Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

UDC 624.131.3 :550.

822 DEUTSCHE NORM September 1987


Subsoil and groundwater
Classification and description of soil and rock
Borehole logging of soil and rock
not involving continuous core sample recovery
4022
Part 1
I
Baugrund und Gruiidwasser; Benennen und Beschi-eibenvon Boden und Fels; Supersedes November 1969 edition.
Schichtenverzeichnis fur Bohrungen ohne durchgehende Gewinnung von
gekernten Proben irn Boden und im Fels

i n keeping with current practice in standards published by the International Organization for Standardization ¡ISOl,
a comma has been used throughout as the decimal marker.
This standard has been prepared jointly by Section Baugrund of the NormenausschuR Bauwesen (Building and Civil
Engineering Standards Committee) of DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Erd-
und Grundbau (Gei-manAssociation for Earthworks and Foundation Engineering).

The DIN 4022 series includes:


DIN 4022 Part 1 Subsoil and groundwater; classification and description of soil and rock; borehole logging of soil
5
al
and rock not involving continuous core sample recovery
m
DIN 4022 Part 2 Subsoil and groundwater; classification and description of soil and rock; borehole logging of rock
DIN 4022 Part 3 Subsoil and groundwater; classification and description of soil and rock; borehole logging of soil
involving continuous core sample recovery

Contents
Page page
1 Scope and field of application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.4 Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.5 Drystrength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.5 Dilatancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.7 Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3 Soil . . . . . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.8 Sand content of soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..9
.... 9
.... 9
.... 9
....9
.... 9
Anwenderinformation ....9
.... 9
L
.... 9
L Die Originalfassung der Norm enthält Elemente, . 10
... 10
C
z.B. farbige Abbildungen oder Tabellen, die in ... 10
f . . . 10
C
dieser gescannten Form der Norm nicht originalge- . . . 10
t ... 1U
f treu darstellbar sind. Dies muß bei der Anwendung ... 10
... 13
f
t berücksichtigt werden. Maßgebend für das Anwen- ... 13
f
... 13
m den jeder DIN-Norm ist deren Originalfassung mit ... 13
t
O
<
* . . 13
z
t
c
dem neuesten Ausgabedatum. Vergewissern Sie
sich bitte in den DIN-Mitteilungen, im .aktuellen
< . . 13 I
t . . . 16
i DIN-Katalog mit dem neuesten Ergänzungsheft l o g . 17

1 oder in der aktuellen Ausgabe der PERINORM. ... 18


t 09
i . . . 19
I . . . 20

Continued on pages 2 to 20

I --````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
I
Beuth Verlag GmbH. Berlin. has lhe exclusive right ot sale lor German Standards (DIN-Normen) DIM 4022 Part 1 Engl. Price group 12
Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.
01.90
Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002 Sales No. O1 12
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
UDC 624.131.3 :550.822 DEUTSCHE NORM September 1987
Subsoil and groundwater .
Classification and description of soil and rock DINI
Borehole logging of soil and rock
not involving continuous core sample recovery
4022 II
Part 1

Baugrund und Gruiidwasser; Benennen und Beschi-eibenvon Boden und Fels; Supersedes November 1969 edition .
Schichtenverzeichnis fur Bohrungen ohne durchgehende Gewinnung von
gekernten Proben im Boden und im Fels

i n keeping with current practice in standards published by the International Organization for Standardization lIS0).
a comma has been used throughout as the decimal marker.
This standard has been prepared jointly by Section Baugrund of the NormenausschuR Bauwesen (Building and Civil
Engineering Standards Committee) of DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Erd-
und Grundbau (Gei-manAssociation for Earthworks and Foundation Engineering).

The DIN 4022 series includes:


DIN 4022 Part 1 Subsoil and groundwater; classification and description of soil and rock; borehole logging of soil
and rock not involving continuous core sample recovery
DIN 4022 Part 2 Subsoil and groundwater; classification and description of soil and rock; borehole logging of rock
DIN 4022 Part 3 Subsoil and groundwater; classification and description ot soil and rock; borehole logging of soil
involving continuous core sample recovery

Contents
Page page
1 Scope and field of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.4 Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.5 Dry strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1 Ciassification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.5 Dilatancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2 DescriPtion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.7 Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3 Soil . . . . . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.8 Sand content of soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.4 Soiltype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.9 Clay and s i l t content ot soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
2.5 State of the soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.10 Lime content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.6 Rock mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8.1 1 Organic soil and peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.7 Rock material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8.12 Degree of decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.8 Rock material type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 8.13 Consistence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3 Borehole log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9 Classification and description of rock . . . . . . . . . . 9
9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4 Completion of logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
9.2 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1 Summary log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9.3 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2 Fieldlog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1O Description of rock material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5 Principles of soil classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 10.1 Granularity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 10.2 Grainsize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2 Grading of mineral soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 10.3 Clay minerals content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.3 Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 10.4 Bulk density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
5.4 Organic constituents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 10.5 Grain bond (strength) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
10.6 Grain hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6 Information required for soil classification . . . . . 6
10.7 Stability in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.1 Basicsoils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
10.8 Lime content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2 Composite soils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
10.9 Odour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6.2.2 Dominant fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 10.10 Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.2.3 Secondary fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 11 Information on the completion of a field log
6.2.4 Composite coils (with two constituents (see Appendix B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
in equal proportions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 12 Graphical representation of borehole
6.3 Organicsoils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 logging results (borehole record) . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7 Soil description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Appendix A Example of a completed summary log . 17
Appendix 6 Specimen form for a borehole log
8 Parameters relevant for soil
[field log) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
classification and description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8.1 Particle size distri bution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Appendix C Example of a completed borehole log
8.2 Particle shape and roughness of grain surface . . . 7 [field log) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8.3 Finescontent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Standards and other documents referred to . . . . . . . 20

Continued on pages 2 to 20

I --````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- I
. .
Beuth Verlag GmbH Berlin has lhe exclusive right ot sale lor German Standards (DIN-Normen) DIM 4022 Part 1 Eng1. Price group 12
Copyright Deutsches Institut01.90
Fur Normung E.V.
Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002 .
Sales No O1 12
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Page 2 DIN 4022 Part 1

1 Scope and field of application 2 Concepts


This standard deals with the classification and description 2.1 Classification
of soil and rock, including the preparation of a borehole Classification of soil or rock i s the naming of a material
log for investigation of the subsoil and water conditions on the basis of i t s composition (grading, type of material,
by soil and rock drilling not involving continuous core characteristics of mineral or organic constituents,
sample recovery (also termed 'coring'), using the drilling plasticity and, in the case of rock, i t s formation history
techniques referred to in DIN 4021 Part 1. and degree of consolidation).
It also covers the preparation of strata records obtained 2.2 Description
from other sources (e.g. from trial pits or from available
Description of soil and rock i s the detailing of i t s Prop.
information from other exploratory work).
erties and distinguishing features.
Note 1. Depending on whether boring is carried out in 2.3 Soil
soil or in rock and on the type of core samples
Soil is loose weathered material accumulated in the upper
recovered, the borehole log shall comply with
zone of the earth's crust, consisting of mineral and,
DIN 4022 Part 1,2 or 3; see figure 1.
sometimes also organic, substances, and of pores.
Thisstandard is intended t o permit a uniform classification
2.4 Soil type
and description of soil and rock according to the type,
colour and condition, both in the field and in the The soil type is a particular form of soil.
laboratory. It also provides the basis for recording the
2.5 State of the soil
information obtained from a borehole as completely as
possible by establishing borehole logs characterizing the For the purposes of this standard, state of the soil is
ground and water conditions encountered and for the compactness (density) in the case of coarse soils
recording general site characteristics and data such as the (cf. DIN 18126) and the consistence in the case of fine
location and level (elevation) of the borehole. soils (cf. DIN 18 122 Parts 1 and 2).
See DIN 18 196 for the correlation of soil types with soil 2.6 Rock mass
groups [combining soils with a similar material structure Rock mass i s a large body of rock consisting of one or
and similar physical properties), the classification of different types of rock material.
soil and rock on the basis of their recoverability (type of
removal, loading, haulage) being specified in DIN 18 300. Note. The rock mass is not monolithic but exhibits a
number of discontinuities in the form of joints,
Note 2. The Merkblatt über Felsgruppenbeschreibung für cleavage, fissures or faults (see figure 2) which, as
bautechnische Zwecke im StraBenbau (Instruction a function of their type, form, location, number
sheet on description of rock for road construction and extension, their infill or surface cover,

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
purposes) No. 532 contains a summary of types largely affect the strength and deformation
of rock classified according to civil engineering behaviour and water permeability of the rock
requirements. mass.

DIN 4022
Subsoil and groundwater
Classification and description of soil and rock

9
soil

involving continuous not involving continuous involving continuous


core sample recovery core sample recovery core sample recovery

DIN 4022 Part 3 DIN 4022 Part 1 O IN 4022 Part 2

Figure 1 . Structuring of DIN 4022 series (cf. note 1 to clause 1 )

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
DIN 4022 Part 1 Page 3

K3

*KI

KI Flat joint plane


K2 Flat joint plane
'SF K3 Uneven joint plane
SF Bedding joint
S S Bedding planes

.ss

Figure 2. Rock mass with bedding joints and planes, and joint planes

2.7 Rock material The summary log shall be duly completed by the
Rock material i s a naturally occurring, consolidated contractor, stating the purpose of the investigation
mixture of one or more minerals. (ground or water investigation) below the heading of the
log and deleting details not applicable.
2.8 Rock material type
Rock material type is a particular form of rock material. 4.1.2 The name of the construction project and, if
necessary, the part of the structure concerned shall be
3 Borehole log indicated under item No. 1.

3.1 The following forms shall be completed for each 4.1.3 i f one boring i s intended t o serve a number of
boring: objectives a t the same time, the main objective shall be
a) summary log (see DIN 4022 Part 2 ) : provides general stated under 'Purpose'. The location of the borehole
information, a site plan and engineering data (for (item No. 2) shall be specified by entering the coordinates,
example, see Appendix A); which may be taken from a topographical map (scale
b) field log (see Appendix B ) : provides detailed infor- 1 : 25 O00 or larger) with a grid.
mation obtained from the borehole (e.g. stratigraphic For inclined boreholes, the angle of inclination of the
description, water conditions encountered, description borehole to the horizontal shall be stated in degrees,
of samples recovered) (for example, see Appendix C); together with the borehole orientation (in degrees),
C) additional copies of field log for inclusion of further given as a deviation from north in clockwise direction.
information. For upward drilling, the angle shall be given together
with an arrow directed upwards. The projection of the
3.2 If during drilling for stratigraphic purposes rock borehole shall be shown in the site plan together with
mass i s penetrated or if the level of the rock bed i s to be
the angle of inclination.
established or the rock i s penetrated only slightly in
order t o investigate its condition, the specimen forms The level (elevation) a t which boring is commenced
given in Appendices A and B shall also be used for bore- (borehole top) shall be stated by referring it to a datum
level, preferably mean sea level. I f drilling i s started --````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

hole logging.
from the base of construction pits, shafts, under water
4 Completion of logs or under ground, the difference between ground level or
water level and the borehole top shall be stated. Where
4.1 Summary log this i s not possible, the grounds and the difference in
4.1.1 The summary form, as specified in Appendix A level in relation to another reference level shall be
of DIN 4022 Part 2, March 1981 edition, i s intended to detailed. This information shall be recorded in the site
identify the boring by stating the t i t l e and purpose of plan (item No. 3).
investigation, borehole number, place (i.e. geographical
The client i s responsible for setting out the borehole(s)
location of site and borehole, detailed by a grid refer-
and specifying i t s (their) location and elevation and for
ence), ground level (elevation), name of client and
designating (numbering) it (them).
contractor, and provides space for a sketch of the site.
In addition, it provides space for recording the essential 4.1.4 The location of the borehole shall be specified in
engineering data relating to the boring method, using a site plan (sketch) (item No. 3)so as to ensure its easy
symbols to be entered in a table. This table covers, among relocation a t a later date. For this purpose, the north point
others, the boring method, boring equipment and details shall be shown and landmarksgiven, the distances between
of the casing, with the relevant depths given in m. them and the borehole being measured and recorded.

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Page 4 DIN 4022 Part 1

4.1.5 The full names of those drillers (operators) shall The log shall be duly completed in situ by the driller
be entered under item No. 5 whose continual presence a t from the start of drilling, as drilling proceeds and as the
the site during drilling operations is required so that they samples are recovered. This does not apply to items b, g
can record the information obtained from the borehole and h in column 2.
asspecified insubclause4.9of DIN4021 Part 1,July 1971 Information on completion of the log isgiven in clause 11.
edition, and subclause 5.4.1 of DIN 4021 Part 2, Feb- The place and project name, the borehole designation
ruary 1976 edition. I f the information on the drilling (number), the date and the sheet number shall be entered
operations, the description of the strata encountered and on each sheet before completing columns 1 to 6.The
on the samples i s given by several drillers, these shall all number of sheets which the log comprisesshall beentered
be listed by name. Information shall also be given on on the summary log under item No. 1.
their professional qualification or the number of years of
Appendix C provides an example of a completed field log.
experience with the boring method concerned. If several
drillers work in turn, the information required shall be
given under item No. 9.4. 5 Principles of soil classification
5.1 General
4.1.6 Under item No. 7, information shall be provided
on the type and number of special investigations (e.g.
In the following, soil characteristics are given (see
DIN 4023 for symbols) that generally permit soil to be
soundings as specified in DIN 4094 Parts 1 and 2, bore-
classified with adequate accuracy. A more accurate clas-
hole measurements, water permeability tests, pumping
sification based on grading, consistence or organic matter
tests). I f the results of such investigations form part of
content can be achieved bylaboratorytests (see DIN 18 122
the documentation, each report shall be numbered, their
Part 1 and DIN 18 123).
numbers being given under item No. 1.
5 2 Grading of mineral soils
4.1.7 Under item No. 8, the following shall be recorded
in the first column ('sample container'): Coarse-grained material shall be classified as in table 1,
the required method being specified in subctause 8.1.
a) in the case of soil or rock samples,
For a more accurate classification, laboratory tests as
whether these are stored in glass jars, buckets, cans,
specified in DIN 18 123 shall be carried out.
bags (granular material), core storage boxes, plastic
sleeves, etc.; Classification of fine-grained soil ( s i l t and clay) i s not
only to be based on grading because the structural prop-
b) in the case of special samples,
erties of such soils are also a function of their plasticity.
whether these are stored in thin- or thick-walled steel
tubes, plastic cylinders, etc.; 5.3 Plasticity
c) in the case of water samples, Soils that, when subjected to the test described in sub-
whether these are stored in glass jars or bottles, or clause 8.7, permit their consistence limits to be detei--
plastic containers or bottles, etc. mined, may be classed as exhibiting plastic properties.
Wherever possible, the final place of storage shall bestated. Note. Such soils are also referred t o as cohesive soils.
Assessment of the plasticity and classification of a soil as
4.1.8 In order to minimize the amount of writing work
either s i l t or clay shall be carried out on the basis of testing
involved in recording the data regarding boring method
as specified in subclauses 8.5,8.7 and 8.9. This permits
and equipment, symbols are given under item No. 9.1
the soil to be qualified as being of low plasticity, inter-
covering all details of the drilling operations as specified
mediate plasticity or high plasticity. An exact classifica-
in table 2 of DIN 4021 Part I.These symbols shall be
tion can only be made by establishing the liquid limit,
used for completing the table shown under item No. 9.2
and for entries in the field log. In the 'Notes' column of
w L ,and the plastic limit, wp, in laboratory tests.
item No. 9.2, information shall be given on the energy The water content both at the liquid limit and the plastic
used for drop penetration drilling (hammer height, ham- limit maybe determined for any finesoil (seeDIN 18 122
mer mass and number of blows per unit time). Part 1).
The above grades of plasticity are defined as a function
4.1.9 Item No. 10 shall provide information on the of the water content a t the liquid limit, as follows:
groundwater backfilling and any lining of the borehole, a) low plasticity, less than 35%;
details of which (especially for water wells) shall be re-
b) intermediate plasticity, 35 to 50%;
corded in a special report. See subclause 5.2.5 of DIN 4021
Part 1 and subclause 4.3.16 of DIN 18 301 for borehole c) high plasticity, over 50%.
backfilling, borehole lining being covered in subclause 7.2 The plasticity index, expressed as a percentage, derived
of DIN 4021 Part 3, August 1976 edition. from the water content a t the liquid limit and the plastic
limit,Ip = w L - wp, allows a distinction t o be made be-
4.1.10 Under item No. 11, the static water level after tween clay and s i l t on the basisof their physical properties.
installation of the piezometer shall be entered, together
Soil is designated clay when Ip is not less than
with the date of measurement, the level measured being
0,73 ( w L- 20) and Zp not less than 7.
taken as zero gauge.
A soil i s designated silt when Zp i s both less than 4 and
4.2 Field log less than 0,73 (w, -20).
The field log (see Appendix B) shall be such as to ensure These limits and the range of liquid limit permit the clas-
that entries are made in a given sequence and provide sification of fine soil into plasticity ranges; see figure 3.
full information on the major characteristicsand features For values of Ip between 4 and 7 and not less than
of the strata encountered and all observations on the water 0,73 (wL- ZO),fine soils can be classed as clay or s i l t
condition made. only by manual assessment.
--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
DIN 4022 Part 1 Page 5

Table 1. Soil classification according to particle size (grading)

Soil groups and subgroups I Symbol 1 Particle size,


in rnm

Cobbles Over 63 up to 200

Gravels
Over 20 up to 63
Coarse soils Medium gravel Over 6,3 up to 20
Fine gravel Over 2,O up to 6,3

Sands S Over 0,06 up to 2,O


Coarse sand gs Over 0,6 up to 2,O
Medium sand rnS Over 0,2 up to 0,6
Fine sand fS Over 0.06 up to 0.2

Silts Over 0,002 up to 0,06


Coarse silt Over 0,02 up to 0,06
Medium s i l t Over 0,006 up to 0,02
Fine soils
Fine silt Over 0,002 up to 0,006

Clays Under 0,002

50

40

30
2
U
2
.-C
.z.-> 20
t;
m
a

lo
7
4
O
3
Intermediate
Low plasticity plasticity - _ High plasticity

Figure 3. Plasticity chart for the classification of soils

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Page 6 DIN 4022 Part 1

5.4 Organic constituents on the grading. The classification is to be based on sub-


Classification of soils with organic constituents is based clauses 8.5,8.7 and 8.9. A soil shall be classed as clay if
on the type, the organic matter content, the degree of it liesabove the A-line in the plasticity chart (see figure 3)
decomposition and the history of such constituents. I n and if the plasticity index exceeds 7. If it lies below the
considering the type of organic matter, a distinction is A-line or if Ip is less than 4, it shall be classified as silt.
t o be made between plant and animal remains. The colour
(see subclause 8.4) and testing as described in subclause 6.2.3 Secondary fractions
8.12 provide information on the organic matter content. A secondary fraction is a fines fraction which does not
determine the engineering properties of the soil. Depend-
The degree of decomposition can only be determined for
purely vegetable components. As regards the history of ing on the plasticity of the soil, the qualifying term shall
be ’clayey’ or ‘silty’.
such components, a distinction is made between organic
constituents that have developed and remained a t one Any term qualifying the secondary fractions shall be
and the same location and those deposited by water. placed before * ) the term describing the dominant frac-
tion in the order of their relevance, as follows (examples):
sandy gravel; coarse sandy fine gravel; medium sandy,
6 Information required for soil classification
fine gravely coarse sand; silty fine sand; fine gravely,
6.1 Basic soils coarse sandy silt; medium sandy clay.
Basic soils are soils with uniform grading (i.e. they consist If coarse secondary fractions are present in a particularly
of particles of only one size range) as specified in table 1 small or particularly large proportion, the adverb ‘slightly‘
(e.g. gravel, fine sand, coarse silt). or ’very‘ shall precede the qualifying term.
If the grading curve of a soil is known, the percentage by
6.2 Composite soils
mass of coarse constituents shall be qualified as ‘slightly‘
6.2.1 General for less than 15 % and as ‘very‘ for more than 30 % as
Composite soils are designated by a noun (main term) fol lows (examples) :
describing the dominant fraction and by one or more very sandy gravel; very fine-gravely, coarse sandy medium
adjectives (qualifying terms) describing the secondary gravel; medium sandy, slightly gravely coarse sand; very
fractions (e.g. sandy gravel, gravely clay). fine-sandy, medium sandy silt; very gravely, coarse sandy
clay.
6.2.2 Dominant fractions ’
In the case of fine secondary fractions, theadverb ’slight-
6.22.1 The dominant fraction i s either the soil type
ly’ or ‘very’ shall precede the adjective ’clayey’ or ’silty‘
predominating in terms of mass or that which determines
if these constituents have a particularly slight or particu-
the engineering properties of the soil.
larly marked effect on the soil properties. Such a dif-
6.2.2.2 The dominant fraction is the soil type predomi- ferentiation may, however, only be made in the case of
nating in terms of mass: coarse soils and composite soils, the properties of which
a) in the case of coarse soils, with a fines fraction (silt are not determined by the fines fraction, e.g. sandy,
andior clay) of less than 5 %; slightly silty gravel or very clayey, slightly finegravely
sand.
b) in the case of composite soils, with a fines fraction ( s i l t
and/or clay) from 5 to 40%. if this fraction does not I n the case of fine and composite soils, the properties of
--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

determine the engineering properties of the soil. which are determined by the fines fraction, a soil can be
Note. The fines fraction i s not regarded as determining classed as ’silt’ or ’clay’ by checking for the presence of
the characteristics of a composite soil if the soil fine secondary constituents on the basis of i t s plasticity
exhibits no, or only a very low, dry strength in properties using the tests described in subclauses 8.5,8.7
the test described in subclause 8.5 or, if, when and 8.9.
tested in accordance with subclause 8.7, it ex- A clay may be classed as ‘silty’ and a s i l t as ‘clayey’, if the
hibits a very low plasticity. relevant plasticity index in the plasticity chart (see figure 3)
In both cases, the name is to be based on the subgroup lies within 3%of the A-line, e.g. clayey, slightly sandy
s i l t or silty, very gravely, sandy clay.
into which coarse soil i s classified (cf. subclause 5.2), e.g.
gravel, sand, medium gravel, fine sand. 6.2.4 Composite soils
6.2.2.3 The dominant fraction is thesoil type determin- (with two constituents i n equal proportions)
ing the engineering properties of the soil: If, in the case of coarse soils, two soil types are present
a) i n the case of fine soils, i.e. soils with a fines fraction in approximately equal proportions (40 t o 60%by mass),
exceeding 40 %; an oblique shall be placed between the relevant terms,
e.g. gravehand or finehnedium sand.
b) in the case of composite soils, where the fines fraction
determines engineering properties of the soil.
Note. The fines fraction is regarded as determining the 6.3 Organic soils
characteristicsof a composite soil if this i s of a t Peat, mud and humus (mor) are organic soils; see table 2.
least medium dry strength as determined in the
test described in subclause 8.5,or exhibits a certain
degree of plasticity as determined in the t e s t de-
scribed in subclause 8.7. *) Translator‘s note. In German usage, for the purposes
In both cases, the soil shall betermedeither ’clay‘ or ‘silt’ of soil classification, qualifying terms are placed after
depending on the plasticity of the fines fraction and not the main term.

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
DIN 4022 Part 1 Page 7

Table 2. Organic soils Note. The compactness as a descriptive term for coarse

Name I Organic
constituents I Notes
and composite soils can only be established by field
tests as specified in DIN 18 125 Part 2 in combina-
tion with laboratorytestsas specified in DIN 18 125
Peat Plant remains Purely organic Part 1, DIN 18 126, or by soundings as specified
____ in DIN 4094 Parts 1 and 2 (see also subclause 4.2
Mud Plant and animal Contains inorganic of DIN 1054, November 1976 edition).
remains const i tuents.

Plant remains, Toget her with 8 Parameters relevant for soil classification
Humus
(mor) living organisms inorganic and description
and their excretions constituents, 8.1 Panicle size distribution
forms the topsoil.
To determine the particle size, the soil sample shall be
spread out on a flat surface or on the palm of the hand.
Then the particle sizes of the sample shall either be com-
Peat is classified according to the degree of decomposi- pared with those of a grading standard comprising sec-
tion, this being determined in the wet state by squeezing tions containing material of different particle size ranges,
(cf. subclause 8.1 2 ) and in the dry state, from the appear- or with the size of everyday objects.
ance. On this basis, a soil can be classified as follows.
a) Gravel smaller than hen's eggs, but larger
Table 3. Degree of decomposition of wet peat as than match heads;
determined by squeezing aa) coarse gravel smaller than hen'seggs, but larger
than hazelnuts;
Characteristics
ab) medium gravel smaller than hazelnuts, but larger
than peas;
Degree of ac) f ¡ne gravel smaller than peas, but larger than
decornposi- Plant
remains out fluid after match heads.
tion squeezing
b) Sand smaller than match heads, down
to particlesat the limit of visibility;
Not decomposed Clearly ba) coarse sand smaller than match heads, but
to moderately recognizable turbid water larger than grit;
decomposed
bb) medium sand of the same size as grit;
Highly Hardly Watery Virtually
Paste no residue bc) fine sand smaller than grit, but individual
decomposed recognizable
to fully or absolutely except a few particles s t i l l visible to the naked
decomwsed unrecognizable plant remains eye.
If the soil contains constituents larger than hen's eggs,
these shall be designated as 'cobbles' or 'boulders'.
As the individual particles of s i l t and clay are not visible
In the case of organic soils with mineral constituents, to the naked eye, the methods given in subclauses 8.5 to
these shall be described by qualifying terms as in subclause 8.9 shall be used for determining the characteristics of
6.2.3, e.g. clayey mud, very sandy mud or slightly fine- such soil.
sandy peat.
If organic matter i s present as secondary constituent, the 8.2 Particle shape and roughness of grain surface
qualifying term shall be 'peaty', 'humic' or, more generally,
The particle shape of gravel and sand, other than for silt
'organic', small fractions being identified by 'slightly' and clay, shall be determined and classed as spherical,
and large fractions by 'very'. The humic upper soil layer
rounded, elongated, acicular, angular, subangular.
i s also referred to as the topsoil.
The roughness of grain surface for gravel may be classified
by feeling with the finger tips, as follows:
--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

7 Soil description a) of high roughness, similar t o the roughness of a coarse


wood f ile;
In addition to classifying soils, the condition in which a
soil i s encountered, any particular secondary constituents b) of medium roughness, similar to the roughness of a
or other features of a soil, such as the lime content, coarse abrasive paper;
particle shape, surface roughness of particles, odour, any c) of low roughness, similar to the roughness.of a fine
common names and the geological classification shall be abrasive paper;
indicated. When completing the borehole log, soil clas- d) smooth, similar to the surface conditionof an eggshell.
sification and description shall be based on the methods The roughness of sand particles cannot be determined
of test described in clause 8. without aids.
For quantitative determinationof the condition in which
the soil i s encountered, laboratory tests as specified in 8.3 Fines content
DIN 18 121 Parts 1 and 2 (at present a t the stage of draft) For classifying composite soils,thefinesfractionof a small
and DIN 18 122 Part 1 shall be carried out. sample quantity is to be washed out or elutriated and the

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Page 8 DIN 4022 Part 1

coloured patches or with grey spots resulting


from a brown colour.
A yellowish, brownish and reddish colour is most
commonly found, a yellow to brownish colour
being caused by the presence of iron salts, and a
brownish colour by the presence of iron (II)
hydroxide. Light colours indicate quartz sand,
lime sand and podzol soils containing no organic
matter, in zones near the surface where the colour-
ing constituents are leached out by the combined
action of oxygen-rich precipitation water, humic
acid and carbonic acid. Below the pale zone, the
leached constituents are usually precipitated, thus
producing a particularly intensive rust-brown colour
of the soil. Thepresenceof rust colour is frequently
accompanied by cementation of the soil (hard-pan).

8.5 Dry strength


The results obtained from dry strength testing provide
information on the plasticity of a soil and thus on i t s being
classed as silt or clay.
To establish the dry strength, a soil sample shall be dried
in air, in the sun or in an oven. I t s resistance to being
crumbled or powdered between the fingers is a measure
of the dry strength of the soil, which is governed by the
type and percentage of fines. Thus, it permits the soil to
be classified as follows.
a) Soil has no dry strength, if i t disintegrates without
being touched or a t the slightest touch (e.g. soil types
G, S, Gs).
b) Soil has low dry strength, if it disintegrates under
light to moderate finger pressure (e.g. soil types U,
Ufs, fSÜ, GÜ).
Sand and gravel Clay and silt c) Soil has medium dry strength, if it disintegrates only
Organic Organic under substantial finger pressure into pieces which
Organic
matter matter Colour matter Colour still show cohesion (e.g. soil types Gt, St,Ut).
content content content d) Soil has high dry strength, if the soil can no longer be
made to disintegrate by finger pressure but can only
Colour be broken between the hands (e.g. soil types T, Tu,
Low 1 to 3 Grey 2to 5 of Ts, Gis).
mineral

8.6 Dilatancy
The behaviour of a soil when shaken indicates whether
I High I Over 5 1 Black I Over 10 I Black 1 and to what extent s i l t i s present.
To establish the dilatancy, a pat of soil moistened to be
soft shall be shaken from hand to hand. Dilatancy i s
The colour of peat may be used as a guide to
determine i t s degree of decomposition: the darker shown by the appearance of a shiny film of water on the
surface of the pat. When the pat i s squeezed or pressed
a peat, the more it darkens when in contact with
with the fingers, the surface dulls as the pat stiffens and
air.
finally crumbles. With further shaking, the crumbs once
When taking fresh samples from mud, it shall be
again become a cohesive mass on which the test can be
established whether it becomes rust-coloured repeated.
when in contact with air, this indicating oxidation
and appearing particularly on mud previously Considering the time taken for water to appear and dis-
having a greenish colour (usually with a tendency appear during shaking and pressing, the soil can be clas-
towards olive green). sified as follows:
Note 3. The greenish colour i s caused by the presence of a) of high dilatancy, if the process described occurs very
iron (II) oxide compounds. Since these rapidly quickly (e.g. soil types fS, fSu, Ufs, Gu);
oxidize on contact with air, the greenish colour b) of low dilatancy, if the shiny f i l m of water forms and
i s present only as long as the soil i s under water. changes very slowly (e.g. soil types Ut, U, St);
In the zone of fluctuations of the water table, the c) showing no reaction, if the sample does not respond
green colour is thus often interspersed with rust- to the dilatancy test (e.g. soil types Tu, T ) .

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
DIN 4022 Part 1 Page 9

8.7 Plasticity 8.11 Organic soil and peat


To establish the plasticity (toughness), a soil sample The odour of a soil gives an indication of whether it is of
prepared to b e soft but not sticky shall be rolled on a inorganic or organic nature.
smooth surface or on the palm of the hand to produce Fresh, moist organic soils generally have a mouldy odour
threads about 3 mm in diameter, moulded together, and which can be intensified by heating a moist sample.
rolled again until i t has dried sufficiently and finally Putrifying, rotten organic components in soil can be
crumbles when rolled out. From this point onwards, the recognized by the typical hydrogen sulfide odour which
sample can no longer be rolled out, but only moulded can be intensified by pouring dilute hydrochloric acid on
until it crumbles, this property being taken as a basis for the sample. This odour is produced particularly by mud
classifying soil as follows: and fresh, slightly decomposed peat.
a) of low plasticity, if lumps showing cohesion can no Dry inorganic clays have an earthy odour after being

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
longer be moulded from the threads [e.g. soil types moistened.
Ti, U);
b) of intermediate plasticity, if the lump formed cannot 8.12 Degree of decomposition
be moulded because it crumbles under light finger The degree of decomposition of peat can be established
pressure (e.g. soil types Ut, Ts'); by squeezing a wet sample in the hand, and the peat
c) of high plasticity, if the lump formed from the threads classified as follows:
can be moulded without crumbling, even under strong. a) undecomposed to moderately decomposed, if, when
er finger pressure (e.g. soil type T). squeezed, only clear or turbid water exudes between
fingers;
8.8 Sand content of soils b) highly or completely decomposed, if a large portion
To check a soil for the presence of sand, silt and clay, a or virtually all the peat exudes between the fingers.
small soil sample shall be rubbed between the fingers, if I f squeezing i s not effective because the peat is too dry,
necessary under water. The proportion of the sand frac- the peat is to be assessed on the basis of its appearance,
tion can De determined from the degree to which the substantial fractions of well-maintained plant remains
material feels gritty. In cases of doubt, the test may be being recognizable in undecomposed to moderately de-
carried out by grinding the soil between the teeth, the composed peat and no plant remains in highly or com-
presence of sand being felt due to i t s grittiness. pletely decomposed peat.
Note. A clayey soil feels soapy and sticks to the fingers
and cannot be removed without washing, even 8.13 Consistence
when in the dry state, whereas silty soils feel The consistence of a cohesive soil shall be determined in
smooth to the touch. The dry soil particles that a field test, this permitting the following classification.
stick to the fingers can be easily blown away or a) A soil is to be classed as pasty if it exudes between
removed by clapping the hands. fingers when squeezed in the hand.
b) A soil is t o be classed as soft if it can be moulded by
8.9 Clay and silt content of soils light finger pressure.
To check a soil for the presence of clay or silt, a sample c) A soil i s to be classed as stiff if it cannot be moulded
in its naturally moist state shall be cut with a knife. A by fingers but rolled in the hand to 3mm thick threads
shiny cut surface indicates the presence of clay, while a without breaking or crumbling.
dull sample surface i s characteristic of silt or of clayey- d) A soil is to be classed as semi-solid if it crumbles and
sandy silt of low plasticity. For a rapid assessment, the breaks when rolled to 3 mm thick threads but is still
sample surface may be scored with a fingernail or sufficiently moist to be moulded to a lump again.
smoothed.
e) A soil i s to be classed as firm if it has dried out and is
mostly light coloured. It can no longer be moulded
8.10 Lime content but crumbles under pressure.
The application of droplets of dilute (3 : 1 ) hydrochloric
acid, HCI, to a sample enables lime to be detected and 9 Classification and description of rock
thus soil to be classified as follows: 9.1 General
a) lime-free (O), if the addition of H C I produces no For the classification of rock material, there are, in con-
effervescence; trast to soil, no simple distinguishing features that can be
b ) calcareous ( + I , if the addition of H C I produces slight observed on site.
t o distinct, but not sustained, effervescence; For this reason, the geologist or the client shall provide
c) highly calcareous (++), if theaddition of HCI produces the driller with information on the rock types likely t o be
strong and sustained effervescence. encountered on site on the basis of the available geological
It should be noted that in wet or moist clayey soils, the data.
effervescence usually occurs with some delay. For a description of the rock mass or rock materials, the
Note. A high dry strength is often the result of lime methods given in clause 10 shall be used.
acting as a consolidating agent. As hydrochloric
acid can produce poisonous gases when applied to 9.2 Classification
chemically contaminated soils,e.g. a t waste depos- For the purposes of this standard, rock material shall be
its, it shall not be used for determining the lime classified on the basis of its mineral composition and
content of such soils. formation history as shown in figure 4.

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Page 10 DIN 4022 Part 1

IGNEOUS ROCKS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

(plutonic rock (detrital rocks, precipitated


and effusive rock) sedimentary rock,
organic or organogenic deposits)
Rhyolite Diabase Conglomerate Chalk
Andesite Pegmatite Breccia Tufaceous limestone
Basalt Granite Sandstone Tuff
Volcanic glass Diorite Siltstone Anhydr ¡te
Quartz porphyry Gabbro Clay stone Gypsum
Gangue quartz Peridod ¡te MarIstone Rock s a l t
Limestone Coa I
I I Dolomite Lignite 1
I

1 ROCKS
I

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
(mechanically and thermally
transformed rocks)
Gneiss Hornfels
Micaceous schist Marble
Phyllite Granulite
Amphibolite Quartzite

Figure 4. Example of rock classification

9.3 Description 10.3 Clay minerals content


The driller shall describe the type of rock recovered on Clay minerals in non-granular rock are indicated by a
the basis of the methods described in clause 10, table 5 shiny scratch or cut surface.
giving descriptive features for the most common rock
types listed in figure 4. These features shall be recorded 10.4 Bulk density
by the driller and compared with the information given
The bulk density of rock shall be determined by visual
in table 5.
inspection as follows:
I f the features of a specific rock material deviate from
those given in table 5, this shall be recorded. a) a rock i s to be classed as dense, if no pores can be
recognized (see figure 7);
I f the geologist indicates the existence of rock types not
b) a rock isto beclassedas porous if itsporesaregenerally
listed in figure 4 or having characteristics not included in
not larger than a sand grain and more or less uniformly
table 5, it shall be his responsibility to give the relevant
distributed (see figure 8);
descriptive features.
c) a rock i s to be classed as highly porous if i t s pores are
larger than a sand grain and not uniformly distributed
10 Description of rock material (see figure 9);
10.1 Granularity d) a rock is to be classed as cavernous if i t has small and
A rock i s to be classed as highly granular if it i s seen large cavities of more or less non-uniformcross section
to consist only of separate grains of the same or dif- (see figure 10).
fering size (see figure 5).
A rock i s to be classed as partly granular if there are 10.5 Grain bond (strength)
individual grains in a uniform rock mass that cannot
Rock may be classed according to grain bond,asfollows:
be seen to be granular (see figure 6).
a) poor grain bond, if particles can be easily rubbed off
A rock i s to be classed as non-granular if no separate
with the fingers;
grains can be distinguished (see figure 7).
b) fair grain bond, if a rock sample can be easily scratched
10.2 Grain size with a steel nail or a knife;
If thegrain size can be estimated by the naked eye, it shall c) high grain bond, if a rock sample is fairly resistant to
be determined as described in subclause 8.1. scratching with a steel nail or a knife;
If separate grains cannot be distinguished, the texture d) very highgrain bond, if a rock sample i s highly resistant
shall be determined as described in subclause 10.3. to scratching with a steel nail or a knife.

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
DIN 4022 Part 1 Page 1 1

Figure 5. Highly granular rock (scale 3 : 50) Figure 6. Partly granular rock (scale 1 : 2)

Figure 8. Porous rock (scale 1 : 5 )


--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 7. Non-granular (dense) rock (scale 3 : 5)

Figure 9. Highly porous rock (scale 1,2 : 1) Figure 10. Cavernous rock (scale 3 : 5)

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Page 12 DIN 4022 Part 1

M
c
.-
Lm
.-Y
W
N

->
W
E
a

gg o b o + O 0 o o o O 0 0 o O 0

-
e?
M
al
S
Lm
I m m m m

U
O
m
o
I
%- o >
I-
- 2 1 ->
.-m
L c
.-= -g .=% =
I
Ö C O"
ai
%
O
U I I IFS II I I
>. VI
a
.-e
v)
C
al
U
r3 8 I c y :c u c: 8 y : y:
c c c c
rn m m m m W W
a,
O 0 0 0 O 0 o

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(D .r com

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
DIN 4022 Part 1 Page 13

10.6 Grain hardness 11.2 Column2


The hardness of highly granular or partly granular rock 11.2.1 Column 2, box a
shall be determined on individual grains, as large as Here, the descriptive terms given in subclauses 5.2, 5.3
possible, and that of non-granular rock, also on sample and clauses 6 and 9 shall be usedfor natural soil and rock,
surfaces, this permitting the rock to be classified into employing the identification methods described in
hardness grades 1 and 2, if the sample can be easily clauses 8 and 10.
scratched with the fingernail; Secondary constituents, such as wood remains, seashells,
hardness grade 3, if the sample can be easily scratched pieces of brick, etc. shall be listed specifically. Fill ma-
with a knife; terial shall be identified as such, a distinction being made
hardness grade 4, if the sample can be scratched with between fill material consisting of soil or rock and other
a knife using strong pressure; fill material, such as building rubble, refuse, ash, etc. Fill
hardnessgrade5 , if the sample is resistant t o scratching material of soil or rock shall be identified and described
with a knife but can be scratched with a rough file; as in subclauses 5.2, 5.3 and clauses 6 and 9.
hardness grades not less than 6 , if the sample produces
11.2.2 Column 2, box b
sparks when struck with steel and scratches window
glass. This box shall be completed by the geologist.

10.7 Stability in water 11.3 Column 2, box c


An as large and undisturbed a specimen as possible shall 11.3.1 For cohesive soils, the consistence shall be re-
be taken from a core sample and kept in clear water for corded that has been determined for a sample representa-
about 24 hours. Following that, the stability of rock in t i v e of the material in i t s natural state. For the determi-
water can be classified as follows: nation, the sample shall be stripped from the outer,
a) highly unstable, if the specimen has com-pletely dis- softened material layer, which in somecases isalso mixed
integrated and turned to paste; with other constituents, and the core material shall be
b) unstable, if the specimen has disintegrated but s t i l l investigated as described in subclause 8.13.
contains isolated mineral grains; Using the method.described in subclause 8.7, it shall be
c) fairly stable, if the specimen surface has softened or established whether the sample is of low, intermediate or
parts have started to Clisintegrate; high plasticity, a further suitable method being that de-
d) stable, if the specimens show no sign of visible changes. scribed in subclause 8.9. I n both cases, it shall be taken
into account that material recovered from below water
10.8 Lime content absorbs water, this process being especially rapid in the
case of silty soils.
The lime content shall be determined asdescribed in sub-
clause 8.10 using hydrochloric acid.
11.3.2 In the case of non-cohesive soils, care shall be
taken to ensure that the material does not segregate or is
10.9 Odour
not washed out. A representative specimen shall be taken
A specimen shall be carefully hit with a hammer and the from the core sample and examined to establish whether
odour recorded, with bituminous rock being identified the grains are rounded, angular, elongated, f l a t or sub-
by an unpleasant, foul odour, sapropelic rock smelling angular.
of violets, and many vulcanic rocks, smelling of bad eggs.
An earthy odour as a result of breathing on the specimen 11.3.3 Organic soil shall be identified using a fresh
identifies a clayey rock. sample, which should be intact as far as possible, employ-
ing the method described in subclause 8.1 1.
10.10 Colour The degree of decomposition of peat shall be determined
The colour shall be established by inspecting fresh fracture as described in subclause 8.12.
surfaces, due consideration being given to colour differ-
ences and stating whether and t o which extent grains,
11.3.4 Information on rock shall be given using the
streaks and veins, for example, differ in colour from the
methods described in subclauses 10.3, 10.5 and 10.6.
rock mass.

11 Information on the completion of a field log 11.4 Column 2, box d


(see Appendix B) 11.4.1 In this box, i t shall be stated whether the soil i s
11.0 All boxes not including a footnote shall be com- easy or difficult to drill and whether a high or low pen-
pleted on site. Where ino information can be provided, etration resistance i s observed.
dashes shall be entered. When filling in the log, use shall
be made of the examples given in table 6. 11.4.2 During drilling, the compactness of non-cohesive
soils cannot be established.
11.1 Column 1 The terms ‘loose’ or ’densely compacted’ shall thus not
For the purposes of this standard, the location of the be used. However, the occurrence of obstacles, such as
borehole or the trial pit i s i t s top edge, not the top edge rock, wood or refuse shall be recorded as shall any
of the casing. The depths of strata boundaries shall be lateral deflection, sudden thrust of the drill, sloughing
given a t least to the nearest 0,05m. and ground heave.

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Page 14 DIN 4022 Part 1

c 4
.
S
.- c
X E
O 0
m
?i
-i

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
DIN 4022 Part 1 Page 15

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Page 16 DIN 4022 Part 1

11.5 Column 2, box e 11.10 Column 3


The colour of the sample shall be described on the basis In this column,
of the method given in subclauses 8.4 and 10.10, any a l entries shall be made of any water level observations
discoloration being recorded. In the case of rock, any made during thedrilling process (e.g.'no water struck'or
chromatic deviations on joint planes shall be recorded. 'water struck'), and any water rise or fall, water level
after completion of drilling and any flushing with
water, water sampling (with or without addition of
11.6 Column 2, box f powdered marble), water level, in m below or above
I n this box, the driller shall enter the common names of the borehole top and of the depth of the bottom end
the material bored. of the casing;
b) any difficulties encountered during drilling operations
and any special, such as 'blasting work', 'fishing',
11.7 Column 2, box g 'jamming of casing tubes', 'ground heave', 'gas escape',
This section shall be completed by the geologist. shall be recorded;
c) any information additional to that given under item
Nos. 9, 10 of the summary log.
11.8 Column 2, box h 11.11 Columns 4 , 5 and 6
This section shall not be completed by the driller or the The samples recovered for subsequent processing shall be
drilling contractor, but by the geologist who i s to specify listed in column 4or 5, specifying the type of sample con-
there the soil groupasdefined in DIN 18 196. In thecase tainer (e.g. glass container or core storage box), the sam-
of rock, this column need not be completed. ple number and the sampling depth, in m below the bore-
hole top.

11.9 Column 2, box i 12 Graphical representation of borehole


The lime content shall be determined in accordance with
logging results (borehole record)
subclause 8.1 O and entered using 0 for lime-free, + for The graphical representation of borehole logging results
calcareous and ++ for highly calcareous. shall be as specified in DIN 4023.

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
m
a
N
O

8 "5 Il, II, Il.


. . .

II II IIII,
a m
Y Y % :
m m m

II II II II II Il
--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

II II IlII,
a
m
4m v ) :
m
mmom
3v)soo4

r
I

E
C

-1

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Appendix A
Example of a completed summary log
Summary log as in DIN 4002 File No.: 25005
Ref.: 1028/85
Subsoil boring/-*)

1 Name of project: New apartment house Number of pages of borehole log: 1


Number of test reports, etc.: -

2 Borehole No. B 1 Purpose Ground investiEation


place: 15 Churchgate, Whaplode
Location (i: 25000 scale topographical map): Whaplode NO.: 6080
Eastern: 32'24180 Northern : 4719220 Vertical/&&&&&: - Direction: -
Evelation
above
3 Site plane (sketch) @&ïRxxx
a) NN (m.s.i.) 1865
I b) -
m
m

I not to scale*))
0,oo
&&&%%&%/at ground
level*)

~ 18,O m

I Borehole NO.:

-+-+-€+
Boundary stone

transmission tower

4 Client: E. Flint
--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Drilling supervisor: Geobore Ltd.. Middleton


5 Name of contractor: TiefBohr AG
Date from: 28. to: 29.10.85 Daily report No(@.: 10 and 11 Project No.: 10ZW5
operator: Smith Qualification : Driller
Operator: - Qualification : -
Operator: - Qualification: -

6 Type of boring equipment: xyz @De 2 Year of manufacture: 1979


Type of boring equipment: - Year of manufacture:L
.-
.I

7 Measurements and tests carried out in the borehole: -

8 Details of sampling: I Type of sample container I Quantity I Place of storage i


Core samples Glass containers 9 Geobore Ltd., Middleton
Core samples
Core samples
Special samples Core storage boxes 4 >> 71 >,
'
Water samples

The nqte in the margin on page 1 prohibiting reproduction of any part of the standard does not apply to this specimen form.

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
DIN 4022 Part 1 Page 17

9 Technical data BP = drilling involving BKR= BK with core recovery other


9.1 Symbols continuous recovery of than vertically
9.1.1 Boring method bulk samples BKB = BK using flexible
9.1.1.1 Type of sample recovery: BuP = drilling involving recovery sleeve
BK = drilling involving continuous Of samples with discontinuity BKF = BK usingrigid sleeve
core sample recovery BS = sounding
... - ... -
- ...-
-
9.1.1.2 Drilling technique: ham = by hammering perc = by percussion
rot = by rotary drilling pneu = pneumatic grab = by grabbing
9.1.2 Drilling tool HB = hollow bit WA = worm auger -
...-
9.1.2.1 Type: SB = solid bit SA = spiral auger ...-
-
SC = single tube core barrel HC = hardfaced core SP = sand pump . ..--
DC = double tube core barrel DB = diamond core bit VA = valve auger
TC = triple tube core barrel Gr = grab CH = chisel
C = cable core bit A = mud auger S = sounding device
9.1.2.2 Drive: HA = hand auger boring PD = pneumatic drilling
RO = rods GD = gravity drilling HD = hydrodrilling
C = cable VP = vibratory percussion drilling
9.1.2.3 Flushing media: FB = brine d = direct
FW= water FM = mud id = indirect
FA = air FF = foam
9.2 Engineering data

Outsidelinside diam.:

1O Information on groundwater conditions, backfill and lining


Water first struck at 1,70 m &&fall*) up to 3980 m below borehole top
Highest water level measured 1,70 m below/&%&*) borehole top at borehole depth of 1380 m
Backfilling from: 25380 m to 600 m Type of fill: Ddl cuttings From: m to rn Type of fill: Drill cuttings

11 Other information Second acquifer struck at 6,50 m.


Water rise to 3,80 m. Static water level on 29. Oct. 1988 after 14 hours, 4,lO m below borehole top (zero measurement).

*ì Delete as aDDliCabk.

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Sheet No.
Borehole log (field log) Report No.:
for drilling not involving continuous sample recovery
Ref.:

Borehole Date :
No. /Sheet
Trial pit
-
1
- 2 3
a) Designation of soil type les
End and secondary constituents Notes 'red
of b) Notesi) (special sample,
bore- water conditions, Depth
hole c) Condition of d) Condition of soillrock e) Colour drilling tools, (bottom
lt ...K sample according to depth core loss, sample
depth miscellaneous) face),
9 Usual
designation
g) Geological
designation 1)
h) 1)
Group I kk:fent in m

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

This
9

section shall be
g,
completed
I
by the geologist.
I h, I
I
i) I
I

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Sheet No.
Borehole log (field log) Report No.:
for drilling not involving continuous sample recovery
Ref.: 1028/85

Borehole Date :
No. B 1 /Sheet 1
=-m 29.1 O. 85

--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
-
1 2 3 4 1 5 1 6
a) Designation of soil type Samples
and secondary constituents Notes recovered
-
End
of b) Notesl) (special sample,
bore- water conditions, Depth
hole c) Condition of d) Condition of soillrock e) Colour drilling tools, (bottom
JO.
it . . .m sample according to depth core loss, sample
depth miscellaneous) face),
9 Usual g) Geological
in rn
designation designation I )
-
a) Fine sandy, medium sand, Sampling spoon, G 1 0,30
containing organic matter 165 mm diametq
b) drilled to 1,SO m.
Tubes.
O,30
I

- -
I Water struck 2 O,80
1 at í,70 m.
Cable, driven,
1,80 100 kg/
c) Not decomposed, d) Easy to e) Black 300 rnm stroke,
3 blows 1 1,oo
f) Peat 9). Lower-moor peat h) HN 5 blows 2 1,50
- -
a) Silty, sandy and stony clay, Sampling spoon, G 3 2,50
pieces of chalk 133 mm diameter
b)
30 blows s 3 3,OO
6.50 c) Stiff d) Difficult e) Grey
to drill 45 blows S 4 4,50
9 Boulder clay 9) Glacial period G 4 6,50
-
a) Very fine gravely, coarse sandy, medium sand Valve auger, G 5 8,50
133 mm
b) diameter.
Water,at 6,50 m, G 6 10,30
14,90 c) Rounded d) Difficult e) Coloured rises to
to drill 3,80 m below G 7 12,50
9 Sand 9) Late glacial pm'od h)
borehole top
G 8 14,90
-
a) Completely granular, dense rock Cross bit, G ,9 15,50
121 mm diametel
b) no casing
from 14,90 m.
25,80
C)Fair d) Easy e) Red Static water
grain bond to cut level at 4,lO rn
9 Sandstone 9) Varigated h) i) o below borehole
sandstone top --
I) This section shall be completed by the geologist.
Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.
Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT
Page 20 DIN 4022 Part 1

Standards and other documents referred to


DIN 1054 Permissible load ing of su bsoiI
DIN 4021 Part 1 Subsoil; exploration by digging (trial pits) and boring and by sample recovery; exploration of soil
DIN 4021 Part 2 Subsoil; exploration by digging (trial pits) and boring and by sample recovery; exploration of rock
DIN 4021 Part 3 Subsoil; exploration by digging (trial pits) and boring and by sample recovery; groundwater investi-
gation
DIN 4022 Part 2 Subsoil and groundwater; classification and description of soil and rock; borehole logging of rock
DIN 4022 Part 3 Subsoil and groundwater; classification and description of soil and rock; borehole logging of soil
involving continuous core sample recovery
DIN 4023 Borehole logging; graphical representation of results
DIN 4094 Part 1 Subsoil; dynamic and static penetrometers; dimensions oí equipment and mode of operation
DIN 4094 Part 2 Subsoil; dynamic and static penetrometers; application and evaluation
DIN 18 121 Part 1 Soil analysis; determination of water content by oven drying
DIN 18 121 Part 2 (at present at the stage of draft) Soil analysis; determination of water content by rapid method
DIN 18 122 Part 1 Soil analysis; consistence limits; determination of liquid limit and plastic limit
DIN 18 122 Part 2 Soil analysis; consistence limits; determination of shrinkage limit
DIN 18 123 Soil analysis; determination of particle size distribution
DIN 18 125 Part 1 Soil analysis; determination of soil density; laboratory tests
DIN 18 125 Part 2 Soil analysis; determination of soil density; field tests
DIN 18 126 Soil analysis; determiantion of density of non-cohesivesoils for maximum and minimum compactness
DIN 18 196 Earthworks; soil classification for civil engineering purposes
DIN 18300 Tendering and performance stipulations in contracts for construction works (VOB). Part C: General
technical specifications in contracts for construction works (ATV); earthworks
DIN 18301 Tendering and performance stipulations in contracts for construction works (VOB). Part C: General
technical specifications in contracts for construction works (ATV); drilling works
FGSV No. 532 Merkblatt uber Felsgruppenbeschreibung für bautechnische Zwecke im Straßenbau 1

Previous editions
DIN 4022:04.38; DIN 4022 Part 1: 02.55,11.69.

A mendments
--````,`,``,,````,,,,`,```,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The following amendments have been made to the November 1969 edition.
a) The standard has been brought into line with DIN 4022 Parts 2 and 3 and has been supplemented by specifications
regarding the summary (borehole) log.
b) The plasticity is now dealt with, which permits a distinction to be made between clay and silt.
cl Specifications regarding classification and description of rock have been included.
d) Specifications regarding the description of rock materials have been included.
e) The specimen forms for the field log have been redesigned so as to be suitable for printers and typewriters.

International Patent Classification


E 02 D 1/00
G O1 N 33/24
G O1 V 9/00

1 ) Issued by and obtainable from the Forschungsgeseilschaft für das Straßen- und Verkehrswesen e. V.,
Alfred-Schütte-Allee IO, D-5000 Köln 21.

Copyright Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V.


Provided by IHS under license with DIN Licensee=Bogazici University/5964815002
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 06/22/2007 00:57:49 MDT