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The basic aim in this technology is to check the soil moisture in four sectors of Area and
control the water pumps respective to that sector.


This technology involves monitoring soil moisture of a remote area divided into four
sectors, where each sector of land consists a water pump and continuously monitoring the
conditions such as wet, dry, fully filled in that particular sector.
In this the soil moisture sensors are interfaced with a micro controller (AT89S52). GSM
module is interfaced to the microcontroller and soil moisture sensors are kept at different remote
areas from where the corresponding conditions such as dry, wet and fully filled is monitored.
When farmer gives missed call, the soil moisture measured in four sectors information is
transmitted through the GSM modem interfaced with the micro controller to the Farmer from the
remote area.
If the condition is dry in any sector then GSM immediately sends the status information
to the farmer. So farmer can control each sector motor through GSM.

Microcontroller SENSORS

ULN 2003



Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM):

Definition and Overview


Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital
cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to
create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a
pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz It is estimated that many
countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership.

The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system (SS), the base
station system (BSS), and the operation and support system (OSS). The basic GSM network
elements are shown in Figure

The Switching System

The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber-related
functions. The switching system includes the following functional units.

• Home location register (HLR)--The HLR is considered the most important database, as it
stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber's service profile, location
information, and activity status. When an individual buys a subscription from one of the
PCS operators, he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator.
• Authentication center (AUC) — The AUC protects network operators from different
types of fraud found in today's cellular world.
• equipment identity register (EIR)—The EIR is a database that contains information about
the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized, or
defective mobile stations. The Base Station System (BSS)

All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, which consists of base station controllers
(BSCs) and the base transceiver stations (BTSs).

• BSC—The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC
and BTS. It is a high-capacity switch that provides functions such as handover, cell
configuration data, and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver
stations. A number of BSCs are served by an MSC.
• BTS—The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the radio
equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network. A
group of BTSs are controlled by a BSC.

The Operation and Support System

The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching
system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system
(OSS). The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls
the system. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized,
regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network.
An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance
activities of different operation and maintenance organizations.

Additional Functional Elements

Supplementary Services
GSM supports a comprehensive set of supplementary services that can complement and support
both telephony and data services. Supplementary services are defined by GSM and are
characterized as revenue-generating features. A partial listing of supplementary services follows.

• call forwarding—This service gives the subscriber the ability to forward incoming calls
to another number if the called mobile unit is not reachable, if it is busy, if there is no
reply, or if call forwarding is allowed unconditionally.
• barring of outgoing calls—This service makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to
prevent all outgoing calls.
• barring of incoming calls—This function allows the subscriber to prevent incoming
calls. The following two conditions for incoming call barring exist: baring of all
incoming calls and barring of incoming calls when roaming outside the home PLMN.
• call hold—This service enables the subscriber to interrupt an ongoing call and then
subsequently reestablish the call. The call hold service is only applicable to normal
• call waiting—This service enables the mobile subscriber to be notified of an incoming
call during a conversation. The subscriber can answer, reject, or ignore the incoming call.
Call waiting is applicable to all GSM telecommunications services using a circuit-
switched connection.
• multiparty service—The multiparty service enables a mobile subscriber to establish a
multiparty conversation—that is, a simultaneous conversation between three and six
subscribers. This service is only applicable to normal telephony.


DC motors are configured in many types and sizes, including brush less, servo, and gear
motor types. A motor consists of a rotor and a permanent magnetic field stator. The magnetic
field is maintained using either permanent magnets or electromagnetic windings. DC motors are
most commonly used in variable speed and torque.
Motion and controls cover a wide range of components that in some way are used
to generate and/or control motion. Areas within this category include bearings and bushings,
clutches and brakes, controls and drives, drive components, encoders and resolves, Integrated
motion control, limit switches, linear actuators, linear and rotary motion components, linear
position sensing, motors (both AC and DC motors), orientation position sensing, pneumatics and
pneumatic components, positioning stages, slides and guides, power transmission (mechanical),
seals, slip rings, solenoids, springs.

In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-

carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic
field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of
the external magnetic field. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid,
opposite (North and South) polarities attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and
South) repel. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic
interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate
rotational motion.
Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a
magnet or winding with a "North" polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with
a "South" polarization).

Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (a.k.a., armature), stator, commutator , field
magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors (and all that Beamers will see), the external
magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets1. The stator is the stationary part
of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole
pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotates with respect to the
stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically
connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the
rotor inside the stator (field) magnets.
The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are such
that when power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are
misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. As
the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to the next commutator contacts, and energize the
next winding. Given our example two-pole motor, the rotation reverses the direction of current
through the rotor winding, leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field, and driving it to
continue rotating.
In real life, though, DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a
very common number). In particular, this avoids "dead spots" in the commutator. You can
imagine how with our example two-pole motor, if the rotor is exactly at the middle of its rotation
(perfectly aligned with the field magnets), it will get "stuck" there. Meanwhile, with a two-pole
motor, there is a moment where the commutator shorts out the power supply (i.e., both brushes
touch both commutator contacts simultaneously). This would be bad for the power supply, waste
energy, and damage motor components as well. Yet another disadvantage of such a simple motor
is that it would exhibit a high amount of torque” ripple" (the amount of torque it could produce is
cyclic with the position of the rotor).

So since most small DC motors are of a three-pole design, let's tinker with the workings of one
via an interactive animation (JavaScript required):
You'll notice a few things from this -- namely, one pole is fully energized at a time (but two
others are "partially" energized). As each brush transitions from one commutator contact to the
next, one coil's field will rapidly collapse, as the next coil's field will rapidly charge up (this
occurs within a few microsecond). We'll see more about the effects of this later, but in the
meantime you can see that this is a direct result of the coil windings' series wiring:

There's probably no better way to see how an average dc motor is put together, than by just
opening one up. Unfortunately this is tedious work, as well as requiring the destruction of a
perfectly good motor.


A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay
creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current
can be ON or OFF so relays have two switch position and they are double throw (changeover)

Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate
from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC
mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits; the link
is magnetic and mechanical.

The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it
can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips)
can not provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the
larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer
IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification.

Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of switch contacts,
for example relay with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available. Most relays are
designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care
to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay.

The supplier's catalogue should show you the relay's connection. The coil will be obvious
and it may be connected either way round. Relay coils produce brief high voltage 'spikes' when
they are switched off and this can destroy transistors and ICs in the circuit. To prevent damage
you must connect a protection diode across the relay coil.

The relay’s switch connections are usually contains COM, NC and NO.
COM = Common, always connect to this; it is the moving part of the switch.
NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off.
NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.
Connect to COM and NO if you want the switched circuit to be on when the relay coil is on.
Connect to COM and NC if you want the switched circuit to be on when the relay coil is off.
Most relays are SPDT or DPDT which are often described as "single pole changeover" (SPCO)
Or "double pole changeover"(DPCO).

This is a Single Pole Double Throw relay. Current will

flow between the movable contact and one fixed contact when the coil is energized and between
the movable contact and the alternate fixed contact when the relay coil is energized. The most
commonly used relay in car audio, the Bosch relay, is a SPDT relay..

This relay is a Double Pole Double Throw relay. It operates

like the SPDT relay but has twice as many contacts. There are two completely isolated sets of
Relay Construction:
Relays are amazingly simple devices. There are four parts in every relay:

• Electromagnet
• Armature that can be attracted by the electromagnet
• Spring
• Set of electrical contacts

A relay consists of two separate and completely independent circuits. The first is at
the bottom and drives the electromagnet. In this circuit, a switch is controlling power to the
electromagnet. When the switch is on, the electromagnet is on, and it attracts the armature. The
armature is acting as a switch in the second circuit. When the electromagnet is energized, the
armature completes the second circuit and the light is on. When the electromagnet is not
energized, the spring pulls the armature away and the circuit is not complete. In that case, the
light is dark.

Relay Applications:

Relays are quite common in home appliances where there is an electronic control turning
on something like a motor or a light. They are also common in cars, where the 12V supply
voltage means that just about everything needs a large amount of current. In later model cars,
manufacturers have started combining relay panels into the fuse box to make maintenance easier.

In places where a large amount of power needs to be switched, relays are often cascaded.
In this case, a small relay switches the power needed to drive a much larger relay, and that
second relay switches the power to drive the load.

Like relays, transistors can be used as an electrically operated switch. For switching small DC
currents (< 1A) at low voltage they are usually a better choice than a relay. However, transistors
cannot switch AC (such as mains electricity) and in simple circuits they are not usually a good
choice for switching large currents (> 5A). In these cases a relay will be needed, but note that a
low power transistor may still be needed to switch the current for the relay's coil! The main
advantages and disadvantages of relays are listed below:

Advantages of Relay:

 Relays can switch AC and DC, transistors can only switch DC.
 Relays can switch high voltages, transistors cannot.
 Relays are a better choice for switching large currents (> 5A).
 Relays can switch many contacts at once.

Disadvantages of relays:

 Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents.

 Relays cannot switch rapidly (except reed relays), transistors can switch many
times per second.
 Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their coil.
 Relays require more current than many ICs can provide, so a low power
transistor may be needed to switch the current for the relay's coil.

1. This is to measure the Temperature and Humidity of the area. Monitoring of soil moisture
and controlling of water pump very closely.
2. continuously monitoring the changes in Temperature , Humidity particular area
3. This can also be extended to the extent of measuring the Atmospheric Pressure and Rainfall
1. This technology used in agriculture sector,
2. Horticulture
3. Irrigation management
4. Large scale remote intelligent irrigation system


Mohd. Mazidi.
David .E. Simon.