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EXPERIMENT NO.

3: ENERGY LOSSES IN BENDS


Objective: To determine the minor head loss coefficient for different pipe fittings.

Experimental set up: The experimental set up consists of a pipe circuit of 25mm
diameter fitted with following means of varying flow rate.

1. Large bend
2. Small bend
3. Sudden enlargement to 50mm diameter
4. Sudden contraction from 50mm diameter to 25mm diameter

Other equipments used are:

 Differential manometer (to measure pressure head difference)


 Collecting tank (to find actual discharge of water)

Theory: In long pipes major loss of energy is due to friction but in short pipes losses due to
change in cross section, bends and valves may be higher than friction losses.

The minor energy head loss hL =k.V2/2g

Where k is loss coefficient, g is acceleration due to gravity, V is velocity head.

For sudden enlargement hL =k.(V-V1)2/2g

Where V and V1 are velocities of flow in the smaller and larger diameter pipes respectively.

PROCEDURE:-
1) Water is allowed to flow through different types of fittings.

2) Heads are measured before and after the flow through them.

3) Head losses are calculated for different fittings.

4) The discharge is determined through the hydraulic bench.

5) Velocity of flow is calculated by dividing the discharge rate by cross sectional area

Hence, the loss coefficient of the fitting is determined from the above equation.
Sample data sheet:

Diameter of pipe D (cm)=2.5

Area of pipe, a(cm2)= 4.9087385

For tank:

width= 39.7cm

length= 39.7cm

area of tank A= 1576.09cm2

Discharge Q(cm3/s)= (final-initial)*A/time

Type of Fitting :- Large Bend


Run No. Discharge Measurement Q Velocity Manometer Readings Loss Cofficient

Initial(cm) Final(cm) Time(s) Q(cm3/s) V=Q/a(cm/s) h1(cm) h2(cm) hL=12.6(h1-h2)(cm) k=2ghL/V2


1 0.00 10.00 23.75 663.616842 135.190913 15.00 14.30 8.82 0.00947
2 0.00 12.60 16.80 1182.067500 240.808814 15.90 13.50 30.24 0.01023
3 0.00 14.00 19.90 1108.807035 225.884314 15.70 13.50 27.72 0.01066
4 0.00 13.50 22.78 934.030509 190.279133 15.40 13.80 20.16 0.01092
5 0.00 8.60 18.06 750.519048 152.894485 15.20 14.10 13.86 0.01163
6 0.00 10.90 27.56 623.344739 126.986747 14.90 14.20 8.82 0.01073
7 0.00 10.00 30.82 511.385464 104.178591 14.80 14.30 6.30 0.01139
8 0.00 8.00 28.93 435.835465 88.787672 14.80 14.40 5.04 0.01254

Tank Average Loss Coefficient 0.01095


b(cm) 39.7
l(cm) 39.7
A=l*b(cm^2) 1576.09
Pipe
Dia (d)(cm) 2.5
Area(a)(cm^2) 4.908739
Type of Fitting :- Small Bend Bend
Run No. Discharge Velocity Manometer Readings Loss Cofficient
Q(cm3/s) V(cm/s) h1(cm) h2(cm) hL=12.6(h1-h2)(cm) k=2ghL/V2
1 663.6168 135.190913 15.30 13.90 17.640000 0.0189366
2 1182.068 240.808814 16.50 11.80 59.220000 0.0200365
3 1108.807 225.884314 17.00 12.30 59.220000 0.0227717
4 934.0305 190.279133 16.20 12.90 41.580000 0.0225321
5 750.519 152.894485 15.70 13.50 27.720000 0.0232653
6 623.3447 126.986747 15.30 13.80 18.900000 0.0229956
7 511.3855 104.178591 15.10 14.10 12.600000 0.0227778
8 435.8355 88.787672 14.90 14.30 7.560000 0.0188155

Average Loss Coefficient 0.0215164

For sudden change in cross section:

Diameter of Smaller Pipe(cm) = 2.5


Area of smaller pipe, a(cm2) = 4.908738521
Diameter of Bigger Pipe(cm) = 5
Area of Bigger pipe, a1(cm2) = 19.63495408

Type of Fitting :- Sudden Enlargement


Run No. Q(cm3/sec) V(cm/sec) V1(cm/sec) Manometer Readings Loss Cofficient
V=Q/a V1=Q/a1 (V-V1)2 h1(cm) h2(cm) hL=12.6(h1-h2)(cm) k=2ghL/(V-V1)2
1 663.6168421 135.1909 33.7977 10280.5779 14.70 14.50 2.520000 0.004809
2 1182.0675 240.8088 60.2022 32618.7477 15.20 13.90 16.380000 0.009852
3 1108.807035 225.8843 56.4711 28700.8445 15.30 13.90 17.640000 0.012059
4 934.0305092 190.2791 47.5698 20365.9585 15.10 14.10 12.600000 0.012138
5 750.5190476 152.8945 38.2236 13149.4070 15.10 14.20 11.340000 0.016920
6 623.3447388 126.9867 31.7467 9070.6691 14.80 14.30 6.300000 0.013627
7 511.385464 104.1786 26.0446 6104.9131 14.80 14.40 5.040000 0.016198
8 435.8354649 88.7877 22.1969 4434.3285 14.80 14.40 5.040000 0.022300

Average Loss Coefficient 0.013487959


Type of Fitting :-Sudden Contraction
Run No. Q(cm3/sec) V(cm/sec) V1(cm/sec) Manometer Readings Loss Cofficient
V=Q/a V1=Q/a1 (V-V1)2 h1(cm) h2(cm) hL=12.6(h1-h2)(cm) k=2ghL/(V-V1)2
1 663.6168421 135.1909 33.7977 10280.5779 14.80 14.30 6.300000 0.012023
2 1182.0675 240.8088 60.2022 32618.7477 16.30 12.90 42.840000 0.025768
3 1108.807035 225.8843 56.4711 28700.8445 16.20 13.00 40.320000 0.027563
4 934.0305092 190.2791 47.5698 20365.9585 15.80 13.50 28.980000 0.027919
5 750.5190476 152.8945 38.2236 13149.4070 15.40 13.90 18.900000 0.028200
6 623.3447388 126.9867 31.7467 9070.6691 15.10 13.90 15.120000 0.032705
7 511.385464 104.1786 26.0446 6104.9131 15.00 14.20 10.080000 0.032395
8 435.8354649 88.7877 22.1969 4434.3285 14.90 14.30 7.560000 0.033450

Average Loss Coefficient 0.027502847

Results: Average loss coefficient for different sets of fitting are:

1. Large bend k= 0.01095

2. Small bend k= 0.0215164

3. Sudden enlargement to 50mm diameter k= 0.013487959

4. Sudden contraction from 50mm diameter to 25mm diameter k= 0.027502847

Precautions:

1. The increase and decrease in heads at the expansion and contraction are to be taken into

account while determining the head loss.

2. Care must be taken that no air bubbles are present in the manometer tubes. Otherwise,

heads and head losses obtained are erroneous.

3. Level in manometer and hydraulic bench must be ideally taken at lower meniscus,

though consistency in the readings may lead to no errors.