You are on page 1of 9

Cambridge University Press

0521843472 - Mobile Wireless Communications


Mischa Schwartz
Frontmatter
More information

Mobile Wireless Communications

Wireless communication has become a ubiquitous part of modern life, from global cellular
telephone systems to local and even personal-area networks. This book provides a tutorial
introduction to digital mobile wireless networks, illustrating theoretical underpinnings
with a wide range of real-world examples. The book begins with a review of propagation
phenomena, and goes on to examine channel allocation, modulation techniques, multi-
ple access schemes, and coding techniques. GSM and IS-95 systems are reviewed and
2.5G and 3G packet-switched systems are discussed in detail. Performance analysis and
accessing and scheduling techniques are covered, and the book closes with a chapter on
wireless LANs and personal-area networks. Many worked examples and homework exer-
cises are provided and a solutions manual is available for instructors. The book is an ideal
text for electrical engineering and computer science students taking courses in wireless
communications. It will also be an invaluable reference for practicing engineers.

Mischa Schwartz joined the faculty of Electrical Engineering at Columbia University in


1974 and is now Charles Batchelor Professor Emeritus. He is the author and co-author
of ten books, including best-selling books on communication systems and computer net-
works. His current research focuses on wireless networks. He is a Fellow and former
Director of the IEEE, past President of the IEEE Communications Society, and past Chair-
man of the IEEE Group on Information Theory. He was the 1983 recipient of the IEEE
Education Medal and was listed among the top ten all-time EE educators, IEEE survey,
1984. He also received the 2003 Japanese Okawa Prize for contributions to Telecommu-
nications and Engineering Education and the New York City Mayor’s Award in 1994 for
contributions to computer communications.

© Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org


Cambridge University Press
0521843472 - Mobile Wireless Communications
Mischa Schwartz
Frontmatter
More information

Mobile Wireless
Communications

Mischa Schwartz
Department of Electrical Engineering
Columbia University

© Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org


Cambridge University Press
0521843472 - Mobile Wireless Communications
Mischa Schwartz
Frontmatter
More information

published by the press syndicate of the university of cambridge


The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom
cambridge university press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge, CB2 2RU, UK
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011–4211, USA
477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia
Ruiz de Alarcón 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain
Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa
http://www.cambridge.org


C Cambridge University Press 2005

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception


and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2005

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

Typefaces Times 10/13 pt. and Formata System LATEX 2ε [tb]

A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data

ISBN 0 521 84347 2 hardback

The publisher has used its best endeavors to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book
are correct and active at the time of going to press. However, the publisher has no responsibility for the
websites and can make no guarantee that a site will remain line or that the content is or will remain appropriate.

© Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org


Cambridge University Press
0521843472 - Mobile Wireless Communications
Mischa Schwartz
Frontmatter
More information

To my wife Charlotte

© Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org


Cambridge University Press
0521843472 - Mobile Wireless Communications
Mischa Schwartz
Frontmatter
More information

Contents

Preface page ix

1 Introduction and overview 1


1.1 Historical introduction 2
1.2 Overview of book 8

2 Characteristics of the mobile radio environment–propagation


phenomena 16
2.1 Review of free-space propagation 17
2.2 Wireless case 18
2.3 Random channel characterization 33
2.4 Terminal mobility and rate of fading 36
2.5 Multipath and frequency-selective fading 39
2.6 Fading mitigation techniques 47

3 Cellular concept and channel allocation 62


3.1 Channel reuse: introduction of cells 62
3.2 SIR calculations, one-dimensional case 64
3.3 Two-dimensional cell clusters and SIR 65
3.4 Traffic handling capacity: Erlang performance and cell sizing 71
3.5 Probabilistic signal calculations 74

4 Dynamic channel allocation and power control 81


4.1 Dynamic channel allocation 82
4.2 Power control 94

5 Modulation techniques 107


5.1 Introduction to digital modulation techniques 108
5.2 Signal shaping 112

vii

© Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org


Cambridge University Press
0521843472 - Mobile Wireless Communications
Mischa Schwartz
Frontmatter
More information

viii Contents

5.3 Modulation in cellular wireless systems 118


5.4 Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) 129

6 Multiple access techniques: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA;


system capacity comparisons 137
6.1 Time-division multiple access (TDMA) 138
6.2 Code-division multiple access (CDMA) 142
6.3 CDMA capacity: single-cell case 145
6.4 An aside: probability of bit error considerations 146
6.5 CDMA capacity calculations: CDMA compared with TDMA 150

7 Coding for error detection and correction 161


7.1 Block coding for error correction and detection 162
7.2 Convolutional coding 179
7.3 Turbo coding 189

8 Second-generation, digital, wireless systems 199


8.1 GSM 200
8.2 IS-136 (D-AMPS) 208
8.3 IS-95 216
8.4 Mobile management: handoff, location, and paging 235
8.5 Voice signal processing and coding 245

9 Performance analysis: admission control and handoffs 258


9.1 Overview of performance concepts 259
9.2 One-dimensional cells 275
9.3 Two-dimensional cells 288

10 2.5G/3G Mobile wireless systems: packet-switched data 307


10.1 Introduction 307
10.2 3G CDMA cellular standards 311
10.3 2.5/3G TDMA: GPRS and EDGE 334

11 Access and scheduling techniques in cellular systems 361


11.1 Slotted-Aloha access 363
11.2 Integrated access: voice and data 371
11.3 Scheduling in packet-based cellular systems 383

12 Wireless LANs and personal-area networks 395


12.1 IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs 396
12.2 Wireless personal-area networks: Bluetooth/IEEE 802.15.1 415
References 434
Index 442

© Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org


Cambridge University Press
0521843472 - Mobile Wireless Communications
Mischa Schwartz
Frontmatter
More information

Preface

It is apparent, even to the most casual observer, that a veritable revolution in telecom-
munications has taken place within recent years. The use of wireless communications
has expanded dramatically worldwide. Cell phones are ubiquitous. Although most such
mobile terminals still carry voice principally, more and more users are sending and receiv-
ing data and image applications. Wi-Fi, an example of a wireless local area network (LAN),
has caught on spectacularly, joining the major cellular networks deployed throughout the
world.
This book, designed as an introductory textbook in wireless communication for courses
at the Senior and first-year graduate level, as well as a self-study text for engineers, com-
puter scientists, and other technical personnel, provides a basic introduction to this boom-
ing field. A student or reader of the book should come away with a thorough grounding in
the fundamental aspects of mobile wireless communication, as well as an understanding
of the principles of operation of second- and third-generation cellular systems and wire-
less LANs. To enhance an understanding of the various concepts introduced, numerical
and quantitative examples are provided throughout the book. Problems associated with
each chapter provide a further means of enhancing knowledge of the field. There are many
references to the current technical literature appearing throughout the book as well. The
author considers these references an integral part of the discussion, providing the reader
with an opportunity to delve more deeply into technical aspects of the field where desired.
After the introductory Chapter 1, which provides a history of mobile communications,
followed by a detailed description of the book, chapter by chapter, the book breaks down
roughly into two parts, the first part containing Chapters 2 to 8, the second part Chapters 9
to 12. Chapters 2 to 7 provide an introduction to the fundamental elements of wire-
less mobile communications, with Chapter 8 then providing a detailed discussion of the
second-generation systems, GSM, IS-95, and IS-136 or D-AMPS, in which these basic
concepts are applied. Specifically, Chapter 2 treats the propagation phenomena encoun-
tered in communicating over the wireless medium, while Chapter 3 introduces the cellular
concept. Power control, channel assignment, modulation, coding, and access techniques
are then discussed in the six chapters following. This material in the first part of the book is
covered in the first semester of a full-year course on wireless communication at Columbia

ix

© Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org


Cambridge University Press
0521843472 - Mobile Wireless Communications
Mischa Schwartz
Frontmatter
More information

x Preface

University. The second-semester course following this first course then covers material
from the second part of the book, as well as additional material based on current reading
and research.
The second part of the book provides more advanced material. It begins in Chapter 9
with a thorough discussion of the performance analysis of wireless systems, building on
some of the items touched on only briefly in earlier chapters. Chapter 10 then describes the
third-generation systems W-CDMA, cdma2000, and GPRS in depth, again building on
the earlier discussion of second-generation systems in Chapter 8. The focus of this chapter
is on data and multimedia wireless communication using packet-switched technology. A
brief review of the concept of layered architectures is included, showing, in particular,
how GPRS interfaces with Internet-based packet networks. Chapter 11 then discusses the
access and scheduling techniques used or proposed for use in cellular systems. The book
concludes with a discussion of wireless LANs (WLANs) and Personal-Area Networks
(PANs). The WLAN discussion focuses on Wi-Fi and extensions thereof to much higher
bit-rate wireless LANs; the PAN discussion deals with the Bluetooth system.
The book can, therefore, be used for either a single-semester course on wireless systems
or for a full-year course. A single-semester course might cover the first eight chapters,
as has been the case at Columbia, or might use as examples of current wireless systems
material drawn from sections of Chapters 8, 10, and 12. A full-year course would cover
the entire book. The material in the book could also be used in conjunction with a course
on communication systems, providing the application of communication technology to
the wireless area.
The only prerequisites for the book, aside from a certain technical maturity commonly
available at the Senior or first-year graduate level, are a knowledge of basic probability
and linear algebra. There is no prior knowledge of communication theory and commu-
nication systems assumed on the part of the reader, and the material in the first part of
the book dealing with modulation and coding, for example, is meant to be self-contained.
Those readers with some prior knowledge of communication systems should find the tuto-
rial discussion in the coding and modulation chapters a useful review, with the specific
application of the material to wireless systems further solidifying their knowledge of the
area.
The author would like to acknowledge the help of a number of individuals with whom
he worked during the writing of this book. In particular, the author is indebted to the
students who took the wireless course at Columbia, using the preliminary notes covering
the material, and to the instructors with whom he shared the teaching of the course. He
would like to particularly acknowledge the help and co-teaching support of Professor
Andrew Campbell of the Electrical Engineering department at Columbia; Professor Tom
LaPorta, formerly of Bell Labs and currently with the Computer Science department of
Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Mahmoud Naghshineh of IBM. The author has,
at various times, carried out research in the wireless area with each of these colleagues as
well. The questions raised and answered while teaching the course, as well as conducting
research in the area, were invaluable in writing this book.
Further thanks are due to Sanghyo Kim for help with preparing the book figures, to
Edward Tiedemann of Qualcomm for help with the material on cdma2000, Dr. Chatschik
Bisdikian of IBM for help with the section on Bluetooth, and Dr. Krishan Sabnani for

© Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org


Cambridge University Press
0521843472 - Mobile Wireless Communications
Mischa Schwartz
Frontmatter
More information

Preface xi

providing such hospitable support during a sabbatical with his wireless group at Bell
Laboratories. Thanks are also due to Dr. Li-Hsiang Sun, one of the author’s former doctoral
students, and now with Florida State University, who carried out some of the performance
calculations in Chapter 9. The author is thankful as well to the anonymous reviewers
of the book manuscript who pointed out a number of errors and made suggestions for
improving the book. The author can only hope the reader will enjoy reading and studying
this book, and learn from it as much as the author has enjoyed and gained from the task of
writing it.

© Cambridge University Press www.cambridge.org