Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

Preface

Unleash The Maths Olympian In You! (Intermediate) helps students


who are mathematics enthusiasts to sharpen their problem-solving skills
for non-routine problems. The various non-routine problems are clearly
classified for easy comprehension and application. In addition, there are
ample examples in each chapter to demonstrate how the non-routine
problems are solved. The easy-to-understand analyses and explanations in
the examples will definitely help the students to understand better. Students
are able to apply their understanding through working on the questions in
each chapter.

It is hoped that students will find this book beneficial and feel more confident
in problem-solving.

Terry Chew
CONTENTS
Chapter 1 The Four Operations -----------------------------------------1

Chapter 2 Solve by Assuming ---------------------------------------- 19

Chapter 3 Problems from Page Numbers ---------------------------- 30

Chapter 4 Age Problems ----------------------------------------------- 41

Chapter 5 Looking for a Pattern -------------------------------------- 51

Chapter 6 Divisibility -------------------------------------------------- 61

Chapter 7 Working Backwards --------------------------------------- 83

Chapter 8 Excess-and-Shortage Problems --------------------------- 95

Chapter 9 Make a List ------------------------------------------------110

Chapter 10 Area and Perimeter ----------------------------------------128


Chapter 11 Using Drawings & Writing Equations ------------------148

Chapter 12 Sequence with a Common Difference ------------------166

Chapter 13 Prime Numbers --------------------------------------------179

Chapter 14 LCM and GCD --------------------------------------------201

Chapter 15 Other Operations ------------------------------------------222

Chapter 16 The Remainder Problems --------------------------------237

Chapter 17 Pigeonhole Principle --------------------------------------256

Chapter 18 Speed: Catching Up---------------------------------------276

Chapter 19 Logic --------------------------------------------------------293

Chapter 20 Average Problems -----------------------------------------311

Chapter 21 Square Numbers and Value of Ones Digit -------------329

Chapter 22 Problems from Planting Trees ---------------------------352

SOLUTIONS -------------------------------------------------------- A1 - A65


1 The Four Operations
(A) Addition and Subtraction
Making the computation in addition and subtraction neat and
simple will be of interest in the opening chapter of this book.
Important notes:
1. a +b=b+a
2. a + (b – c) = a + b – c
3. a – (b + c) = a – b – c
4. a – (b – c) = a – b + c

(B) Multiplication and Division


Important notes:
1. a × (b + c) = a × b + a × c
2. a × (b – c) = a × b – a × c
3. (a – b) ÷ c = a ÷ c – b ÷ c
4. (a + b) ÷ c = a ÷ c + b ÷ c
5. a ÷ b ÷ c = a ÷ (b × c)
6. a÷b×c=a×c÷b

It is also important to know the multiplication of numbers


that will give you an answer of 100 or 1000.
8 × 125 = 1000
4 × 25 = 100

1
Examples
(A) Addition and Subtraction
Example 1: Compute the following.

1000
(a) 846 + 78 – 46 (b) 365 + 276 + 135 + 724
= 846 – 46 + 78 500

= 800 + 78 = 500 + 1000


= 878 = 1500

1000 600

(c) 485 + 136 + 264 + 515 (d) 732 + 84 + 16 – 132


400 100

= 1000 + 400 = 600 + 100


= 1400 = 700

(e) 708 + 1392 (f) 39 + 399 + 3999


= 700 + 8 + 1392 = 40 – 1 + 400 – 1 + 4000 – 1
= 700 + 1400 = 4440 – 3
= 2100 = 4437

2
Example 2: Compute the following.

(a) 527 – (186 + 327) (b) 565 – (388 – 135)


200 700
= 527 – 186 – 327 = 565 – 388 + 135
= 200 – 186 = 700 – 388
= 14 = 312

(c) 896 – (132 + 596) (d) 732 – (286 + 332)


300 400
= 896 – 132 – 596 = 732 – 286 – 332
= 300 – 132 = 400 – 286
= 168 = 114

(e) 633 – (233 – 189) (f) 534 – (234 + 123)


= 633 – 233 + 189 = 534 – 234 – 123
= 400 + 189 = 300 – 123
= 589 = 177

Example 3: Compute the following.

100 – 99 + 98 – 97 + 96 – 95 + … + 8 – 7 + 6 – 5 + 4 – 3 + 2 – 1
= 50 × 1
= 50

3
Example 4: Compute the following.
19 + 199 + 1999 + 19 999
= 20 – 1 + 200 – 1 + 2000 – 1 + 20 000 – 1
= 22 220 – 4
= 22 216

(B) Multiplication and Division


Example 1: Use a simple method to compute the following.

(a) 65 × 399 (b) 25 × 16 × 125


= 65 × (400 – 1) = 25 × 2 × 8 × 125
= 65 × 400 – 65 × 1 = 50 × 1000
= 26 000 – 65 = 50 000
= 25 935

(c) 198 × 36 (d) 25 × 32 × 125 × 35


= (200 – 2) × 36 = 25 × 4 × 8 × 125 × 35
= 200 × 36 – 2 × 36 = 100 × 1000 × 35
= 7200 – 72 = 3 500 000
= 7128

(e) 600 × 99 (f) 25 × 96 × 125


= 600 × (100 – 1) = 25 × 12 × 8 × 125
= 60 000 – 600 = 25 × 4 × 3 × 1000
= 59 400 = 100 × 3 × 1000
= 3 × 100 000
= 300 000

4
Example 2: Use a simple method to compute the following.

(a) 37 × 88 + 37 × 12 (b) 18 × 114 – 18 × 14


= 37 × (88 + 12) = 18 × (114 – 14)
= 37 × 100 = 18 × 100
= 3700 = 1800

(c) 42 × 75 + 42 × 25 (d) 33 × 126 – 33 × 26


= 42 × (75 + 25) = 33 × (126 – 26)
= 42 × 100 = 33 × 100
= 4200 = 3300

Example 3: Use a simple method to compute the following.

(a) 210 ÷ (5 × 6) (b) 748 ÷ (17 × 11)


= 210 ÷ 5 ÷ 6 = 748 ÷ 11 ÷ 17
= 42 ÷ 6 = 68 ÷ 17
= 7 = 4