing that there are often several different views of a system given to the
systems analyst, e.g.:what the manager thinks is done;what the operator thinks the
manager wants done;what the manager tells the operator to do;what the instructions
say should be done;what the operator thinks the systems analyst wants to know.
Actions/notification If the data held is to be accurate, there must be a
feedback of each action completed into the data processing system (which need not
of course be computer-based). The notification may be for individual actions, or
for the total number of a given action taking place per our, day or week. It may be
done on paper, by word of mouth, or be some mechanical or electronic means. In
order to be sure that this is being carried out accurately, it is necessary to
compare the actions taken with a representative sample of the notifications of
those actins as received by the data processing system.Instructions/decisions
If the instructions derive routinely from the data processing system them it
is time to start examining the processes. If the instructions come from management,
there is a need to compare the instructions which reach the action point with the
decisions taken by management, to ensure that there is no failure in communication.
Again, tow lists should be all that is necessary for rigorous and effective
comparison to be made.Decisions/information Decisions are taken on the basis of
information. Not all the information that a manager uses fro a given decision comes
from a data processing system. It may come from specialist adviser�s external
sources, or the manager�s own files or memory.Information/data and data/procedures
Information is data organized in meaningful from. The various items or
information required now need to be compared with the items of data available. The
source of such data my be outside the system (from suppliers, customers, government
departments, etc) or from within the system, in the from of notifications. The data
may be input on each occasion or may be stored as master data within the system.
The formal comparison is carried out using an Input/Output grid cart. A
separate grid is drawn up fro each individual output. Some of the items required as
output may be identical to items already is the system, while some may be produced
a s result of some procedure acting on one or more items in the system. These
different categories will become apparent as a result of the comparison made on the
input/output grid.Analyzing the procedures The main check to be done on any
procedures developed at this stage is to see that no unnecessary steps are
included. The method consists simply of questioning what is achieved by each
procedure. A comparison also needs to be made between the procedures required to
produce routine outputs and those required to produce management information,
particularly with regard to frequency. If the system is to be computer-based,
effort has to be devoted to identifying the procedures suited to computerization,
and those to be handled manually.Analyzing the organization structure As part of
all the above steps the systems analyst will be considering the appropriateness of
the current organization structure, but at some stage this question must be tackled
specifically. Initially the analyst must take a conceptual approach, treating the
organization as though new, and asks the questions �why does the department exist?
Why does the application exist? What is its purpose? Is it fulfilling that purpose
efficiently?� then the activities of each department must be examined carefully.
The analyst must look for unnecessary or redundant functions, duplication of
responsibilities, and too much or too little communication, complaints from people
who deal with the department, high absenteeism, and frequent, heavy overtime. These
are all indicative of a need for changes.Statistical analysis Statistical
techniques should be used whenever applicable, e.g. to determine sample sizes, to
classify data into useful, logical groupings, to isolate the important/significant
from the irrelevant, to compare relative values, and to illustrate and compare
trends and rates of change. This quantitative information will assist in the design
of the computer system as well as pinpoint problem areas at the analysis stage.
Chapter 9 Logical system DefinitionDesign Objectives At an early stage in defining
a new system, the systems analyst must have clear understanding of the objectives
which the design is aiming to fulfill. Theses objectives must b established by
management and included in the terms of reference fro the project. There is usually
more than one way of achieving a desired set of results. The acceptable design is
likely to be a compromise between a number of factors; particularly, cost,
reliability, accuracy, security, control, integration, expansibility, availability,
and acceptability.Cost Cost is associated with the two activities of development
and operation. Development comprises all the stages from initial design to
successful implementation. Operation includes data preparation, processing, and
handling of output and consumables (particularly paper).Reliability This
includes the robustness of the design, availability of alternative computing
facilities in the event of breakdown, and the provision of sufficient equipment and
staff to b handle peak loads (whether seasonal or cyclical).Accuracy The level of
accuracy needs to be appropriate to the purpose. For instance, the accounts of an
individual customer will probably be kept to the nearest penny, whereas the monthly
sales fro a region may only be required to the nearest $1000. for each defined
level a balance needs to be achieved between avoidance of error and the cost of
avoiding the errors.Security There are many aspects to security, but the ones
which particularly concern the systems analyst are confidentiality, privacy, and
security of data. ConfidentialitySome information, vital to the success of a firm,
could cause severe damage if it reached the hands of competitors. The system has to
ensure that only authorized staffs have access to such information. PrivacyThis
concerns information about the individual employee or members of the employee�s
family. If the personnel file or the payroll file if held on the computer, the
design of the system must guard against any unauthorized access to the information.
Data securityIf the data held on computer files is incorrect, then the system
objectives cannot be achieved. Measures are needed to guard against alteration or
destruction of data, whether accidental or intentional.Control The system would
give management the facility to exercise effective control over the activities of
the organization. One way is the provision of relevant and timely information,
particularly by extracting the important information from the mass of available but
less important information: this is the principle of �exception reporting�, able to
produce ad hoc reports. Another essential approach is routing control of goods and
monies handled.Integration The different systems which make use of any item of
information may be designed at different points in time: there is a need for
consistent documentation, regardless of who is doing the design.Expansibility
Any system needs to be able to cope with seasonal or cyclical variations in
volume. Estimates need to be made of volume tends, and there has to be provision
fro handling whatever load the trends predict fro the expected life of the system.
Availability It is the responsibility of the systems analyst to ensure that
all the resources required to make the system work are available at the planed
implementation time. These can include buildings, hardware, software, stationery,
computer operations staff and procedure manuals, as well as the fully tested and
working system.Acceptability A system which the analyst believes to be perfect is
certain to fail unless it has the support of the user departments and management,
as well as the support of programming and computer operations.Outline design of
outputs and inputs# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####PROCESSING REQUIREMENTS Once THE
outputs, inputs and stored data have been definer, it is necessary to decide what
procedures are required to process the inputs, keep the records up-to-date and
produce the outputs. There are two major areas fro concern here: firstly, which
procedures should be handled by the computer and which b human beings; and
secondly, what type of computer processing required.Partitioning into computer and
manual
subsystems This is one of the major problem areas for the systems analyst-deciding
which parts of the system can/should be computerized � and is one in which judgment
and experience are important. One essential point is that the systems analyst
should not set out to �put everything on the computer�; this is not feasible in
most instances, because complex, open systems require human interaction.Batch or
on-line processing The decision about the nature of processing in the system
will be influenced by a large number of factors, including response time,
frequency, data volumes, hardware constraints(especially for data collection),
security requirements, and cost.Response time Response time refers to the maximum
acceptable time interval between a request for information and its receipt by a
user. There are not many system which require immediate response after full
processing of input data; a day and sometimes even a week is perfectly adequate in
most cases. But for those systems which require fast response, some type of on-line
system is required.Frequency Frequency refers to how often the users require to
retrieve information from the computer system. This may be at regular or varying
intervals, but is not usually time �critical. For systems which require up-to-date
information about the state of a file , again the file will need to be updated in
on-line mode.Data volumes One of the factors which will greatly affect the cost
of an on-line system is the volume of data at specific points in time. For example,
if sales orders are entered on-line, the n the system must be able to cope with the
peak loading which may be seasonal. The order entry load in the weeks before
Christmas for a mail order company may require a system fro that period which is
much larger than is needed for the rest of the year.Hardware constraints One of
the major constraints on the type of processing is of course hardware availability
in the organization. Data which cannot be easily keyed in cannot be handled easily
in an on-line transaction processing system. Usually, data collection facilities
are the limiting factor in the decision whether to go on-line.Security requirements
The security requirements of a system can have a significant impact on the
nature of processing in the proposed system. Security is more expensive and more
difficult to achieve in an on-line system. This makes severe demands on the system
designer.Cost Finally, cost can be an inhibiting factor. Usually the cost of
on-line processing cannot be justified in simple comparison with the previous
system. User system specification #
Physical System designInteractive Nature of logical and Physical designOutput and
Input DesignOutput Design There are various types of output required
by the most systems: the main ones are:External outputs: whose destination is
outside the organization and which require special attention because they project
the image of the organizationInternal Outputs: whose destination is within the
organization and which require careful design because they are the user�s main
interface with the computerOperational Outputs: whose use is the purely within the
computer department E.g.: program listings, usage statistics etcInteractive
Outputs: which involve the user in communicating directly with the computer (often
called as Dialogues)Turnround Outputs: ie, re-entrant documents, to which data will
be added before are returned to the computer for further processingOutput
Definition The output may have been defined during
the logical design state. If not, they should be defined, at the beginning of the
output design, in terms ofType of the outputContent (headings? numeric?
alphanumeric? totals? etc)Format (hard copy? Screen? Microfilm?etc)Location (local?
remote? transmitted? etc)Frequency (daily? weekly? hourly? etc)Response (immediate?
within a period? etc)Volume (number of documents? growth? etc)Sequence (account
number? Within the sales area? Etc)Action required (bursting? Error correction?
Etc) Data Items The name given to each data item should
be recorded and its characteristics Described clearly in a
standard form:Whether alphabetic or numeric Legitimate and specific range of
characters, fixed values or ranges Number of characters Position of decimal point,
arithmetical sign or other indicator Data Totals There is
often need to output to provide totals of various levels. These
Usually result from computer processing and must therefore be contained
On the computer files. Their source must be identified and they must be defined and
registered as data items. The system analyst must knowWhat are the various total
levels requiredWhat will cause them to occur, e.g. implied or by special markers or
other conditionsWhether they should appear in a vertical column, offset or at the
end of a horizontal line Data Editing It is not always
describe to print or display data as it is held on a computer. The system
analyst must ensure whether the form in which it is stored in the
Computer is suitable for the output, for exampleWill decimal points needed to be
inserted?Will leading zeros need to be suppressed or they required to be shown?
Output MediaThe choice of output medium will be affected by all kinds of
considerations but the main ones will be:The suitability of the device to the
particular applicationThe need for the hard copyThe response time requiredThe
location of the userThe software/hardware availableThe costOutput Specification
The system Analyst has two specific objectives at this stage:To interpret and
communicate the results of the computer part of a system to users in a form which
they can understand and which meets their requirementsTo communicate the output
design specification to programmers in a way that which is unambiguous,
comprehensive and capable of being translated into a programming languageComputer
Document Specification Both
the information to be printed and the medium to be must be described. On this form
the upper pert is describe the physical details and the lower part the logical
structure of the output. This specification is cross-referenced to
the layout chart. The specification description of printed output consists of:
Stationery type of reference to be used, its width, depth and the number of parts
Average and the maximum number of pages, lines per page and future increase
expected.Line space and paging changing requirementsDestination of each copy of the
outputRecord Specification The detailed contents and
format of each record must now be specified. For ease of reference, this is shown
in the separate form called record specification cross-referenced to each record
identified on the Computer Document Specification. In addition to describing the
data items contained in the particular record, this form also allows the format of
the recordDisplay Chart The figure shows a chart, which can be
used for specifying the visual layout of messages passed between the computer and
terminal equipment in the form of the hard copy or screen display. This chart is
used to depict the format of the complete message to be input or output. It has
capacity for up to 80 characters in 32 lines . If the physical device has more
capacity than this, the Print Layout Chart can be usedInput Design
Clear Objectives in input design:To produce a cost effective method of inputTo
achieve the highest possible level of accuracyTo ensure that the input is
acceptable to and understood by the user staffInput Stages
Several activities have to be carried out as part of the overall input process.
They include some or all of the following:Data recording (collection of the data at
its source)Data transcription (transfer of data to an input form)Data conversion
(conversion of the input data to a computer acceptable form)Data verification
(checking the conversion)Data control (checking the accuracy and controlling the
flow of the data to the computer)Data transmission (Transmitting or transporting
the data to the computer)Data validation (checking the input data by the program
when it enters in to the computer system)Data correction (correcting the errors
that the are found at any of the earlier stages)Input Types One of
the early activities of the input design is to determine the nature of the input
data. This will have been done partially in the logical system design but it now
needs to be made more explicit. Inputs can be categorized as:External -> which are
the prime inputs for the systemInternal -> which are user communication with the
systemOperational -> which are the computer department�s communication with the
systemComputerized -> Which are inputs in the computer media coming from other
internal systems or external systemsInteractive -> which are the inputs entered
during a dialogue with the computerInput Media
Choice of input media and devices are Type of input Flexibility of formatSpeed
AccuracyVerification methodsRejection ratesEase of correctionOff-Line facilities
Need for specialized documentationStorage and handling the requirements� Automatic
featuresHard copy requirementsSecurity Ease of useEnvironment of data capture
PortabilityCompatibility with other systemsCostError Detection
While every effort is made to avoid errors during the preparation of input data,
past performance shows that a proportion of errors is always likely to be present.
Experience also teaches that the further into the system that errors are found, the
more complex may be their effect and the more difficult to correct. controls
: The batches will be fed into the computer accompanied by a
control record, which may contain the following dataDate of preparation of run or
other relevant to the process and unique to the runRun identificationBatch
identificationNumber of records or groups of records in the batchControls totals eg
total of all values or quantities in the batch or hash totals of product codes or
customer codes Data Validation: The validation procedures must
be designed to check each record, data item or field against certain criteria
specified by the systems analyst for the programmer. Each type of the record has
codes to be checked for acceptability. As the record type indicates that a certain
process or series of process are to be performed, an incorrect or non-existent code
must cause the whole of such a record to be rejected showing the reason by means of
narrative or a set of error codes designed for this purpose Other Input Design
Considerations Some of the other considerations, which the
analyst must take into account, are:The nature of input processing .eg complex,
involving all inputs or separate for each input Flexibility and thoroughness of
validation rulesHandling of priorities within the input proceduresUse of composite
input documents to reduce the number of different ones:Forms design, to ensure
accuracy and efficiency of inputScheduling of inputs runs in case of large
rejection rates at validationRelationships with other systems ( eg. Can the
validation procedures carry out checks that might be required by another system
which makes use of the input data) Relationships with files. (eg. Types of
data which can be stored or which need to be input at each run)
#CHAPTER 14SYSTEM SECURITYRISK MANAGEMENTThe major steps in the method known as the
risk management approach for providing cost-effective security are:identification
of assets;identification of threats;measurement of threats;identification and
measurement of countermeasures(safeguards);selection of countermeasures for the
risk control programmed on a cost-effectiveness basis;implementation of the risk
control programmed;Monitoring and review of the risk control programmed.Threats can
should be described quantitatively so that someone can decide how much protection
each should receive.For any threat, the exposure equation E=N * I expresses the
exposure (E) of the threat (the expected value of the loss per year due to the
threat) in pounds (�), dollars ($), etc, per year as the product of the expected
frequency of occurrence (N) of the threat (the number of times per year that the
threat is expected to occur) and the impact (I) of the threat ( the expected value
of the loss per occurrence of the threat).A study by IBM has indicated that classes
of threats may be arranged in the following order according to their frequency of
occurrence:errors and omissions (over 50% of all threats)dishonest employees;fire;
disgruntled employees;water;intruders and other threats (under 5% of all threats).
THE PROTECTION OF A COMPUTER SYSTEMThere are four possible ways of handling a
threat. One is to avoid it by altering the design or the specification of the
system in some way. This may mean deleting some feature from the system or
deferring the introduction of some feature.Another method is to transfer the threat
to another organization by means of a contract or by insurance. Insurance will
always have an important role to play in any risk control programme, including the
computer security programme.A third method is threat retention. An organization
can carry many trivial threats itself. This means that the systems analyst (or a
specialist on this problem) estimates what the loss will be and is prepared to bear
that loss, as though it were a affixed operational overhead. This is referred to
as active retention.Finally there is threat reduction. This means that the value
of the exposure (E) of the threat is reduced by a countermeasure, which has the
effect of reducing the frequency of occurrence (N) of the threat, or the impact (I)
of the threat, or both.Specifying security measuresSecurity measures for a computer
system should be specified at an early stage in the life cycle of the system, so
that they can be planned in detail during the system design stage and the system as
it is being developed.During system operation, management should allocate
responsibility for the enforcement of security procedures. Each employee should
knew and understand what procedures each is required to comply with and what the
penalties are for non-compliance.Responsibilities for security may be allocated for
the following areas of a system;hardware;software;data and documentation;
communications;environmental;personnel;physical access;system access;administrative
procedures;the development and implementation of contingency and recovery paln;the
testing and review ( the auditing) of normal and stand-by modes of system
operation.SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSThe controls which are built into a system
must not only detect the occurrence of an error but also locate it and provide some
means of recovery from it; where necessary they should also restrict access to
particular data and users.ErrorsThe principle sources of error in computer systems
are hardware failure on a file handling device which destroys a file physically or
prevents access to it, software errors, operator mistakes, invalid data and program
errors causing corruption of files.Hardware failureHardware errors on peripheral
devices are normally handled by the operating system. The errors which persist
after recovery measures have been exhausted are considerable to be permanent
errors.Permanent errors fall within the scope of program level and system level
error recovery. Recovery from a permanent input/output error depends, to some
extent, on the hardware considerations.Software errorsThese are unpredictable. If
they could be predicted, they would not be permitted to exist. Prevailing
conditions largely determine to what extent a particular software error is
acceptable.Operator mistakesNo manual procedure is entirely reliable and for that
reason systems should always be designed to minimize operator intervention. To
minimized in any necessary intervention, the action required from the operator
should be standardized as far as possible.Invalid dataErrors in primary input data
should be detected by the validation procedures. Under no circumstances should
errors in data to be allowed to cause unscheduled interruptions in the operation of
a system. Such an interruption would, therefore, be deemed a program error, caused
either by faulty programming or inadequate system design. Errors can occur in
system control data, such as job control parameters; where software checks are
inadequate to detect these at the earliest possible time, the system should check.
Program errorsThese may be caused by the systems analyst or the programmer but the
systems analyst should anticipate possible errors and design the system with as
little ambiguity and as much clarity as possible. The system should detect errors
as early as possible in the operating cycle.Data preparation and captureControls
for data preparation and capture should be established as near the point of data
capture as possible. Data input to a system must be accurate, and the integrity of
data held in the system must be maintained.A number of points should be borne in
mind:precautions should be taken to prevent the deliberate entry of corrupt data or
the accidental loss of genuine data (e.g. use of serial numbers on input
documents);controls should be established for batches of input documents ( or
individual ones) which can be reconciled with computer produced controls and
batches should be sequenced;inaccurate input data should be corrected and re-input
within a well-defined timescale and subject to rigorous controls;control and
validation procedures should be equally strict for normal processing and for
emergency processing.Master file protection and reconstructionThe procedure for
preventing data loss or corruption and providing for reconstruction of data in the
event of a loss constitute a most important aspect of security.File protectionThis
is provided by interacting hardware, software and system factor. Protection
provided by hardware includes;device interlocks;file mask facility on direct access
devices;parity checking;the use of write/permit rings.Device interlocks prevent any
interruption or termination of input or output, once commenced and contribute
towards prevention of corruption of data by any hardware or operator error.A file
mask can be set for any direct access file, specifying hardware rejection of
specific sets of commands: - all seek instructions, thus preventing inadvertent
head movement; - all write instructions, thus preventing corruption of an input
file;- all subsequent attempts to set the file mask, thus protecting the integrity
of the hardware protection system.Software protection includes comprehensive
label checking. Direct access labelsusually incorporate complex controls for
read/write or read only, where multiple programs are to access a file.File
reconstructionThis involves different approaches to the two principal types of file
organization: Sequential organization, including
serial files;Random organization, including indexed sequential files which are nor
processed strictly sequentially.Back-upBack-up for the hardware, the data and the
system is totally bound up with file reconstruction. It refers to the support
available to an installation for use when one or more pieces of equipment necessary
for the normal operation of any system become inoperable for any significant period
of time.Hardware back-upThis can be illustrated by considering a magnetic tape
installation. It is often advisable to have at least one tape deck more than is
required for the running of any system. Either one deck more than the maximum
requirement should be provided or al applications should be designed to run with
one deck less than the total complement. In the event of failure to one tape deck,
processing can continue.Data back-upThis represents insurance against actual loss
of data due to equipment malfunction, program failure for accident. The type of
data back-up feasible depends largely on the size of master files.System back-upA
system maintaining a large file, on a fixed disk, may have a requirement to
continue operating, even when the disk is inoperable. If so, an alternative
processing scheme must be designed which will permit the system to continue
functioning. In the worst situation the system may require back-up clerical
procedures to ensure continued operation in the event of a prolonged breakdown.
Checklist of back-up copiesBack-up copies are required ideally for the following:
system documentation;program documentation;operating procedures documentation;
program source desk or tapes;operating system tapes or disk packs;master files,
transaction files, report files;form masters.File controlsThe file security and
processing checks imposed by hardware and software go a long way towards ensuring
accurate processing. It is necessary, however, to ascertain that not only have
files been read and written accurately but also that all the transaction data has
been accurately processed. There are two main methods of controlling this.One is
to recreate the control totals established on input as a check against the input
control totals. These may be;quantity or value totals;hash totals;item counts;
Control against misuseA file consists of many differing types of information and it
is necessary to consider how confidential information, such as, the overall state
of trading of a given commercial company or information relating to criminal
convictions can be kept secure. Two main areas of security must be considered:- the
prevention of access to stored data without permission, i.e. the exclusion of
invalid enquiries;- prevention of unauthorized alternation, such as, a salesman
entering incorrect statistics into a system so as to receive, fraudulently,
commissions not due, or the alteration of a credit limit.Controls can be exercised
at two points:access to the system;access to individual files.Access to the system
The first security measure is to predefine all actions which are allowed at
particular terminals; it is useful to be able to identify the channel or line used
by the terminal. Then appropriate measures should be provided for access control.
Access can be restricted to certain users, certain terminals, groups of users or
groups of terminals, or a combination of these. Passwords should be only known by
staff who need to know them and should be periodically changed; if a password falls
into the hands of an unauthorized user it should be possible to delete it from the
system immediately and to monitor any attempts to use it.Access to filesAccess to
given files can be restricted, using software routines which compare the access
authority of a given user trying to access a file with the authority required for
access, stored within the leader or header of the file. Such restrictive checks
must be incorporated into the executive program, and store accesses routed via such
a portion of the executive. In certain instances this can apply a high overhead to
the processor time to executive a job.Database management system (DBMS)Database
Management Systems present particular problems for various reasons, one of which is
the fact that they are implemented by vendors or mainframe manufacturers and are
shared software systems. Thus their mode of working is well known to anyone
working elsewhere with the same implementation. Control is essentially in the
hands of the Database Administrator (DBA), or a staff member charged with that
extra responsibility, who is the key figure in terms of both the efficiency and
security of the database. Moreover, the increased integration of files creates
additional problems.OutputSecurity measures need to be applied to output just as
much as input. Output must be clearly and legibly addressed to avoid mis-
direction; and where confidential data is involved, there should be clear
definition of who is allowed to access various classes of output. Output
validation checks should be carried out by program to ensure the credibility and
integrity of the output data.The cost of security measuresMeasures can be justified
in terms of the amount of computer time that would be wasted if no recovery
mechanism were included in the system; also by showing that these maximize the
productive computer time available, as opposed to alternative methods; and finally,
in terms of the service the computer installation provides for the organization.The
cost of error recovery may be considered in two categories:immediate cost;
continuing cost.Immediate costError recovery procedures require more designing,
programming, coding, testing and documentation time. Sometimes the additional
programming can be separated into independent programs and subroutines included in
processing programs. The more work each recovery subroutines performs, the more
main storage will be required for each program accessing direct access files. This
can affect the ability to multi program. Additional main storage requirements need
to be balanced against the impact on the size of the independent recovery programs.
Continuing costThe cost of maintaining several generations of reconstruction data
needs to be evaluated against the cost of having to reconstruct data manually. The
degree of data protection required will depend on:the type of amount of data to be
protected;the extent to which data is vulnerable to destruction;the frequency of
processing;the extent to which data is altered during processing.CHAPER 15FORMS
DESIGNCONTENTThe content of the form involves all the words, spaces, boxes, etc,
that are to appear on the blank form, including the title of the form and any
instructions for its use.TitleThe title should be brief and meaningful to the
users, and normally the last word should be a noun. If a form has a long title
such as �Advice of Goods ready for Inspection and Dispatch�, it is not surprising
to find users substituting a shorter name. if the particular form was pink in
color, then it might be called �The Pink�, which of course would cause confusion
with any other pink forms. Most forms include a stationary reference number to be
used for ordering supplies.Detailed headingsThe words used for detailed headings
will depend on the background of the typical users form, their level of
intelligence, and whether or not the form is part of their job.Headings should
always be as brief as possible but meaning should not be sacrificed for be sake of
brevity. The typical user�s need should be borne in mind, including both
originators and subsequent interpreters of the information, and headings should
always be tried out before they are included in the eventual form.Instructions for
completionIdeally, item headings will be self explanatory, and, if separate
instructions are required, great care should be taken to keep them clear and crisp.
If possible, instructions should be seen at the same time as the heading or
question. It is annoying to have to search for instructions.When as instruction is
critical, such as �USE CAPITAL LETTERS�, it should be seen before the person fills
in the entry and not following the entry or at the foot of the page.Pre-printed
optionsThis method is particularly useful for questionnaires, where a free-form
reply would give a problem if interpretation before analysis. This does not
dispose of the problem of interpretation, however; it transfers it to the person
completing the form. It therefore imposes on the designer the responsibility for
ensuring that the words used have the same meaning for all possible originators,
and that the options are mutually exclusive and cover all normal answers. If there
can be other possible answers, a space should be given for a free-form reply.LAYOUT
Having determined the content of the form the next stage is to design an
appropriate layout.Direction of paperBefore planning any detail of the layout, it
is necessary to decide whether to layout the form vertically or horizontally.
Factors to be taken into consideration are: amount of data, environment of the
originator, equipment used, mailing and filing.It is usually easier to handle and
file paper with the long side vertical, and it is probably convenient to regard
this as the standard. Exceptions are such things as ledger cards, designed to be
filed upright, and usually requiring a number of columns, and any other form
requiring either a number of columns or some particularly wide columns.Title and
referencesOnce the form has been completed, the identification which matters is not
either the title or the stationary reference, but the filing reference. This
should be in a prominent position. Where the form will be filed by its left-hand
edge, the best position for the reference is the top
right-hand corner. This leaves the top left-hand corner as the obvious place for
the title. The position of the stationary reference is not important, so long as
it is standard for all forms in the organization and does not obtrude on the space
required for the filing reference.Entry headingsIt is important the printed words
and headings be close to or within the space to which they refer. A common fault
is to allow so much space for the heading that it is not clear whether the entry is
to go in the same space as the heading or in a alongside or breath it. If the
heading is within the box, it should be placed as far as possible into the top
left-hand corner.Entry sequencesIt is not uncommon for the ideal sequence for the
originator to be different from the ideal sequence for an interpreter, or even for
different interpreters to require different sequences. It is essential to capture
the data correctly; it is no good having a perfect layout for transcribing
nonsense. The originator should not necessarily be expected to arrange data in the
order it will be used by the computer: rearranging data is one job that computers
do extremely well.Size and shape of entry spacesA from giving a satisfactory
overall appearance is likely to be a series of compromises, but an ideal size and
shape should be decided on for each entry before any compromise begins.The space
allowed should be more than that required for the average entry, but for some
exceptional entries it may be necessary to use a �notes� space, the reverse of the
form or an attached sheet.The kind of data will determine the shape allowed are
more important than the actual dimension must be greater, or if it consists of
several sets of figures then the vertical dimension should be the greater.Filing
and gripping marginsIt is not necessary for every form to have a margin drawn all
the way round it; this only serves to decrease the space available for entries. If
one edge is to be punched for filing, it should be left completely clear of
information. If the form is to be used with particular equipment, such as a
typewriter or a duplicator, it is important to see that appropriate gripping edges
are kept free of information. If it is to be used with particular input devices
then clearly the layout and especially the margins must be related to the special
equipment requirements.MAKE-UPThe term make-up is used to denote all the physical
features of a form apart from the printing and the paper. It includes the joining
together of forms as sets, in pads or as continuous stationary, the provision by
the printer of interleaved carbons or of any chemical coating for making copies,
and any punching or perforating required. Making-up may well cost more than both
paper and printing. A comparison needs to be made between the additional cost of
make-up and the saving in user time, stationary wastage, or errors which would
arise from not incurring the make-up cost/PRINTINGThe printer should not be
expected to guess at requirements; precise instructions need to be given,
especially on critical dimensions, to enable him to realize the design, and should
produce proofs to allow the designer to approve the finished product a large
quantity is run off.Single or double sided printingThe question of whether to print
a form on both sides assumes that the amount of information required needs more
than one side of the paper; there is no merit in spreading over two sides if one
side is sufficient. Multi-sheet forms should be avoided if at all possible, since
they cause additional problems in storing, mailing, typing and retrieving.Double
sided forms are not possible with chemically coated copying papers. Loose carbons
can be used, but this is time-consuming. There is also a limitation on the number
of copied that can be produced by this method, since double-sided forms need to be
of thicker paper than single sided ones.Serial numberingThe price of a form is only
marginally increased by serial numbering, since this facility is available on
standard printing machines. However, there is no reason for specifying serial
numbering on every form. It adds to the problem of storing and issuing forms,
since, to satisfy the purpose of serial numbering, there is normally a requirement
to use the lower serial numbers first.The advantage that serial numbering provides
is security, particularly with documents such as cheques or invoices, which could
be used as a means of obtaining money.Use of linesThe essential purpose of lines on
forms is to separate one area from another. On aesthetic grounds the use of many
different line thick nesses is to be avoided; two thick nesses are usually
adequate. A thick line can be useful to separate different group of items, or to
make individual items stand out, for instance, where selected items are to be
punched. Where related entries are to be made by hand in a number of columns,
faint guidelines are desirable, particularly from the point of view of later
interpretation of the entries.Type facesThe number of different type faces should
also be kept to a minimum. A mixture of upper and lower case is to be preferred to
all capitals, being easier to read. It is best to reserve capitals for use as
headings for grouped items.Type sizesSize of type face is expressed in �points�, a
point being approximately 1/72� vertically. This is not the size of the letter
itself, but the distance between rows. The size selected must obviously depend on
the space available, but other criteria are the age of the typical user-since
eyesight deteriorates with age-and the lighting conditions in which the form will
be used.ColorA form is to be completed in black ink, the entries will stand out
better if the headings are in different co lour, green being the colour recommended
for best legibility. It is important that what stands out after completion is the
entry rather than the heading, but this can usually be adequately catered for with
black printing by position and type size of the heading. The exception is where
the only printing required is a guide-line, as on line-printer stationary.Internal
or external printingWhere the organization is equipped with offset litho machines,
there will be a useful economy in printing all straightforward forms internally,
even if the artwork is done externally. Using this method, it is possible to get
professional results but at a low cost of printing, and with the facility to print
and store small quantities. It is usually uneconomic to use internal facilities
for printing complex forms, particularly multi-part forms, for which specialist
printers are properly equipped.PAPERIt is not enough to get the design right; the
right design with the wrong paper may make the system unworkable.SizeThe minimum
size of a form is determined by the sum of the spaces required for the individual
entries, where these can be pre-determined. If the space required for some entries
is not predictable, the space allowed should cater for all but the rare exceptions,
with directions for where any �overflow� should be entered.The normal size is based
on the �A� series of the ISO. The most common size is A4, which measures 210mm X
297mm. A5 is half this size and so on through A6, A7 etc,WeightPaper is measured
in grams per sq meter (gsm). The most common weights are- 49 gsm: normally
used for typing copy paper and suitable for most internal single-sided forms- 61
gsm: used for normal letterheads and suitable for any single-sided form not
subject to long term repeated handling;ConstructionThe internal construction of the
paper determines its strength and opacity. For most purposes it is not critical,
but there are exceptions, where paper is to be used in high-speed equipment,
subjected to handling over a number of years or repeated impressions and erasures,
or where translucency for copying is required.Dialogue DesignDefining The Dialogue
Objectives The first task is to identify which aspects of the
user�s requirements the user of a computer terminal can improve. For example, the
job of a booking clerk in a seat reservations office may be greatly improved by
using a terminal to establish quickly the availability of seats, to provide answer
to customers enquires, and then to make firm booking of the seats chosen.
1.Data Entry Terminals enable the user to enter data from the
point where it is created into a central computer system. The system then checks
the validity of the data as it is entered. A sales clerk, for example, can enter a
sales order and, before the complete transaction is accepted, the account number,
product number, quantity etc can be checked. 2.Enquiry More
complex enquiry systems may be designed to satisfy a wide variety of search
criteria, the precise nature of which is unpredictable: these are often known as
information retrieval systems. For example, a sales manager may want information
about which product will be affected by maintenance work on a particular production
line and what action can be taken to overcome any deficiencies; this may involve
analyzing sales of the products by region, identification of alternative lines.
3.Data Entry And Enquiry A combination of data entry and enquiry
may be used in some situations where a transaction updates data held on main files.
Defining The Terminal Users 1.Dedicated and casual users
A terminal user may be described as dedicated if the use of the terminal is a major
part of the job; the casual user is one for whom terminal usage is only a minor
part of the job. A dedicated user needs a more coded dialogue with a wider range of
options and Has a opportunity to learn more quickly
by experience and job then casual user. The latter may not be able to use the
terminal efficiently if confronted by a complex dialogue; Dialogues for those who
rarely use a terminal must be self explanatory and simple. 2.Active and
passive user An active user is one who initiates the
dialogue and leads the system through the main steps. A �passive� user responds to
message send by the computer, which controls the dialogue and makes most of the
decisions for the user on �what to do next�. The seat reservation clerk who
initiates enquires and make reservations is an �active� user; a clerk, who informed
by the terminal when errors occur and instructed as to the action to be taken, is a
passive user. In general messages for the passive users need to be more self-
explanatory than those for active users who know what to expect and what action to
take. 3.Intelligence of Users The level of
intelligence of the potential users is impossible to access and so the designer
must try to relate the task to be performed to their general motivation and
ability. Usually, Of course, this will be depend on training received, experienced
and degree of usage .To cope with varying backgrounds, dialogues can be designed in
an expansible way allowing for more detailed giddiness where necessary
4.Presistent and intolerant users Input messages to
a terminal are often required in precise format containing well-defined words and
symbols. If an error is made in the input measures the program will need to take
corrective action are to request a fresh input of the message the later option is
easier to design and implement but depends on the characteristics of the user,In
particular willingness to persist obtaining accuracy.Types of Dialogue
1.Active DialogueNatural Language DialogueKeywordsMnemonicsProgramming Statements
2.Passive DialogueForm-FillingMenu-SelectionInstruction and ResponseLight Pens
3.Special Types Of DialogueGraphics and PhotographsVoice answerbackSpecial Devices
CHAPTER 21MAINTENANCE AND REVIEWAMENDMENT PROCEDURESSystems should not be changed
casually following informal requests. Changes in one area may affect others.
Major amendments should be treated as small-scale development projects, requiring
resources, terms of reference, planning, scheduling and controlling. The tasks can
be specified, allocated to individuals, scheduled and controlled to target dates.To
avoid unauthorized amendments, all requests for changes should be channeled to a
person nominated by management. The nominated person should have sufficient
knowledge of the organization�s computer-based systems to be able to judge the
relevance of each proposed change.All amendments should be completed to their
priority and scheduled target dates, especially where a discretionary priority
rating exists.Procedure requirementsIn defining local procedures, certain general
objects may be identified:any member of staff should have the means available for
raising an amendment;any amendment must receive a suitable level of authorization;
each amendment must be scrutinized by someone not involved with the original
proposal;a procedure should be designed to minimize delay in implementing the
amendment;the procedures must nor violate existing channels of communication.
Procedure selection and definition will depend on local priorities which determine
the importance of the amendment. The following factors be considered:effect of the
amendment on the objectives of the system;present state of the system (development,
projected or operational);source of the amendment;complexity and size of the
changes required;effect of the amendment on other systems;effect of the amendment
on users or other parts of the organization;effect of the amendment on data
security.Amendment documentationMost data processing departments have forms for
authorizing and controlling amendments. Examples of three such forms are:Amendment
NotificationAmendment LogAmendment ListThe Amendment Notification is designed for
this purpose; it provides, independently of the author for verification and
authorization of the amended specification.The Amendment Log, prepared initially
with the Amendment Notification, records the estimated and actual completion of
each of the activities defined by the author.The Amendment List provides a
permanent record of all the amendments made to any of the documents within a
documentation file: it is useful reference to keep at the end of each file. The
serial number is the amendment number entered on the corresponding Amendment
Notification.Maintenance groupResponsibility for the maintenance of a particular
system must be allocated before any requirement for changes arises. It is unwise
for this responsibility to rest with the original designer after �changeover�.
SYSTEMS AUDITThe systems audit is an investigation to review the performance of an
operating system. The investigation and evaluation may be carried out: by a
systems analyst, preferably one who was not responsible for the original design; by
representatives of users, computer operations, or internal auditors; or by a team
composed of these representatives.The detailed tasks to be carried for this
investigation are based on a checklist of the contents required for the systems
audit report. They are summarized under two main headings:system performance
cost/benefitSystem performanceThe investigation should start by making contact with
the manager of the user departments, not only to deal with the normal formalities
but, in particular, to establish:whether or not the manager is satisfied with the
performance of the system, and if not, what are the reasonsthe operational aspects:
whether the procedures are causing problems, and if any change have been made
changes in volumes of data, information, paper handling and their effect on the
systemamendment requests: whether they have been implemented correctly; whether
there are any pendingCost/benefitsHere the actual costs and benefits are compared
with those planned, showing any deviation from expectations. The causes of any
deviation of costs or benefits from those planned should be established and stated.
This may arise from:unplanned pay increaseschanged methods of computer-charging
inaccurate estimates of data volume and timingAuthorized, or unauthorized changes
to procedures and documents.Deviations may be either advantageous or
disadvantageous, and all details should be reported. An increased cost may, of
course, produce a better service, perhaps giving higher value.The performance
statistics should first show the comparison of actual with planned, and only then
should the effect on these of any amendments and improvements be shown. These
comparison records can be fed back to the planning and estimating section, to
system analysts and programmers, to improve future forecasting methods.Quality
assuranceThe level of control within the system deserves special attention. It is
essential that adequate control procedures are built into the system as it is
designed. These should be checked to ensure that they are working effectively, one
being maintained, and that the system is secure. The following checklist gives a
summary of the questions which should be asked.Control environmentsis there clear
segregation of control responsibilities?can user involvement be adequately
demonstrated?how will the user monitor system operation?are there procedure of
authorization to check the quality of data?are documentation standards maintained?
Source data collectionhave batch sizes been defined and maintained for maximum
control?have batch control records been defined and maintained?are batch controls
established as soon as possible?are the following procedures defined and maintained
correctly.registration of receipts?verification of receipts?data conversion
control?error procedures?Validationis all input verified to the required standard
before processing?are all fields validated for range, format and size?are check-
digits used where appropriate?Error controlare control reports adequate both for
errors and successful runs?are any errors processed with acceptable data, and if so
are suitable safeguards included?Computer procedure and file controlsare file
controls adequate in the form of labels or special control records?could separate
control files be usefully kept?is there appropriate provisioning of an audit trail?
Output proceduresdo output programs validate new fields created for output
purposes?are key fields rechecked for credibility?are output control reports
produced?is there an output control register?are control totals verified by output
control section?Use of terminalsdoes terminal dialogue have built-in redundancy for
error detection?is input distinguished from output?is the terminal design best for
this application in terms of keyboard, screen format, security, etc.?what data
protection facilities are provided for data transmission?Fallback and recoveryare
fallback clerical input procedures defined?is there a specified procedure for re-
establishing controls?are all messages logged on receipt, and are these logs
retrievable for recovery purposes?External requirementshave all appropriate
external authorities been consulted?has the auditor approved the system controls?
RecommendationsWays to improve system performance should be given: either to meet
or exceed expectations. If additional work is needed, then the terms of reference
should be formulated in detail.MANAGEMENT INFORMATION
SYSTEM PART - A1. What are the Phases in the decision
� making process: Intelligence: Searching the environment for
conditions calling for decisions. Data inputs are obtained, processed, and examined
for clues that may identify problems or opportunities. Design: Inventing,
developing, and analyzing possible courses of action. This involves processes to
understand the problem, to generate solutions, and to test solutions for
feasibility.Choice: Selecting an alternative or course of action from those
available. A choice is made and implemented.2. Difference between programmed and
non programmed decisions:Programmed decision#Non � programmed decision##Programmed
decisions are those decisions that can be pre specified by a set of rules or
decision procedures. These are reflected in rule books, decision tables and
regulations. Programmed decisions imply decision making under certainty because all
outcomes must be known.#Non � programmed decision have no pre established decision
rules or procedures. These may range from one � time decisions relating to a
crisis.(such as civil war in A country where a plant is located)##
PART � B INTRODUCTION TO MANGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMMANAGEMENT
INFORMATION SYSTEMDefinition: MIS is an integrated, user machine system for
providing information to support operations, management, and decision making
functions in an organization. The system utilizes computer hardware and software,
manual procedures, models for analysis, planning, control and decision making, and
a database.MIS versus Data processing:A data processing system processes
transactions and produces reports. It represents the automation of fundamental,
routine processing to support operations. Prior to computers, data processing was
performed manually or with simple machines.A MIS is more comprehensive, it
encompasses processing in support of a wider range of organizational functions and
management processes.Every MIS will also include transaction processing as one of
its functions.One main difference is the capability to provide analysis, planning,
and decision-making support.An MIS orientation means users have access to decision
models and methods for querying the database on an ad hoc basis.MIS and Decision
support systems:A decision support system (DSS) is an information system
application that assists decision making. DSS tend to be used in planning,
analyzing alternatives, and trial and error search for solutions. They are
generally operated through terminal-based interactive dialogs with users. They
incorporate a wide variety of decision models. DSS represents a significant class
of MIS.MIS and information resource management:Information resource management(IRM)
is an approach to management based on the concept that information is an
organizational resource. The scope of IRM includes data communications, word
processing and personal computers as well as traditional data processing. The IRM
concept tends to emphasize the organizational effectiveness of the information
system resource rather than the technical sophistication or efficiency of the
hardware and software.SUBSYSTEMS of an MIS:There are two approaches to define the
subsystems of an MIS. They are1.According to the organizational functions
2.According to the managerial activities.According to the organizational functions:
Major functional subsystem uses
1.Marketing Sales forecasting, sales planning,
customer and sales
analysis.2.Manufacturing Production planning and
scheduling, cost control
analysis.3.Logistics Planning and control of
purchasing, inventories,
distribution.4.Personnel Planning personnel
requirements, analyzing
performance, salary
administration.5.Finance and accounting Financial analysis, cost
analysis, capital
requirements planning, income
measurement.6.Information processing Information system planning,
cost effectiveness
analysis.7.Top management Strategic planning, resource
allocation.#Functional subsystems in an MIS used by a manufacturing concern.
#######################According to the managerial function:Activity subsystem
uses1.Transaction processing processing of orders,
shipments
and receipts.2.Operational control Scheduling
of activities and
performance reports.3.Management control.
Formulation of budgets and
resource allocation.4.Strategic planning
Formulation of objectives and strategic
plans.ACTIVITIES######################Strategic planning#Management control
#Operational control#Transaction processing#########
MIS AS SEEN BY THE USER:The main users of MIS are1.clerical personnel2.First-level
managers3.Staff specialists4.Management. Their uses are:Clerical personnel: Handle
transactions, process input data and answer inquiries.First-level managers: Obtain
operations data. Assistance with planning, scheduling, identifying out of control
situations, and making decisions.Staff specialists: Information for analysis.
Assistance with analysis, planning, and reporting. Regular reports.Management:
Regular reports. Ad hoc retrieval requests. Ad hoc reports. Assistance in
identifying problems and opportunities. Structure of an information system.
Operating elements of an information systemThe operating elements are Physical
components, processing function, Output for users.1.Physical components The
physical components required for an information system are hardware, software,
procedures, and operations personnel.Hardware: Hardware refers to physical computer
equipment and associated devices. Hardware must provide for five major functions:
1.input or entry2.output3.secondary storage for data and programs4.central
processor (computation, control, and primary storage) 5.communicationsSoftware:
Software is a broad term given to the instructions that direct the operation of the
hardware. The software can be classified into two major types: System software and
application software.Database: The database contains all data utilized by
application software. An individual set of stored data is often referred to as a
file. The physical existence of stored data is often referred to as a file. The
physical existence of stored data is evidenced by the physical storage media
(computer tapes, disk packs, diskettes, e.t.c) used for secondary storage.
Procedures: Formal operating procedures are physical components because they exist
in a physical form such as a manual or instruction booklet. Three major types of
procedures are required:--User instructions --Instructions for preparation of input
by data preparation personnel--Operating instructions for computer operations
personnel.Operations personnel: Computer operators, systems analysts, programmers,
data preparation personnel, information systems management, data administrators,
e.t.c.2.Processing functionsThe processing functions are process transactions,
maintain master files, produce reports, process inquires, process interactive
support applicationsprocess transactions: A transaction is an activity such as
making a purchase or a sale or manufacturing a product. It may be internal to the
organization or may involve the organization and an external entity. Performance of
a transaction requires records to (1) direct a transaction to take place, (2)
report, confirm, or explain its performance, or (3) communicate the transaction to
those needing a record for background information or reference.Maintain master
files: Many processing activities require creation and files maintenance of master
files, which store relatively permanent or historical data about organizational
entities. For example, processing to prepare an employee�s paycheck requires data
items for the employee�s rate of pay, deductions, e.t.c. when transactions are
processed, master file data items are updated to reflect the most current
information.Produce reports: Reports are significant products of an information
system. Scheduled reports are produced on a regular basis. An information system
should also be able to produce special reports quickly based on ad hoc
(unscheduled) requests.Process inquiries: Other outputs of the information system
are responses to inquiries using the database. These may be regular inquiries with
a preset format or ad hoc inquiries. The essential function of inquiry processing
is to make any record or any item in the database easily accessible to authorized
personnel.Process interactive support applications: The information system contains
applications designed to support systems for planning, analysis, and decision
making. The computer performs processing
based on a planning model, decision model, e.t.c.; the mode of operation is
interactive with the user responding to questions and requests for data and
receiving immediate results in order to alter inputs until a solution or
satisfactory result is achieved.3.Output for usersThe output form a description of
an information system and can be classified as being of five major types. They are
(1)Transaction documents or screens (2)Preplanned reports (3)Preplanned inquiry
responses (4)Ad hoc reports and inquiry responses (5)User-machine dialog results.
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM SUPPORT FOR DECISION MAKINGInformation system support
will differ for the two types of decisions. Some decisions will fit easily into
this classification, but many decisions are more or less structured and have some
elements that are programmable and some that are not.Structured, programmable
decisions:Structured, programmable decisions can be prespecified, many of these
decisions can be handled by lower-level personnel with little specialized
knowledge. In fact, many highly structured decisions may be completely automated,
although human review is generally considered desirable. Examples of highly
structured decisions are inventory reorder formulas and rules for granting credit.
The information system requirements for structured decisions are clear and
unambiguous procedures for entering the required input data, validation procedures
to ensure correct and complete input, processing of the input using the decision
logic, and output of the programmed decision in a form that is useful for action.
Unstructured, non-programmable decisions:The unstructured decision has no pre-
established decision procedure, either because the decision is too infrequent to
justify the organizational cost of preparing a decision procedure(even though it
may be partly programmable) or because the decision process is not understood well
enough or is too changeable to allow a stable pre-established decision procedure.
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM STRUCTURE BASED ON MANAGEMENT ACTIVITYHierarchy of
management activityThe following categories of management planning and control were
defined by AnthonyInformation systems for management control:The control process
requires the following types of informationPlanning performance (standard,
expected, budgeted, e.t.c.)Variances from planned performanceReasons for variances
Analysis of possible decisions or courses of actionThe database for management
control consists of two major elements: (1)the database provided by operations, and
(2) the plans, standards , budgets, e.t.c.,The processing requirements to support
management control activities are the following: Planning and budget models to
assist managers in finding problems in direction and preparing and revising plans
and budgets. This includes projections of effects of current actions.Variance
reporting programs to process scheduled reports showing performance and variances
from planned or other standards such as competitor performance.Problem analysis
models to analyze data to provide input for dicision making.Decision models to
analyze a problem situation and provide possible solutions for management
evaluation.Inquiry models to assist in responding to inquiries.Information systems
for strategic planning The purpose of strategic planning is to develop strategies
by which an organization will be able to achieve its objectives. The time horizon
for strategic planning tends to be fairly long, so that fundamental shifts in the
organization may be made.For example, a department store chain may decide to
diversify into the mail order business.Some examples of types of data that are
useful in strategic planning illustrate the nature of the data requirements:Outlook
for the economy in the company�s current and prospective areas of activity Current
and prospective political environment.Current capabilities and performance of the
organization by market, country, e.t.c.(based on current policies)Prospects for the
industry in each country Capabilities of competitors and their market shares
Opportunities for new ventures based on current or expected developments
Alternative strategiesProjections of resource requirements for the alternative
strategies.Information system cannot be as complete for strategic planning as it is
for management control and operational control, but the system is one source of
information that can provide substantial aid to the process of strategic planning.
For example,The evaluation of current capabilities is based on internal data
generated by operational processing requirements, but it may need to be summarized
in a special way for planning use.The initial projections of future capability can
be developed by analysis of past data. This first approximation is adjusted by
management on the basis of judgment and experience.MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
STRUCTURE BASED ON ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTION
ACTIVITIES######################Strategic planning#Management control#Operational
control#Transaction processing#########The matrix of functional subsystems and
management activities.1.Sales and marketing subsystems:The sales and marketing
function generally includes all activities related to the promotion and sales of
products or services. The transactions are sales orders, promotion orders, etc. The
operational control activities include the hiring and training of the sales force,
the day-to-day scheduling of sales and promotion efforts, and periodic analyses of
sales volumes by region, product, customer, etc. Managerial control concerns
comparisons of overall performance against a marketing plan. Information for
managerial control may include data on customers, competitors, competitor products,
and sales force requirements . Strategic planning for the marketing function
involves consideration of new markets and new marketing strategies.2.Production
subsystem:Transactions to be processed are production orders(based on an explosion
of the sales orders and inventory requirements into component parts), assembly
orders, finished parts tickets, scrap tickets, and time-keeping tickets.
Operational control requires detailed reports comparing actual performance to the
production schedule and highlighting areas where bottlenecks occur. Management
control requires summary reports which compare overall planned or standard
performance to actual performance for such classification as cost per unit and
labor used. Strategic planning for manufacturing includes alternatives
manufacturing approaches and alternative approaches to automation.3.Logistics
Subsystem:The logistics function encompasses such activities as purchasing,
receiving, inventory control, and distribution. The transaction to be processed
include purchase requisitions, purchase orders, manufacturing orders, receiving
reports, tickets for inventory, shipping orders, and bills of lading. The
operational control function uses information contained in reports such as past due
purchases, past due shipment to customers , out of stock items, overstocked items,
inventory turnover reports , vendor performance summaries, and shipper performance
analyses. Managerial control information for logistics consists of overall
comparisons between planned and actual inventory levels, costs for purchased items,
stockouts, inventory turnover, etc, Strategic planning involves the analysis of new
distribution strategies, new policies with regard to vendors, and �make versus buy�
strategies. Information on new technology, distribution alternatives, etc is
required.4.Personnel subsystem:The transaction result in documents describing
employment requisitions, job descriptions, training specifications, personnel
data(background, skills, experience), pay rate changes, hours worked, paychecks,
benefits, and termination notices. Operational control for personnel requires
decisions procedures for action such as hiring, training, termination, changing pay
rates, and issuing benefits. Management control of the personnel function is
supported by reports and analyses showing the variances resulting from differences
between planned and actual performance for such classifications as number of
employees hired, cost of recruiting, composition of skills inventory, cost of
training(by employee, by program), salary paid, distribution of wage rates, and
conformance with government equal oppurtunity requirements. Strategic planning for
personnel is involved with evaluating alternative strategies for recruiting,
salary, training, benefits, and building location to ensure that the organization
obtains and retains personnel necessary to achieve its objective.5.Finance and
accounting subsystem:Finance and accounting are somewhat separate functions but are
sufficiently related to be described together. Finance is responsible for ensuring
adequate organizational financing at as low a cost as possible.Among the
transactions associated with finance and accounting are credit applications, sales,
billings, collection documents(statements), payment vouchers, checks, journal
vouchers, ledgers, and stock transfers. Operational control over the function
itself requires daily error and exception reports, records of processing delays,
reports of unprocessed transactions,etc. The managerial control level for
accounting and processing accounting data, and error rates.6.Information processing
subsystemThe information processing function is responsible for ensuring that the
other functions are provided the necessary information processing services and
resources. Typical transactions for information processing are requests for
processing, requests for corrections or changes in data and programs, reports for
corrections or changes in data and
programs, reports of hardware an program performance, and project proposals.
Operational control of information processing operations require information on the
daily schedule of jobs, error rates, and equipment failures; for new project
development it requires daily or weekly schedules of programmer progress and test
time. Managerial control over information processing requires data on planned
versus actual utilization, equipment costs, overall programmer performance, and
progress compared to schedule for projects to develop and implement new
applications. Strategic planning for information systems involves the organization
of the function (such as centralized or de centralized), the overall information
system plan, selection of strategic uses of information, and the general structure
of the hardware and software environment.7.Top management subsystem:The top
management function operates separately from the functional areas, but also
includes the functional vice presidents acting in a top management capacity such as
in management committees. The transactions processed by top management are
primarily inquiries for information and support of decisions. The transactions
documents, therefore, tend to be letters and memoranda.The information for
operational control files, and contact files. Managerial control by top management
uses information which summarizes the management control being exercised by other
functions to evaluate whether the functions are performing as planned. This
requires access to the plans and actual performance as planned. This requires
access to the plans and actual performance of all the functions. Strategic planning
activities relate to matters such as direction of the company and plans for
ensuring necessary resources.SYNTHESIS OF A MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
STRUCTUREConceptual structure:The conceptual structure of a management information
system is defined as a federation of functional subsystems, each of which is
divided into four major information processing components: transaction processing,
operational control information system support, managerial control information
system support and strategic planning information system support.##STRATEGIC
PLANNING##MANAGEMENT CONTROL##OPERATIONAL CONTROL##TRANASACTION PROCESSING#UNIQUE
SUBSYSTEM FILES.##FORMAL AND INFORMAL INFORMATION SYSTEMSThe management information
system with its prespecified procedures and programs for applications, is part of
the formal public system. It is organizationally public and access is dependent
only upon having appropriate organizational authority to enter or retrieve data or
to a receive reports or inquiry responses. There is also an informal public system
that serves all persons in the organization who connect with it. The informal
system has few predetermined rules. Examples of the public informal information
system are electronic mail, telephone calls, conversions at gathering points such
as the water cooler, notes on the bulletin board, articles and other publications
distributed in the office (perhaps annotated), and presentations by external
information sources such as sales representatives.The organizational information
system#####Effect of MIS on relative sizes of information system components#####1.
Explain the Behavioral Models of the Decision Maker.1. Classical Economical
model of decision maker:A normative model of the decision maker in organizations is
described by the classical economic model. It has the following assumptions:All
alternatives and all outcomes are completely known.The decision maker seeks to
maximize profit or utility.The decision maker is infinitely sensitive to difference
in utility among outcomes.The first criterion can be relaxed to assume decision
making under risk, i.e., probability can be attached to each outcome. It is then
assumed that the decision maker will maximize expected value.The classical
economical model is a prescriptive model of the decision make completely rational,
having complete information, always choosing the �best� alternative. It describes
how a person should make a decision but, in fact, all criteria of the model are
rarely met in a decision situation.2. Administrative model of Decision Maker.The
administrative model of the decision maker is descriptive. It explains how
decision-making actually does take place.The administrative model assumes that the
decision maker:1. Does not know all alternatives and all outcomes. 2. Makes a
limited search to discover a few satisfactory alternatives. 3. Makes a decision
which satisfies his or her aspiration level (i.e. satisfices) 3 Human Expectations
and Decision-making Humans display a variety of responses in decision-making.
Some are related to individual differences, such as cognitive style; others are
related to expectations. Some of these responses are summarized in this section
.The role of expectations in decision making can be partially explained by the
theory of cognitive dissonance, commitment theory, and the theory of anticipatory
regret.General model of the human as an information processorA simple model of
human as an information processor consist of sensory receptors(eyes, ears, nose,
etc.) that pick up signals and transmit them to the processing unit(brain with
storage). The results of the processing are output responses (physical, spoken,
written, etc.). This model is diagrammed in figure � 1.The filter may result from.
Frame of reference of the individual based on prior knowledge and experienceNormal
decision procedure.Decision making under stress.# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
Filter Figure � 1 Model of human as information processor.Individuals
establish filters based on their experience, background, customs, etc. Decision
procedures identify relevant data and therefore provide a filter to screen factors
considered unnecessary to the decision. The filtering mechanism may be changed by
decision � making stress. The stress of making decisions under time pressure will
cause filtering to increase, thereby reducing the amount of data to be processed by
the decision maker. For example, a production line supervisor will, during a period
of crisis and stress, concentrate on the most important problems and will not
accept stimuli that are related to less important problems.Figure -2 Performance of
human as information processor. Output
(or) #Response information overload Input (or)
stimuli rateFigure -2 Performance of human as information processor.# SHAPE \*
MERGEFORMAT ##### Filtering under normal decision making conditions## SHAPE \*
MERGEFORMAT #### Filtering under decision making stressFigure � 3 Filtering of
information to reduce processing requirements.The concept of frame of reference
applies to both input and processing. To develop a new processing routine for each
new stimulus would use processing capacity and reduce the stimuli that could be
processed. Over an extended period of time, and on a continuing basis, the brain
establishes patterns or categories of data, which define the human understanding of
the nature of the environment. These patterns or frames of reference are called
into use in processing the input (figure � 4), thereby reducing processing
requirements. Effective use of relevant frames of reference, which have been
accumulated over a long period, is one characteristic of expertise in a particular
field.Besides blocking unwanted data, filtering may work to block data that is
inconsistent with an established frame of reference. This factor and the natural
limits on the human sense receptors may lead to information perception errors such
as omissions, distortions, and inferences. The writer of a report may mean one
thing; the reader may perceive another. These errors of perception increase
uncertainty as to the message being transmitted, and reduce information content.
Input data# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####DecisionUse of input data, stored data, and
frame of reference to process a decision.Long term Memory: It has essentially
unlimited capacity. Its content consists of symbols and structures of chunks.Short-
term memory: It is part of the processor and it is quite small. It holds only five
to seven symbols.External memory: The external memory in the human processing
system consists of external media such as a pad of paper or a chalkboard. The
access time for the eye to locate the symbols at a known location is quite fast,
and read times are estimated at about 50 milliseconds.#Internal
# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
External memory##### SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT #### Figure 7 the three memories of
Newell � Simon modelThe processor of the information processing system contains
three parts. The elementary processor, the short � term memory, and the
interpreter, which interprets part or all the program of instructions for problem
solving (figure � 7). The program used by an individual will depend on a number of
variables such as the task and the intelligence of the problem solver.Power in the
chalk: When a value is compared to the anchor, the adjustment process tends to
undervalue the importance of the new evidence since it is only considered relative
to somewhat arbitrary anchor point.Cognition Theory: The activities by which an
individual resolves differences between an internalized view of the environment and
what is actually perceived in that same environment.Semantic knowledge: It refers
to general functional concepts which are important for programming in general but
independent
of any specific programming language.Example: a subscripted array, an assignment
statement, a sort or merge algorithm.Syntactic knowledge: It includes the specific
grammar, syntax, and format of a particular language.Characteristics of human
information processing performance:Earlier in this chapter it was explained that
humans have constraints on their information processing abilities, and individual
characteristics such as cognitive style affect their decision � making processes.
In this section, other characteristics of individuals that affect their cognitive
processes and the effectiveness of their decision-making will be discussed.1) Need
for feedback: In computer systems, various mechanisms are used to determine that
output has been received. The printer returns a signal to the central processor to
indicate that it has been activated. A data terminal returns a signal to indicate
receipt of a block of data. Similar feedback mechanisms must be provided in human
processing situations not only for error control but also to meet the psychological
needs of human processors for assurance that output was received.In an online
system, an important aspect of feedback is response time: the time between the user
entering a message and some response being returned. In the design of online
transaction processing systems, an important design goal is to achieve response
times which maximize the speed of entry and minimize error rates. The most common
problem is too long a response time, so that the user becomes restless and loses
concentration. However, response times can also be too short, so that the user
feels �driven� by the system and errors increase.2) Psychological Value of Unused
data: The basic theory of value of unused opportunities is that people attach a
significant value to opportunities even though they are not used.The theory of
unused opportunities may be applied to explain the phenomenon of apparent
uneconomic accumulation and storage of data. The value is not the actual use, given
any expected frequency of access, but is a psychological value assigned by the
recipients to having data available.Explanations for the conspicuous over
consumption information.Organizations are designed with incentives for gathering
extra information. Examples are the separation of information gathering function
from information using.Much of the information gathered by organizations for
surveillance and not for decision-making. Information is often gathered and
communicated to persuade and even to misrepresent.Information use is a symbol of
commitment to rational choice.3) Information overload: The human capacity to accept
inputs from the environment is limited. In addition, humans have built � in
filtering or selection processes to handle information overload.A more immediate
implication of the problem of information overload is in the design of information
systems. The decreasing cost of computers, increasing capacity of data storage, and
availability of communications technology permit organizations to process,
transmit, and store greater amounts of data than were ever possible before.4)
Individual differences: Individual differences#Explanation#Effect on information
processing##Locus of control (internal � External)#Extent to which events are
perceived to be controlled by internal processes versus controlled by external
forces#Internal locus of control related to more information search activity than
external locus of control##Dogmatism(low � high)#Extent to which person is positive
about beliefs and opinions.#Low dogmatism related to more information search
activity, more deliberation, and less confidence in decisions.##Risk � taking
propensity (low � high)#Extent to which person is willing to take risks.#High risk
� taking propensity related to more information search activity than low risk �
taking propensity.##Intelligence(low � high)#Measured by ability to perform well on
intelligence tests.#High intelligence related to faster information processing,
more effective information selection, better retention, faster decisions, and
better internal organization of information.##Verbal abilities(low � high)#Extent
of vocabulary development and use in expressing thoughts.#High verbal abilities
related to more effective short � ter m memory.##Experience in decision
making#Extent of experience in formal decision making#Experience related to more
effective information selection, less effective integration, greater flexibility,
and less confidence.##Task knowledge(low � high)#Extent of knowledge of how to
perform the task.#High task knowledge related to less information search compared
to low task knowledge.##Age#Chronological age.#Older subjects use more information
search, select information more effectively, are more flexible, and require more
decision time than younger subjects.## 5) Nonverbal information input:
Subsystem#Description##Hand movements#There are 3 types of hand movements:Emblems
are hand movements that are understood in a specific culture or occupation. An
example is a thumbs � up gesture.Illustrations are gestures that relate to what is
being said, such as pointing or accentuating.Adaptors are touching of oneself or
other objects. Self � adaptors are often associated with anxiety, guilt, hostility,
and suspicion.##Facial expression#When used, these are generally understood,
Examples are smiling and frowning. Even when people suppress facial expressions,
they may make very short expressions lasting only a fraction of a second that
reflect their true feelings.##Eye contact#Eye contact is a major regulator of
conversation. Although there are individual differences, eye contact suggests
understanding and interest.##Posture#Posture is the way people position their
bodies with regard to other people. This can be a closed position with arms folded
to reflect exclusion or the opposite to show inclusion. Having congruent
positioning reflects agreement or acceptance.##Proxemics#How people use
interpersonal space can express intimacy, social distance, and public distance. For
example, standing close indicates intimacy, and sitting at the head of a table
indicates status. Sitting alongside a desk indicates openness; sitting behind the
desk while the other person is in front indicates a superior � subordinate
relationship.##Body rhythms#How people move in relation to others, frequency of
speaking, and speaking turns provide clues to meaning being
conveyed.##Speech#Choice of words can reflect involvement or distance, or
enthusiasm or lack of it.##MANAGERS AS INFORMATION PROCESSORS:A study by Henry
Mintzberg of managers in their jobs characterizes managerial work as follows:1)
Much work at an unrelenting pace. Managers seldom stop thinking about their jobs;
during the regular work day the pace of activity is high and constant.2) Activity
characterized by brevity, variety, and fragmentation. Half of the activities of
chief executives took less than nine minutes and only one � tenth took more than an
hour. In a study of factory foremen, Guest found that the average activity took 48
seconds, and in a study of MIS executives, Ives and Olson found that the average
duration of an activity was 10.3 minutes.3) Preference for live action. According
to Mintzberg, there is strong indication that the manager gravitates toward the
more active elements of work � activities that are current, specific, concrete, and
nonrouting.4) Attraction to the verbal media. Mintzberg estimated that managers
spend up to 80 percent of their time in verbal communication, a result which was
also found in the study of MIS executives.5) Network of contacts. Managers maintain
a complex network of relationships with a variety of contacts outside the
organization, comprising as much as 50 percent of all contacts. In the study of MIS
executives, there were fewer contacts outside of the organization but many with
other departments within it. The remaining contacts are primarily with superiors
and subordinates of which the former is as little as 10 percent of all contacts.6)
The manager�s job is a blend of rights and duties. Managers can exert control over
their activities through proper manipulation of these rights and duties.# SHAPE \*
MERGEFORMAT ##### SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####Distribution of time by managersSYSTEM
STRESS AND CHANGE:A stress is a force transmitted by a system�s suprasystem that
causes a system to change, so that the suprasystem can better achieve its goals.
Types of stress: There are two basic form of stresses which can be imposed on a
system, separately or concurrently:A change in the goal set of the system. New
goals may be created or old goals may be eliminated.A change in the achievement
levels desired for existing goals. The level of desired achievement may be
increased or decreased.Organizational efficiency and Effectiveness:
Measurement#Explanation##Effectiveness#Outputs from the system. These represent the
reason the system exists. Being effective implies doing the �right� thing
(producing the right result).##Efficiency#The use of inputs to produce outputs,
i.e., the use of system resources to achieve results. Being efficient implies the
system is operating the �right� way.##The relationship between effectiveness and
efficiency is that effectiveness is a measure of �goodness� of output, while
efficiency is a measure of the resources required to achieve the output. This
relationship is shown in below figure. Efficiency measures
Effectiveness measures The relative cost of
outputs against desired producing outputs outputs#Inputs
of#######resources Relationship of efficiency and effectivenessSYSTEM CONCEPTS
APPLIED TO MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS:Information system as a system:
The information system receives inputs of data and instructions, processes the
data according to the instructions, and outputs the results. The basic system model
of input process and output is suitable in the simplest case of an information
processing system in which all inputs come in at the same time, but this rarely
true. The information processing function frequently needs data collected and
processed in a prior period. Data storage is therefore added to the information
system model, so that the processing activity has available both current data and
data collected and stored previously ( Figure 10). When data storage is added, the
information processing function includes not only the transformation of data into
information but also the storing of data for subsequent use. This basic information
processing model is useful in understanding not only the overall information
processing system but also the individual information processing applications. Each
application may be analyzed in terms of input, storage, processing and output. The
information processing system has functional subsystems such as the hardware
system, the operating system, the communication system, and the database system. It
also has application subsystems such as order entry and billing, payroll, and
personnel.The application subsystems make use of the functional subsystems(figure �
11)The information system can be divided into five major subsystems, each of which
can be further divided. The five major subsystems are:# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####
Figure � 10 Basic information systems model
H/w Utility s/w OS data communications database
system#######Application subsystems#Order entry and billing#Payroll and personnel#
Marketing management#Inventory accounting #And management###EtcFigure � 11
functional subsystem and application subsystems in information system.
Subsystem#Description##Hardware and system software #The computer hardware and the
system software necessary for hardware operation.##Management and
administration#Planning,budgeting, staffing, training evaluation and related
management functions.##Operations#Operation of the computer facilities in
processing applications.##Applications system development and maintenance #The
development of new application systems and the maintenance of existing
systems.##Application systems#The systems which perform activities necessary to
process transactions, update data, produce output, etc.##System analysis and
design: Plan for an information system or application, development of the system
can begin the following systems concepts can be applied in the development of
information system projects:The information system is defined and overall
responsibility assigned.Major information processing subsystems are defined.
Boundaries and interfaces are carefully specified.A development schedule is
prepared.Each subsystem, when ready for development, is assigned to a project. The
project leader factors the job into subsystems and assigns responsibility for each.
The control system is used to monitor the development process.Decoupling of
information systems: Decoupling can be achieved by defining subsystems so that each
performs a single complete function; thus, connections between subsystems are
minimized.Decoupling#Application to information system design##1) inventory, buffer
or waiting line#In computer processing, the input � output systems operate at
different rates from those of the processor. A buffer memory is used to hold data
to compensate for the different rates. In human � machine systems, it is not
possible for the person to receive or send whenever the computer sends or asks for
a response. The computer is not always available to accept messages. This means
that there must be a buffer in which to store messages to allow for this
difference.In cases where prompt service is expected but there are variations in
arrival rates of people or messages, etc., to be serviced, a waiting line provides
a decoupling mechanism. For example, in a telephone information service, a waiting
line is established by asking the person on the telephone to wait until an
information operator is free to process the call.##2) Stack resources#Computer
hardware systems are generally designed with slack resources. A computer system is
rarely fully loaded with work � some hours are not scheduled. This allows the
system to handle fluctuations in processing load. The accounts receivable
department does not need to inform data processing that the number of receivable
for processing will be 25 percent above normal. The slack resources of the computer
will normally handle this input variation without strain. In human � machine
systems, human processors will be able to respond to significant short � term
variations in activity. For example, a clerk receiving payments may be able to
handle an average of 15 per hour. However, the clerk can temporarily increase
processing to handle an increased demand � say, of a doubled rate for up to one
hour.##Standards#The use of standards can eliminate or reduce the need for
communication among information subsystems. For instance, the use of documentation
standards reduces the need for communication among programmers and systems analysts
working on a project. A database normally represents a simplification of the
relations of the program to the data. A programmer does not have to consider all
the other programs communicating with the database. A standard method is provided
for accessing the database, thereby eliminating the need for close coordination
with other subsystems.##Chapter 7 CONCEPT OF INFORMATION.DEFINITION OF INFORMATION:
Information in data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to
the recipient and is of real or perceived value in current or prospective actions
or decisions.INFORMTION PRESENTATION: 1.Method that increase the sending &
efficiency of a system: Two methods for more efficiently providing
information are summarization and message routing.Within organization message
summarization is commonly utilized to reduce the amount of data transmission
required without changing the essential meaning of the original message.Formal
summarization is illustrated by accounting classification. Another method of
increasing the efficiency of the system is message routing .Any particular message
is only disturbed to those individuals or organizational units which require the
information for some action or decision.This is illustrated by the transmission of
copies of purchase orders to only those departments which take direct action based
on the information on the order. 2.Methods to exercise information content or
distribution discretion:# Methods Reason for use#
Message delay To avoid overload To
distort,inhibit,or suppress Transmission Message
modification To modify by summarization or filtering
To block certain data by filtering Uncetanity absorption To reduce
data transmission Presentation bias To bias by order and
grouping in data Presentation.
To bias by selection of limits that determine whether items are
presented.#To bias by selection of graphics layout.QUALI TY OF INFORMATION:
I.Utility of information: He identifies four information utilities:Form
utility:-As the form of information more closely matches the requirements of the
decision maker, its value increases.Time utility:-Information has greater value to
the decision maker if iot is available when needed.Place utility:-Information has
greater value if it can be accessed or delivered easily.Online system maximize both
time &place utility.possession utility:-The possesser of information strongly
affects its value by controlling its dissemination to others.If the cost of
acquiring information exceeds its value there are two alternatives: 1.Increase
its value by increasing accuracy and/or increasing utilities. 2.Reduce
its cost by decreasing accuracy and.or reducing utilities.II.Information
satisfaction: One substitute measure for the utility of information in decision
making is information satisfication,the degree to which the decision maker is
satisfied with the output of the formal information system.III.Error &bias:Bias is
caused by the ability of individuals to exercise receiver discretion in
information presentation.If the bias of the presenter is known to the receiver of
the information he /she can make adjustments.the problem is to detect the bias;the
adjustment is generally fairjy simple. Error is a more serious problem because
there is no simple adjustment for it.Error may be a result of: 1.Incorrect data
measurement and collection methods. 2.Failure to follow correct
processing procedures. 3.Loss or nonprocessing of data. 4.Wrong recording or
correcting of data.5.Incorrect history file.6.Mistake in processing procedure.
7.Delibrate falsification. The difficulties with errors may be overcome by:
1.Internal control to detect errors. 2.Internal and external
auditing. 3.Addititon of �confidence limits� to data. 4.User
instruction in measurement and processing procedures,so users can
evaluate possible errors.AGE OF INFORMATION: Two types of data are defined:
1.Conditional data which pertains to a point in time such as December 31.
An example is the inventory at 12/31/84 as reported on the balance
sheet . 2.Operating data which reflects changes
over a period of time.Examples are inventory used during a onth or
sales for a week. An information interval(i) is defined as the interval between
reports.For weekly Reports,the information interval in one week;for monthly
reports,one month.The Processing deleay(d) is defined as the processing delay
between the end of the Information interval and the issuance of the
report for use.APPLICATION OF INFORMATION CONCEPTS TO INFORMATION SYSTEM DESIGN:
1.Information has surprise value. 2.Information reduces uncertainty.
3.Redudancy is useful for error control of communication. 4.Information only
has value if it changes a decision. 5.Not all data that is communicated has
information value. CONCEPTS OF ORGANISATIONAL PLANNING:Planning is an ongoing
organizational function that provides the framework for operational activities and
decision making.Setting of Goals and Objectives:Term#Definition and
example##Mission#Broad statement of the purpose of the organization. �To provide a
high � quality product and convenient customer service�.##Goals #General statement
of what is to be accomplished. �Reduce tiem to respond to service request without
increasing number of service personnel.�##Strategies#General approaches to
achieving goals. �Improve procedures for handling service requests; provide
procedures for reducing time required at each site.�##Objectives#Statement of
measurable results to be achieved. �Reduce average time from request to completion
of service call�.##Plans and budgets #Schedule of specific activities and actions
to achieve objectives. �Revise service call request procedures; revise servicing
procedures to improve use of diagnostic tools.�##Policy#Limits to acceptable
behaviour expres ethical and moral values, decision limits, and standards. �System
interfaces shall be designed to enhance and enrich the job performed by users.�##
Hierarchy of planning:Level of management#Anthony framework#Definition##Strategic
planning#Same#What function will the organization serve and what will it be like in
future (five years and beyond)? Strategic plan should include business to be in,
market it should sell to, etc.##Tactical planning#Management control #Physical
implementation of strategic plans(one to five years. Reflected in capital
expenditure budget and long � range staffing plan.##Operations Planning#Operations
Control#Allocation of tasks to each organizational unit in order to achieve
objectives of tactical plan (one to twelve months). Yearly budget.##Scheduling and
dispatching#-#Assign specific units of organizational activity to achieve
operational objectives(immediately).##The planning process:Planning is a
significant activity for management and many other positions in the organization,
but it is frequently neglected. The reasons for the neglect of an activity
recognized as very important center around four characteristics of planning as a
human activity.Planning is a very difficult cognitive activity. It is hard mental
work. Because of the cognitive strain involved in doing planning work. People avoid
planning.Planning makes evident the uncertainty of future events. By making
explicit of the various uncertainties, the future may appear more uncertain after
planning than before. There is a human tendency to avoid uncertainty, and this may
be reflected in planning avoidance. Planning reduces perceived freedom of action.
When plans are made, individuals are committed to a narrower range of actions than
when no formal plans are made.Planning is a very intensive effort, and it is
difficult, given the nature of managerial work, to take the time for planning. This
is one reason that organizations have retreats where all other activities are shut
out in order to concentrate on planning.Planning is computationally tedious. Each
change in planning assumptions affects other figures in the plans. Analysis of past
data and current expectations requires significant computational work. The
popularity of planning software reflects the need for computational assistance in
planning.Plans are often made and then ignored. One reason they may be ignored is
that they don�t represent real agreement. However, if they are ignored, people
become reluctant to be involved in planning.Quantifying and Classifying
Expectations:Statistical methods: Trends, projections, correlation analysis, and
sampling provide expectations based on statistical analysis of historical data.
These methods are surveyed later in the chapter.Objective analysis of value and
priority: Where quantitative measures of value are available, they can often be
applied to alternatives to arrive at priorities for use in planning. Examples are
rate of return computation for revenue � marginal cost analysis for expenditures
such as advertising.Judgment: Judgment is used to formulate expectations in cases
where there are no statistical or other quantitative bases for forecasting.The
reliability of planning data is influenced by such factors as the following:Source
of data: Data from outside sources will receive different evaluations by different
planners because of uncertainty as to its quality. Etc.Influence of plan on
outcome: Some plans, such as an appropriation type of budget, have a strong
determining influence on the outcome itself, i.e., units spend whatever is
budgeted.Intended accuracy: Planning estimates do not require a uniform standard of
accuracy since certain figures are more critical than others. For example, an error
of 50 percent in the calculation of the cost of office pencils for the budget
period is not nearly so serious as a 50 percent error in the cost of raw materials.
Time: The predictability of future events generally decreases with the prediction
time span. When the forecast period is extended, the planning data tends to become
less accurate as an expression of what is to be expected.Expenditure
classification#Examples##Object of expenditure #The classes of items being
purchased, e.g., salaries, supplies, travel.##Reason for expenditure(functions,
activities, or programs)# Examples of functions are manufacturing or marketing.
Examples of programs (say, for a government) are health care, sanitation and
protection.##Outputs#Output classification for, say an appliance manufacturer might
be based on end products such as refrigerators and washing machines .##Organization
unit.Cost behavior.#Departments and other organizational units.Classification by
variability with changes in activity and by controllability by management.##Sources
of planning data: Data banks should be considered instead of direct data collection
when the following conditions apply( assuming the appropriate databank is
available)The body of information is large and expensive to collect.The databank
requires frequent, expert updating.A large databank, or an unpredictable subset of
one, is needed only on an infrequent or adhoc basis.No competitive advantage will
be lost, nor any significant security risk incurred, by relying on an outside
source.Technique#Description##Scenario writing#Individuals are asked to write
scenarios of events they think may occur. These represent a set of plausible future
events that the organization should consider in its planning.##Simulation#The
effect of external events is simulated. Examples are the effect of a change in age
distribution of the population, the effect of changes in worldwide interest rates,
etc.##Cross impact analysis#The impact on the organization of events in one of the
environments is estimated. Environments are social, political, physical,
technological, and institutional � legal. For example, estimate the impact of a
change in import policy in the Common Market on demand for company
products.##Econometric model#If the organization has an econometric model that
estimates demand for its products or services and costs, environmental scanning
will look for environmental changes affecting the factors in the mode. For example,
if construction activity is an important variable, then factors affecting interest
rates are of concern##Input � output analysis#The effects of activities or changes
in one sector of the economy are traced to other sectors. For example, if the price
of oil is increased, the cost effect can be traced to all sectors using oil or oil
� based products.##Delphi projection#Those concerned with estimating the future are
asked to specify their projections. The projections are summarized, and
participants are asked whether they wish to revise their estimates based on the
average estimate. The process may go through several iterations in order to find
areas of consensus or reasons for differences in projections.##MANAGEMENT OF IS
RESOURCESManagement of Human ResourceAs IT industries are mostly knowledge based,
the human resources working in IT industries are knowledge oriented. So, the
management of these human resources becomes more difficult than the traditional
management of human resources.Usually in most of the IT companies� people work in a
team of five to ten to develop a product or project. All the team members will be
equally competent and qualified.One among the team members will head this team of
five to ten technical members. The team head is commonly known as Team Leader.
Project Manager will head this entire team along with team leader.As Project
manager is the top-level head of the team, he is the only person responsible for
the successful working of the concerned team.The Project manager must provide work
environment that is conductive to every team member.Each team member must have
degree of freedom in decision-making particular to his or her job responsibility.
Project manager should identify the expertise of each team members and utilize the
team members according to their level of experience.Project manager must influence
each
team members for willingly achieving the overall objective of the organization.In
order to cope up the changing technology team members must be trained in the latest
technologies.Individual goals must be made to synchronize with the goals of the
organization.Therefore, the management of human resource of the IT Company has a
profound effect on the performance and normal operation of the organization.
Management of Hardware and Software ResourceHardwareData storageMicroprocessors
Input and OutputBatch and Online#Historical data analysis techniques: Historical
data is analyzed to discover patterns or relations that will be useful in
projecting the future values of significant variables.Historical Extrapolation
Techniques: Historical data describes the past, but planning involves the future.
Estimating is generally based on analysis of past history combined with various
techniques to generate data for planning purposes.Financial planning Computations:
Depreciation: It is a significant computation in most financial planning. It
affects profit computations because it is an expense, and it affects cash flow
because of its impact on taxes. There are several methods for computing
depreciation, all of which should be available to the planner. These methods are
straight � line, double � declining � balance, sum � of � the � year�s � digits,
and production or use � basis.Rate of return analysis is a method for computing the
profitability of an investment, taking into account the timing of the investment
and the cash flows stemming from the investment. There are several methods for
computing the rate of return which should be a part of the planning model.Break �
even analysis is a fairly simple but very useful computation for determining the
volume of activity at which there is no loss or profit. In evaluating alternatives,
two situations may have identical expected profits, but the one with a lower break
� even point is to be preferred.Characteristics of control processes:Control
consists of procedures to determine deviations from plans and indicate corrective
action. Every major organizational function has a set of controls associated with
it.Control in Systems: The basic model of a system as inputs, process, and outputs,
didn�t include regulation and control of the system. For control purposes, a
feedback loop is added to the basic model. In its simplest form, outputs from the
systems are compared with the desired output(standard), and any difference causes
an input to be sent to the process to adjust the operations so that output will be
closer to the standard.########## Input Output Feed back control for a
systemFeedback, which seeks to dampen and reduce fluctuations around the standards,
is termed negative feedback. It is used in feedback control loops. Positive
feedback reinforces the direction in which the system is moving. In other words,
positive feedback causes the system to repeat or amplify an adjustment or action.2)
Negative feedback control:Negative feedback control in a system means keeping the
system operating within certain limits of performance. For example, an automated
production system is in control if inputs of material and energy are converted to
output of produced items using a standard amount of material and energy and with
the percentage of defective items falling within allowable limits.# SHAPE \*
MERGEFORMAT ####Negative Feedback control elementsLaw of Requisite variety:The law
of requisite variety means that for a system to be controlled, every controller
must be provided with a) enough control responses to cover all possible conditions
the system may face, b) decision rules for generating all possible control
responses, c) the authority to become a self � organizing system in order to
generate control responses.THE BASIC MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE:1)Hierarchy
of authority: Authority is evidenced by control over resources, rewards, and tasks,
and authorization to make decisions regarding them. As a rule, authority is
distributed according to the level in the hierarchy; i.e., the higher the level of
a position, the greater its authority. Each position has span of control. This
describes the number of immediate subordinates that a manager is to supervise.
Figure � 1# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####Figure � 1 Basic hierarchical organization
with functional specialization In figure � 2 On the top, a �tall� hierarchy
results from narrow spans of control at each level. On the bottom, a �flat�
hierarchical structure is shown with the chief executive having a very wide span of
control.2) Specialization: Specialization refers to the division of labor within
the organization. A typical organization is divided along functional lines (e.g.
marketing, production, accounting, etc.), which encourages specialization within
each function (figure � 1). Generally, there are two different ways in which tasks
can be divided and assigned. The first is to give broadly trained specialists a
comprehensive range of activities to perform;# SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT ####Effective
of span of control on structure.The second is to subdivide the activities into
small, well � specified tasks that nonspecialists can be easily trained to perform.
Examples of the former are professionals and craft workers; the latter is
exemplified by an assembly � line occupation.There are several important reasons
for this functional specialization:The two functions require different training and
expertise. An analyst needs different skills and training than an operator.b)
Segregating the two functions improves internal control because the design of
procedures is separated from their execution. If the person who designs and
implements an application also operates it, there is more opportunity for fraud or
unauthorized changes in executing the procedures.Formalization: The degree of
formalization is the extent to which rules and procedures exist to handle
organizational activities. One indication of formalization is the degree to which
decisions for handling various situations are programmed, i.e., decision rules are
specified in advance. The more formalized the organization, the less discretion
individual organization members have in making decisions.4) Centralization:
Organizational centralization generally refers to the level in the organization
where decision-making occurs. In a highly centralized organization, most decision-
making occurs at the top of the hierarchy; the more decision � making authority is
delegated to lower levels, the greater the decentralization.A flat hierarchy with a
wide span of control is more likely to be associated with decentralization of
authority and decision-making.In a highly formalized organization, operating
personnel at low levels make decisions based on rules and procedures provided to
them; exceptions are referred to higher levels for decisions.Lateral Relations:
Organizational methods for reconciling the functional organization with product or
service objectives are termed lateral relations.Organizational Learning:
Organizational learning is the process by which an organization identifies action �
outcome relationships, identifies and corrects errors, stores the experience in
organizational personnel who teach new employees, and stores the experience in
procedures, forms, systems, rules, computer programs, and other forms for
transferring experience. In other words, it exhibits adaptive behavior. For
example, a new employee in the data entry function is instructed in entry
procedures plus error control and error handling procedures.Concepts of
sociotechnical design:A sociotechnical approach to organizational change has been
defined as one which recognizes organizations as purposive entities which have a
variety of goals and which, in order to survive, and have to interact successfully
with their surrounding social and business environments. Viewing organizations as
sociotechnical systems requires making explicitly the interrelationships between
the subsystems in the Leavitt model. Specifically, it focuses on human as well as
technical and organizational objectives in effecting organizational change.
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE IMPLICATIONS FOR INFORMATIONConcept#Implications for
information systems##Hierarchy of authority#A tall hierarchy with narrow span of
control may mean that more formal control information is needed by upper levels
than a flat hierarchy with wide span of control##Specialization#Information system
applications are specialized to fit the specialization of the
organization.##Formalization#Information systems are a major method for increasing
formalization.##Centralization#Information systems can be assigned to suit any
level of centralization.##Modification of basic model #Information systems can be
designed to support product or service organization, project organization, lateral
relations, and matrix organization.##Information model of
organisation#Organizational mechanisms reduce the need for information processing
and communication. Vertical information systems are an alternative to lateral
relations. Information systems are used to coordinate lateral
activities.##Organizational culture#Organizational culture affects information
requirements and system acceptance.##Organizational power#Organizational power
affects organizational behavior during information system planning, resource
allocation, and implementation. Computer systems can be an instrument of
organizational power through access to information.##Organizational growth cycle
#Information systems may need to change for different stages of growth.##Goal
displacement#When identifying goals during requirements determination, care should
be taken to avoid displaced goals.##Organizational learning#Suggests
need for information system design for both efficiency measures to promote single
loop learning and effectiveness measures for double loop learning.##Project model
of organizational change #Describes general concept for managing change with
information system projects.##Case for stable systems#Establish control over
frequency of information system changes.##Systems that promote organizational
change#Reporting critical change variables or relationships and use of multiple
channels in a semi confusing system may be useful for promoting responses to a
changing environment.##Organizations as sociotechnical systems #Provides approach
to requirements determination and job design when both social and technical
considerations are involved.##STRATEGIES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF INFORMATION
REQUIREMENTSA STRATEGY APPROACH TO THE DETERMINATION OF INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
There are four major reasons it is difficult to obtain a correct and complete
set of requirements :The constraints on humans as information processors and
problem solvers.The variety and complexity of information requirements.The complex
patterns of interaction among users and analysts in defining requirements.
Unwillingness of same users to provide requirements.THE THREE LEVELS OF INFORMATION
REQUIREMENTSThere are three levels at which information requirements need to be
established in order to design and implement computer based information systems.
Organization-level information requirementsInformation requirements determination
at the organization or enterprise level is a key element in developing an
information system master plan. Often termed enterprise analysis, the process of
organization-level information requirements determination obtains, organizes and
documents a complete set of high level requirements.Database RequirementsDatabase
requirements arise both from applications and ad hoc queries. The overall
architecture for the databases to meet these requirements can be defined as part
of organizational information requirements. The process of obtaining and organizing
more detailed database requirements can be divided into defining data requirements
as perceived by the users and defining requirements for physical design of the
databases. The process of obtaining and organizing more detailed database
requirements can be divided into defining data requirements as perceived by the
users and defining data requirements for physical design of the databases. User
requirements are referred to as conceptual or logical requirements because the user
views of data are separated from the organization of data in physical storage.
Application-Level Information RequirementsAn application is a subsystem of the
overall information system structure; it provides information processing for an
organizational unit or an organizational activity. There are essentially two types
of information system application requirements social and technical. The social or
behavioral requirements, based on job design, specify objectives and assumptions
such as the following :Work organization design objectives.Individual role
assumptions.Responsibility assumptions.Organization policies.The technical
requirements are based on the information needed for the job or task to be
performed. They specify outputs, inputs, stored data, and information processes. A
significant part of the technical requirements are associated with the structure
and format of data.STRATEGIES FOR DETERMINING INFORMATION REQUIREMENTSAsking#Asking
method Description Conditions suggesting use#Closed questions
Each question has a When set of factual response are known or
defined set of possible respondent may not be able to recall all
answers from which the possibilities. Analyst must know all possible
respondent selects. responses.Open questions No answers
provided. When feelings or opinions are important or Respondent is
allowed when respondent has knowledge and ability to formulate response.
to formulate responses.Brainstorming Group method for eliciting Used
to extend boundaries of problem space wide variety of suggestions of
participants and elicit nonconventional by open flow of ideas. solutions.
Guided Participants are asked to Used to guide brainstorming to �ideal�
brainstorming define ideal solutions and solutions. Useful where
participants have then select the best feasible system knowledge, but may be
locked into an ideal solution. The IDEALS anchoring and adjustment behavior.
method is an example.Group consensus The participants are asked Used
to arrive at �best� judgmental for their estimates or estimate of
variables that are difficult or expectations regarding impossible to estimate
quantitatively. Significant variables. Delphi method and group norming are
examples.#Deriving from an Existing Information SystemExisting information system
that have an operational history can be used to derive requirements for a proposed
information system for the same type of organization or application. The types of
existing information systems that are useful in deriving requirements for future
systems are :Existing system that will be replaced by the new system.Existing
system in another, similar organization.Proprietary system or package.Description
in textbooks, handbooks, industry studies, etc.Synthesis from Characteristics of
the Utilizing SystemNormative analysis methods are based on the fundamental
similarity of classes of object systems. For example, all billing applications
perform a set of basic functions that can be prescribed in advance.Strategy set
transformation is a methodology primarily for describing organization-level
information requirements from the objectives of the organization. For example, if
an organizational objective is to improve profits and the selected strategy is to
change the sales mix to a larger proportion of higher gross margin products, the
information system requirement derived from this objective is a gross margin
analysis application.In the critical factors analysis approach, information
requirements are derived from the critical factors for operating and managing an
enterprise. There is therefore a two step process of eliciting the critical factors
and then deriving information requirements. An example of critical analysis is the
Critical Success Factors (CSF) method. The analyst asks users to define the factors
that are critical to success in performing their functions or making decisions.
Process analysis is another approach to the synthesis of requirements. The idea
underlying this approach is that business processes are the basis for information
system support. Processes remain relatively constant over time, and the
requirements derived from the process will reflect the nontransient needs of the
organization. An example of a process-based methodology is Business Systems
Planning (BSP).Ends-means analysis is a technique for determining requirements
based on systems theory. The technique can be used to determine information
requirements at the organizational, departmental, or individual manager level. The
technique separates definition of ends or outputs generated by an organizational
process from the means used to accomplish them. The ends or output from one process
is the input to some other process. For example, the inventory process provides a
part to the production process, the accounting process provides budget information
for other organizational processes, and the marketing process products to customer
processes.The decision analysis method for information requirements determination
is performed by the following steps :Identify and prescribe the decision.Define the
decision algorithm or decision process. Various documentation methods may be used.
Examples are decision flowcharts, decision tables, and decision trees.Define
information needed for the decision process.The sociotechnical analysis approach
consists of 2 parts : social analysis and technical analysis. The social analysts
determines system requirements relative to the social, human interaction system of
the organization. These requirements include system design features and
implementation procedures. The social analysis is performed by studying patterns of
social interaction and group behavior in the current system.Input-process-output
analysis is a system approach. A system is defined in terms of its inputs, outputs,
and transformation processes for receiving inputs and producing outputs. The
approach starts in a top-down fashion on an object system. Subsystems of the object
system are analyzed to subdivide them into smaller subsystems, etc., until
information processing activities are defined as separate activities within a
subsystem. Example is data flow diagrams.SELECTING A STRATEGY FOR DETERMINING
INFORMATION REQUIREMENTSIdentifying the Characteristics of Elements in the
Development Process that Affect Uncertainty#Elements in characteristics
that reduce characteristics that increasedevelopment reduce uncertainty
uncertaintyprocess#Utilizing system Stable, well-defined system
not in Unstable, poorly understood system process of change.
in process of change. Programmed activities or
Nonprogrammed activities or decisions.
decisions.Information system Traditional, simple set of Complex or
unusual set of requirements. requirements.
Clerical support system. Management support system.Users
One or few users. Many users. High user system
experience. Low user system experience.Analysts Trained and experienced
with Little prior training or experience similar information
system. With similar information system.#Evaluating the Effect of the
Characteristics on Process UncertaintyThe characteristics of the four elements in
the development process
affect the uncertainty of determining the information requirements by affecting
three process uncertainties: Uncertainty with respect to existence and stability of
a usable set of requirements.Uncertainty with respect to users ability to specify
requirements.Uncertainty with respect to analyst�s ability to elicit requirements
and evaluate their correctness and completeness.Evaluating the Combined Effect of
the Process Uncertainties on Overall Requirements UncertaintyEvaluate the effect of
characteristics of the four elements on the three process uncertainties.Evaluate
the three process uncertainties to arrive at an estimated overall level of
requirements process uncertainties. Selecting a Primary Strategy for Determining
Requirements and One or More MethodsUncertainty StrategyLow Asking
## Deriving from an existing system
Synthesis from characteristics of utilizing systemHigh Discovering
from experimentation DATABASE REQUIREMENTSDATABASES AND DATABASE
MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS The database is central to a management information system.
Although the term �database� is often used to refer any data available for
information processing or retrieval operations, the term implies a particular
structuring of the data, both conceptually and in physical storage.The Database
Approach There are three classes of users who interact with database management
systems. There are languages and instruction procedures appropriate for each of
them :The nonprogramming user � User who is not writing a program to use the
database. Usually an analyst or end user with special training. Programs ad hoc
queries and reports using a database query language.The programming user � An
applications programmer who does the analysis and programming of applications. Uses
special database interface instructions to program application access to the
database through the database management system. The instruction call the database
management system to request data, perform updates, etc. The programming user can
also use the database query language for special assignments.The database
administrator (DBA) � The DBA uses special instructions and facilities of the
database management system to define, create, redefine, and restructure the
database and to implement integrity controls.(REFER PAGE 503 � FIGURE 16-1)DATA
MODEL CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY Database design can be divided into three
phases :#Phase Description#Requirements determination
Determination of the data requirements of individual users and applications.
Conceptual (logical) design Integration of the individual user and application
views into an overall conceptual view that resolves view conflicts. There are two
parts to this phase : an unconstrained or natural conceptual design and a
conceptual design constrained for a particular DBMS.Physical design Translating
the conceptual design into physical storage structures.#Review of Definitions
Data modeling is the process of abstraction and documentation using a data
model.Aggregation identifies data items as parts of a higher level, more aggregate
descriptor. For example, project number is associated with a project which is part
of an assignment.Generalization creates categories into which a data item may be
classified. For example, employees may be categorized as to age, type of job, type
of pay plan, etc. Examples of generalization of employees by type of job are
secretaries, truck drivers, and salespersons.(REFER PAGE 508 � FIGURE 16-3)# Term
Definition#Entity Any type of �thing� about which information is
maintained. A more formal definition is �a category, arbitrarily defined so that
membership within the category can be established.Attribute A characteristic
of an entity.Instance A specific instance of an entity or relationship. Consists
of a set of values for attributes of an entity or relationship.Relationship
Association between entities.Identifiers Set of attributes which uniquely
identify an instance of an entity or relationship.#Constraints Constraints define
conditions that must be met for the data to be complete and correct. Three major
types of constraints are on values, dependencies, and referential integrity.#
Constraint Description#Values The allowable, valid values for
attributes may be stated as a list, a range, types of characters, etc. for example,
values may be 1, 2, or 3 only range from 0 to 60, or be numeric only.Dependencies
The allowable values for attributes may depend on some other value. For
example, the allowable values for an employee skill classification are determined
by the allowable skills that are part of the employee�s department. An employee�s
eligibility for overtime pay is dependent on his or her employee status code.
Referential integrity Entities and relationships often have reference conditions
that must be met. For example, there may be existence dependencies, in which for
one entity to exist, a second entity must also exist. An illustration of this is a
sales order for an order to exist, there must be a customer.#Schemas and Mappings
External schema or user schema is the user�s view of a part of the database.
Conceptual schema is the overall logical view of the database.Internal schema or
data storage definition is the way the data is physically organized in storage.
(REFER PAGE 512 � FIGURE 16-6)Anticipatory Development Strategy The data
requirements in the conceptual data modeling strategy are developed from a
description of the entities and relationships among entities in the organization or
other object system requiring databases. The graphic approach is the entity-
relationship (E-R) model usually associated with Chen; the sentence-predicate
calculus approach is Nijssen�s information analysis.USER INTERFACE REQIUREMENTS
CLASSIFICATION OF USERSDevelopers versus Non developers System developers
are those who develop information processing applications and tools for use by
others workers whereas end users are workers who input, manipulate or retrieve
information using the applications and tools.Novices versus experts A novice who
is unfamiliar with both the system�s specific syntax and generalizable (semantic)
knowledge about use of computers should be able to get explanations or assistance
through the system.Occasional versus frequent users A frequent user will become
more expert, particularly in syntactic knowledge, than an occasional one. An
occasional user will probably use the system for ad hoc, non repetitive processing.
A system receiving frequent use is more likely to be used fro routine, repetitive
activities. Occasional users therefore need to be able to refresh their knowledge
of system functions and commands. Commands that use words common to the user and
formats that are fairly aid in this recall and refreshing of memory. The occasional
user has a significant need for online assistance, manuals that have comprehensive
indexes, and examples of command use. Frequent users use are more willing to learn
and use �unnatural� commands and command structures.Primary versus secondary users
A primary user is one who benefits from the system�s output, while a
secondary user is responsible fro input into the system and sometimes for output
but does not use the output directly in his or her job.DIVISION OF FUNCTIONS
BETWEEN USER AND SYSTEM A system should be designed so that the user controls the
interaction rather than the system. In the long run, a system that is designed well
from the user�s point of view will result in increased overall performance.
INTERACTIVE USER DIALOG The dialog between user and machine can follow many
different structures: command languages, menus, forms, graphics and natural
language.Command languages A command language generally has a specified format
fro each command. Typically, a command to perform an operation is followed by one
or more arguments that specify the details fro it. For instance, there may be a
command to rename a file. The user specifies the command RENAME followed by the
user-defined current file name and the new file name. Two methods are commonly
used: Keyword. The user specifies keywords for the arguments: RENAME
OLD=TEXTFIL2 NEW=TEXTFIL3 Position. The meaning of the arguments is determined
by their position: RENAME TEXTFIL2 TEXTFIL3 The advantage of the
keyword format is that the user does not have to remember the order of the
arguments, whereas in the position format the order is significant and must be
memorized.Menus With the menu format, the user is shown a list of options,
usually numbered, and is expected to chose the appropriate option by positioning a
cursor or by keying the associated number. A series of menus allows the user to
step through a series of hierarchical levels of increasing specificity. The
advantage of a well-designed menu is that it provides a familiar format and a clear
set of choices which are well understood by the user. Menus therefore require less
training to use than command languages. One important feature of a menu structure
is the capability of backtracking to a higher or of returning to the highest level
and starting over. Another useful feature is to refer to similar commands by
similar numbers. One of the major drawbacks to menu selection is its inefficiency
for the expert user who wants to go directly to a specific command.Forms In a
forms-based interface design, the user �fills in the blanks� on a screen. This type
of interface dialog is particularly appropriate for data entry of transactions. The
design and programming of screen dialog can be time consuming and difficult is
performed using procedural languages such as COBOL.Icons, Graphs, and Color
Graphical symbols commonly called icons may be used in system dialog instead
of
menus or command languages. A workstation display may show a menu of icons: a
desk, an in box, an out box, a file cabinet, a wastebasket. Graphics interfaces
have had limited use in database query systems via a method known as spatial data
management.The ability to combine graphics with color provides potential for
enhancing communication. Color can be used to highlight a particular aspect of a
cluttered display, highlight a change, or separate information categories. Color
is especially valuable in tasks involving identification, searching, and counting.
Natural Language The development of natural language interfaces is generally
considered part of the domain of artificial intelligence. The goal is for a novice
user to communicate with the computer through a natural language such as English.
The ultimate objective is for computers to be able to understand natural language
in the spoken voice, which would make many of the interface designs. Natural
language systems now being developed are �restricted natural language� systems.
That is, they are based on a limited domain of inquiry and contain a data
dictionary of words and meanings referencing that limited domain. Several other
drawbacks to the practical implementation of natural language systems should be
noted: ( The creation of a dictionary and grammar for a particular application
is very labor-intensive and the finished product is tied to the particular database
and database management system in use. This work must be redone every time the
system is installed on a new database. ( One of the advantages of a database
is that it can be changed easily. This requires new words to be understood by the
natural language interface that were not in its original vocabulary. The interface
needs to evolve over time through additions to and changes in its grammar and data
dictionary, a problem which is presently difficult . (A computer system is
deterministic and relatively closed, even with a natural language interface.
Therefore, it can give a literal answer which may actually be misleading.ALTERNATE
INTERACTION MECHANISMSDirect Manipulation systems Termed direct manipulation
systems, they are characterized by the following: (Visibility of the
object of interest (Rapid reversible actions
(Replacement of a command language by direct manipulation of the object of
interest. The system encourages the user to explore its more
QUALITY ASSURANCE AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMSTHE CONCEPT OF QUALITY IN
INFORMATION SYSTEMS Quality is defined as excellence or fitness. It is not an
absolute concept; it is defined within a context. The following are some of the
characteristics included in the concept of quality in information systems :#
Information System Implementation of Quality ConceptsQuality
Characteristic#Complete data All data items are captured and stored for use. Data
items are properly identified with time periods.Accurate data
The correct data values are recorded.Precise data
Measurement of variables meets user needs for precision.Understandable
The output of the system is understandable to the users.Timely output
The output of the application is available in time for actions and decisions.
Relevant output The outputs are relevant to the actions and decisions to be
taken.Meaningful output The format, labeling, data provided, and context in which
data is presented makes the output meaningful for actions and decision making.User
friendly operation The system provides user interfaces that are understandable
and designed to conform to human capabilities.Error resistant operations
Suitable error prevention and detection procedures are in place. There are
procedures for reporting and correcting errors. Various audit procedures are
applied.Authorized use Only authorized personnel have access to facilities,
applications, and data.Protected system and operations The system and its
operations are protected from various environmental and operational risks. There
are provisions for recovery in the event of failure or destruction of part or all
of the system.#ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS FOR CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCETop
Management Information System Control and Quality Assurance DutiesThe role of top
management in information system quality control is to establish the overall
organization structure, select the information system executive, approve the
information system plan and budget, and evaluate performance. Some examples of top
management duties are :Establish domain of responsibility and authority of
information systems function.Select information systems executive.Approve the
information system charter, the information system long-range plan, and the yearly
budget.Approve major hardware and software systems.Approve major applications.
Review results against plan and evaluate information system performance.Review and
approve information system procedures for quality assurance and control.Information
Systems Management Control and Quality Assurance DutiesThe information systems
executive has the responsibility for organizing and supervising the various control
and quality assurance activities in information systems. Examples of duties are :
Establish and supervise quality assurance procedures for applications developed in-
house or obtained as packages.Establish and supervise various information system
control functions.Establish
and monitor procedures to measure and report evidence of quality errors, downtime,
reruns, application repair maintenance, etc.Information System Control and Quality
Assurance FunctionsLibrarian � This function maintains custody of programs, files,
and documentation. These resources are issued based on an unauthorized schedule of
use or special authorization. The custodial activities include record keeping.
Proceeding control � This includes logging in and checking input, checking progress
of jobs, reconciling control information for applications, checking output and
distributing it to authorized recipients, maintaining error logs, and following up
an error correction.Access control - This function is responsible for control of
physical access to the installation and control of access through terminals. Duties
include follow up on violations of system access rules.Database administration �
This includes control over access to and use of the database, enforcement of data
integrity rules, and establishment and enforcement of standards.Backup and recovery
� This function is responsible for preparing backup copies of programs, files, and
databases, etc.Application development quality assurance � This function includes
review of controls planned for an application and review of adequacy of testing
during development.User Control and Quality Assurance DutiesUsers have quality
assurance duties as participants in application and database development and
maintenance. There are also special control and quality assurance considerations
when users develop their own systems.User quality assurance duties require
knowledge of context of data, user participation in both input and output, and the
organizational control principle of separation of functions. Knowledge of context
means that users are able to identify invalid data because it does not fit or is
not responsible. This ability represents situation-dependent data validation
because the validation criteria may not be formulated until the user is faceted
with the specific invalid instance.When a user prepares input for a batch system
and also receives the output, this is one basis for quality control duties. For
instance, the user may develop a control total of input data provided to data
processing and check control totals on output against the input control total. The
user may check output with other data such as checking the total on a listing of
accounts receivable with the accounting ledger total for accounts receivable.
The division of function is manifest in :Requirements that a transaction in
error be returned to the initiating area rather than being corrected by data
processing.Policy that data processing may not initiate transactions or master file
changes.User controls and user control duties in applications.QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR
APPLICATIONSConditions for Quality AssuranceThe organizational commitment to
quality in the results of information processing is not merely a statement of
support; quality assurance requires extra effort and extra expense both in
development and in operation. However, there are significant differences in quality
requirements among applications.Information processing discipline is an element in
overall organizational discipline. The term �discipline� is used in the sense of
diligently following established procedures. It implies an acceptance of the need
for careful attention to quality, and procedures for input, output, and error
handling. It is transmitted to new employees by training, supervision, and example.
Redundancy in information processing consists of an extra element, process, or
procedure that would not be required if there were complete assurance that the data
and procedures were without error. Some examples of redundancy in computer data
processing are :Parity bit to detect errors in electronic circuitry or data
communication lines.Longitudinal parity bit (check characters) on magnetic tape
blocks to detect and correct errors.Quality Assurance in Application DevelopmentThe
development cycle is designed to support quality assurance in terms of developing a
system that meets requirements. Some quality processes are :Information
requirements determination processes to ensure complete and correct requirements.
Sign-offs at each phase of development to assure adequate review and agreement on
the system to that point.Program development procedures for quality control. These
include structured design, structured programming, independent review of program
logic, and program testing.Conventional installation testing.Post audit evaluation.
Application Design for QualityApplications designed with high regard for quality
assurance in operation tend to have low error rates are the following :Design of
input documents and screens to elicit input in natural sequences with labels,
boxes, and menus that clearly identify what is to be input.Expanded echo of input
data to provide opportunity for visual verification.Maintenance of Application
QualityFor information system applications, the negative entropy is application
maintenance; this refers to either repairs of errors or enhancements. If repairs
are not made, users lose confidence in the system and fail to use it or provide
inputs. If enhancements are not made, users may switch to alternative sources of
information. The process of maintenance follows a cycle of identification,
analysis, performing change, and testing. The identification of errors and proposed
enhancements is crucial to the maintenance of system quality.Maintenance of Data
QualityThe principle of entropy also applied to stored data. The maintenance of
data quality requires continuous inputs of resources. In assessing the
establishment of databases, an important factor to be considered is the probability
that the integrity of the data can be maintained. The ability of an organization to
maintain data quality depends on both organizational factors and data factors.
Length of error-effect cycle � If errors have an immediate effect, organizational
resources will be applied more readily than if the effect of error is longer term.
Errors in the billing file are therefore more likely to receive attention than
errors in the employee information file.regularity of measurements � Data
collection that is scheduled at frequent, regular intervals is more likely to be
forgotten or done properly. A regular, weekly report of competitor intelligence
from sales staff as part of expense reports is more likely to have high integrity
than an occasional intelligence report.user-provider link � It is more difficult to
maintain high quality data when the function providing the data has no
organizational link with its users. If the data is received from an external
source, the organization cannot impose its own quality control standards.Provider
data discipline � The extent of data discipline in a function is a result of the
background, training, and culture of the function. For example, the accounting
function tends to have greater data discipline than marketing.Ease of verification
� Some data items can be easily checked by comparison with other stored data or by
comparison with physical evidence. The credits to accounts receivable are easily
verified by the debits to cash.POST AUDIT EVALUATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
APPLICATIONSEvaluation of System Value#Significant task relevance Results of
system use are directly observable. For instance, an office support system results
in improved turnaround of documents. For a decision support system, task relevance
is improved decision quality, which is often difficult to observe but sometimes
possible to approximate through users subjective estimates.Willingness to pay
Users may be asked to specify how much they are willing to pay for a specific
report or system capability. This type of estimate will be very imprecise unless it
is linked to an actual transfer price.System usage System logs may permit
measures of system use, or users may be asked to estimate their use of the system.
This is only appropriate for systems whose usage is voluntary.User information
Users are asked to rate their satisfaction with such aspects of the system
satisfaction as response time, turnaround time, vendor support, accuracy,
timeliness, format of outputs, and confidence in the system.#Technical Evaluation
The questions asked during a technical evaluation are similar to those used to
determine whether the application was technically feasible. Some examples are :Is
the data transmission rate fast enough to handle the data ?Is there sufficient
secondary storage to keep the necessary data ?Does the CPU respond to all requests
within the specified time period ?When applications are installed, subsequent
evaluation may disclose that they operate ineffectively because the technical
capabilities of the hardware or software cannot support them properly.Operational
EvaluationOperational considerations relate to whether the input data is properly
provided and the output is usable and used appropriately. Evaluation of
applications should examine how well they operate with special reference to input,
error rates, timeliness of output, and utilization.Economic EvaluationThe original
proposal for an application included an economic evaluation. In the post audit
economic evaluation, the actual costs are compared with actual benefits. The costs
can be estimated with reasonable accuracy at post audit, but many benefits may
still be difficult to measure. After making these estimates, a revised return on
investment may be calculated. The economic evaluation may be useful beyond the
specific application examined.EVALUATION OF EXISTING HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE The
purpose of evaluation of existing hardware and software is to determine if all
resources
are needed, if some resources should be replaced with improved hardware or
software, if a rearrangement of resources will improve effectiveness, or if
additional resources will increase the effectiveness of the system. Some examples
of actions resulting from performance evaluation of the existing hardware-software
system are :Addition of a new data channel or dropping a data channel not being
used.Replacement of a low-speed data channel with a high-speed channel.Addition to
main memory capacity.Change in disk storage units.Change in disk storage
organization.Change in database management software.Change in communication
network.Replacement of order entry application package.Evaluation by Use of
Performance MonitorsHardware monitors are sensing devices attached to selected
signal lines in the computer hardware to measure the presence or absence of
electrical impulses. For example, a sensor might be attached to measure the time
that the CPU is in wait state. Another sensor might measure channel activity. The
monitoring device does not affect the operation of the computer hardware. It
requires no primary storage and no CPU cycle times. The data from the sensor probes
is routed to counters.Software monitors are computer programs. They reside in main
memory and require execution time; they interrupt the program being executed to
record data about the execution. They therefore slow down the execution of the
programs they are monitoring. One approach to reduce the amount of interruption is
to sample the activities being executed rather than to measure them continuously.
Software monitors can identify particular programs or program modules within the
operating system environment. Peripheral device activity is not measured directly
but can be estimated from the CPU commands.Hardware and software monitors can be
used to detect idle resources, bottlenecks, and load imbalance.Evaluation by Use of
System Logs and Observation The system log may provide data useful for
evaluation. This is especially true of small installations which maintain simple
logs of jobs, job times, etc. An analysts of the system log may indicate problems
with reruns, variations in job running times or excessive machine failure. Some
signs of inefficient scheduling or poor operating procedures are :Processing delays
for operator to locate files, mount tapes or disks, load forms, or perform similar
functions.Excessive requirements for operator response at console.Delays caused by
lack of training in proper restart procedures when processing is interrupted.
AUDITING 0F INFORMATION SYSTEMSIndependent AuditorsA major role of independent
auditors is to attest to the fairness of financial statements. This professional
judgment is based on evidence obtained and evaluated by the auditor during an
examination.If computers are used in activities that affect the financial
statements, independent auditors must include a study of internal control in EDP
systems as part of the overall study and evaluation of internal control. This
process includes the following procedures :Preliminary phase of the review in which
an initial assessment is made of the role of computer data processing in the
preparation of financial records. A preliminary evaluation is made of the existence
of general controls over data processing and controls in applications relevant to
the audit. The assessment from the preliminary phase is the basis for planning the
completion of the review. The result may be to tentatively rely on the internal
control in data processing and proceed to complete the review or not to rely and to
collect alternative evidence.Complete the review of internal control in computer
data processing by more detailed study of controls. By interviews, checklists,
study of documentation, and observation, the auditor determines the set of controls
the company says are operating. If these controls provide a reasonable basis for
internal control, the auditor proceeds to test whether the controls are
functioning.Compliance tests of the controls. Controls may be established but not
operating or operating improperly, incorrectly, or irregularly. The purpose of the
compliance tests is to obtain evidence on how well the controls are operating. The
tests include examination of evidence of compliance such as signatures when they
are required, control total comparisons, library control records, etc.Evaluation of
the reliance that can be placed on internal EDP control and decision on the
substantive tests that need to be performed to provide evidence other than internal
control.Internal AuditorsInternal auditors are employees of the company. They
usually have a reporting relationship within the company that provides independence
from those they are auditing. Internal auditors perform control assignments, do
more detailed auditing than that performed by external auditors, and do
evaluations. Internal auditors may perform frequent testing of data processing
using software where appropriate. They may participate in post audit evaluations of
applications and periodic tests of security and backup procedures.ORGANIZATION AND
MANAGEMENT OF THE INFORMATION RESOURCES FUNCTIONTHE CHANGE FROM INFORMATION SYSTEMS
MANAGEMENT TO INFORMATION RESOURCES MANAGEMENT The management of information
systems in many organizations is experiencing a transition from computers and data-
based information processing to information as a strategic resource and to an
expanded role for information technology. This has resulted in an expanded
responsibility for the information systems executive. This expanded role is often
termed information resources management (IRM). The term usually includes the
related activities of data processing, data communications, and office automation.
The Information Resources FunctionData Processing � In a traditional information
systems environment, information resources are synonymous with data processing. In
organizations where information systems have a broader charter, data processing
continues to play a significant role.Telecommunications � traditionally, data
communications have been the responsibility of data processing operations, while
voice communications were assigned elsewhere. The advances in communication
technology support corporate-wide telecommunications capabilities that integrate
voice and data communications. Data communications are also an integral component
of both data processing and office automation applications.Office automation � this
component typically began as the word processing function under the responsibility
of office administrators who were separate from data processing.ORGANIZATION OF THE
INFORMATION RESOURCES FUNCTIONPressures for Centralized versus Decentralized
Control of Information ResourcesPressures for decentralized control :Available of
low-cost technology � Personal computers, intelligent workstations, and terminals
plus software for end-user computing permit many applications to be user-developed
that previously required centralized development and permit many tasks to be user-
operated and user-controlled that previously required centralized operation.Backing
of development work � The shortage of qualified information systems professionals
combined with increasing demand for new major applications has created a three to
five year backlog of new development in many organizations.User control over
operations � Having direct control over their own information systems operation is
very attractive to users, particularly if information systems play a measurable
role in their performance.Organizational behavior � There are psychological and
organizational behavior reasons for the accumulation of information. Some of the
reason may explain pressures for local control of information resources. These
include :Psychological value of unused information. Knowing it is there if needed
or �just in case� seems to have a positive value.Information is often gathered and
communicated to persuade. This function is most easily performed by information
systems under local control.Information use is a symbol of commitment to rational
choice. Local control of information resources thus represents local competence.
Pressures for centralized control :Staff professionalismA large development and
operation support staff provides challenging work, creates an environment of shared
expertise and learning, and provides alternative career paths. It also makes
standards for information system development and operation easier to enforce.
Corporate database control.The philosophy behind development of a corporate
database is centralized control over data accessibility, integrity, and security.
User-designed systems with their own databases are incompatible with the global
database approach.Technical competence and research.A central unit can specialize
and thus develop sufficient expertise to evaluate technologies. It can also
function as a research unit for high-risk, leading-edge pilot projects that an
individual user would not be able to undertake.Comparative cost advantage.When
extra communications costs required with decentralization are included, the net
comparative cost advantage of centralized facilities may be relatively small. Each
system must be evaluated to determine whether or not there is a cost advantage; it
cannot be assumed. The cost advantage from centralization of personnel with
technical expertise persists.Alternative Organizational Forms for Information
SystemsFUNCTIONAL INFORMATION SYSTEM ORGANIZATION#####################The most
common organizational structure for information systems is a functional
organization. Personnel are grouped by the function they perform such as
application system development and operations. The above figure shows a typical
functional
organization. The advantage of a functional organization is specialization of
personnel. In information systems, specialization is important for training and
maintaining technical competence. As the organization grows, there can be fairly
narrow specialization to meet specific technical requirements. The disadvantage is
the narrow view promoted by specialization.Centralization � Decentralization of
Systems OperationsThere are three elements of system operation that may be
centralized or decentralized : computer hardware location, computer processing
control, and location of data. There are a number of factors that may affect the
location of computer hardware :#Factors affecting location Comments#
Economies of scale for computer Historically, economies of scale strongly
favored large, centralizedcomputer equipment computers. This is no longer true.
In fact, considering communications costs as well as overhead required for
operating a large complex computer, there may be diseconomies of scale for
hardware; large, central computers may be justified by the need for speed and power
but not by lower cost per unit of processing.Integration of processing If there is
significant integration of processing performed for different locations or
functions, a central computer facility reduces the problems of incompatible
hardware interfaces.Data communication costs Data communications costs reflect
the type of processing, the configuration of equipment, and the distances between
locations. Dispersing equipment may increase or decrease communication costs
depending on all these factors.Technological expertise to support There must
be a certain level of technological expertise to support computer operations
the use of computer equipment, and the level of expertise tends to be higher
with larger, more complex hardware configurations. The large installation requires
on-site expertise; smaller installations must be assured to access to expertise
when needed.Hardware installation risk A company with a single, large hardware
installation can maintain adequate security, but the entire data processing
capacity of the organization is at risk in the event of disasters such as fire,
tornado, explosion, riot, etc. It is more difficult and costly to arrange backup
for a single large installation than for smaller ones. With multiple small
installations, work can be shifted temporarily to where there is unused capacity if
one installation is out of service.# There are a number of alternatives for
hardware location and control. The list below is arranged in approximate order from
highly decentralized to highly centralized.Distributed computer hardware with no
central control over configurations and no communications.Distributed computer
hardware with no central control over equipment configurations.Distributed computer
hardware with communications network for communicating between hardware at
different locations.Distributed computer hardware for local processing and a
central computer for larger jobs.Distributed computer hardware with communications
network controlled by a central computer that allocates jobs to local computers.
Centralized computer hardware with remote job entry stations for input/output.
Centralized computer hardware with remote terminal access to specify jobs to be
run.Centralized computer hardware with remote terminal access only for input and
output.Another aspect of system operations that can be centralized or decentralized
is storage of and access to data. As with hardware, there are a number of
alternatives for achieving central or local storage and control. They are arranged
below in approximate order from decentralized to centralized.Each distributed
computer has its own files, and there is no interchange or central control.Each
distributed computer has its own files, but there are organization-wide standards
on naming, integrity checks, etc.Each distributed computer has files, but the data
can be accessed by other computers.There is a centrally controlled network of
distributed files and databases. A file or database is assigned to a local
computer, and data records are transferred to other computers as needed.There is a
central database with sub files downloaded to local computers for local use; file
changes and transaction data are sent to the central computer for updating of the
database.A central computer has all files and databases.Centralization �
Decentralization of Systems DevelopmentCentralization-decentralization of
application system development is achieved through the organizational location of
systems analysts and programmers or other control mechanisms. Locating systems
analysis personnel within the user organization has the advantage of making the
analysts more responsive to the needs of the using group. In general, they can
design applications and interact with operating personnel much better than systems
analysts coming in from outside groups.If systems analysts remain in a centralized
group, project organization may be used to gain some of the advantages of
decentralization. Each application to be developed is organized as a project with a
project leader and systems analysts assigned to it. The advantages are reduction in
communication difficulties between project phases and the focusing of
responsibility for system success on a single group.DATABASE DESIGN Database
objectives The following are main objectives.Controlled
redundancy: Redundant data occupies space and therefore wasteful.. A
unique aspect of database design is storing data only once, which controls
redundancy and improves system performance.Ease of learning and use:
A major use of user-friendly data base package is how easy is to learn and
use. The data can be modified without interfering with established ways of using
the data.Data independence: Changing hardware and storage procedures or
adding new data without having to rewrite application program.More information at
low cost: Although software prices are falling software and
programming cost are on rise. So they should be kept simple and easy to update.
Accuracy and integrity: The accuracy ensures that data quality and
content remain constant. Integrity controls detect data inaccuracies where they
occur.Recovery from failure: With multi user access to data base the
system must recover quickly, after it is down with no loss of transactions.Privacy
and security: Security measures must be taken to prevent unauthorized
access. Data are protected from various forms of destruction.Performance: This
objective emphasizes response time to inquiries suitable to the use of the data.
Logical and physical data: The logical view is what
the data look like, regardless of how they are stored. The physical view
is the way data exist in physical storage. It deals with how the data are stored,
accessed, or related to other data in storage.Schemas and subschema:
The schema is the view that helps the DBMS decide what data in storage it
should act upon as requested by the application program. The
subschema is a programmer�s view. Many subschemas can be derived from one schema.
Different application programmers visualize different subschemas.Physical data
organization: There are three basic means of superimposing a
different logical sequence of records on an existing physical sequence: -a
partioned file -a chain file -an inverted file.A partitioned file
This is made up of sub files called members, and each member file is
referenced by a directory which may have a number of levels according to the speed
of retrieval required. Within each member subfile,the records are held in sequence,
and this structure is sometimes called a physically contiguous file.
Portioned files may be created without directories; these are often called
sequential hierarchies. Here, two or more record types are used and partitioned.
Chain files Records which have been stored in particular sequence can be processed
in a completely different sequence using chain techniques. Records are linked
together using pointers. There are three main type of pointers. -the direct access
device address of the record being pointed to; -the relative address of the
record being pointed to;this is usually the page number -the primary key of the
record pointed to.The first type of pointer,the disk address,is fastest in
accessing,but provides no data independence and is very poor for volatile files.
The second type of pointer is nearly as fast as the disk address, is nearly as fast
as the disk address, is usually shorter and gives some data impendence, when paging
of data is heavily used. The third type of pointer, the primary key is slow and may
need a number of seeks, it is not useful in chains.Skip searching: Skip
searching involves dividing the records into groups; the page number of the lowest
key record in the group before the head of the chain is the pointer in the own
record. The record primary key is tested, and if still too high then the pointer to
the lowest record in the next lower group is followed, this being in the record
under examination, and so on.Multilist: Here a sequenced chain is divided into
sections. A directory gives a list of the beginning page number of each section,
thus the mean searches are reduced to: ((Nc/Ns)+1) /2where Nc is the
number of records in the chain,and Ns the number of sections.The main limitations
of chaining techniques are the search times and the duration of insertions and
deletions.Inverted files Inverted files are organized so that records may be
retrieved by giving values of any data items to find a record or group of records.
Searching each record in the file and retaining only those which meet the
specifications, or by accessing
only those records with the correct specifications by means of an inverted file.
There are four basic methods of organizing inverted files: -secondary indexing
-partial inversion -full inversion -bit map indexingSecondary
indexing: The records are held in primary key sequence,and secondary indexes are
maintained giving the value of secondary keys. The secondary indexing can be used
when records are held in any sequence and are not indexed on primary key.Partial
inversion The pointer array is used in a partially inverted file as an indexing
technique. Selected attributes are stored in indexes, and each entry in the index
is a pointer to part of the main data. With partial inversion, changing of records
is used although the main feature of these files is that the length of the chain is
limited.Full file inversion A fully inverted file contains an index for each
attribute of data held,each field in the record being a potential search key. There
are four main parts:-an attribute index-a values index-an occurance index-data
values.Bit map indexing In bit map indexing, an inverted index is maintained
with an entry for each attribute/value pair. A bit position in each is reserved for
each record in the file, and if the record contains the attribute/pair, then the
corresponding bit is 1, otherwise it is 0.Physical organization of data
Partitioning A partitioned file may be used where a large files is to be
reduced to sub-files,and where selective accessing of subfiles is required. The
partitioning file may be held as a sequential hierarchy if direct access to each
subfile is not required.Chaining Chaining is a common technique in databases. It
may be used in several ways to provide both flexibility and speed of access. If
real-time response is required, then either chaining may be avoided and some
inventory technique used instead or use of skip searching, multilisting or
sequenced chain employed.Inversion Each of the major inversion techniques is
appropriate to particular circumstances. Secondary indexing is used where the file
is regularly processed in primary key sequence, the required retrieval time is
fairly fast, the file is active, and the maintenance requirement is low. Full file
inversion is appropriate when the search criteria are highly variable and the
required retrieval time is fast. If the file is not too large for a boot array of
the data to be accommodated in main store, then bit map searching gives good
results where each criteria are mixed and variable. Finished goods stock
subsystemProduction planning subsystemOrder processing subsystemProduction
subsystemProduction stock components of raw material subsystemObjectivesResults
ActionsInstructionsDecisionsInformationNotificationsDataProceduresDelivery Note
Invoice Number Date Order Number Customer Number Product Number Quantity
DeliveredCustomer NumberCustomer AddressProduct NumberProduct DescriptionPriceVAT
RateWeightINVOICE PROCESSInvoice Invoice Number Date Order Number Customer
Number Customer Address Etc.Feedback on DesignRequirementsPhysical Design
ImplicationsUser System SpecificationUserLOGICAL SYSTEM DESIGNINVESTIGATIONLOGICAL
SYSTEM DESIGNPHYSICAL SYSTEM DESINGOBJECTIVES AND CONSTRAINTSUser Requirements
Outputs, Inputs Stored data, ProceduresRESORUCES AVAILABLEPHYSICAL DATA Files, data
elements database inputs, outputs, forms, dialogues codesPHYSICAL PROCEDURES
ProgramsClerical proceduresSecurity and control
Data baseData base management system Data bases
Database management systemMemoryInput from sensory receptorsMental processingOutput
responsesChannelChannelInput StimuliFilterMental processingInput StimuliFilter
Mental processingData storageStorage for frames of referenceMental processing
ProcessorI/p
o/p Long term memoryShort term memoryElementary processor
InterpretorChalkboardPaperVDTOutputs (results)ProcessThe basic information system
modelDataprocessingInformationBasic model with data storageData storageInputs
ProcessingOutputsSystemSensorsControl deviceInputProcessorOutput
Feedback control
elements Activating unitStandardControl ComparisionSensorChief Executive Officer
ResearchMarketingManufacturingDirector of Information SystemsManager Operations
Manager System DevelopmentManager Technical ServicesSystems AnalystsSystems
ProgrammingCommunications Network ServicesProgram MaintenanceProgrammersFinished
goods stock subsystemProduction planning subsystemOrder processing subsystem
Production subsystemProduction stock components of raw material subsystemGather
user requirements.Analyze and Design Input, processing and outputImplementFinal
PrototypeReviewMaintenanceAnalysis and designAnalysis and designAnalysis and design
System1System2System3ObjectivesResultsActionsInstructionsDecisionsInformation
NotificationsDataProceduresDelivery Note Invoice Number Date Order Number
Customer Number Product Number Quantity DeliveredCustomer NumberCustomer
AddressProduct NumberProduct DescriptionPriceVAT RateWeightINVOICE PROCESSInvoice
Invoice Number Date Order Number Customer Number Customer Address
Etc.Feedback on DesignRequirementsPhysical Design ImplicationsUser System
SpecificationUserLOGICAL SYSTEM DESIGNINVESTIGATIONLOGICAL SYSTEM DESIGNPHYSICAL
SYSTEM DESINGOBJECTIVES AND CONSTRAINTSUser Requirements Outputs, Inputs Stored
data, ProceduresRESORUCES AVAILABLEPHYSICAL DATA Files, data elements database
inputs, outputs, forms, dialogues codesPHYSICAL PROCEDURESProgramsClerical
proceduresSecurity and control Data baseData base
management system Data basesDatabase management
systemMODEL BASECOMMONAPPLICATOINSOFTWAREDATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMCOMMON
DATABASE Public
system
Private system Informal unstructured
systemFormal structured systeminformalformalPublic informalPublic formal
Private informalPrivate formalMemoryInput from sensory receptorsMental processing
Output responsesChannelChannelInput StimuliFilterMental processingInput Stimuli
FilterMental processingData storageStorage for frames of referenceMental processing
ProcessorI/p
o/p Long term memoryShort term memoryElementary processor
InterpreterChalkboardPaperVDTOutputs (results)ProcessThe basic information system
modelDataprocessingInformationBasic model with data storageData storageInputs
ProcessingOutputsSystemSensorsControl deviceInputProcessorOutput
Feedback control
elements Activating unitStandardControl ComparisionSensorChief Executive Officer
ResearchMarketingManufacturingDirector of Information SystemsManager Operations
Manager System DevelopmentManager Technical ServicesSystems AnalystsSystems
ProgrammingCommunications Network ServicesProgram MaintenanceProgrammers
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
############################################################################4###5##
#A###B###=###X###� ##� ##� ##�###h
##�
##=###N###Z###w###v$##y$##{$##}
$##�$##�$##�$##�$##�&##�&##L*##T*##g1##�1##�1##52##\2##�2##
3##�3##�3##Q4##u4##-5##T5##56##\6##�6###7##�7##
8##d9##�9###:##6:##�:###;###;##0;##u;##�;###<##:<##�<###=##�=##�=##R>##�>##�>##=?
##�@##�@##CA##wA##�A##&B##GB##_B##bB##gB##HC##|
C##�C##�C##{D##�D##�D###E##�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#��#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�
#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#####6#�]#�###j####CJ##U##mH##nH##u####CJ####CJ$###5#
�\#�## j##��#

6#�>*#]#�#V########################*###+###,###L###M###�###�###�###�###4###5###6###
X###Y###
#######
###
###########################�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�#######################
#########�##1�##��#################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
##################################################� ##� ##� ##� ##�###h
##�
##�
##�
#####�
##P###�###�###�#######.###�###�###7###�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�########################�p#`�p#####
##&d####P�####�##########7###N###�###�###V###�###�###�###9###:###;###<###=###>###?
###@###A###B###�###Z###x###�###+###�###�###�###�###�###�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�#####################
##
##&d####P�####�#########�p#`�p#######�###�###�###�###�###� ##� ##�!
##,"##{"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�
"##�"##�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�###########################�"##�"##�"##�"##
�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##t$##u$##v$##z$##{$##~$##$##�$##�$##�$##�$##�$##�$#
#�$##�$##�$##�$##�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�##################�###
######
�###�########�$##�$##�$##�$##�$##�$##}&##~&##&##�&##�&##�&##�&##�&##�&##�&##�&##�&
##�&##�'##�'##�)##�)##G,##W,###-##�-##�-##�-
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�#######################$#a$######$#a$#######�-##�-##�-##�-
###.##
.
##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�.##�
.##�.##�.##�.##�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�###########################�.##�.##
�.##�.##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0##�0#
#�0##:1##N1##O1##P1##Q1##R1##�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�#####################
######R1##S1##T1##U1##V1##W1##X1##Y1##Z1##[1##\1##]1##^1##_1##`1##a1##b1##c1##d1##e
1##f1##g1##h1##i1##j1##�1##�1##�1##�1##�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�###################$#a$#
#####$#a$###########�1##�1##�1##�1##42##52##\2##�2##�2##
3##�3##�3##�3##P4##Q4##u4##�4##�4## 5##,5##-
5##T5##46##56##\6##�6##�6###7##�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############################�0�]�0�#########�
,#^�,############7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##
8##X8##�8##�8##�8###9##
9##d9##e9##�9##�9##�9##�9##�9##�9##�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�#############################
&##F#######��#^��####
&##F#########
&##F########�9##�9###:###:##0:##1:##�:##�:###;###;##0;##9;##O;##t;##u;##�;##�;##�;#
#�;##�;##�;## <##
<##
<##
<###<###<##�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�#######################�X#^�X####
&##F#######��#^��####
&##F#########
&##F#####<###<##0<##1<##�<##�<###=###=##$=##@=##d=##�=##�=##�=##�=##�=###>###>##B>#
#R>##S>##�>##�>##�>##�>##�>##�>##�>##�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############################
&##F#####
&##F
####
&##F #######�>##<?##=?##o?##�?##�?##�?
##G@##p@##�@##�@##�@##�@##�@##�@##BA##CA##wA##xA##�A##�A##�A##�A##�A##�A##�A##�A##
%B##&B##�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�#####################
&##F#####
&##F#######&B##-B##>B##FB##GB##_B##bB##GC##HC##{C##|
C##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##zD##{D##�D##�D##�D##�D##�D##�D##�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######################
&##F#####
&##F#########
&##F####�D##�D##�D##�D##�D##�D###E###E###E##<E##ME##bE##vE##�E##�E##�E##�E##�E##�E#
#�E###F###F##<F##]F##^F##_F##tF##uF##�F##�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�#####################
&##F#####
&##F#########E##�E##�E##cF##tF##�F##�F##]G##G###I###I##�I##�I##�J##�J##�J##�J###K#
#'K###L###L##�L##�L##�M##�M##EN##JN##|
N##�N##�N###O##�P##�P##�Q##�Q##:R##LR##�R##�R##(S##NS##kT##xT##�T##�T##zU##�U##hW##
�W##�X##�X##)p##9p##:p##�p##�p##�p##�p##�q##�q##�q##�q##�r##�r##�t##�t##�t##9u##Tu#
#�u###v##(v##�v##�v##�w##�w##�x##�x##�y##
z##�}##�}##�}##�}##;~##N~##�~##�~##~##�###�###�##1�##K�## ‫ޅ‬###�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#
�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#��#���#���#�#��#�#��#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�##CJ$###CJ
####5#�#5#�CJ###CJ(###5#�\#�^�F##�F##�F##�F##8G##XG##YG##G##�G##�G##�G##�G###H###H
##�H##�H##�H##�H##�H##�H##�H##�H###I###I##�I##�I##�I##�I##�I##�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
##################

###��##�0�^��#`�0�######�I##�I##+J##GJ##IJ##�J##�J##�J##�J###K##'K###L###L##�L##�L#
#�M##�M##EN##KN##|
N##�N##�N##�N##�N##�N##�N##�N##�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�#################################$#a$######$##��#`��#a$###
#######��#`��#######�N##�N##�N###O###O##;O##GO##{O##�O##�O##�O###P##(P##gP##mP##�P#
#�P##�P##�P##�P##�P##BQ##�Q##�Q##�Q##�Q##5R##6R##LR##�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
#####################��#`��#######LR##MR##�R##�R##�R##�R##$S##
%S##NS##OS##[S##�S##�S##�S##�S###T###T###T##gT##hT##xT##�T##�T##�T##uU##vU##�U##�U#
#�U##�U##�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�###########################�U##0V##9V##cV
##mV##�V##�V##�V##�V##cW##dW##�W##�W##�W###X##*X##pX##qX##rX##sX##tX##uX##vX##wX##x
X##yX##zX##{X##|
X##}X##�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�###########################}X##~X##X##�X##
�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X#
#�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�###########################�X
##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##�X##\
Y##]Y##�Y##�Y##�Y##�Y##�Y##;Z##�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�################################
#$#a$#######;Z##zZ##�Z##�Z##�Z##�Z##9[##|
[##�[##�[##�[##�[##?\##<]##=]##z]###^##�^##�^##�^##�^##�^##�^##/_##D_##`_##}_##�_##
�_##�_##�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�###########################�_##�_###`###`#
#$`##~`##
a###a###a##{a##�a##�a##�a##�b##�b##�b##
%c##xc##�c##}d##�d##pe###f##Of##cf##kf##�f##�f##�f##�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
####################
&##F########�f##�f##�g##�g##�g##�g##�g##�g##sh##�h##�h###i##�i##�i##Bj##�j##�j##�j#
#Sk##�k##(l##fm##�m##�m##�m##�m###n##�n##�n##�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�##################
###
&##F#####
&##F########�n##\o##�o##�o##&p##(p##)p##9p##�p##�p##�p##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q#
#�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�##############################$#a$#
#####$#a$########
&##F####�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q##�q#
#�q##�q##�q##�q###r###r##'r##:r##@r##�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############################
&##F_####
&##F_##########$#a$###@r##\r##rr##�r##�r##�r##�r##�r##�r##Bs##Cs##Ts##bs##os##~s##�
s##�s##�s##�s##�s##�s##�s###t##/t##Bt##Mt##Xt##`t##�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�####################
&##F`######�h#^�h####
&##F_####
&##F_###`t##ft##nt##|
t##�t##�t##�t##�t##�t##�t##9u##:u##Tu##�u##�u###v###v##'v##�v##�v##�v##dw##}w##�w##
�w##�w##�w##�w##�x##�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�#########################��#^��####
&##F`###�x##�x##�x##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##
z##�z###{##Y{##�{##h|##�|##�|
##)}##9}##b}##�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�################$#
&##F`#a$####
&##F`#######b}##�}##�}##�}##�}##�}##:~##;~##N~##�~##�~##�~##} ##~ ##� ##;�##I�##��#
#��##ƀ##
�###�##"�##��##��##��##
�###�###�##�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�#####################
&##Fa########
&##F`####�##��##ǂ##�##?
�##��##݃###�##0�##1�##J�##��##��##�##�##(�##/�##@�##K�##[�##s�##z�##��##��##��##��##
��##…
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############################��#^��####
&##Fa####
&##F`#######…##ʅ####�###�###��##��##��##�##‫ޅ‬##‫܅‬
4�##��##��##ć##"�###�##+�##��##��##��##,�##��###�###�##B�##r�##s�##��##�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#####################
&##F`########
&##Fa######��#^��###‫ޅ‬##�##��##��##s�##��##�##��##q�##��##�###�##/�##4�##�##�## ‫ݐ‬##�
##��##Ô##9�##J�##��##��##3�##J�##Z�##v�##ř##ՙ##�###�##�###�##G�##Y�##��##ϰ##/�##?
�##�##��##'�##��##��##Q�##e�##��##5�##��##��##��##��##��##��###�###�###�###�###�##�
�###�##(�##�###�###�###
###############�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#���#�#�#�#�#�#�#��#�#�#�#��#�������#��#���ļ
�###j####CJ##U##mH##nH##u####CJ##mH##nH##u##
#j####CJ##U###CJ#####j####U##mH##nH##u####j####CJ##U###CJ####CJ$###CJ
###5#�;#�CJ`#OJ##QJ##aJ`###5#�>*###5#�CJ###5#�#E��##��##�##�##��##n�##o�##p�##q�##�
�##�##'�##N�##��##��##�##�##�###�##/�##�##g�###�##��##[�## ‫ݐ‬##‫ܐ‬##‫ې‬##‫ڐ‬##�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�#####################��#^��####
&##F`#######‫ݐ‬##�##�##�##Ē##Œ##��##��##��##”##8�##9�##I�##��##��##��##��##0�##1�##2
�##3�##4�##5�##6�##7�##8�##9�##:�##;�##�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�#######################d
h########$#a$#######;�##<�##=�##>�##?
�##@�##A�##B�##C�##D�##E�##F�##G�##H�##I�##J�##Z�##[�##\�##]�##^�##_�##`�##a�##b�##
c�##d�##e�##f�##�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�#####################$##dh###a$######dh#####f�#
#u�##v�##��##��##��##‫ؖ‬##�##�##)�##G�##\�##��##��##ۗ###�##B�##y�##Ę##9##��##‫�ܘ‬##}�##�
�##ę##ř##ՙ##֙##�##�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�#####################################dh#####�#
##�###�##:�##e�##z�##��##��##ɚ##�##�###�##A�##S�##̜ ##�###�##7�##Z�##{�## ‫۝‬##,�##F�##
w�##��##Ȟ##�##"�##8�##�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�###################dh########��##dh###`��
###8�##q�##��##Ɵ##џ##۟##�##�##-�##b�##t�##��##�##�##I�##d�##z�##��##��##��##ʡ##
##########�############�############�############�##�##��##��##��##�{##�###‫ޡ‬
############�############�############�############�############�############�##
�############�############�############�############�############�############�
##�############�############�############�############�############�############
8�##################�############�############�############�############dh###^�8
######��##dh###^��######dh#####�###�##8�##��##ǣ##�###�###�##1�##>�##i�##��###�##��#
#ĥ##�##�##��###�###�##3�##V�##o�##��##��###�##
�##3�##N�##�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�###################dh########��##dh###^��###N�##��##
�###�##S�##z�##Ш##�##:�##V�##c�##��##��##é##‫ک‬##�##�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�##
�##!�##"�###�##$�##
%�##�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�####################dh#####
%�##&�##'�##(�##*�##+�##,�##-
�##.�##/�##0�##1�##2�##3�##4�##5�##6�##7�##8�##9�##:�##;�##<�##=�##>�##?
�##@�##A�##�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�##################��##dh###`��######dh########�8##dh###^�8###A�##
B�##C�##D�##E�##F�##G�##H�##I�##J�##K�##L�##X�##Y�##f�##��##��##[�##k�##��##��###�#
#A�##��##!
�##W�##��##��##L�##k�##�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�####################dh#####
k�##��##��##̮
###�###�##E�##Z�##x�##�##
�###�##3�##��##��##��##��##ΰ##ϰ##ܰ##�###�##:�##r�##s�##t�##��##��##α##8�##�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�####################dh#####8�##K�##��##��##IJ## ‫ײ‬##�###�###�##
-�##W�##s�##��##��##��##ֳ##�##��##
%�##D�##Q�##n�##��##��##�##��##,�##C�##n�##��##�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#################dh#####��##��##��##۵##�##
�##>�##N�##[�##�##��##��##��##�##�###�##R�##h�##s�##��##ķ##�###�##
�##G�##q�##��##̸
##�##$�##�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�####################dh####
#$�##N�##n�##��###�##.�##/�##?�##L�##c�##��##��##�## ֺ##
�##B�##��###�##(�###�###�##*�##P�##`�##w�##��##��##
޽##�###�##�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�####################dh######�###�##5�##�
�##��##�##�##
�##;�##d�##x�##��##��##�##�##��##'�##4�##]�##~�##,�##<�##i�##v�##��##��##

�##P�##y�###�##�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�####################dh######�##5�##
x�##��##@�##_�##��##��##��##��###�##9�##N�##l�##��###�###�##'�##y�##��##��##��##��#
# �##8�##H�##|
�##��###�##f�##�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�####################dh#####f�##r�##
��###�##��##��###�##a�##��###�##P�##Q�##e�##r�##��##��##��###�###�##L�##V�##��##��#
#<�##��##��##��##�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�#######################
###��##� �#dh###^��#`�
�#####��##dh###`��######dh#####��##8�##��##��##��##&�##r�##��##��##��##?
�##�##��###�##Q�##��##��##4�##��##��##��##1�##f�##��##��##3�##G�##f�##��##�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�###################��##dh###`��######dh#####��##��###�##a�##��##��##��#
#��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
################
###��##� �#dh###^��#`�
�#####dh########��##dh###`��###��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##
��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�####################dh#####��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��
##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�##5�##6�##��##�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
############################$#a$######$#a$##########dh#####��##��##��##I�##J�##[�##
#�###�##(�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��
###�###�###�##�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�####################$#a$####�##9�##:
�##��###�###�###�###�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##9�##Z�##��##��##��###�##
#�##2�##��##��##��##�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�###################$#
&##F$#a$######$##��#^��#a$######$#a$###��##F�##G�##]�##S�##T�##y�##
�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�##1�##2�##G�##��#
#��##��##�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�####################$#a$###��###�###�##(�
##)�##A�##B�##G�##V�##W�##c�##G�##H�##Q�##��##��##��##X�##Y�##j�##4�##5�##>�##6�##7
�##F�##########�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�##############
###$##��##��#^��#`��#a$######$#a$######$#a$###########�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�
###�###�###�#######�###�###�###�###################-###.###�###�###�###_ ##`

##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�###################$##��#^��#a$######$#a$###################-
###�###�###` ## ##########
%###&###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###"###<###Y###�###�###� ##� ##�!##�!
##V###f###&$##8$##9%##F
%##M'##\'##r(##�(##�+##�+##�,##�,##}0##�0##1##�1##�2##�2##Z4##g4##*5##95##�6##�6##
�7##�7##�9##
:##�<##�<##O?##_?
##,A##NA##�C##�C##)E##GE###G###G##4I##EI##�J##�J##�J##�J##�J##�K##�K##�M##�M##����#
�#�#�#�#�#���#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#��#�#�#�##5#�6
#�##5#�>*#CJ##aJ####5#�>*####j####U##mH##nH##u####5#�#5#�CJ###CJ####j####CJ##U##
#j�###CJ##U###Q` ##a ##b ##c ## ##t
##u
##�
##�####
###
##C##D##Q##############W###X###n###h###i###o######################
%###�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�#############################$##��#^��#a$###
%###'###(###)###*###+###,###-
###.###/###0###1###2###3###4###5###6###7###8###9###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�################################$#a$##########$##��#^��#a$###�###�###�###�##
#�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###k###�###�###�###�###R###�#
##�###(###�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�########################$#
&##Fb#a$######$##dh###a$######$#a$##########$#a$###(###)###�###�###]###^###�###�###
�###�###�###�###�###"###########�###�###A###;###<###Y###6###7###/###0###�###�###�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�######################$##dh###a$#####$#
&##Fb#a$######$#a$###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�#######Z###�###�###�###� ##� ##�
##�!##�!##�!##�"##U###V###f###%
$##&$##8$##8%##9%##�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�######################$##dh###a$######$#a$#####$#
&##Fb#a$###9%##F
%##L'##M'##\'##q(##r(##�(##i)##j)##�)##:*##�*##`+##�+##�+##�+##�,##�,##�,##!-##4-
##a-##r-##�-##�-
##J.##K.##�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�#####################$#
&##Fb#a$######$#a$######$##dh###a$###K.##�.##�.##G/##�/##�/##|
0##}0##�0##�0###1##~1##1##�1##�2##�2##�2##Y4##Z4##g4##)5##*5##95##�6##�6##�6###7##
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
###############################$##dh###a$######$##��#^��#a$######$#a$####7##'7##>7#
#b7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##H9##I9##�9##�9##�9##�9##�9##
:
##8;##�;##c<##d<##�<##�<##�<##�<##�<##�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�#####################$##��#^��#a$######$##dh###a$##
####$#a$#####$#
&##Fb#a$###�<##�=##�=##N?##O?##_?
##+A##,A##NA##�C##�C##�C##(E##)E##GE##�F##�F##�F##�F###G###G###G##3I##4I##5I##EI###
J##;J##�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�#####################$#
&##Fb#a$######$##dh###a$######$#a$###;J##rJ##�J##�J##�J##�J##�J##�J##�J##�J##�J##�J
##�J##�K##�K##�K##M##�M##�M##?
N##O##�O##�O##�P##lQ##mQ##�Q##�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�#########################$##dh###a$######$#a$##########$#a
$#####$#
&##Fb#a$###�M##�O##�O##�P##�P##mQ##�Q##�S##�S###T##&T##}V##�V##�X##�X##TZ##dZ##A\##
`\##�^##�^###a##
a##Uc##^c##xd##�d##"g##3g##\i##ii##�k##�k##wl##�l##�m###n##�o##�o##�q##�q##ir##nr##
Wt##^t###v###v##bw##mw##�w##�w##�w##�z##�z##o~##�~##;##Q##�##�##��##��##��##��#
#�##��##�##ӄ###�###�##��##�##/�##D�##E�##\�##��##��##U�##c�###�##&�## ؐ##�##
‫ݓ‬##�###��##�##‫ڑ‬##�##\�##l�##l�###�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�
�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�####5#�6#�##>*##5#�>*#CJ##aJ####5#�>*###
6#�#5#�#\�Q##�S##�S##�S###T###T##&T##!U##"U##|
V##}V##�V##�X##�X##�X##SZ##TZ##dZ##@\##A\##`\###]##�]##�^##�^##�^###a###a##
a##�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�#####################$##dh###a$######$#a$###
a##Tc##Uc##^c##wd##xd##�d##�e##!
g##"g##3g##�h##[i##\i##ii##�k##�k##�k##vl##wl##�l##�m##�m###n##�o##�o##�o##�q##�q##
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�#####################$##dh###a$######$#a$###�q##�q##hr##ir##nr#
#�s##Vt##Wt##^t##�t##
u##�u##�u###v###v###v##_w##`w##aw##bw##mw##�w##�w##�w##�x###y##�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�######################dh########$#a$###
###
###$##�p##�`�^�p#`�`�a$######$#a$######$##dh###a$####y###z###z##�z##�z##�z##�z##M{#
#�{##�{##2|##v|##w|
###}##J}##�}##�}##�}##�}##D~##n~##o~##�~########'##6##7##�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�##############
##############
&##Fc######dh############$#a$###7##�##~�##�##��##��##��##~�##�##��##�##�##��##�
�##��##�##ӄ##}�##�##P�##��###�###�###�###�###�##=�##l�##�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�####################
########
&##Fc######dh############$#a$###l�##��##e�##f�##��##��##�##.�##/�##D�##|
�##��##ٌ###�##D�##E�##\�##��##֍##
�##I�##c�##}�##��##��##��##��##�##�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�##################
&##Fd######dh############$#a$####
&##Fc###�##+�##T�##U�##c�##��###�###�##&�##s�##��## ‫א‬##ؐ##�##.�##X�##}�##��##ّ##
0##�##‫�ڑ‬##T�##��##��##��###�##E�##��##�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�#######################d
h##########
&##Fc###��##‫ݓ‬##‫ܓ‬##�##-�##[�##\�##l�##"�###�##$�##%�##&�##'�##(�##)�##*�##+�##,�##-
�##.�##/�##0�##1�##2�##3�##4�##5�##�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�##############################$#a$######d
h##########
&##Fc###5�##6�##7�##8�##9�##:�##;�##<�##=�##>�##?
�##@�##A�##B�##C�##D�##E�##f�##g�##u�##��##��##k�##l�##&�##'�##��##��##ӗ##ԗ##�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�###########################l�##u�##��##��##�##l�##s�##'
�##.�##��##ӗ##
�###�##��##��##\�##]�##�##8�##9�##z�##��##��##��##��##��##_�##o�##��##��##��##��##
��##��##��##��##ū##ƫ##߫##�##�##�##�##�##ޮ##*�##^�##��##Ų###�###�##,�##-
�##.�##/�##0�##g�##��###�##\�##��##��##�##-
�##.�##/�##F�##G�##H�##I�##J�##M�##N�##��##��#�#�#�#�#����#�#�#�#�#�#����#��������
��#�#��#�#�#���#�#�#�#�#�#���#�## #j�###U## #j ###U## #j####U##
B*#ph#####CJ##mH##nH##u####j####CJ##U##mH##nH##u###
B*#CJ##ph######j####U##mH##nH##u####CJ
###CJ####5#�#5#�\#�Iԗ##�###�###�###�##��##ۙ##ߙ##‫ޙ‬##‫ݙ‬##‫ܙ‬##�##�##�##�##�##�###########
#�############�h###########�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�#################u###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L#
##################L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�#######$#If######�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�
##�##�##�##�##�##��##��###�###�##�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�#################
###########�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�##G�##H�##f�##g�##��##��##��##��##6�##��##�
##\�##]�##�##�##�##!�##
ߡ##�##;�##g�##��##�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�###########################��##�
�##��##��##�###�##��###�##

�##Z�##��##��###�##V�##W�##��###�##Q�##R�##��##��##B�##C�##��##�##�##7�##8�##z�##��
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�###########################��##��##��##��##��##�
�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##Ĩ##Ũ###�###�##j�##�##©###�##]�##^�##��##�##�##<�##U�
##V�##W�##�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�###########################W�##X�##Y�##Z
�##[�##\�##]�##^�##_�##`�##a�##b�##c�##d�##o�##��##��##��##��##��##��##ū##ǫ##ޫ##߫##�#
#�##�##�##�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�###############################�K#^�K#######�## �##!
�##"�###�##$�##%�##&�##?�##@�##Z�##o�##��##��##��##��##��##
�##��###�##W�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�###########################��##��##ޮ##߮##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�
##�##�##�##)�##*�##^�##_�##�##�##!
�##�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�###########################
&##F############!�##Y�##��##r�##��##��##Ų##Ʋ##?
�##y�##��##�##J�##K�##t�##�##�##3�##4�##n�##o�##p�##��##1##�###�###�###�##‫�ٷ‬##�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�#################
&##F#############
&##F####1�##2�##d�##e�##��##��##��##"�###�##\�##]�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��#
#��##��##�##�##-
�##.�##K�##L�##M�##��##�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�#####################$#a$#####
�###1########��##��##��##��##��##ʼ##˼###�###�##��##��##��##��###�##
�##��##��##��###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�##�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�###########################��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�##��#
#��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�## �##1�##��##��###�###�##!
�##"�##F�##G�##^�##_�##`�##a�##b�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�##v�##��##
J�##[�###�###�##��##
�##[�##��##

�###�###�##8�##��##��##��##��##��##��##=�##a�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##
#�##
�##
�###�###�##6�##P�##��#����#�#�#����#�#�#�#�#�#�#����#��#����#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�
#�#�#����#�#����#�### #j####U## #j�###U## #j�###U## #j`###U##
#j�###U###5#�\#�# #j@###U## #j####U####j####U##mH##nH##u##Q#�###�###�##
�##!
�##c�##d�##��##��##��###�###�##u�##v�##I�##J�###�###�##��##��##��##Z�##[�##��##��##

�##��###�###�##�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�####################
�###�#######$#a$########�##��##��##$�##��##'�##|
�##��##��##~�##��##��##��##��###�###�##/�##�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
####################
##�###�###$#If#### ##
&##F##�###�######�###�####/�##0�##W�##��##-
�##.�##/�##E�##��##��##��###�##L�##w�###########m############m############m########
####m############w############m############m############m############w############m
############m######################
##
�###�###$#If####�###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�F##��##�#,"##�#####
##############�###################�#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�####
L�##��##��##��###�##��##��##��##$�##j�##k�##��##��##�############m0###########�####
########�############�############m�###########�############�############�#########
###m@###########�############�######################�###$##$#If#####�l##�##########
################�F##��##�#,"##�###################�###################�############
#####
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##�###�###$#If#####
��##:�##;�##V�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##�############m�###########�########
####�############�############m�###########�############�############�############m
############g###############################
�###�##�###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�F##��##�#,"##�##############
#####�###################�#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##
�###�###$#If######��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##x�##��##_�##�############�###
#########�############�############�############uT###########�############�########
####g############g############g##############################
&##F##
�###�###$#If#####y###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�c##�0##���#�!
########################################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�#>"#6##�####�####�####�##
#�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##�###�###$#If########
�###�####_�##`�##r�##Y�##Z�##f�##��##��##��##��##��##��##X�##��###########{########
####{############�l###########{############{############��###########{############{
############��###########{############{############################################
######
##�###�###$#If#####y###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�c##�0##���#�!
########################################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�#>"#6##�####�####�####�##
#�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�####
X�##Y�##f�##��##�
###########{############{##########################################################
###################################################################################
##############################################################
##�###�###$#If#####y###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################��##�0##���#�!
########################################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�#>"#6##�####�####�####�##
#�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�#####��##��##��##:�##;�##<�##=�##a�##b�##��##^�##��##��##v�##�h###########{###
#########{############�############u############u############u############u########
####u############u############u############u############u#########################
�###�##
##�###�###$#If#####y###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�7##�0##���#�!
########################################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�#>"#6##�####�####�####�##
#�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�####
v�##0�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�###�###�##3�##4�##5�##6�##P�##Q�##��#
#��##V�##��##6�##7�##d�##e�##�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�##################
&##F###########$#�###�##a$#####
�###�####P�##��##��##7�##d�##~�##�##��##��###�##$�##;�##<�##=�##>�##?
�##X�##_�##w�##x�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�##3�##�###�###
####/###�###�###�###3###
##O
##P
##S
##k
##l
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�#######�###�###�###�###V###x###S###k###H ##_
##�&##�&###8##G8##�8##�8##�9##�9##�;##�;##�<##�<##�=##�=##�>##�>##Q@##R@##S@##\@###
�#�#�#�#�#����#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#���#�#�#��#��#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�
##5#�##j####CJ##U##mH##nH##u###
5#�CJ##\#�# #j�###U##
#j####U####j####U##mH##nH##u####5#�\#�Se�##q�##}�##~�##��##!�##"�##-
�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##J�##�############�############��###########�########
####�############��###########�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�#################u###$##$#If###
##�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L###################L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�#######$#If######J�##}�##~�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�##
�##H�##F�##��###�###�###�###�###�## �##!
�##"�###�##@�##A�##�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�###########################�###�#######

###�p##��#^�p#`��###A�##n�##o�##p�##��##W�##X�##v�##w�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��#
#��##��##��##��##C�##D�##N�##Z�##�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
#######################################################################
##�###�###$#If########�###�######
�###�####Z�##[�##y�##��##��##��##<�##=�##H�##��##��##��###�###�##$�##��###########�
############�############��###########�############�############�4###########�#####
#######�############�############�############�############��###########�##########
################
##
�###�###$#If####u###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L#######
############L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�#####$�##��##��##��##`�##��###�##3�##��###�###�##��##��##��##�############�###
#########z############z############q############q############q############q########
####q############z############z############z############�############# ##
&##F##�###�######
�###�##u###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L################
###L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##�###�###$#If#####
��###�###�##'�##�##e###f###y###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�############��
##########�############�############�############��
##########�############�############�
##########�############�############�############z############z##################
�###�##u###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L################
###L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##
�###�###$#If######�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###############/###�###�
###5###�####
##O
##Q
##k
##m
##�
##�
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�#################
######################### ###�p##��#^�p#`��## ###�###��#^�##`��#####
�###�####�
##�
##�
######h###i###�###�###�###>
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�
##(##�
######�###########\###�###�###�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
###############################��#^��####
&##F^######��#^��######��#^��######��#`��######

###�@##��#^�@#`��###�###�#######�###�#######y###�###�#######:###T###w###�###�###�##
#�#######A###�###�###�###�###F###�###�###�###:###�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�###########################
#

###��##��#^��#`��######��#^��###:###�###�###.###w###�###�#######;###s###�###�###�##
#�###�###�###�###U###V###w###x###}###�###�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�#################
#####################################################################
##�###�###$#If#### ##
&##F##�###�######�###�############�###�###�###########
###�###�###�###P###Q###\###�###�###�###�############�############�############�T###
########�############�############��###########�############�############��########
###�############�############�############�##########################
##
�###�###$#If####u###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L#######
############L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�#####�###�###�###�###P###Q###R###S###j###k######�###�###�############�#######
#####�############�############�############z############z############q############
z############�############�############�############################## ##
&##F##�###�######
�###�##u###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L################
###L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##�###�###$#If#####
�###�###�###�###k###l###~###�###########-
###@###�###w<###########m############m############m############w�###########m######
######m############m############w�###########m############m############m###########
###########
##
�###�###$#If####�###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�F##��##�#,"##�#####
##############�###################�#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�####
�###�###�###�###F ##G ##H ##^ ##_ ##k!
##w�###########m############m############m############w############g############^##
##########g############g########################################### ##
&##F##�###�######�###�##
##
�###�###$#If####�###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�F##��##�#,"##�#####
##############�###################�#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�#### k!##
"######�###�$##�%##�&##�&##�&##�&##�'##�(##E)##�)##(*##�*###,##�,##�,###-###-
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�##########################################################################
##�###�###$#If#### ##
&##F"#�###�## ##
&##F!#�###�## ##
&##F##�###�######�###�## ##
&##F #�###�#####-##$-##;-##�-##�-##�-
##O.##P.##X.##�.##�.##�.###/##,/##��###########�############�############�0########
###�############t############�8###########�############�############��###########�#
###########�############�#######################�###�#�####$#If####
##
�###�###$#If####u###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L#######
############L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�####,/##�/##�/##�/##<0##w0##�0##
1##�1##�1##�1##�1##�1##�############�############z############q############h#######
#####h############h############h############z############�############�############

########### ##
&##F##�###�## ##
&##F##�###�######
�###�##u###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L################
###L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##�###�###$#If#####
�1##�1##[2##\2##g2###3###3##-
3##J4##K4##]4##�5##�5##�5##�6##�############�############��###########�############
�############��###########�############�############�D###########�############�####
########��###########�############�##########################u###$##$#If#####�l##�#
#########################�0##���#,"##L###################L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##
�###�###$#If######�6##�6##�6##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7###8###8###8###8###8###8##��#######
####�############�############�############z############z############z############x
############x############x############x############x############x##################
#################�###�##
##
�###�###$#If####u###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L#######
############L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�#####8###8###8###8## 8##
8###8##
8##8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8###8## 8##!
8##"8##�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�###########################"8###8##�8##�8##
�9##�9##�9##�;##�<##�=##�=##�=##�>##Q@##S@##t@##u@##v@##w@##x@##y@##z@##{@##|
@##}@##~@##�@##�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�##################################�###L### ##�#######��#^��####
&##F########�@##�@##�@##�A##�A##�A##�A##lC##mC##nC##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##+E#
#,E##YE##ZE###G###G## G##!
G##�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�#############################
##�###�
##�h#^�h# ##
&##F##�###�
#####�###�
#####�###�
#########
�###L########\@##�A##�A##nC##oC##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##�C##,E##sE###G###G###G###G
###G###G###G##DH##XH###J###J###J###J###J###J###J###J##JJ##.M##<M##�N##�N##MQ##_Q##�
Q##�Q###T##2T##TV##�V##�_##�_##�_##�_##
`###`##s`##�a##�a##�a##Fb##rb##sb##�c##�c##�c##�c##|e##}e###g##,g##-
g##�h##(i##9j##:j##nj##wj##xj##yj##�j##�j###�#�#����#�#�#�#����#�#�#����#�#�#�#�#�#
�#�#�#���#�#�#��#���#�#��#�#�#Ͽ�#�#####j####6#�U##mH##nH##u###6#�CJ###5#�6#�##6#�#5
#�
5#�>*#CJ### #jP###U## #j�###U## #j0###U####j####U##mH##nH##u###
#j####U###5#�\#�K!G##lG##mG##CH##DH##XH###J###J###J##JJ##KJ##FK##�K###L##-
M##.M##�N##

P##�P##LQ##MQ##�Q##�Q###T###T##�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
################# ##
&##F##�###�### ##�###�###�h#^�h# ##
&##F##�###�######�###�######�###�
#####�###�
####T##2T##SV##TV##�V##�V##�V##�V##�V##�V##uW##vW##�W##�W##�W##�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############��##########
#�############�############��###########�############�############�P###############
##########k###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##�#�#,"##L#############
######L##################�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6#
#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�###
#l#a�#h#
##�###�###$#If##### ##
�###�###�h#^�h###�W##�W##8X##9X##HX##�X##�X##�X##AY##BY##dY##AZ##BZ##YZ##�Z##�Z##�Z
##�############�############�d###########�############�############��###########�##
##########�############�############�############�############��###########�#######
#####�############��###########�############k###$##$#If#####�l##�##################
########�0##�#�#,"##L###################L##################�0###�#######�#######�##
#####�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�###
#l#a�#h#
##�###�###$#If######�Z##�[##�[##�[###\###\###\##~\##
\##�\##5]##6]##^]##�]##�]##�]###^##�############��###########�############�#######
#####��###########�############�############��###########�############�############
��###########�############�############�d###########�############�############k###$
##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##�#�#,"##L###################L########
##########�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�###�#�##
##�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�###
#l#a�#h#
##�###�###$#If#######^###^##3^##�^##�^##
_##�_##�_##�_##�_##�_##�_##
`###`##�h###########�############�############��###########�############�##########
##�############�############~############|
############~############v############~############################�##`�###########
##�###�###�h#^�h#
##
�###�###$#If####k###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##�#�#,"##L#######
############L##################�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�
####6##�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�###
#l#a�#h###`##s`##t`##�`##�`##La##�a##�a##�a##�a##Eb##Fb##rb##sb##�c##�c##�c##�c##|
e##}e###g###g##,g##-
g##�h##�h##�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
##########
&##F=####
&##F=#########$#
&##F=#a$#############$#
&##F<#a$######$#a$#######�h##�h##�h###i##'i##(i##9j##:j##nj##oj##vj##wj##yj##�j##�j
##�j###k##Jk##�k##�k##�k###l##Dl##ul##vl##�l##�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�##################
###$##�p##���^�p#`���a$#####$#
&##F@#a$##############$#a$#####$#
&##F>#a$###�j##�j##�j##�o##�o##�o##�p##�q##�q##�{##�{##.##�##�##�###�##L�##M�##
N�##��##ł##Ƃ##�##ƒ##ф##1�##��##
�##_�##��##��##��##��###�###�##'�##(�##R�##n�##��##��##��##
܎##‫ێ‬##‫ڎ‬##�##�##�##�##ߌ##‫ތ‬##�##&�##'�##*�##<�##=�##?
�##:�##;�##<�##J�##�##��##��###�###�##W�##X�##p�##�##��###�###�##R�##�����#�������
�#���#���#��#��������#��#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#���#���#�#��#��#�#�###############j####5#
�U##mH##nH##u####j####U##mH##nH##u####5#�
5#�>*#CJ#####j####6#�U##mH##nH##u###6#�#5#�6#�###j####5#�6#�U##mH##nH##u##J�l###m##
7m##8m##�m##�m## n##_n##vn##wn##�n##
o##Ko##co##|
o##�o##�o##�o##�o##�p##�p###q##Oq##nq##�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
###################$#
&##FC#�###8###�8#^�8#a$######$##��#`��#a$#########$#
&##F@#a$######$#a$##
###$##�p##���^�p#`���a$###nq##�q##�q##�q##�q##�r##_t##2v##�w##Pz##�z##�z##�{##�{##�
{##`}##-
##.##l##m##�##�###�##�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�##########################$#
&##FB#a$#####$#
&##FF#�###8###�@#^�@#a$#####$#
&##FD#a$#####$#
&##F@#a$######$#a$#####$#
&##FC#
�###8###�8#^�8#a$####�##D�##L�##N�##��## Ԁ###�##+�##,�##w�##��##с##ҁ##�##7�##8�##��
##ł##ǂ##Ȃ##
�##
�##ƒ###�##Z�##Є##�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
#################################
###$#
&##FH##��#^��#a$#########$#
&##FB#a$##########$#a$###Є##ф##1�##��###�##
�##^�##_�##u�##v�##��##��##��##��##�##�###�###�###�###�##'�##(�##R�##�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�###############################
###$##�� #�h#^�� `�h#a$######$##�h#^�h#a$######$#a$#####$#
&##FI#a$####
&##FI#####$#
&##FB#a$######$##�<#^�<#a$###R�##S�##m�##n�##��##��##$�##
%�##�##��##d�##��##��##��##��##‫ތ‬##‫݌‬##�##�##�##�##�##c�##d�##��##��##َ##‫ڎ‬##�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
####################### ###�###���^�##`���###
&##F8#######܎##‫ڎ‬##�##�##F�##G�##�###�##&�##(�##*�##<�##>�##?�##�##�##
%�##&�##��##��##ؒ##ْ##:�##;�##=�##>�##J�##K�##�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�##########################
###�p##���^�p#`���###
&##F9#######K�##�##��###�###�##‫ݔ‬##‫ܔ‬##$�##
%�##W�##Y�##Z�##o�##p�##��##�##_�##~�##�##��##��###�###�###�##8�##9�##:�##R�##�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############################
&##F;##

###�p##���^�p#`���######R�##r�##~�##\�##t�##9�##[�##<�##\�##9�##h�##E�##^�##�##�##�
�###�##`�##g�##��##��##5�##G�##
�###�###�###�##s�##t�##!�##`�##��##��##�##�###�###�##��##��##%�##&�##T�##,�##-
�##.�##g�##~�##�##��##��##��###�###�##1�##��##;�##<�##=�##��##?
�##y�##��##&�##'�##��##��##��##��##��###�###�###�##0�##\�##]�##^�##��##��##��##��##
��##;�##��#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#������#������#����#�����#��#�������
�#�����##########\#�#5#�6#�###j####6#�U##mH##nH##u###6#�#5#�
5#�>*#CJ#### j##��#
5#�6#�\#�]#�##6#�]#�##5#�\#�QR�##~�##\�##s�##9�##Z�##<�##[�##*�##+�##,�##-
�##.�##/�##0�##1�##2�##3�##4�##5�##6�##7�##8�##9�##g�##C�##E�##]�##�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###########$##�##`�##a$######�##`�###########$#a$###]�##�##�##v�##��##٣##"�##B�##��
###�##`�##f�##��##��##�##5�##F�## �###�##r�## �##!
�##B�##C�##_�##��##۲###�##q�##�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�#############################$##�
##`�##a$###q�##s�##޳##��##��##��##��##��##
%�##&�##T�##+�##,�##.�##g�##~�##��##��##��##.�##/�##y�##z�##��##��##�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�#######################
###$##��##� �^��#`�
�a$##########$#a$##################$##��#^��#a$######$##�##`�##a$###��##"�###�##v�#
#w�###�###�##��##��##S�##T�##��##��##��##��##��##��###�###�##1�##2�##��##��###�##>�
##Z�##�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�#############
############$#
&##FS#a$#########$#
&##FJ#a$######$#a$##
###$##��##� �^��#`� �a$###Z�##��##��##��##<�##=�##��##��##n�##��##>�##?
�##z�##{�##]�##h�##1�##��##U�##��##��##'�##��##��##��##�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�###################$##��#`��#a$#####$#
&##FU#a$#####$#
&##FT#a$#########$#
&##FJ#a$######$#a$#####$#
&##FS#a$###��##��##��##��##��##��##D�##��##��##��##��##��###�###�##E�##��##��##��##
#�##t�##��##��##��##��##�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�#################$#
&##FX#a$######$##�h#^�h#a$#####$#
&##FW#a$#####$#
&##FK#a$#########$#
&##FV#a$######$#a$######$##��#`��#a$###��##/�##0�##]�##^�##��##��##R�##��##e�##��##
��##��##��##��##;�##<�##��###�###�##@�##A�##Y�##Z�##v�##w�##�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�###################$#
&##FZ#a$#####$#
&##FY#a$#########$#
&##FK#a$######$#a$#####$#
&##FX#a$###;�###�##?�##@�##A�##Y�##Z�##u�##w�##��##a�##{�##|
�##}�##�##��##T�##U�##W�##k�##l�##m�##
�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##r�##��##
�##=�##��##��##�##�##8###B###b###c###w###x###y###B###8
##I
##J
##K
##R
##S
##U
##V
##W
##�
##�
##�
##�###########\###�###�###�###�#######�###U###�###�###�###�###��������#�����#������
#�#����#���#�#�#�#�#�#�#������#����#�#��#���#��#���#�#��#�#####################
5#�>*#CJ####5#�##j####5#�6#�U##mH##nH##u#####j####6#�U##mH##nH##u###\#�#6#�#5#�6#�#
#6#�\#�Ow�##��##��###�##Y�##d�##L�##&�##'�##`�##a�##|
�##~�##�##��##��##��##��##k�##l�##��##T�##V�##W�##l�##�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�###################
###$##�@##���^�@#`���a$## ###�@##���^�@#`���####$#
&##FL#a$#####$#
&##F[#a$######$#a$#######l�##m�##
�##
�##L�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##r�##s�##��###�#
#"�##@�##�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
#############$#
&##FO#a$#################$#
&##FL#a$#####$#
&##FR#a$##########$#a$###@�##e�##��##��##��##��## �##
�##��##<�##=�##��##��##�##�##8###9###�###�###A###B###b###c###x###y###�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�####################$#
&##FM#a$#########$#
&##FQ#a$#############$#
&##FP#a$##############$#a$#####$#
&##FO#a$###y###B###C###L###M######�###� ##7
##8
##J
##K
##R
##S
##T
##U
##V
##W
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�###�###########�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
################################$#
&##FM#a$#####$#
&##FN#a$######$#a$######$##��#`��#a$###############�###Z###[###\###�###�###�###�###
########Y###A#######�###l###�###�###�###�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�#############################$#
&##F5#�###8###�8#^�8#a$#####$#
&##F4#�###t###�8#^�8#a$#####$#
&##F3#�###�###�8#^�8#a$#
###$#
&##F2##�##`�##a$#########$#
&##F*#a$##########$#a$#####$#
&##F&#a$###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###T###U###�###�###�###�###�###�###
�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
#####################$#a$######$#a$#####$#
&##F*#a$## ###�h##�h#^�h#`�h## ###�h##�##^�h#`�#####
&##F.#######�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###G ##~ ## ##�
##y!##z!##�!##�!##�(##�(##B,##j-##?
0##w0##x0##y0##W2##�3###4###4###4###4##(9##A9##N9##Z9##�9##�9##i;##�;##XF##lF##nO##
pO##sO##tO##�O##�O##�O##�O##�Q##�Q###U##&U##'U##�V##�W##�W##�^##�^##�d###e##�m##�m#
#�m##�m## n##
n###n##
n##�o##�#�#�#�#�#�#�#����������#����#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�##
###j####CJ##U##mH##nH##u####CJ####CJ$### j##��# 6#�>*#]#�#>*##5#�\#�#

5#�>*#\#�##j####6#�U##mH##nH##u###6#�#5#�6#�###j####U##mH##nH##u##J�###�###�###�###
�###�###�###�###�###�###�###F ##G ## ##� ##y!##{!##|!##�!##�!## "##W###X###*$##+
$##�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�#########################
###$##�###���^�##`���a$######$##��#`��#a$######$#a$#####$#
&##F*#a$######�##`�########+$##%%##&%##�
%##�&##�&##�(##�(##>)##?)##�)##�)##j*##�*##H+##�+##�+##A,##B,##j-##k-##�-
##A.##�.##�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�#########################$#
&##F7#a$##########$##��#^��#a$#####$#
&##F6#�###�###�8#^�8#a$######$#a$##
###$##�###���^�##`���a$###�.##V/###0##>0##?
0##x0##y0##W2##X2##�3##�3###4###4###4##T4##U4##l4###5###5##85##�5##�5##�5##b6##c6##
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�################################
#########$#a$######$##��#`��#a$#########$#
&##F*#a$######$#a$#####$#
&##F7#a$###c6##�6###7###7##
7##�7##�7##�7##28##38##I8##�8##�8##�8##'9##(9##D9##H9##�9##�9##.:##F:##�:##�:##h;##
i;##�;##�;###<###<##�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############################<#
##<##7<##8<##K<##|=##}=###>###>##(>##�>##�>##B?##D?##�?##�?##�?##�?
##A##�A##�A##�B##�B###C##�C##�C##�C###D###D##vD##�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
###########################vD##wD##�D##�E##�E###F###F###F###F##0F##1F##CF##DF##WF##
XF##lF##�F##QG##RG##dG##�H##�H##�H##]I##^I##rI##�I##�I##�I##�I##�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�###########################�I##�I##�I##�I##�J##�J##�J##�J##�J##�K##�K
##�K###M##$M##.M##mO##nO##pO##qO##rO##sO##tO##�O##�O##�O##�O##�O###P###P##(P##�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�###########################(P##)P##�Q##�Q##�Q##�Q##�Q##
yR##zR##{R##|
R##}R##~R##R##�R##�R##�R##�R##�R##�R##�R##�R##�R##�R###U###U###U##'U##�V##�W##�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�###########################�W##�W##TX##|
X##BY##�Y##�Z##[[##b[##z[##�[###\##O]##�^##�^##�^##,_##�_##�_##
a###a###a##�a##�a##�a##�a##�a##�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�################
##&d####P�####�#########�p#`�p#####
##&d####P�####�##########�a##�a##�a##�a##�a##�a##;c##�d##�d###e###e##lf##�f##�f##�f
###g###h###h###h##8i##9i##�i##�i###k##mk##�k##�k##�k##�k###l##�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############################l###l##�m##�m##�m##�m##�m##�m##�m##�m##�m##
�m###n###n###n## n###n##
n###n###n###n###n###n###n##�o##�o##�o##�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�###########################################$#a$###
##�###
######�###�########�o##�o##�p##
q##
s###s##iu##yu##4v###w###w##*w##+w##�w##�w##�w##�w##�w##�w##�w##�w##�w##�w##�w##�w##
�w##�w##�w##�w##�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�#####################################$#a$###�o#
#�o##js##rs##zz##�z##�z##E{##l{##�{###|##�|##�|
##a}##�}##=~##d~##E ##l ###�##/�##р###�##t�##��##(�##F�###�##-�##.�##@�##��##��##
�##J�##�###�##Ԇ###�##b�##��###�##M�##�##�##S�##��##�##6�##W�##o�##r�##w�##X�##��##
�###�##��##��##‫ݎ‬##�###‫׍‬###�##r�##��##Ώ##�##m�##��###�##)�##��##Ē##œ##�##�##�##+�##
6�###�##%�##ϕ##‫ە‬##Ɩ##ϖ##T � ##Y � ## � � # # � � # # � # #" � ## ‫ܙ‬##
�##՚##�##G�##Y�##�#�#��#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#
�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�##

6#�>*#]#�#6#�]#�##5#�\#�`�w##�w##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y
##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y###z##Tz##hz##iz##jz##kz##lz##mz##nz##�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�###########################nz##oz##pz##qz##rz##sz##tz##uz##vz##wz##xz##
yz##zz##�z##�z##�z##�z##�z##�z##�z##D{##E{##l{##�{##�{###|##�|
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
#####################################�,#^�,######$#a$######$#a$###########�|##�|
##�|
##`}##a}##�}##�}##�}###~##<~##=~##d~##D ##E ##l ###�###�##+�##Ѐ##р##ҀԀ
##Ӏ##Ԁ##Հ##ր#
#�############�############�############�############�############�##�###‫ـ‬##‫؀‬##‫׀‬
##�############�############�############�############�############�############
####�############�############�############�############�############�##########
######�############�############�############�############�############�########
###################################�############�############�############�######
0�]�0��###�###�##h�##��##��###�###�##0�##t�##u�##��##��##Ђ##�##�##�###�##(�##)�##
@�##A�###�###�##*�##+�##@�##I�##�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�###################
&##F#####
&##F#######��#^��####
&##F#########
&##F########I�##_�##��##��##��##��##��##τ##�##�###�###�###�###�###�###�##
�##@�##A�##�##�###�##
%�##4�##P�##t�##��##�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�#####################
&##F ######�X#^�X####
&##F###########��#^��####
&##F####��##Ԇ##Ն###�###�###�##,�##R�##b�##c�##��##��##�##�###�###�###�##L�##M�##�
##��##�##�##W�##��##��##�##�##�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�##################
&##F####
&##F#####
&##F
########
&##F ###�##�##�##�##R�##S�##��##��##��##��##��##�##Ɗ## �##5�##�##ߊ
##6�##=�##N�##V�##W�##o�##r�##W�##X�##��##��##�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�##############################
########
&##F#####
&##F########��##��##��##��##Ҍ##�##�##�###�###�##��##��##��##��##ƍ##΍##֍##
‫܍‬##‫ۍ‬##‫ڍ‬##ٍ##‫؍‬##‫׍‬###�###�##/�##L�##]�##�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############################
&##F#####
&##F#########
&##F####]�##r�##��##��##��##̎ ## ‫ݎ‬##܎###�###�###�##+�##L�##m�##n�##��##��##ɏ##ʏ##�##�#
#G�##h�##i�##��##��##��###�##�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�################ ###��##�0�^��#`�0�###
&##F#########
&##F#####�###�## �##!�##��##��##��##��###�##
�##�##)�##*�##��##��##Ē##Œ##
ߒ##�##:�##V�##X�##�##�##�##�##+�##6�##�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############################��#`��###
### ###��##�0�^��#`�0�##6�###�##'�##ϕ##
‫ە‬##Ɩ##ϖ##T � ##Z � ## � � # # � � # # � # # � # # � ## � ## � ## � ## � # # � ### � ##" � ##J � ##V � ## � � # #
��##Ԙ##ߘ##�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�#######################��#`��######$#a$######$##��#`��#a$#########�##h##�####
##7�##2ߘ�##v�##|�##ՙ##‫ؙ‬##
�###�##O�##К##њ##�##�##B�##C�##Y�##Z�##�##�###�###�##1�##2�##[�##\�##h�##��##��##�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�###############################��#`��#######Y�##�###�##5�##[�##v�
##��##�###�##��##��##s�##��##��##��###�###�##6�##�##�##
%�##&�##��##��##��##��##̺ ##ͺ##6##�5##�###�"##�###�###�###�###�##�##�##�##‫ں‬##‫�ٺ‬
##D�##E�##P�##Q�##R�##_�##��##��###�###�##m�##n�##��###�##ʽ##˽##>�##?
�##��##��##�###�##��##��##>�##I�##��##��##R�##S�##��##��## �##
�##t�##u�##��##��##
�###�##b�##y�##��##��##��##��##��##��##G�##V�##��##��##��###�##7�###�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�
�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�###
#5#�#5#�CJ###CJ(###5#�\#�`��###�##
�###�##r�##s�##��##�##�###�##��##��##��##Þ##�##��##;�##D�##n�##x�##��##��##�###�##n
�##o�##��##à##Ԡ###�##�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############################
�##5�##{�##|
�##}�##~�##�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��#
#>�##?
�##b�##c�##x�##�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�#################################$#a$#######x�##
y�##٢###�##\�##��##��##��##�###�##^�##��##��##Ƥ##Ǥ##!
�###�###�##\�##�##��##��##��##��##��##ӧ###�##&�##B�##_�##�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�###########################_�##~�##�##��##��##�##�###�##a�##�##�###�##_�##�
�##��##��##��##��##��##
�##]�##�##b�##��##W�##�##6�##J�##R�##�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�##########################
#####
&##F########R�##m�##}�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##^�##y�##�##�##��##˲##/�##��
##��##۳##@�##��###�##U�##��##��##��##۶##�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�#####################
&##F#########
&##F####۶##�##��##۷##L�##ø##߸###�###�###�###�###�###�##5�##6�##�##&�##��##��##�##ͺ#
#‫ں‬##�##�###�###�##�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
######################$#
&##F�#a$######$##��#^��#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$#a$####
&##F#########�###�##6�##E�##Q�##R�##_�##��###�##n�###�##˽##?�##��##�##�###�##��##?
�##@�##A�##I�##�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�#########################################$#
&##F�#a$######$##�##^�##a$#
###$#
&##F�##���]���a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$##�8#^�8#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$###I�##��##S�##��##
�##u�##��###�##c�##d�##y�##��##��##��##H�##I�##V�##��##1�##x�##��##��##��##:�##��##
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�################$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$##�##^�##a$#####$#
&##F�#a$###��##��##��###�##��##7�##8�##K�##��##7�##8�##D�##��##
�##g�##��##��##��##��###�###�##��##��##�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�###################
###############$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$##�##^�##a$#####$#
&##F�#a$###7�##K�##7�##D�##��##��##��##��##��##��##X�##��##��##��##2�##L�##��##��##
#�###�##��##��##��##��###�##
�##)�##*�##F�##G�##c�##d�##��##��##��##��##^�##`�##��##��##��##��##��##R�##��##��##
��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##P�##r�##s�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##�#�#�#�#�#
�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#ż#����#��#���#��##########CJ####5#�CJ##
#jA###U####j####5#�U##mH##nH##u##
#j####U###5#�\#�###j####CJ##U##mH##nH##u####H*# #j�###U## #j�###U##
#jf###U## #j####U## #j�##U## #j�
##U####j�###<#�CJ##U##aJ####5#�#?
��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##p�##X�##��###�##��##>�##��##��##��##c�##��##1�##2�#
#M�##��##\�##�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�#######################$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$##� #^� #a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$#a$###\�##��##��##��##C�##��###�###�###�##��##��##��##��##k�##��##��
##��##��##��##��##��##
�##�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�##############################$#a$######$#a$######$##�8#^�8#a$#####$
#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$##� #^� #a$#####$#
&##F�#a$###
�###�##)�##F�##c�##��##��##��##��##��##��##w�###�##H�##��##<�##x�##y�##��###�##}�##
��###�###�##4�##�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�################
######$#
&##F�#a$######$##��#^��#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$##
###$#�###�###�h#^�h#a$###4�##V�##|
�##��##��##��###�##c�##��###�##��##7�##8�##X�##��##8�##o�##x�##��##��##��##��###�##
^�##�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�#######################$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$##�8#^�8#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$###^�##_�##n�##��##P�##%�##`�##��##��###�##j�##��##��##��##��###�##,�##-
�##|
�##��##��##�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�########################################################$#
&##F�#a$######$#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$##��#^��#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$##�8#^�8#a$###��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##R�##��
###�###�###�###�###�##|
�##��##��##��##�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�########################
###$#
&##F�#�###�##a$######$#�###�##a$######$#�###�##a$#####
�###�###########$##��#^��#a$##
###$#
�###�###�h#^�h#a$###��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##D�##��##��##��##��##��#
#��###�###�###�##>�##?
�##I�##J�##�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�#####################$#
&##F�#a$######$#a$##########$##� #^� #a$######$##� #^� #a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$#a$######$#
�###�##a$###J�##��##l�##��##��##��##��##��##K�##��###�##��##!
�##d�##��##��##;�##{�##��##>�##��##=�##]�##��##��##�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�################$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$##� #^� #a$#####$#
&##F�#a$###��##��##��##��##H�##��##.�##r�##��##

�##v�##��##K�##L�##M�##N�##O�##P�##Q�##R�##S�##T�##U�##V�##W�##X�##Y�##�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�##################
####$#
&##F�#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$######$#a$#####$#
&##F�#a$###Y�##Z�##[�##\�##]�##^�##_�##r�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�##
#�##
�##5�##A�##T�##Z�##v�##��##��##�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�###################################
&##F_####
&##F_######$#a$######$#a$#######��##��##��##��##��##��##��##S�##n�###�##*�##B�##��#
#��##�###�##��##�######'###�###�###�###�###U###h###�#######�###�###& ##,
##N###h###�
#####�###�###�###�###########�###�#######!###N###S#######
###�#######�###�###Z###k###�###�###Q###R###b###r###� ##�
##�,##�,##�0###1##81##E1##�7##�7###A##.A##�F##�F###G##xM##�M##AR##UR##�`##�`##�`##�
`##�#�#��#�#��#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#���#�#�#�#�#�#�#��#�#
�#�#�############################

#j####U###5#�;#�CJ`#OJ##QJ##aJ`###5#�>*###5#�#5#�CJ###CJ$#T��##��##��##��##��##��##
\�##]�##n�##|
�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�###�##I�##\�##g�##r�##z�##��##��##��##��##�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�#######################
&##F`######�h#^�h###��##��##��##��##��##��##S�##T�##n�###�###�##*�##+�##A�##��##��#
#��##~�##��##��##�##�##�###�##��##��##�##�###�###�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�##############
#####
&##F`##########��#^��###�###�###�###�###�###�###################################&##
#�###"###t###
###�###�###�###D###T###}###�###�###�###�###�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�################$#
&##F`#a$########
&##F`###�###�###U###h###�###�#######�###�###T###b###�###�###�###
%###&###=###�###�###�###% ##& ##, ##� ##� ##� ##\
##�
##�
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�#####################
&##F`####
&##Fa#######�
######M###N###g###�###�####
###
##F
##M
##^
##i
##y
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�
##�
#####�##�
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############################��#^��####
&##Fa########
&##F`###�##�##9###:###R###�###�###�###@###A###I###�###�###�###J###�###
###5###`###�###�###�###�###############�###�###�###�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
###################
&##F`#######�###�###�#######F###m###�###�###############
###N#######�###6###�###{###�###�###�###�###########
###�###�###�###�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############################$#a$######��#^��####
&##F`#######�###�###�###�###�###Y###Z###j###�###�###�###P###Q###R###b###q###r#####
#�###�###�###�###�###$###B###W###�###�###�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############################$##dh##
#a$######dh########$#a$###�###�###�###=###t###�###�###�###4 ##x ##� ##� ##� ##� ##�
##� ##� ###!##5!##`!##u!##�!##�!##�!
##�"##�"##�"##<###N###�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�###################��##dh###`��######dh##
###N###�###�####$##2$##U$##v$##�$##'%##A%##r%##�%##�%##�
%###&##5&##n&##�&##�&##�&##�&##�&##�&##+'##`'##r'##�'##�'##�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�#################
#�8##dh###^�8######��##dh###^��######dh#####�'##�'##G(##b(##x(##�(##�(##�(##�(##�(#
##)##y)##�)##�)##�)##�)###*##6*##�*##�*##�*###+###+##/
+##<+##g+##�+###,##�,##�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�###################��##dh###^��######dh#
####�,##�,##�,##�,##�,##�,##�,###-##2-##U-##n-##�-##�-##.###.##2.##M.##�.##
/###/##R/##y/##�/##�/##90##U0##b0##�0##�0##�0##�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�####################dh#####�0##�0##�0##�0###1###1###1###1###1###1###1###1## 1##!
1##"1###1##$1##%1##&1##'1##)1##*1##+1##,1##-
1##.1##/1##01##�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�##################��##dh###`��######�8##dh###^�8######dh#####
01##11##21##31##41##51##61##71##81##D1##E1##R1##|1##�1##G2##W2##�2##�2###3##-
3##�3##
4##C4##p4##�4##85##W5##�5##�5##�5##�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�###############
#####dh#####�5##�5###6##16##F6##d6##�6##�6###7###7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7##�7#
#
%8##]8##^8##_8##o8##�8##�8###9##69##�9##�9##�9##�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##################dh#####�9##�9##�9##�9##�9###:##B:##^:##l:##�:##�:##�:##�:##�:###;
##0;##=;##Z;##~;##�;##�;##�;###<##/<##Z<##�<##�<##�<##�<##�<##�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�####################dh#####�<##�<##*=##:=##G=##k=##w=##�=##�=##�=##�=##
#>##>>##T>##_>##�>##�>##�>##�>##
?##3?##]?##�?##�?##�?###@##:@##Z@##y@##
A##�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�####################dh#####
A###A###A###A###A###A##.A##;A##RA##rA##}A##�A##�A##�A##1B##�B###C###C##�C###D###D##
?D##OD##fD##�D##�D##�D##�D##�D##
E##�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�####################dh#####
E##$E##�E##�E##�E##�E###F##*F##TF##hF##�F##�F##�F##�F##�F###G##$G##MG##nG###H##,H##
YH##fH##�H##�H##�H##@I##iI##�I##
%J##�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�####################dh#####
%J##hJ##�J##0K##OK##}K##�K##�K##�K###L##)L##>L##\L##�L##�L###M###M##iM##xM##�M##�M#
#�M##�M##(N##8N##lN##{N##

O##VO##bO##�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�####################dh#####bO##�O###P##
�P##�P###Q##QQ##�Q##�Q##@R##AR##UR##bR##�R##�R##�R##�R###S##<S##FS##zS##�S##,T##�T#
#�T##�T##(U##�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�#######################
###��##� �#dh###^��#`�
�#####dh########��##dh###`��###(U##�U##�U##�U###V##bV##�V##�V##�V##/W##oW##�W##�W##
AX##rX##�X##$Y##yY##�Y##�Y##!
Z##VZ##�Z##�Z###\##7\##V\##�\##�\##�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�###################��##dh###
`��######dh#####�\###]##Q]##�]##�]##�]##�]##�]##�]##�]##T^##}^##�_##�_##�_##&`##�`#
#�`##�`##�`##�`##�`##�`##�`##�`##�`##�`##�`##�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�########################�h#^�h#
#####dh########��##dh###`��###�`##�`##�`##�`###c###c###s##2s##3s##�t##Nu##lu##�###�
##��##ˆ##�###�##��##�##h�##j�##l�##��##�## �##ȯ###�##h�##��##��##ַ##
�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##�###��##��##�##�##�##�##�##�##‫ٷ‬##‫ط‬
�#��#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#���##�###��##�[##�>##��##��##�###��##�
5#�#5####�#�#�#�������#��#�������#�CJ##
#j�###CJ##U####j####CJ##U##mH##nH##u####CJ##mH##nH##u###j####CJ##U###CJ###
#ja###CJ##U####j####U##mH##nH##u####j####CJ##U###CJ####CJ$###CJ ###5#�\#�#
#j####U##

#j�###U####j####U##_HI#mH##nH##u##;�`##�`##�`##&b##�b##�b##�b##�b##�b##�b##�b##�b##
�b##�b##�b##�b###c##$c##
%c##Yc##Zc##�c##�c##�c###d##Id##Jd##�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�#################################��#^��####
&##Fv##########$#a$######�h#^�h###Jd##Kd##�d###f##�f##�f##�f##�f##
h##ki##li##�i##�i##�k##�k##�k##�k##�l###n###n###n###n###n##/n##{n##eo##�p##�p##�p##
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�#######################��#^��######�h#^�h###�p##�p##�p##nq##oq#
#�q##�q##�q###r##mr##�r###s###s###s##1s##2s##�t##�t##�t###u##!
u##5u##Nu##Ou##Pu##lu##�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�##############################
&##F}############
&##F|######��#^��#####
�##h##�#######�h#^�h###lu##mu##�u##�u##nv##ov##�v##�v###w###w##
%w##Vw##_w##xw##�w##�w##�w###x##'x##9x##Lx##px##�x##�x##�x##�x##�x##�x##�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
##########################
&##Fw####
&##Fw######��#^��###�x###y###y##Ny##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y###z##Ez##�z##�z##�z##�z##�z#
#�z##�z##�z##�z##F{##g{##~{##�{##�{##�{##�{##�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�#######################��#^��####
&##Fx######�8#^�8########
&##Fw####
&##Fw###�{##�{##�{##�|
##U}##�}##�}##�}##9~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�~##�##�
##(�##S�##T�##��##ρ##�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�##################��#^��###ρ
###�##x�##‫܂‬##�##�###�##Q�##R�##��###�##��##:�##Ņ##0�##��##W�##��##��##ˆ##'�##�##�##
#�##��##��##��##��##j�##�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�###################################��#^
��###j�##k�##l�##��##��##��##��##��##��##ʒ##˒##̒## ߒ##‫ޒ‬##‫ݒ‬##

�##W�##��##�##�##��##��##��##Y�###�##��##�##�##�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�################
&##Fz####
&##Fy######$#a$##########��#^��###�##�##�###�##��##��##�##‫ڙ‬##W�##X�##Y�##}�##~�##�#
##�##1�##Y�##}�##��##��##��##��##�##�##�## ‫؞‬
##ٞ##��###�##�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�###############################
&##F{########�##��##۠###�##k�##ȡ##�##�###�##K�##L�##l�##��##��##�##�##Ϥ##Ф##Ѥ###�##
\�##�##��##�##_�##`�###�###�## �##!
�##�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�###########################!
�##"�###�##@�##A�##O�##��##��##ҩ##��##��## ۪###�##��##�##��##@�##A�##j�##k�##ŭ##�##E�
##��##Ԯ##ů##Ư##ǯ##ȯ##�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�#####################dh########��#^��####
###ȯ##�###�###�##m�##n�##t�###�###�##&�##�##�##�##l�##��##��##��##��##
��##ɵ##g�##h�##i�##j�##k�##l�##m�##n�##o�##�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�####################
#######$#a$######$#a$###o�##p�##q�##r�##s�##t�##u�##v�##w�##x�##y�##z�##{�##|
�##}�##~�##�##��##��##��##��##��##��## ‫׷‬##�##�##�###�###�##g�##�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�####################$#a$###g�##�##�##�##�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��#
#��##��###�##:�##k�##��##�##�##�###�##c�##d�##{�##&�##'�##=�##�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�##############
#####$#
&##F$#a$######$#a$######$##��#^��#a$###=�##3�##4�##Y�##��##l�##m�##n�##o�##p�##q�##
r�##s�##t�##��##��##��##z�##��##��##��###�###�##'�##��##��##��##��##��##�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�###########################$#a$######$#a$###��###�###�###�## �##
%�##4�##5�##A�##
%�##&�##/�##��##��##��##6�##7�##H�###�###�###�###�###�##$�##��##��##��##��##�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
########################
###$##��##��#^��#`��#a$######$#a$###��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��#
#��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�##
�##��##��##��##=�##>�##?
�##[�##�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�###################$##��#^��#a$######$#a$###[�##P�##Q�##
_�##��##��##��###�## �##-
�##��##��##��##3�##4�##J�##D�##E�##F�##L�##��##��##��##��###�###�###�###�###�##�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�#############################$##��#^��#a$####�###�###�##��##��##��#
#/�##@�##��##��##c�##w�##��##��##��##��##N�##W�##Y�##l�##��##��##��###�##��##��##��
##��##��###�##!
�##D�##N�##k�##s�##u�##��##��##��##��##��###�##9�##F�##��##��##��##��##:�##F�##G�##
H�##e�##y�##z�##~�###�##!�##"�##-
�##��##��##��##��##+�##8�##9�##M�###�###�###�##�##############�###�###�###�#######*
####�#���������������������������������������������������#�������������������#����
�####B*#CJ##ph�###
6#�CJ##]#�##5#�6#�CJ##\#�]#�##CJ###
5#�CJ##\#�##5#�B*#CJ##\#�ph�#####j####U##mH##nH##u##P#�###�###�## �##
�###�##
�##
�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�##g�##h�##i�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�################################$#a$##########$##��#^��#a$###��##��##��##/�#
#��##c�##��##��##Y�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�##D�##k�##��##��##��##(�##�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�########################## ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�# ###�0�#�h#]�0�^�h# ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�# ###�0�#��#]�0�^��## ###�0�#��#]�0�^��######�h#^�h####
&##F�###(�##/�##D�##��##��##��##2�##I�##��##��###�##W�##��##
�##c�##��##��##5�##��##��##��##:�##G�##�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############ ##
&##F�##�0�]�0� ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�# ###�0�#��#]�0�^��# ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�####�0�#��##�-#]�0�^��#`�-# ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�#####�0�]�0�##G�##H�##��##��###�##!
�##:�##Z�##c�##d�##e�##z�##{�##��##V�###�##"�##>�###�##��##��##=�##i�##�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�#################### ##
&##F�##�0�]�0� ##
&##F�##�0�]�0� ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�#####�0�]�0� ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�# ###�0�#�t#]�0�^�t##

###�0�#�h#]�0�^�h###i�##��##��##+�##9�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�
##�##�##��##��###�###�###�##�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�##################### ###�0�#�h#]�0�^�h# ##
&##F�##�0�]�0� ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�###�###�###�###�###�##K�##w�##��##�##########�###�#######h###�###�###
8###�###�###�###�###�###�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�##################################
# ###�0�#��
]�0�^��
##
&##F�##�0�]�0�#########�0�]�0� ##
&##F�##�0�]�0� ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�#

###�0�#�h#]�0�^�h###*###h###y###�###�###�###�###7###G###�###�###�###�###�###�###�##
#####"#######(###,###v###�###�###�###+###�###�###�###�###S
##T
##e
##g
##n
##p
##�
##�
##�
##�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###!###;###X###�###�###�###�###�###�###X ##h
##(!##:!##;"##H"##O$##^$##t%##�%##�(##�(##�)##�)##-##�-
##�.##�.##�/##�/##\1##�����������������#�#�����#�������#�������#�#���#�#�#�#�#�#�#
�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�####5#�6#�##5#�#5#�>*#CJ##aJ####5#�>*####j####U##mH##nH##u####>*#C
J##5#�>*#CJ##\#�#5#�6#�CJ##\#�]#�#
5#�CJ##\#�##CJ##N�###.###g###�###&###v###�###�###�###�###�###�###########+###>###R#
##u###�###�###�###�###�###�#######&###�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�################### ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�# ###�0�#�h#]�0�^�h# ##
&##F�##�0�]�0� ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�##&###+###;###�###�###�###/ ##� ##� ##� ##� ##Q
##e
##g
##n
##o
##p
##�
##�
##�
##U##�##�
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�################## ##
&##F�##�0�]�0� ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�#########�0�]�0� ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�# ###�0�#�h#]�0�^�h############
&##F�# ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�##�######<###�###-
###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�################################
#########$#a$##########$#a$######�0�]�0�# ###�0�#�h#]�0�^�h# ##
&##F�##�0�]�0�##�###�###g###�###�###�###�###O###~###�###'###(###�###�###\###]###�##
#�###�###�###�###�###�###!
###########�###�###�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�#####################$#
&##Fb#a$######$#a$######$##dh###a$###�###@###:###;###X###5###6###.###/###�###�###�#
##�###�###�###�###�###�#######Y###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
###########$#
&##Fb#a$######$##dh###a$######$#a$###�###�###�###�###�###�###W ##X ##h ##'!##(!##:!
##:"##;"##H"##N$##O$##^$##s%##t%##�
%##k&##l&##�&##<'##�'##b(##�(##�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�#####################$#
&##Fb#a$######$#a$######$##dh###a$###�(##�(##�(##�)##�)##�)###*##6*##c*##t*##�*##�*
##L+##M+##�+###,##I,##�,##�,##~-##-##�-##�-
###.##�.##�.##�.##�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�#####################$##��#^��#a$#####$#
&##Fb#a$######$##dh###a$######$#a$###�.##�/##�/##�/##[1##\1##i1##+2##,2##;2##�3##�3
##�3###4##)4##@4##d4##�4##�4##�4##�4##�4##�4##J6##K6##�6##�6##�6##�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
###########$#
&##Fb#a$######$##dh###a$######$#a$###\1##i1##,2##;2##�3##�3##�4##�4##�6###7##�9##�9
##Q<##a<##.>##P>##�@##�@##,B##JB###D###D##8F##IF##�G##�G##�G##�G##�G##�H##�H##�J##�
J##�L##�L##�M##�M##uN##�N##�P##�P###Q##.Q##�S##�S##�U##�U##\W##lW##IY##hY##�[##�[##
^###^##]`##f`##�a##�a##*d##;d##df##qf##�h##�h##�i##�i###k##
k##�l###m##�n###o##so##xo##aq##hq##�r##�r##�s##�s###t##(t##�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#
��#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#���#################5#�6#�CJ
##\#�]#�#
6#�CJ##]#�#
6#�CJ##]#�##6#�#5#�>*#CJ##aJ####5#�>*###5#�#5#�6#�R�6##�6##�6###7##:8##�8##e9##f9##
�9##�9##�9##�9##�9##�:##�:##P<##Q<##a<##-
>##.>##P>##�@##�@##�@##�@##+B##,B##�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�#####################$##��#^��#a$######$##dh###a$#####
#$#a$#####$#
&##Fb#a$###,B##JB##�C##�C##�C##�C###D###D###D##7F##8F##9F##IF###G##?
G##vG##�G##�G##�G##�G##�G##�G##�G##�G##�G##�G##�G##�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�#########################$#a$#########
$#
&##Fb#a$######$#a$######$##dh###a$###�G##�G##�G##�G##�G##�H##�H##�H##�J##�J##�J##GK
##�L##�L##�L##�M##tN##uN##�N##�P##�P##�P###Q###Q##.Q##)R##*R##�S##�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##################$##dh###a$######$#a$######$#a$###�S##�S##�S##�U##�U##�U##[W##\W##
lW##HY##IY##hY###Z##�Z##�[##�[##�[###^##
^###^##\`##]`##f`##a##�a##�a###c##)d##*d##�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�####################
#$##dh###a$######$#a$###*d##;d##�e##cf##df##qf##�h##�h##�h##�i##�i##�i###k###k##
k##�l##�l###m##�n##�n###o##ro##so##xo##�p##`q##aq##hq##�q##�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
#################$#a$######$##dh###a$###�q###r##�r##�r##�s##�s##�s##�s##�s##�s##�s#
##t##�u##�u##�u###w##'w###y##@y##�y##�y##�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�#########################################
###$##���#�h#]���^�h#a$######$#
�###h###�h##���^�h#`���a$######$##�h#^�h#a$##############$#a$######$##dh###a$##
###$##�p##�`�^�p#`�`�a$###(t##�u##�u##�u###w##;w##'y##Ry##�y##�y##�y##�y##�y###z##F
|##I|##�|##�~##)##À##�###�##��##��##��##Â##Ղ##-
�##@�##��##��###�###�###�###�###�###�###�##'�##>�##?
�##T�##Y�##p�##)�##A�##�###�##��##��##=�##K�##Q�##c�##9�##G�##{�##��##ē##ғ##j�##|
�##�###�###�###�##e�##p�###�###�##��##�##��##��##��##�����������������������������
�������#��#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�######5#�6#�##6#�#5#�#>*##5#�>*#CJ##aJ#
###5#�>*##
5#�CJ$#\#�##CJ$###5#�6#�CJ##\#�]#�#
5#�CJ##\#�#
6#�CJ##]#�#
6#�CJ##]#�##CJ###
5#�CJ##\#�J�y##�y##�y###z##={##@|##A|##d|
##�~##�~#####€##À##�##h�##��##��##��##��##Ղ##�##�###�###�##�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�#################
###$#
&##F�##���]���a$##
###$##���#�h#]���^�h#a$######$##���]���a$######$#
�###h###���#�h##���]���^�h#`���a$####�##@�##M�##\�##u�##��##��##ǃ##‫؃‬##�##�###�###�
###�###�###�###�###�## �##
�###�##
�##
�###�##�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�##########################$#a$######
###$##���#��#]���^��#a$#
###$#
&##F�##���]���a$#
###$#
&##F�##���]���a$######$##���]���a$####�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�
###�###�###�##'�##>�##?
�##T�##��##��##͆##Ά##X#�
##Y�##p�##��###�##�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�##################
&##Fc######$#a$######dh########$#a$########�##E�##��##�##0�##1�##ˉ###�##I�##b�##��#
#��##��##(�##)�##A�##��##Ӌ##�##�##�##��##8�##9�##P�##Q�##c�##8�##�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
###################dh########$#a$########
&##Fc###8�##9�##G�##��##��##Z�##m�##z�##{�##��##8�##��##
�##c�##Ó##ē##ғ##��##Ԕ##�##(�##i�##!�##"�##i�##j�##|
�##�##�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############################
&##Fc######$#a$######dh#########�##�###�##8�##i�##��##‫ؙ‬###�###�###�##Z�##��##ƚ###�##
#�##9�##R�##d�##e�##p�##��##�###�###�###�##a�##��##��##�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�#####################
#######
&##Fd####
&##Fc######dh#########��##�##/�##^�##��##��##��##�###�##9�##^�##��##��##��##�###�##
v�##��##��##џ###�##>�##��##��##��##�###�###�##(�##�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�#############
############
&##Fc######dh#####��##��##��##џ##��##��###�##(�##(�##1�##n�##o�##|
�##(�##/�##�##�##Q�##��##��##��##A�##]�##�##��## �##�>##�=##�<##�;##�4 ##�###޴##‫ݴݴ‬
##�&##�%##�###�###�###
9�##:�##;�##O�##P�##d�##e�##~�##��##��##��##��##��##7�##\�###�##��##��##��##��##��#
#��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�## �###�##-
�##/�##A�##B�##C�##�#�#�#�#��#�#�#�#�#����#�#�#�#�#�#����#����������#�#��#�����#��
����������#��###CJ$## B*#ph#####CJ##mH##nH##u####j####CJ##U##mH##nH##u###
B*#CJ##ph######j####U##mH##nH##u####CJ ###CJ####5#�\#�##5#�#5#�6#�L(�##
ߡ##‫ޡ‬##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�##�#
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�#####################################$#a$###�##�##�##�##�##��#
#��###�###�##"�###�##1�##n�##o�##'�##(�##�##�##P�##Q�##��##��##��##��##�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�#########################################################
######################################################$#If##############��##�##Х##v
�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##�p###########�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�###############
######$#If####u###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�0##���#,"##L#########
##########L#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�####�###�#�#
###�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�#####��##��##��##��##��##��##��##�##�###�###�##@�##A�##]�##N�##
�##5 �###߮## #��
##��##¬##��##��##� ##��##�##��##�###‫ש‬
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##�##6
#########�############�############�############�############�############�#####
###########�############�############�############�############�############�###
############�############�############�############�############�############�#
�############�############�############�############�
###########################6�##a�##b�##��##��##V�##��##��##��##N�##O�##��##�##�##N�
##��##�##�##J�##��##�##�##4�##��##��##ܴ##############�############�##�6##�5##�###‫ݴ‬
�############�############�############�############�############�############�
##�############�############�############�############�############�############
####�############�############�############�############�############�##########
######�############�############�############�############�############�########
9##�8##�7##�6###########################�############�######�##:�##;�##=�##?
�##@�##A�##B�##C�##D�##E�##F�##G�##m�##n�##��##��###�##l�##m�##Ƕ###�##

�##^�##��##��##�##�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�###########################�###�
###�###�###�###�##$�##
%�##9�##:�##N�##O�##d�##f�##}�##~�##��##��##��##��##��##�##�##¸##ø##ĸ##Ÿ##Ƹ##Ǹ##�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�###############################�K#^�K#######Ǹ##ȸ##�##�##�###�##(�#
#<�##K�##L�##\�##��##?
�##��##�##0�##1�##2�##3�##4�##5�##6�##7�##[�##\�##��##��##�##�##�##�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�###########################�##�##�##s�##t�##�###�###�##9�##z�##��#
#��##S�##T�##¿##ÿ##��##��##��##��###�###�##��##��##��##��##�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�########################
&##Fp####
&##Fo####
&##Fn####
&##Fm####
&##Fl#�##h##�###��#^��#######��##i�##j�##,�##-�##��##��##��##��###�##
�##��##��##��##��##��##��##5�##6�##)�##*�##N�##��###�###�##;�##�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�################################��#^��#
###
&##Fu####
&##Ft####
&##Fs####
&##Fr####
&##Fq#######;�##��##��##��##��##��###�##d�##e�##f�##��##��###�##1�##G�##{�##|
�###�###�##r�##(�##��###�##z�##��##��##��##��##1�##�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
#########
&##Fi####
&##Fh#######1�##��##��##)�##��##��##��##C�##Z�##��##��##��##P�###�###�###�###�###�#
#Q�##R�##S�##��##��##��##��##��##�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�###########################
&##Fk#�###H###��#^��######�K#^�K###
&##Fj#�###H###��#^��#######��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�###�###�##

�##J�##K�##L�##M�##N�##O�##q�##S�##T�##l�###�###�##*�##��##��###�##5�##6�##�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�##################�K#^�K###6�##Z�##,�##��##��##!
�##��##��##��##��##��##Z�##k�##l�##��##��##��##��##"�###�##$�##
%�##&�##'�##(�##)�##*�##+�##,�##�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�###############################
####�K#^�K###,�##-
�##B�##D�##X�##Z�##o�##p�##s�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##
��##��##��###�###�###�###�##�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############�###################################
�K#^�K###C�##D�##E�##W�##X�##Y�##Z�##[�##n�##o�##p�##r�##s�##��##��##��##��##��##��
##��##��##��##��##+�##,�##.�##0�##7�##9�##=�##~�##�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###
�##G###r###�###�###�###�###�###�###�#######H###�### ##D ##E ##� ##�
##� ##� ##� ##� ##� ##� ##� ##� ##� ##0
##1
##2
##I
##J
##K
##L
##M
##P
##�
##Y###��#����#����#�����#�����������������#��#�#�#����#�#�#�#�#�#����#�#��#����#�#
## #j�!##U## #j#!##U## #j� ##U####j####U##mH##nH##u###
#j####U###5#�#5#�\#�#
B*#CJ##ph#####CJ#####j####CJ##U##mH##nH##u####CJ##L#�###�###�##+�##-
�##.�##1�##2�##3�##4�##5�##6�##7�##:�##;�##<�##=�##~�##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##
��##��##��##��##�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�############�############�############�############�############�###
#########�############�############�#######################��#^��######�K#^�K###��#
#��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��##��###�##
�##��##��##��###�##Z�###�##F###G###�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�############�############�############�###########################
&##F############G###r###s###�###&###Z###�###�###�###!
###�###�###�###�###############9###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###########H###I###�###
#########�############�############�############�############�############�########
####�############�############�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�############�############�############�############�##########
##�############�###########################
&##F############I###J###�###�### ##
##5 ##6 ##7 ##D ##d ##e ##f ##g ##h ##i ##� ##� ##�
##� ##� ##� ##� ##.
##/
##0
##N
##O
##w
##�############�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�#####################$#a$#####�###1########w
##x
##�
##�
##l
##E###F###~###�###�###@###A###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�###�
###�###�###�###�############�############�############�############�############�##
##########�############�############�############�############�############�#######
#####�############�############�############�############�############�############
�############�############�############�############�############�############�####
########�############�############�############################################Y###
Z###q###r###s###t###u###~###�###�###�###A###S###�###�###�###�###�###�#######
##############Y###]###^###u###v###w###x###y###|
###�#######6###�#######�###�###�###�#######E###�###�###�###�###h ##�
##{"##�"##?)##a)##�/###0##6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�
6##�6##�7##�7##�8###9##+<##,<##6<##=<##�B##�B##�B##�B##�#����#�#�#�#�#�#�#����#��#�
���#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#�#����#�#����#�#�#�#�#�#�#�# #jq$##U## #j�###U##
#jQ###U## #j�"##U###5#�\#�# #j1"##U####j####U##mH##nH##u###
#j####U###S�###########Y###{###|
###�###�###"#######�###�###�###�###P###�###�###########E###F###�###�###�###�###r###
�###�###�############�############�############�############�############�#########
###�############�############�############�############�############�############�#
###########�############�############�############�############�############�######
######�############�############�############�############�############�###########
#�############�#####################################
�###�###########$#a$###�###s###�###) ##g ##h ##+!
##z"##{"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�"##�############�############�############�############�
############�############�############�############�############�############�#####
#######�############�##############################################################
###################################################################################
###################################################################################
###################
##�###�###$#If########�###�## ##
&##F##�###�###
�"##�"######u###�###�###�###�###1$##�$##�$##�$##�$##w�###########m############m####
########m############m############w############m############m############m#########
###w############m############m######################
##
�###�###$#If####�###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�F##��##�#,"##�#####
##############�###################�#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�####
�$##f%##g%##�%##�
%##r&##s&##�&##�&###'###'##6'##e'##�############m0###########�############�########
####�############m�###########�############�############�############m@###########�
############�######################�###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�
F##��##�#,"##�###################�###################�#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##�###�###$#If#####
e'##�'##�'###(##3(##�(##�(##�(##�(##<)##=)##>)##�############m�###########�########
####�############�############m�###########�############�############�############m
############g###############################
�###�##�###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�F##��##�#,"##�##############
#####�###################�#################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�####6##�####�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�#�
###�###�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##�###�###$#If######>)##?)##`)##a)##k)##w)##x)##�)##�)##%*##�*##
+##�############�############�############�############�############uT###########�#
###########�############g############g############g##############################
&##F##
�###�###$#If#####y###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�c##�0##���#�!
########################################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�#>"#6##�####�####�####�##
#�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�###
##�###�###$#If########�###�####
+##+###+###,###,###,##�,##�,##�,##�-##�-##�-
###/##��###########{############{############�l###########{############{###########
#��###########{############{############��###########{############{################
##################################
##�###�###$#If#####y###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�c##�0##���#�!
########################################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�#>"#6##�####�####�####�##
#�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�####
#/###/###/##�/##�
###########{############{##########################################################
###################################################################################
##############################################################
##�###�###$#If#####y###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################��##�0##���#�!
########################################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�#>"#6##�####�####�####�##
#�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�#####�/##�/##�/##�/##�/##�/##�/###0###0##o0###1##�2##b3###4##�h###########{###
#########{############�############u############u############u############u########
####u############u############u############u############u#########################
�###�##
##�###�###$#If#####y###$##$#If#####�l##�##########################�7##�0##���#�!
########################################
t##�##�0###�#######�#######�#######�#######�#######�#####�#>"#6##�####�####�####�##
#�#�####�###�#�####�###�#�####�###�4�#######4�###
#l#a�#####4##�5##|
6##}6##~6##6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##�6##