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Pilots Notes


- ..



(Fufmar 1.. •........... '" MERLIN VIII engine)

(Fulmer 1I " MERLIN XXX engine)

Prepared ~ 41rect1on or the lUnieter ot Aircraft Product1on

PraIrulsated b1 order ot'the A1r Counc1l.




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Note to offioial users

Air ~inistry Orders and Volume II leaflets 8S issued from time to tioe will affeot the subJeot mbtter of this publioation. It should be understood that amendment lists

are not alw8Y8 i88Ued to bring the publioation into 11ne with • the orders or leaflets and it 1s for holders of this book to arrange the neoessary linki~-up.

Where an order or leaflet oontradiots any portion of this publioation, an amendment list will generally be issued, but when this 1s not done the order or lea£let must be taken as the oyerridlng 8uthorit7.

Revised by A.L. 21/D



Pilot's Notes.






'FUel system •

Oil system •• Hydraulic system •• Pneumatic system •• Electrical system.


Control column and Rudder bar • Elevator trimming tab control Rudder trimming tab control Aileron trimming tabs ••• Control locking gear undercarriage controls •• Undercarriage indicator • Undercarriage warning horn Flaps control •••

Flaps position indicator Folding trailing edge control • Hydraulic hand pump

Undercarriage EMERGENCY operation Deck arrester gear

Wheel brakes

Hydraulic pressure gauges Pressure head heater Aircraft instruments


Throttle and mixture controls. Automatic boost cut-out control Propeller speed control •

Carburettor air-intake heat control' • Radiator shutter control ••• Glow-running cut-out control ••

Fuel cock control

Fuel contents gauge

Immersed fUel pump

Fuel priming pumps

I!agneto switches ••

Engine starting

Oil dilution

Engine instruments

... 31
38 F.S/l

Para. •

COCKPIT ACCOMMODATION MID EQUIP16ENT Pilot's seat control •••.••• Cockpit hooding ••

Entry to cock:pi t .

I'/indscreen wiper • Windscreen de-icing cockpit lighting

Cockpit heating and ventilation Thermos flask •••

Oxygen equipment

Rear vision mirror


39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

50 51 52 53

54 55 56 57

l.~ap case ••• • ••

OPERATIOlTAL EQUIP1'Et;T AND CONTROLS Gun rire control press button . Camera gun

Reflector gun sight Reconnaissance flares ••


Pilot's microphone and telephone sockets. Intercommunication

Signal pistol

NBvieation, identification and formationkeeping lamps Landing lamp control •••

EMERGENCY EQUIPf'EtTT AIm CO!';TROLS Fire extinguisher system Parachutes

Emergency exits ••


Jetti$oning of auxiliary fuel tank • First-aid eqUipment

R.3003 emergency switches

58 59

60 61 62 63 64 65 66



Pilot's instrument panel 1

Pilot's cockpit - port side •• 2

Pilot's c ockp I t - starboard side 3

P2rachute exits and emergency eqUipment •• 4

Fuel system diagram 5

Revised Apr1l 1942.

by Amendment List No.21/n.

AIR PUBLICATION 1760A Volume I and Pilot's Notes.




Note.- This section covers the controls and equipment in the pilot's cockpit together with that equipment with which the pilot should be acquainted, but which is elsewhere in the aeroplane. The layout of the various items is illustrated and annotated in figs. 1 to 3 at the end o~ the section, each item being given an individual number. Where an item appears in more than one illustration the same reference number is used in each instance.


1. The Fulmar I aeroplane is a low-wing monoplane f'itted with a Herlin VIII engine and is designed for use as a fighter in the Royal Navy. The

P'ulmar II aeroplane is similar to the Fulmar I except that it is fitted with a Merlin 30 engine. The aeroplane can operate from the deck of an aircraft carrier, provision being made for an assisted ta~e-off, and f'or deck-landing. The main planes can be folded when stOWing an aeroplane below deck. Accommodation is provided in two separate cockpits for a crew of two, the pilot and navigator/wireless operator occupying the front and rear cockpits, resPect! vely.


Fuel syste~- A self-sealing fuel tank of 155 gallons capacIty is mounted in the fuselage between the front and rear cockpits. In addition, some aero-

p Lane e have been modified to carry a 60 gallon auxiliary fuel tank f'itted below the fuselage aft of the rear spar. This tank is also of the selfsealing type, and when it is carried the transfer of fuel to the main tank is effected by means of an immersion pump in the auxiliary tank. It is also possible to jettison this auxiliary tank in an emergency. (See figure 5 for Fuel System Diagram).


Revised by A.L.21/D



Oil system.- One oil tank having a capacity of

12f gallons of oil and 2t gallons of air space, is mounted aft of the firewall.

Hydraulic ~tem.- An engine-driven pump, fed from a header t , supplies ~·draulic pressure through accumulators to operate the following services:

Undercarriage Flaps

Trailing Edge Brakes Windscreen wiper

A hand pump provides an alternative method of operation. There are two hydraulic accumulators, (each having a gauge) a small one for supplying power for the brakes and a large one for supplying power for all other services. It is possible however for this large accumulator to supply power to the brakes also if the small accumulator is "flat" •

Pneumatic s*stem.- The pneumatic system is used for operating t e firing units of the eight Browning .303 guns and the G.42B camera gun, the supply being obtained either from a Heywood engine-driven air compressor or from a cylinder mounted in a cradle below the pilot's cockpit floor. In the latter case the cylinder has to be recharged from an external source or replaced when the pressure drops.

Electrical system.- A 24-volt 500 watt enginedriven generator charging two 15-amp.hour, 12-volt accumulators provides for the following services:

Usual lighting services.

Ground signalling lamps.

Landing lamps.

Formation-keeping lamps. Identification lamps. Undercarriage position indicator. cartridge starter.

Gun Sight.

Pressure head heater.

Graviner Fire extinguisher eqUipment. Radio

Immersed pump, (if auxiliary fuel tank is fitted).

Dinghy inflation. Flares release.

011 dilution

F.24 Camera (if fitted).

Revised by A.L.21/D






A.P.1760A Vol.l and P.N. Sect.l


Control column and Rudder.- The control column (48) is conventional in operation and is fitted with 8 spl'\de-ty-pe grip. The rudd-er control consists of pedals, (50) fitted with leather toe-straps. pi voted at the ends of the arms of a rudder bar. This can be adjusted for leg reach by means of a centrallyplaced starwheel operated by the ~oot, the total adjustment available being 6 inches. TUrning the starwheel clockwise reduces the leg reach.

Elevator trimmi~ tab control.- This control (63) Is on the port s de of the cockpit and 1s a handwheel marked 'ELEVATOR BIAS. It operates in a vertical pJane and in the natural sense, and a position indicator (29) on the port side below the instrument panel shows the degree of trim towards STALL or DIVI.

Rudder trimming tab control.- This control (62)

is on the port side of the cockpit below the elevator trimming tab contr.ol, and Is a hand wheal marked RUDDER BIAS. It operates in a horizontal plane and in the natural sense, and a position indicator (27) on the port side below the instrument panel shows the degree of trim to PORT or STARBOARD.

Aileron Trimming tabs.- These tabs can be set from the ground only, by adjusting the lock nuts on the adjuster bolt.

Control locking gear.- stay rods are provided for securing the pilot's control column and rudder ,bar against movement. They consist of three legs, pivoted together in tripod fashion, the apex being hooked to a peg about mid-length down the control column on its forward face, while the feet of two of the legs connect with pegs (49) on each of the foot rests of the rudder bar. The foot of the third leg hooks to a clip (31) on the port side of the cockpit above the engine control lever quadrant. When not in use the rods (51) are stowed vertically behind the pilot's seat on the sta~oard side •


Revised by A.L.21/D

Undercarriage controls.- The hydraulic operation of the undercarrIage Is controlled by a lever (71) mounted on the port side of the cockpit. The lever has two positions only, UP and DOWN, and the handl.e must not be le~t in a mid-position. (This should be oarefully noted as the control originally fitted in FUlmar I has three positions, UP, NEUTRAL and DOWN, and the handl.e automatically returned to NEUTRAL after each operation).

The lever operates in the natural sense and a spring-loaded catch connected to the sliding portion of the oleo leg locks the lever in the DOWN pOSition when the leg is compressed, thus preventing the undercarriage being retracted until the weight of the aeroplane is off the wheels. When the weight

is relieved and the oleo is extended the catch is automatically released. The approximate time required to raise or lower the undercarriage with the accumulator fully charged to 1400 Ib!

is 2i seconds.

13. Undercarriage indicator.- Indicator lamps to show the position of the undercarriage are mounted on an indicato,r (6) fitted in the port section of the instrument panel( and controlled by an nTDICATOR LAMPS switch (32) which is interlocked with the engine magneto SWitches, so that the indicator SWitch must be ON when the magnetos are ON.

On early unmodified aeroplanes the indicator lights work as follows:

Green lights - Undercarriage fully down.

No lights - Unlocked positions.

Red lights - Undercarriage fully up.

On later aeroplanes they work as follows:

Green lights - Undercarriage fully down.

Red lights - Unlocked positions.

No lights

- Undercarriage fully retracted.

Two sets of lamps are provided in the indicator,

one set acting as a spare in the event of failure of any of the lamps of the other. Both sets of lamps are controlled by a CHANGE-OVER switch combined with the lower part of the indicator lamp switch. A NIGHT and DAY dimmer switch is mounted centrally

in the face of the indicator. On later aeroplanes a change-over switch is mounted centralJs in the face of the indicator, and the night and day dimmer control is immediately above it.

~vlsed by A.L.21/D





~ F.S/4

A.P.1760A Vol.1 and P.N. Sect.1


undercarriafe warni~ horn.- When the throttlelever (69)s moved 0 one th1rd throttle or less, this horn sounds until the undercarriage is locked in the DOWN position. The horn can however be silenced by depressing the push-button on the throttle switch. When the throttle lever is again moved to over one-third open, the switch is automatically re-set to operate on closing the throttle.

Flaps control.- The hydraulic operation of the rlaps is controlled by a lever (73) mounted on the port side of the cockpit. The lever has three positions UP, neutral and down, but the neutral position should only be used if it is desired to stop the flaps in an trrcermed i et.e position. (This should be noted as the control originally fitted in Fulmar I has three positions, UP, NEUTRAL and DOWN, and the handle automatically returned to NEUTRAL after each operation.) The movement of the lever is in the natural sense, and the port and starboard flaps are mechanically connected. The time required to raise or lower the flaps with the accumulator fully charged is 7 seconds.

Flaps position indicator.- The indicator (3) for the flaps angle is on the port side of the instrument panel below the undercarriage indicator.

FOldidf traili~ edge control.- The folding and sprea ng of t e trailing edge portions of each main plane is carried out hydraulically by operating a lever which is mounted on the port side of the rear cockpit and can be operated either from inside or outside the aeroplane. This lever is interconnected with the fuel cock (54) so that the tra1ling edge cannot be folded while the fuel cock is ON. An hydraulic interlock valve is opened by a cam on the fuel cock spindle when the fuel ~ock is shut, thus opening the circuit of the trailing edge system. Care should be taken to ensure that the lever is always properly in the "off" position when the aeroplane is in flight. If the lever is in the "on" position the trailing edge will fold if the fuel is turned off.

H*draUliC hand pump.- In the event of failure of 'Fe engine arIven hYdraulic pump an emergency handoperated pump (74) mounted on the floor on the

port side of the cockpit can be used. The operations which oan be performed by the hlmd pump depend on whether the undercarriage mechanical lowering gear handle is stowed or unstowed and ready for use.

Revised by A.L.21!D




With the mechanical lowering ~ear handle stowed the haridpump supplies power via t e maiD acc~lator to the three selector valves i.e. the tlaps,' the undercarriage and the trailing edge; it the accumulator is "tlat" it will take the earlier delivery trom the hand pump betore the hYdraulic units can be operated.

With the mechanical lowering gear handle UDstowed the hand pump supplies power to the tlaps circuit only; in this case the approximate number ot complete strokes required to raise or lower the tlaps is ~2.


Undercarriage EMERGENCY operation.- When the main hYdraulic system tails or when, through loss ot head in the hydraulio header tank, the hand-operated pump tails to lower the undercarriage as described in para.1S (i) the undercarriage may be lowered by the tolding handle (95) stowed at the starboard

side ot the pilot's cocltpi t j ·to do this, place the undercarriage lever (71) in the DOWN position and turn the handle in a counter-clockwise direction. The act ot removing the handle trom its stowage closes an interlock valve which cuts out ot action the hydraulic jacks locking the undercarriage units against movement, while the continued rotation ot the handle lowers the undercarriage units. The undercarriage units cannot be raised by this handle, neither can they be hydraulicallY operated until the interlock valve has been opened. Atter landing, the handle must be wound tully back to its.

original position and the interlock valve re-set, by restoring the handle to its stowed position, betore commencing another flight.

Deck arrester gear,- This gear is ot the normal V-type fitted wIth a snap hook tor gripping the arresting wires. A hydraulic damping mechanism prevents excessive bouncing ot the hook when down. The hook is released by pulling upward a small handle (102) mounted in the ~loor ot the pilot's cockpit on the port side alongside the pilot's seat, A position indicating lamp marked DECK HOOK ·DOWN is fitted in the undercarriage indicator and shows green when the hook is lowered.

--~~--~---~-- ----------------~

Revised by A.L.21!D







To prevent these levers r.;oving from their

set positions a friction device is fitted in the quadrant. Increased friction loading is obtained by turning a knurled knob (68) on the inboard face of the quadrant in a clockwise direction.

Autor.;atic boost control cut-out.- An auto-boost cut-out control knob (35) is mourrt ed at the

lower port side of' the instrument panel. Operation of the control enables additional power to be given by the engine when circumstances n:ake

this necessary. After use the cut-out control must be returned to the no~al position as soon as possible.

Propeller Steed control.- This lever (70) is mounted on he inboard face of the control quadrant. Forward moven:ent of the lever towards the position marlced INCREASE REVS. increase s the engine r.p.m. and rearward n:ovement of the lever to the position marked DECREASE REVS decreases the engine r.p.m.

Carburettor air-intake heat control.- The pushpun control 1'01' operating the shutters at the blisters on each side of the carburet tor air intake is mounted on the floor imr.ediately in front of the starboard side of the pilot's seat.

A label against the control is n:~rked CARB. INTAKE. PULL FOR HOT AIR, and the control must be either full in or full out.

Radiator shutter control.- The radiator shutter is operated by means of the hand-operated RAD. SHUTTER-PULL TO CLOSE lever (92) near the floor on the starboard side slightly for~ard of the front edge· of the pilot's seat.

Slow-running cut-out control.- This control knob (25) is mounted on the inboard side of

the port section of the cockpit instrument panel. The control is used to stop the engine before switching off the ignition.

FUel cock control.- The f.'ATIr FUEL cock (54) is mounted in the fioor on the port side of the pilot's cockpit. It should be noted that the hydraulic control lever in the rear cockpit for folding the trailing edge is interconnected with the fuel cock (spe para.17 ).


Revised by A.L.21/D

A.P.1760A Vol.1 and P.N. Sect.1


24 •



Wheel brakes.- The brakes are operated hydraulically through the small accumulator. A brake operating lever (46) ia ~itted on the control column and a right-handed pull o~ the lever appliea the brakes, dif~erent1al control being obta1ned by movement of the rudder bar. A parking catch on

the lever will retain the lever in the brakes ON position. To engage the catch the brake lever is pulled to the right, the catch pressed down and the lever released. To free the brake$ the lever

is again pulled to the right where upon the

catch can be released and the lever will return to the brakes OFF position.

~draulic pressure gauges.- There are two

draulic pressure gauges. One (33) is ~itted on the port side o~ the instrument panel and records the pressure in the large accumulator only. The other (28) is fitted below the instrument panel on the port side and records the pressure available for the brakes.

Pressure head heater.- This heater ia controlled by the PITOT HEAD HEATING switch (82) in the top centre o~ the switch panel on the starboard side,

AircrR~ instrurnents.- The instrument ~ying

panel, incluaIng the Rate-o~-climb indicator (11) the turning indicator (14), the airspeed indicator (40) the artificial horizon (41) the altimeter (42) and the Direction indicator (43), is mounted in

the centre of the instrument panel.


Throttle and mixture controls.- The mixture control lever (66) and the throttle control

lever (69) are mounted in a quadrant on the port side o~ the cockpit. A red hand-knob distinguishes the mixture control lever and a spring-loaded

safety catch on the inboard side of this ~ever holds it in the RICH position and must be lifted before forward movement of the lever can be made. The markings on these levers are

Mixture lever:

WEAK (1'orward) RICH (aft.)


Throttle lever:

~ fully l' orward) 1'orward)


Revised by A.L.21!D






A.P.l'760A Vol.1 and P.lI. Sect,l

Fuel contents ~auge.- A FUEL CONTENTS gauge (10) is moun£ed in he centre section of the pilot's instrument penel at the top of the starboard side, and indicates the amount of fuel in the main tank only.

Immersed fuel pult.- The immersed fuel pump

which transferse fuel from the auxiliary fuel tank (if fitted) to the main fuel tank is controlled by a switch mounted on the panel on the starboard side of the cockpit. This can be switched on at any time whether the main tank is full or not, as 103s of the fuel is prevented by the vent pipe which serves as an over-flow back to the auxiliary tank and by the non-return valve in the main tank vent, but it should be switched on before take-off. Indication that the auxiliary tank has been emptied is provided by the main

tank fuel contents gauge (10) which will either rise or indicate FULL as long as the immersion pump is passing fuel. As soon as the gauge starts to fall, the pump should be switched ofr.

Fuel ~r1rnin~ pumps. - Two fuel priming pumps are provi ed, t e controls for both pumps being on the port side of the cockpit. The Ki-gass plunger

(52) controls the priming of the induction system, and the hand-operated pump (64) primes the enginedriven fuel pump. A fuel system priming cock (105) is also mounted below the handle of the pump (64) and must be turned OFF after use.

Magneto swi tches.- Two HAG1':ETO switches form part orand are interlocked with the undercarriage indicator switch as described in para.13.

Engine st8rti~a;. - The en.'3ine is started by an electrlcallY- ired cartridGe starter fitted in

the starboard side of the engin~ mounting. A MASTER SWITCH FOR BrTGnTE STARTING is mounted slightly to the port side on the top of the centre section of the instrument panel. An ENGDTE STARTER pushbutton switch (38) covered by a hinged plate

to prevent accidental operation, is mounted immediately above the master starting switch. At the bottom of the inboard side of the starboard section of the instrument panel is a push-pull

knob (22) marked STARTER MAGAZINE - PULL which works the reloading mechanism of the starter. Spare cartridges (108) are stowed low down on the right and just behind the pilot's seat.

Revised by A.L.21!D

The type of cartridges used for engine. starting are:-

No.1 HIe. II No.2 MIC.II

(Air temp. above 5°C) (Air temp. below 5°C)

37. Oil dilution.- The control button for oil dilution is on the left hand side of the instrument panel.

38. Engine instruments.- The following engine instruments are mounted on the starboard side of the pilot's instrument panel.

Engine speed indicator (15) !loost gauge (23)

R~.diD.tor thermometer (19) Oil temperature gauge (20) Oil pressure gauge (24)





Pilot's seat control.- The seat-type-parachute seat is adjustable for height by means of the long handle (90). The usual SUTTmr HARNESS RELEASE

(96) is fitted on the fO~7ard coam1ng on the starboard side of the cockpit.

Cock1it hood.- The cockpit is enclosed by a

slid ng hood which can be quickly unlocked by means of the lever (36) marked SLIDING HOOD RELEASE, mounted well forward on the port side

near the instrument panel; the hood can be pulled backwards by the hinged handles on each side of

the forw:lrd hood frame. The top panel of the hood is in the form of a break-out panel which is an emergency exit. The centre panel of the windscreen is fitted with bullet-proof elass which is also opticall,;r tl'"..E to enable the reflec tor [;'Ull sight

to be used with accuracy.

Entry to cocklli t. - A footstep and a handg r-Lp are provided on t e port side of the fuselage. They are of' the retractine t~.rpe and to use them the button in the end must be pressed in and t he steps pulled out.


Revised by A.L.21/D

A.P.1760A Vol.l and Sect.l

Windscreen wiper.- A hydraulic windscreen wiper

is controlled by a valve mounted at the top ot the starboard side ot the instrument panel. The speed is controlled by the valve knob which is turned in a counter clockwise direction tor increase. When turned fUlly clockwise the valve is shut and the wiper is stopped.

Windscreen de-ic1ng.- A de-icing handpump (109)

Is mounted low down on the starboard side ot the instrument panel and is used to spray fluid on to the pilot'B Windscreen. The standard pump is a Rotax type incorporating a jet regulator, whilst in some instances, a Ki-gas type ot pump is fitted.

Cockpit li6hti~.- ~vo lamps for flood lighting the pl1,ot's inerument panel are ti tted below the windscreen, one (16) at the starboard side and the other (1) at the port side. Dimmer switches (21) and (30) tor these lamps are placed below them.

Cnckpit heating and ventilation.- The pilot's cockpit is heated by a supply of' warm air taken trom the radiator tunnel. The air enters the space below the cockpit floor when the heating control (101) marked HEATDm OFF - PULL is opened, and the warm air is then introduced into the cockpit rnd regulated by a flap set in a junction box be Low

the tloor, and operated by a lever on the t1oor, just att of the rudder bar. The supply of col~ air to the cockpit is regulated by fl ce!)arate reTT!ote control (106) mounted on the pilot's port side p!U1el, and labelled PULL '.:'0 COOT ... COC!CPIT.

46. Themos f'lask.- stowage for a thermos fls.ak (57) Is provided on the starboard side ot the cockpit, in line ~ith the back of the pilot's seat.



47. oxy~en eouipment.- The oxygen supply is obtained from two oxygen bottles stowed behind the pilot's seat, the DELIV3RY and SUPPLY AV.ULABLE beiI'.g recorded on the OXYGF.r. RBGL~ATOR (18) in the right centre of the starboard section of the instrument panel. The supply socket is just to the ri:j1t and behind the pilot's seat.

48. Rear vision mirror.- A rear vision r.irror is located on the top of the windscreen f'r~r.e on the centreline of the aeroplarn.



Revised by A.L.21/D

Ma! case.- A map case (88) is provided for the

pi ot on the port side of the cockpit near the floor.





Gun fire control ~ss button fitted on the pilot'. control column s1 'taneouslY' cQntrols the air supply to all the pneumaticall7 fired guns in

both port and starboard banks, and also the camera guns in the starboard wing. To prevent inadvertent firing of the guns a safety cap is fitted to the button which must be rotated a quarter turn in a counter-clockwise direction trom the SAFE to FIRE position betore firing is possible.

Camera ~- The c1ne-c8Dl8'ra gun mounted in the starbo~main plane is controlled by the CAMERA GUN master sw1tch (Bl) on the top left corner of the switch panel on the starboard side. Exposure ot the tilm is made simultaneously with the f1ring of the guns by pressing the gun-firing pushbutton (44) on the spade grip of the control column when the safety cap is in FIRE position. The camera may, however, be operated independently from the guns by pressing the electrical pushbutton (103) also mounted on the spade grip, but before effecting this operation the safety cap of the pneumatic button (44) must be turned to the SAFE position. A footage meter mounted on the wedge plate (104) at the top left hand ot the starboard side records the number of feet of film exposed. Combined with it is a two-position switch, the positions being marked SUNNY and CLOUDY, for controlling the shutter opening to suit climatic condi tions.

Reflector gun sifht.- For Sighting the guns a re1elector gun s ght (8) is rig~dly mounted on a tubular bracket at the top ot the centre section of the instrument panel. A lamp unit i~ installed

in the base of the sight casing and 1s oontrolled by a switch (37) marked DI!amR SWITCH GUN SIGHT mounted immediately beneath the sight in the instrument panel.


Revised bl A.L.21!D

A.P.1760A Vol.l and P.N. Sect.l



Reconna1ssance 1"lare~- The parachute t'lares, four in number, are carri~ in a light-series carrier on the starboard wing and are released by means at a ~S selector switch (94) about mid-point of the starboard s1de of the cockpit and a pressbutton t'lr1ng switch marked RECONNAISSANCE FLARES RELEASE (4) mounted at the top ot' the port section ot' the instrument panel.


Radio controla.- The radio remote controls are grouped on tKe port s1de towards the rear and are as t'oll~:-

Transmitter-receiver type T.R.9.B or T.R.9.D. The control unit incorporates the·SE1nD-RECEIVE lever (~O) VOLUMB control knob (59) and tuning

lever (56).

(li) Transmitter-recelver type T.R.1196 or T.R.1304.

These are later instal~ations to replace T.R.9.B and T.R.9.D. Pushbutton control units are used.


(111) Receiver type R.1147., The tuning control Is .mounted on the side 'panel and the volume control on the shelt' just below. A lamp (98) with separate dimmer switch (97) is provided t'or lllumination of the controls.

(iv) Receiver type R.3003. The t'iring and master swItches are mounted side py side near the top ot' the side panel.

PIlot's microphone and telethone eockets.- These .two societs are secured to he tront edge ot' thr pilot's seat near the starboard corner, but where later type radio is installed a single mIc/tel. socket replaces the two separate sockets, and a 2-way switch on the port longeron conneots the telephone circUit to either the T.R.1196 or the R.1147 un! ta.

Revised bl A.L.21Jp

56. Intercommunication.- The pilot can communicate verballi w1th, the observer ,'in the rear cocltp1 t through speaking tubes running along the

starboard side o~ the aeroplane. The mouthpiece (12) is clipped to the coCkpit ~ramework above the starboard section o~ the instrument panel, while the earpiece tube (79) is ~ixed to a clip' . below the 1'orward edge o~ the cockpit opening. Telephone intercommunication 1s made through the transm1tter receiver T.R.9.D., T.R.1196 or T.R.1304.

57. SiRna1 pistol.- A signal pistol (89) is mounted ~ th~starboard s1de near the 1'loor at the rear ~ the coCkpit. It is held 1n pOSition by two spring cliFs and ~ires downward through a tube. A stowage (~7) ~or eight cartridges is provided in the side o~ the cockpit immediately above the pistol.




The PORIATION LIGH!S switch 1s on the le~t and

is a three-way selector switoh in'which th~ three \>osi tions read1ng downward are OW, IIORSB, POBII (steady). This switch is connected to the Ident1~ication switchbox so that when the latter is set in the MORSE position it can be used '~or through the tapping key., The lights can be kept on continuously by moving the SWitch to its lowest position marked PORM.

The NAVIGATION LIGHTS switch is in the centre.

The intensity 01' the lights maY be varied by means 01' the rTAVIGATION LIGHTS RHEOSTAT (93) in the starboard side 01' the cockpit at the 1'orward lower corner.


The IDENTIPICATION LIGHTS awi tch on the right is

a three-way selector switch in which the upper, middle and lower positions are marked CLEAR, GREEN, RED respect1vely. It is connected to the identi1'ication switchbox morse tapping key to enable signals to be transmitted through either the upward or downward lamps as required.

Revised by A.L.21/D

A.P.1760A Vol.l and P.N. Sect,l

(iv) The IDENTIFICATION S\fITCHBOX (76) is mounted in the dtarboard side of the cockpit in the upper corner immediately aft of the instrument panel. It ia fitted with two three-way switches and a morse tapping key for visual signalling. The left-hand awi tch marked DOwrr.'fARD controls the downward identification lamps and the right-hand switch marked UPWARD controls the upward identification lamps. Both switches operate .in a similar manner, the top position being marked MORSE, the intermediate position OFF and the bottom position STEADY. Either or both lamps mfU be lit continuously by turning the appropriate switches to the STEADY position, or they may be flashed separately, or jointly, by turning the corresponding SWitches to the MORSE position and operating the tapping key.

59, Landing lamp control,- One landing lamp is carried, mounted in the leading edge of the port plane and it is lowered mechanically by the LANDING LAMP lever (67) mounted just below the window on the port side of the cockpit, The lamp is lit by the LANDING LIGHT switch (34) in the bottom left hand corner of the instrument panel.





Fire extiRfriisher system.- A Graviner-type fire extlnguls ng system is fitted, the extinguisher being fi·tted in the rear cockpit. Pressure on a push button switch (9), which is mounted at the top of the pilot's instrument panel and is protected by a red coloured hinged lid, releases the contents of the extinguisher on to the engine. Automatic impact and gravity switches are also fitted on the main spar of the main plane, and flame switches are mounted in~he engine nacelle. The extinguisher can be removed and used for hand fire fighting, if required.

Parachutes.- Both the pilot and the occupant of the rear cockpit wear the seat type para~te which is' used in conjunction with the budket-type seat fitted in both cockpits.


Revised by A.L.21/D

~mereency exii~.-





The pilot can abandon the aeroplane by sliding

the hood backwards (see para. 40 and fig.4.)

In the event of the hood becor.:ine ja1:l!l1ed the lcnock-out panel may be used, by pulling on the cord at the forward ed3e of the top panel, tc release the positive lock and then pushing upwards on the panel.


The observer can abandon the aeropl~~e by opening

in a forward direction (see fig.4) the centre portion of the rear cockpit hooding. This slidable portion can be released ~rom its locked position

by means of the spring-loaded catches on either side of the hood framework.

Dinghy.- A type C dinghy and valise are stowed in a compartr.:ent in the top of' the fuselage immediately aft of the rear cockpit. With these are

s t owe d distress sienals, smoke floats and iron rations. The dinghy is released manually by pulling a rip cord running alo~~ the outside w~in on tl1e port side of the fuselage, but should it be ir.lpossible to do t ma, the dinghy will be automatically inflated and released electrically, when the aeroplane alights on the sea.

Jettisoning of Auxiliary fuel tank.- .As the aircraft with the mam and auxiliary ruel tanks full is inclined to be sluggish in manoeuvrability, it has been arranged that the auxiliary tank·can be jettisoned in an emergency; an empty tank has

little or no effect on performance or handling and should therefore not be jettisoned. Jettisoning

of the tank is made by means of a standard bomb jettisoning switch mounted beside the pump control switch on the control panel at the starboard side.

First-aid equipment.- This equipment is stowed in the dinghy compartment in an emergency container attached to the dinghy. Access to it can also be made through a small trap door marked FIRST AID tn the removable cowling on the port side.

R.3003 emer~enc1 swltches.- These switches are of the pushbut on ype and are fitted under a flap marked DANGER on the port Side of the cockpit.

A P 1760A. VO'L.I & P.N. SECT. I.


@ @ 9@@@@@@@@@ @





A.lDended by _\.L.No.16

A.P.176CA. Vol.! and P.!: •• Sect. 1.

Key to fig. 1

Pilot's cockpit instrument panel

1. Instrument lamp

2. Idr temperature gauge

3. Flap indicator

4. Reconnaissance flares firing push switch

5. A.S.I. correction card holder

6. Undercarriage and deck hook indicator

7. C10ck

8. Reflector gun sight

9. Fire extinguisher push switch

10. Fuel contents gauge

11. Rate-of-climb indicator

12. Intercommunicating speaking tube

14. Turning indicator

15. Engine-speed indicator

16. Instrument lamp

18. Oxygen regul"tor meters

19. Radiator thermometer

20. Oil temperature gauge

21. StarbOard instrument Lamp d imree r s- .... itch

22. Cartridge starter re-loadin/;; control

23. Boost pressure gauge

24. Oil pressure gauge

25. Compass deviation cardholder

26. Slow-running cut-out control

27. Rudder tr:Lmning t ab (BIAS) indictitor

28. Brake pressure gau~~

29. Elevator triJuming tab (BIAS) Lnd i c a to.r

31. Primary controls locking clips

32. Combined undercarriage position indictitor and ignition switch

33. Hydraulic pressure gauge

34. Landing lamp switch

35. Boost cut-out control

36. Sliding hood release

37. Reflector gun sight dirr.!er switch

38. Engine starter push switch

39. Master switch for engine starting

40. Airspeed indicator

41. Artificial horizon 42 • Altimeter

43. Direction indicator

44. Gun fire control pressbuttan

45. Deviation cardholder

46. Brake operating lever

47. Compass

48. Control column

50. Rudder bar foot pedals

103. Camera gun firing switch

104. Camera Imit'l,eGg-" plate 109. De-icing pump


Amended by .\.L.No.16

Key to fig. 2

Pilot's cockpit - port side

27. Rudder trimming tab (BlAS) indicator

29. Elevator trimming tab (BUS ) indicator

30. Port instrument lamp dinmer switch

31. Primary corrt ro.Le locking clips

51. Primary controls locking gear in stowed position

52. Priming pump 5-4. Main fuel cock

56. Tuning lever - wirele ss remote control

57. Thermos flask

58. Sutton harness

59. VolunJ control knob - wireless reIOOte control

60. Send-receive lever - wireless remote control

62. Rudder trimning tab (BIAS) handwheel

63. Eleva.tor trimming tab (BIAS) handwheel

64. Induction system priming pump

65. Underca.rriage warning horn - pressbutton switch

66. Mixture control lever

67, Landing lamp control lever

68. Friction adjusting knob

69. Throttle control lever

70. ~irscrew control lever

71. Undercarriage control lever

7~. Flap control lever

74. Hydraulic system emergency handpump handle

97. Dimner switch for lamp

98. Lamp for R.1147 control

99. Firing switch and switchbox for R.Z003 receiver

100. Spare bulb stowa~

101. Heater control lever

102. .:,.rr·ester hook release lOf'. Fuel system priming cock 106. Cockpit cooling control

w o C/)

I- 0::: o P-

I Io; ~ u o u

C/) l-





® ®®® ®~®





® I •
eID 0...
® u


,'..P.l760A, Vol,I und P.N. I Sect. 1

Key to fig. :3

Pilot's coclr.pit - starboard sidA

16. Instrument lamp

17. Headrest release

21. Starboard instrument lamp dimmAr switch 51. :?rimary controls locking gear

76. Identification lamps switchbox

79. Int~rcommunic~tion speaking tube

80. Formation-keeping lights switch

81. Ciilllera gun switch

82. Pitot head heating switch

83. Switch for air temperature indicator (2) in fig.l

84. Navig..tion l:i..ghts switch

85. Identification li5hts switch

87. Si@lal cartridge stO"Huge

88. Pilot's map case

89. Signal pistol

90. Pilot's seat adjusting lever

92. Radiator sh",tter control lever

93. Navigation li5hts rheostat

94. Flares switches

95. Undercarriage eu~rgency lowering handle 9~. Sutton harness release

107. Oxygen bayonet socket

108. Coffman starter cartridges

r' .. n/J2

Fire extinguisher pushbutton

I on instrument panel.

st~e ccmpor'tment . .

jettisoned. First-aid stoUJC:Jqe crd access

release cont 1'01 to jettison.

-=-=-~ilt- Dinghy automatically

'""'"aI~" inFlated.

Fire extinguisher 5toUJoge starboard siderorUJorci.









EOCjine priming pump




5 Fue.l To.nk

155 gals


Main fue I cock. controlled b~ pi lot


t Non-return valve.

Auxiliary fuel tank (if fitted) 60 gals

Non- return valve.

/ I mmer-sion pump

- -------c-:



REVISED APRIL 1942 Issued with A.L.21/D.


Volume I

and Pilot's Notes •



Note:- The flying technique outlined in these notes is based on A.P.129, Flying Training Manual Part I, Chapter III and A.P.2095, Pilot's Notes General, to which reference should always be made if further specific information is required.


(i) Fuel.-

Operational Units 100 octane Other Units 87 octane or higher.

see CAFO 1550/41

(i1) Q!h-

(iii) Coolant.- 30% treated Ethylene glycol Stores-ref.No. 33C/559.

(iv) The principal engIne limitations for 87 octane ~el are as follows:

Boost Temp. vC.

R.p.m. lb/ Coolant Oil.


t HR LIMIT 2p850


RICH 2,600






WEAK 2,600


5 MINS LIMIT 3,000







EMERGENCY MINM (5 MINS): 45 lb!sq. in.


r,OOLANT: 60°C.


Revised by A.L.21!D.

(v) The following limitations must also be observed:

At +5! lb/ boost: Minimum r.p.m.: 2.410


Maximum boost: +41b/ Maximum r.p.m: 3~600

3~000 r.p.m. may be exceeded only

for 20 seconds, with throttle not

less than one third open.

Boost con~ol cut-out. When 100 octane fuel is used a max~ boost of +9 lb/ may be obtained for take-off by operating the boost control cut-out.


Additional power at low altitudes may also be obtained 1n the same manner when necessary in operations, but all such occasions must be reported and an entry made in the engine log book.


(i) Fuel.(11) 011.(11i) Coolant,-

100 octane only. See CAFO 1550/41.

30% treated Ethylene glycol

stores ref.No. 33C/559

(iv) The principal engine limitations are as follows:

Boost Temp. °c.

R.p.m. lb/ Coolant Oil.


TO 1,.000 FT.














+ 4






EtmRGENCY MIlTM (5 MINS): 45 lb!



Revised by A.L.21/D.

A.P.1760A Vol. I and P.':. Sect.2

tv) Note that the oil and cool~nt tetperatures Given in (iv) are those normally to be adhered to.

The following are permitted for short periods:

At cruising power Oil Coolant

In combat

Oil 105°C for 15 minutes only.

Coolant :i.35°C

(Vi) The following limitations must also be observed:

At +12t Ib/ boost: Minimum r.p.m: 2,400


1:axinrum boost:+9;1 Ib! r.raxirnu.m r.p.m: 3,600

3,000 r.p.~. may be exceeded only for 20 seconds, with throttle not less than one third open •

3,000 r.p.m. may be used for short peri ods on climb, but if used details must be reported upon landing to

ensure that the engine i6 examrnert and an entry made in the engine log book.

(vii) Boost control cut-out.

Combat concession above 20,000 feet.

Increased power can be obtai ned when operat ing conditions necessitate it by operating the boost control cut-out with the throttle opened to (not through) the gate. All such occasions must be reported and an entr7made in the engine log book.


Revised by A.L.21/D.


(1) FUlmar I.

The approximate fuel consumptions in RICH mixture are as follows:

R.p.m. and boost consumption
at maximum for Heil!ht gallons per
ft. hour.
Climbing 6,750 75
Cruising 5.000 68
All-out 7,750 82 •

The approximate fuel consumptions in WEAK mixture are as follows:

Height - 5rOOO ft. Height - 10.000 f·c.
R. p. m, Boost Galls/hr. Boost
2,000 +2 40 +2 41
1,900 0 34 -! 33
1,800 ~ 31 -It 30
1,700 'It 2St -2;1 27 •

Revised by AtL.21/n

A.P.1760A Vol.I and P.N. Sect.2

(11) FUlmar II.

The approximate fUel consumptions in RICH mixture are as f'ollows:

R.p.m. and boost Consumption
at maximum f'or Height gals/hr.
Climbing 10,000 105
Cruising 10,000 90
All-out 10,000 .110 The approximate fUel consumptions in WEAK mixture are as rollows.

Height 5,000 Height 10,000 Ireight 15,000
R.p.m. Boost ft. Boost :t't. Boost ft.
QaJfyilr Gel~{br.
2,400 - - - - +1~ 43
2,,200 - - +3 44 0 38
2,000 +1~ 42 +1 36 .1~ 33
1,800 -1± 33 -1 28 -3 27
1,600 -31 24 - - - - (11i) b'uel capacity:

Main tank 155 gallons Aux. tank (if fitted) 60 gallons


Revised by A.L.211D.


(i) Maximu~ speeds, in knots I.A.S.

Diving: 390

Flaps down: 130

Undercarriage down: 130

OAWIrFN/, 130N\13 1'6 B£IIYG,

(11) "lth~§l in the auxiliary 1;an1t,j;he a~AM A'R~ R~f!T

~18~t be catapulted or accelerated, it is

restricted to straight flying until the fUel in the auxiliary tank has been used, O~ Tt+E 6Q""B HI\,." e E r- IV DROPP£D


On entering the cockpit set or check the following: (i) Undercarriage selector lever - DOWN

(li) Flaps selector lever


~. on aeroplanes with the original hydraulic system the undercarriage and flaps levers should be In NEUTRAL.

(ili) Switch ON undercarriage indicator, and check

undercarriage is locked by - Green lights

(lv) Cockpit hood - Free movement.

Lock in OPEN position.

(v) Folding trailing edge hydraulic

control lever - OFP'.


(i) TUrn main fUel cock to ON.

Note:- This ,action makes It impossible for the folding trailing edges to be folded until the cock is returned to the OFF position.

Revised by A.L.21!D

A.P.1760A Vol.I and P.N. Sect.2

(1i) set the engine controls as follows:-


Boost control cut-out Mixture control Propeller speed control Carburettor air-intake heat control

Radiator shutter

- t inch open

- normal

- RICH (back)

- FUlly forward




Prime the carburet tor by turning ON the priming cock and operate the hand pump until ruel pressure indicator light goes out. Then turn OFF the priming cock.

t~v) High volatile ruel (stores rer. 34A/111) should be used·ir possible for priming at air temperatures below freezing. Operate the priming pump until the suction and delivery pipes are rull; this may be judged by a sudden increase in resistance.

(v) Then give the following number of' strokes (ror a
cold engine):
Air temperature °C +30 .20 +10 0 -10 -20
Normal ruel :5 3! 7 12t
High volatile fUel 4 7t 15 Leave the priming pump plunger out, switch ON the ignition and the engine starting master switch and press the c~tridge starter button. Keep the but~on pressed as it also controls the boost coil 01' the ignition system. As the cartridge is f'ired give

one sharp stroke of the priming pump.

(vi) Ir the engine rails to start, recharge the Cof'fman starter by pulling the handle on the instrument panel rully out, and letting it return unaided. No rurther priming should be given except ror one sharp stroke as each cartridge is rired.

(vii) At temperatures below freezing it will probably be necessary to continue priming arterthe engine

has rired and until it picks up on the carburettor.


Revised by A.L.21!D

(viii) tVhen tne engine is running evenly, switch orr the booster coil by releasing the starter pushbutton, return the cover plate on the push button, and switch OFF engine starting master swi tch.

(ix) Run the engine as slowly as possible for half a minute, then warm up at a fast tick-over.

(x) set the radiator flap lever in the forivard notch. As thermostats are fitted, it will only be necessary in abnormal circustancea to move the flap rrom this position.


(i) ~Vhlle warming up make the usual checks of temperatures, pressures and operation of controls.

Brake pressure should be 1,200 to 1,450 Ib/

Arter warming up:-

(11) Open up (in RICH mixture) to maximum WEAK cruising boost and exercise and test operation of' constant speed propeller.

(111) Open up to RICH mixture cruising boost and test each magneto in turn. The drop should not exceed 150 r.p.m.

(iv) Open the throttle fUlly and check static r.p.m. boost and oil pressure.




~he brakes are powerfUl Rnd due to this and

the i'Tide track chasat e the tendency is to overcorrect.

(ii) Do not use the brruces ~ore than is absolutely necessary, for the crQke drums nre inclined to cve rhe a't if tllP.Y ar-e used continuonsly.

Revised by A.L.21/D

A.P.1760A Vol.I and P.N. Sect.Z



(i) Drill 01: vital actions: "T.~~.P., f'uel.f'laps and radiator" •


Trimming tabs

- Elev~tor ~o UP

Rudder 2 to starboard.

M _. Mixture control - RICH

P - Propeller

- Speed control fUlly forward.

Fuel - cnecK con~ents and cock setting.

Immeraed pump ON. (If aux. tank is fitted) Flaps- UP (If taking 01:1' 1:rom a limited space, the flaps may be set 150 down},

Radiator - OPEN (forward notch).

(ii) There is a slight tendency to swin~ to port. (iii) Safety speed is 90 knots I.A.S.

(iv) On Fulmar I, if the boost control cut-out has been used for take-off', return it before changing from tRke-off to climbing conditions.

(v) l'inimum height and speed for raising flaps if used far take-off, are ZOO ft. and 100 knots I.A.S.


The drill of Vital Actions for deck take-off is similar to that for normal take-off (see para.S.) but with flapE 15° down. There is a slight t.lmdency to sw1ng to port.



( i)

The aeroplane can be catapulted or accelerated. The maximum and minimum limits of weight are given in the Weight Sheet Summary or on the Loading and C.G. Diagram.


Revised by A.L.21/D

(il) Before take-off the pilot must have his head baCk against the head rest, and ensure that his observer is in the recommended position, which Is facing aft, weight of bo~r taken by safety bolt, and head resting on arms placed on aft end of cockpit.

(111) The drill of vi tal actions is as in par-as B, but with the flaps 15° to 30° down and witn the addition of


Sliding roof locked open.

12. cr.norso

The recommended speed f'or maximum rate of climb

is 110 knots I.A.S. up to 8,000 feet; above this height reduce speed by 3 knots per ~,OOO feet. When operating FUlmar II under tropical condltions however climbing speed should be maintained at

not less than 122 knots I.A.S. to maid possible cooling troubles.

(i) The recommended speed :t'or greatest range is
130 knots r. A. S.
(11) The recommended speed :t'or Greatest endurance
Is 105 knots 'I.A.S. 14.



Stability.- The aeroplane is laterally and directionally stable. It becomes unstable long-

1 tudinal:t.y wi th the centre of gravi ty art on climb and gl~de and at economical crUising speeds, but speed keep~ng is not di:t'ficult. It is more unstable at lower speeds, especially on the gllde with :t'laps and undercarriage down.

controls.- The controls are light and effective, except that the rudder is heavy for large movements ~~d the rudder and elevator control fall away at slow speeds, enzine off.

(iii) Cha~e of Trim.- Changes of trim on operating undercar~age.flaps and radiator shutters are slight.


Revi sed by A. L. 21LD

A.P.1760A Vol.I o.nd P.N. Sect.2



(i) The stalling speeds at 9,600 Ib are:

Flaps· and undercarriage up 70 knots I.A. S. Flaps and undercarriage down 60 knots I.A.S.

(ii) Very little rorce is required to stall the aeroplane and a wing drops sharply. A.ileron control should not be attempted near the stall.


It is impossible to open the cockpit hood at speeds above 220 knots I.A.S. Ir circumstances permit, therefore, the hood should be locked open be1'ore this speed is exceeded. .


Spinning is not permitted.


(i) Aerobatics may be carried out only by pilots who have adequate experience of this aeroplane, and who have written authority from their squadron commander.

(ii)(a) Loop.- Speed should be 200 knots I.A.S.

(b) R21l,. - Speed should be 160-200 knots I. A. S. (c) Half roll off top of lOOt'- Speed should be 250 knots I.A.S. Begin he half roil when the nose is still 30° above the horizon.

(d) Upward roll.- Speed should be above 250 knots I. A. S.



(i) (11)


Lock the cockpit hood open, close radiator shutter an1 reduce speed to 100 knots.

Drill of vital actions:- U.II.P. and flaps.

U - Undercarriage - DOVln(Check green lightS.)

l" l.!ixture control - RICH

P Propeller - Speed control mlly f~~d.

Flaps - DOWN.

Revised by A.L.21jp.

(iii) The correct approach speeds are as follows:-

Engine assisted Glide

70 knots I.A. S. 75 knots I.A. S.


Landi~ across wind.- This aercplane has a wide and cross wind landings can be made with safety, provided that the wind does not exceed 20 m.p.h.



( i)

On approaching the carrier before landing,

lower the arrester hook. A gre~n light should appear on the hook release mounting when the

hook is released. The lowering or hooks should preferably be done before breaking formation, where app~icable, as an add1tion~ check can then be made by pilots of o'ther aeroplanes.

(ii) Lock the cockpit hood open.

(iii) Check the brake pressure.

(iv) Drill of vital actions: "U.M.P.hook and flaps".

DOWN (green lights) RICH

Speed control fully forward.

Hook - Arrester gear DOWN (green light) Flaps - FUlly do~

U - Undercarriage M· - Mixture

P - propeller

(v) Approach at 65 knots I.A.S. with ample engine power, and do not close the throttle fully until just about to touch doWQ, as the rate of sink is very pronounced when the throttle is closed.

Revised bZ A.L.21/P


(i) Open the radiator shutter if the coolant temperat ure is abnonnally high.

A.P.1760A yol.I and P.N. Sect,2


stop the engine by pulling out the slow running cut-out control, and switch OFF the ignition when the engine has stopped.

~:- The final running should be dane with the engine throttled right back.

This will allow the oil to settle in the sump whence it will be withdrawn by the scavenge pump.

TUrn OFF' the :ruel cock.


(iv) Switch OFF' all electrical switches.


(1) The dilution period 1s

1 minute down to -10°C 2 minutes below -10°C.

(Ii) See A.P.2095/4 for fUrther information.



Delay raising the flaps until a height of 200 feet and a speed of 100 knots I.A.S. have been reached.


(i) If the main hydraulic system fails to lower the undercarriage in the normal was-, the handpump should be used.


Although the use of the handpump causes the undercarriage to be operated through the same pipelines, there is sufficient oil in the system to lower the flaps after the undercarriage has been lowered, provided there are no considerable leaks.

Proceed as follows:-

(a) Place the undercarriage selector lever in the DOWN position.

(b) Operate the handpump until the green indicator lights show that both undercarriage units are fully down and locked.


Revised by A.L.21!D

(11) If both the main engine pump, and the handpump fail to lower the undercarriage, place the hydraulic selector lever in the DOWN position, an~ wind the undercarriage down by hand with

the mechanical gear fitted on the starboard side of the cockpit. Check that it is ~lly down and loCked, by the green indicator lights.

(iii) The flaps can then be lowered by placing the lever in DOWN and werking the hand pump.


When flying low in conditions of' bad visibility it is advisable to lower the flaps about half way. Open the sliding roof' fully.


From 70 85 95 110 130 150 170 21~~ts
to 85 95 110 130 150 170 210 250 I.A.S.
add 5 4 3 2 1 0 - -Rbots
subtract - - - - - 0 1 2 Knots •