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\1
I
' POST LAUNCH REPORT
FOR
MERCURY-ATLAS N O . 1

i
(MA-1 )-3k

I
I 1 Space T a s k Group

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATIONI M>l


I Augtwk 2 , 1960

-
COPY .?/ OF !rL COPIES
POSTLAUNCH REPORT
FOR
MERCURY-ATLAS NO. 1
(MA-1)

Edited by :
I>- 4%
I
A l e c k C. Bond I \
P r o j e c t Engineer '2

Approved :
C h i e f . F l i g h t Systems D i v i s i o n
Approved :
C, W . Mathews
C h i e f , Operations D i v i s i o n

Authorized for P u b l i c a t i o n :

D i r e c t o r of P r o j e c t Mercury
/r
'*!
Y

Proj e c t MERCURY

Space Task Group

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION


August 2 , 1960
FOREWORD

T h i s P o s t l a u n c h Report is i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e i n i t i a l
* c o r r e l a t i o n and a q u a l i t a t i v e summary of t h e r e s u l t s of t h e
Mercury-Atlas No. 1 (MA-1) f l i g h t t e s t . I n f o r m a t i o n is
p r e s e n t e d on Mercury c a p s u l e performance, A t l a s b o o s t e r
I ',' performance and on t h e launch and recovery o p e r a t i o n s . The
c a p s u l e performance i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n is d e r i v e d
from a "quick-look" a n a l y s i s of l i m i t e d d a t a a v a i l a b l e a t
t h e l a u n c h s i t e s h o r t l y a f t e r launch and as s u c h must be
considered preliminary data.
The MA-1 f l i g h t t e s t is t h e f i r s t of a s e r i e s of tests
t o be made w i t h t h e Mercury c a p s u l e onboard t h e A t l a s
b o o s t e r , The primary purpose of t h e MA-1 f l i g h t w a s t o
test t h e s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y of t h e Mercury c a p s u l e and
i t s heat p r o t e c t i o n e l e m e n t s d u r i n g r e e n t r y from a c r i t i c a l
abort condition.

i
Subject Page

1.0 SUMMARY 1

2.0 TEST OBJECTIVES 2

3.0 CAPSULE AND CAPSULE SYSTEMS 3

4.0 CAPGULE PHYSICAL DATA 7

5.0 FLIGHT PLAN 9

6.0 FLIGHT HISTORY 10

7.0 RESULTS 11

7.1 Launch O p e r a t i o n s 11

7.2 T r a j e c t o r y and Booster Performance 15

7.2.1 Trajectory 15
7.2.2 Booster Performance 22

7.3 Capsule Measurements 23

7.3.1 Motions and Loads 23


7.3.2 Vibration 30
7.3.3 O t h e r Measurements 31

7 4
e Capsule Systems Performance 33

7.4.1 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and T e l e m e t r y 33
7.4.2 E l e c t r i c a l Power 34
7.4.3 O t h e r Systems 34

7.5 Recovery 35

7.6 Capsule P o s t F l i g h t I n s p e c t i o n 40

7.7 Range I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n Performance 42

7,8 Film Review 44

8.0 CONCLUSIONS 45
9 0 RECOMMENDATIONS 46

10 0 APPENDICES 47

10.1 Capsule H i s t o r y 47

10.2 FRF V i b r a t i o n Measurements 49


ii
LIST OF FIGURES

F i m r e No. Title -
Page

3.0-1 Photograph of MA-1 c a p s u l e w i t h r a i n


cover . . O o . . . o . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e . * . - . * . 4

3.0-2 Photograph of MA-1 c a p s u l e b o o s t e r


combination a t launch , , o . .. ... .. .. ,, . 5
4.0-1 NASA a x i s system u s e d on t h e MA-1
c a p s u l e f o r d a t a r e d u c t i o n and
p r e s e n t a t i o n of c a p s u l e motions o * . . . . . . . 8

7.1.2-1 Cape wind p r a f i l e from Rawinsond


r u n approximately 23 m i n i t e s b e f o r e
launch . , . . . ~ . . . o . . . o . . . . . o ~ ~ t . . ~ . o , ~ . ~ t ~ 14
7.2.1-1 F l i g h t T r a c k , Impact P r e d i c t i o n s ,
and Capsule Wreckage Recovery P o i n t ,
MA-1 m i s s i o n ~ , . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . o ~ . ~ . ~ . . . 17
7.2.1-2 A l t i t u d e - r a n g e p r o f i l e f o r MA-1
m i s s i o n .I...o...~.o.o.....~.~......~.*.. 18
7.2.1-3 Trajectory parameters: dynamic
p r e s s u r e and Mach number v e r s u s
t i m e f o r MA-1 m i s s i o n .... .. .. .. .. .... . 19
7.2.1-4 T r a j e c t o r y parameters: F l i g h t p a t h

MA-1 m i s s i o n ... . ......... .. .. .... .. .. .


a n g l e and v e l o c i t y v e r s u s t i m e f o r
20

7.2.1-5 T r a j e c t o r y p a r a m e t e r s : Range and


mission .. . ... .... .......... .. ... ...
a l t i t u d e v e r s u s t i m e f o r t h e MA-1
o . . 21

7.3,l-1 Capsule a c c e l e r a t i o n n e a r T=58 sec .... . 24


7.3.1-2 Capsule a n g u l a r r a t e s n e a r T=58 sec ... 25

7.3.1-3 Capsule a c c e l e r a t i o n n e a r T=100 sec ... 26


7.3.1-4 Capsule a n g u l a r r a t e s n e a r T=100 sec .. . 27

7.3.1-5 Capsule a c c e l e r a t i o n p r i o r t o l o s s
of s i g n a l ,. .. .............. .......... 28

iii
LIST OF FIGURES
(continued)

Figure T i tle -
Page
7.3.1-6 Capsule a n g u l a r r a t e s p r i o r t o
l o s s of s i g n a l ....................... 29
7.3.3-1 MA-1 c a p s u l e p r e s s u r e measurements ... 32

7.5-1 L o c a t i o n of s h i p and a i r c r a f t
s t a t i o n i n designated recovery
areas ................................. 37

7.5-2 Launch s i t e r e c o v e r y f o r c e s
deployed i n t h e Cape area ............. 38

7.5-3 S e a r c h and r e c o v e r y areas ............. 39

iv
1.0 SUMMARY
Mercury-Atlas No. 1 (MA-1) was launched a t 8:13 a . m .
E.S.T. on J u l y 29, 1960 from Complex 14 of t h e A i r F o r c e
Missile T e s t C e n t e r (AFMTC), Cape C a n a v e r a l , F l o r i d a . Atlas
b o o s t e r No. 50D w a s employed i n t h e f l i g h t t e s t .
The launch and f l i g h t of t h e MA-1 c a p s u l e - b o o s t e r com-
b i n a t i o n were normal u n t i l about 58 seconds a f t e r l i f t - o f f
a t which t i m e an a b r u p t d i s t u r b a n c e of unknown o r i g i n
o c c u r r e d . A t about 60 seconds a f t e r l i f t - o f f t h e b o o s t e r
a p p a r e n t l y s u f f e r e d major s t r u c t u r a l f a i l u r e s , t h e c a u s e of
which is n o t p r e s e n t l y known. The c a p s u l e and c a p s u l e
s y s t e m s appear t o have been o p e r a t i n g p r o p e r l y a t t h e t i m e
of b o o s t e r f a i l u r e . The c a p s u l e remained e s s e n t i a l l y i n -
t a c t a f t e r t h e b o o s t e r f a i l u r e and u n t i l impact. The c a p s u l e
wreckage w a s l o c a t e d 4 . 6 m i l e s due e a s t of launch Complex 14.
About 95 p e r c e n t of t h e c a p s u l e had been r e c o v e r e d a t t h e
t i m e of t h i s w r i t i n g . The c a p s u l e t e s t o b j e c t i v e s were n o t
met.

1
2.0 FLIGHT TEST OBJECTIVES

The planned t e s t o b j e c t i v e s of t h e MA-1 m i s s i o n , i n -


c l u d i n g t h e c a p s u l e o b j e c t i v e s as w e l l as t h e b o o s t e r
o b j e c t i v e s , are o u t l i n e d i n t h e MA-1 Mission D i r e c t i v e (NASA
P r o j e c t Mercury Working Paper No. 132). The c a p s u l e f i r s t
o r d e r test o b j e c t i v e s are s t a t e d below:
(1) Determine t h e i n t e g r i t y of t h e Mercury c a p s u l e
s t r u c t u r e and a f t e r b o d y s h i n g l e s f o r a r e e n t r y a s s o c i a t e d
w i t h a c r i t i c a l abort.

(2) Determine Mercury-capsule a f t e r b o d y h e a t i n g r a t e s


during reentry.

(3) Determine t h e f l i g h t dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of


t h e Mercury c a p s u l e d u r i n g r e e n t r y .
(4) E s t a b l i s h t h e adequacy of t h e c a p s u l e r e c o v e r y
s y s t e m and recovery procedures.

2
3 0 CAPSULE AND CAPSULE SYSTEMS
F i g u r e s 3.0-1 a n d 3.0-2 show photographs of t h e cap-
s u l e and c a p s u l e - b o o s t e r combination. The b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l
c o n f i g u r a t i o n and h e a t p r o t e c t i o n e l e m e n t s of t h e MA-1
c a p s u l e are t h e same as employed i n t h e s t a n d a r d Mercury
d e s i g n w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e e s c a p e tower. A s t u b
tower, c o n s t r u c t e d from t h e lower p o r t i o n of t h e s t a n d a r d
e s c a p e tower, was employed t o d u p l i c a t e t h e s t r u c t u r a l j o i n t
a t t h e tower clamp r i n g and t o s u p p o r t a t h e r m a l f a i r i n g o v e r
t h e end of t h e a n t e n n a c a n i s t e r .

The primary s y s t e m s and components employed onboard t h e


MA-1 c a p s u l e are l i s t e d below:

(1) T e l e m e t r y System (20-watt - 16 c o n t i n u o u s sub-


c a r r i e r s t r a n s m i t t i n g o v e r s t a n d a r d Mercury d i s c o n e a n t e n n a ) .
(2) Two Cook magnetic t a p e r e c o r d e r s .
(3) Two 16-mm M i l l i k e n movie cameras.

(4) S t a n d a r d Mercury heat exchanger (used only f o r


i n t e r n a l c a p s u l e c o o l i n g d u r i n g ground t e s t s ) .

(5) S t a n d a r d Mercury r e t r o p a c k s t r u c t u r e (used t o house


t h e (3) p o s i g r a d e r o c k e t m o t o r s ) .

(6) Explosive devices

(a) S t u b tower clamp r i n g


(b) Main clamp r i n g

(c) Retropack r e l e a s e
(d) Drogue p a r a c h u t e m o r t a r

(e) Antenna e j e c t o r
(f) Main and r e s e r v e p a r a c h u t e b l a s t bags
(g) Main p a r a c h u t e d i s c o n n e c t

(7) Landing and Recovery Systems


(a) Drogue p a r a c h u t e

(b) Main p a r a c h u t e ( r e s e r v e p a r a c h u t e used f o r


b a l l a s t only)

3
3.0 CAPSULE AND CAPSULE SYSTEMS (Cont'd)
(c) Two SOFAR bombs
(d) Flashing l i g h t

(e) Radar c h a f f

(f) Dye marker (one pack in a n t e n n a c a n i s t e r and


one pack t o be e j e c t e d from c a p s u l e upon impact)

(g) Two UHF, 15-watt, U l t r a SARAH Recovery


Beacons

The f o l l o w i n g measurements were t e l e m e t e r e d from t h e


capsule :
(1) (51) Temperatures ( s h i n g l e s , h e a t s h i e l d , and
structure)
(1) Reference temperature
Pitch rate

Yaw r a t e
R o l l rate
Longitudinal a c c e l e r a t i o n (high range)
Longitudinal a c c e l e r a t i o n ( l o w range)
Normal a c c e l e r a t i o n
Transverse a c c e l e r a t i o n
Cabin p r e s s u r e

Voltage m o n i t o r

Capsule t i m e
S h i n g l e v i b r a t i o n (1 s h i n g l e )

H e a t s h i e l d cavity pressure
Events

6
4.0 CAPSULE PHYSICAL DATA

The f o l l o w i n g are measured p h y s i c a l d a t a which were


determined d u r i n g t h e p r e l a u n c h p r e p a r a t i o n s of t h e c a p s u l e .
R e f e r t o f i g u r e 4.0-1 for d e f i n i t i o n of t h e a x i s s y s t e m
used.

. E x i t c o n f i g u r a t i o n ( i n c l u d e s c a p s u l e , r e t r o p a c k and
s t u b tower)

Gross weight 2561.52 l b s .


C e n t e r of g r a v i t y l o c a t i o n
Longitudinal - d i s t a n c e from c a p s u l e
maximum d i a m e t e r X = -22.99 i n .
Transverse Y = 0.03 i n .
Normal Z = -0.29 i n .
Reentry configuration

Gross weight 2406.27 l b s .


C e n t e r of g r a v i t y l o c a t i o n
Longitudinal - d i s t a n c e from c a p s u l e
maximum d i a m e t e r X = -21.13 i n .
Transverse Y = 0.03 i n .
Normal Z = -0,30 i n .
Moments of i n e r t i a
I, ( r o l l ) 286 s l u g - f t 2
Iy ( p i t c h ) 508 s l u g - f t 2
I z (yaw> 502 s l u g - f t 2

. 7
n

.-
w
Fr
x
8

.
u)
0
n
5.0 FLIGHT PLAN
The normal f l i g h t p l a n f o r t h e MA-1 m i s s i o n c a l l e d f o r
l a u n c h i n g t h e c a p s u l e on a b a l l i s t i c t r a j e c t o r y w i t h a head-
i n g of l0S0 t r u e down t h e A t l a n t i c Missile Range (AMR). The
A t l a s b o o s t e r guidance w a s programed s o as t o p r o v i d e f l i g h t
c o n d i t i o n s a t c a p s u l e s e p a r a t i o n t o match t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r
a p a r t i c u l a r p o s t s t a g e a b o r t from a nominal Mercury e x i t t r a j e c -
t o r y . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r a b o r t imposes c r i t i c a l h e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s
on t h e h e a t p r o t e c t i o n s h i n g l e s of t h e c o n i c a l a f t e r b o d y of t h e
c a p s u l e . The d e s i r e d t r a j e c t o r y matching c o n d i t i o n s a t s u s -
t a i n e r e n g i n e c u t o f f are l i s t e d below:

I n e r t i a l velocity, ft/aec 18,953

Altitude, f e e t 547,033
I n e r t i a l flight-path angle, 3.61
degrees

The planned MA-1 mission also w a s t o s i m u l a t e a c o n d i t i o n


where a complete c o n t r o l s y s t e m f a i l u r e is e n c o u n t e r e d s i n c e
t h e c a p s u l e d i d n o t employ a s t a b i l i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l s y s t e m .
The c a p s u l e motions d u r i n g r e e n t r y would be dependent on t h e
i n h e r e n t aerodynamics of t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n .
S e p a r a t i o n of t h e c a p s u l e from t h e b o o s t e r w a s t o be
e f f e c t e d by means of t h e three p o s i g r a d e r o c k e t s c a r r i e d i n
t h e s t a n d a r d Mercury r e t r o p a c k . No r e t r o r o c k e t s were em-
p l o y e d i n t h e t e s t . The Mercury c a p s u l e e s c a p e s y s t e m w a s
not i n s t a l l e d f o r t h i s f l i g h t .
The l a n d i n g o r d e s c e n t phase w a s planned t o i n c l u d e t h e
u s e of b o t h drogue and main p a r a c h u t e s . The drogue p a r a -
c h u t e w a s t o be deployed a t an a l t i t u d e o€ 42,000 f e e t and
t h e main p a r a c h u t e a t an a l t i t u d e of 10,000 f e e t , The r e s e r v e
p a r a c h u t e was n o t i n t e n d e d t o be deployed i n f l i g h t , b u t w a s
i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a p s u l e as b a l l a s t .
The c a p s u l e u s e d i n t h e MA-1 m i s s i o n d i d n o t have t h e
e s c a p e s y s t e m which w i l l be s t a n d a r d on o t h e r Mercury f l i g h t s .
I n t h e e v e n t of an a b o r t e d f l i g h t b e f o r e T+170 s e c o n d s , t h e
c a p s u l e would n o t r e c e i v e a s e p a r a t i o n s i g n a l . A f t e r t h i s
t i m e , t h e c a p s u l e would be e x p e c t e d t o s e p a r a t e from t h e
b o o s t e r i n t h e normal f a s h i o n when t h e b o o s t e r r e c e i v e d t h e
s u s t a i n e r c u t o f f s i g n a l (MFCO or S E O ) .

9
6,O FLIGHT HISTORY
Mercury-Atlas No. 1 (MA-1) was launched a t 8:13 a . m .
E.S.T. on J u l y 29, 1960 from Complex 14 of t h e A i r F o r c e
Missile T e s t C e n t e r , Cape Canaveral, F l o r i d a . A t l a s No.
50D was employed i n t h e f l i g h t t e s t .
The f l i g h t of t h e Mercury-Atlas t e s t v e h i c l e appear-
ed normal i n a l l r e s p e c t s f o r a b o u t t h e f i r s t minute
following l i f t - o f f . A t 58.5 seconds a l a r g e d i s t u r b a n c e
o c c u r r e d which r e s u l t e d i n a forward a c t i n g shock l o a d
of about 25 g on t h e c a p s u l e . T h i s d i s t u r b a n c e a p p a r e n t -
l y d i d n o t r e s u l t i n damage t o t h e c a p s u l e o r c a p s u l e
s y s t e m s , nor d i d i t seem t o r e s u l t i n l o s s of t h r u s t of
t h e b o o s t e r . Approximately 1 second a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l
d i s t u r b a n c e , t h e b o o s t e r t e l e m e t r y w a s l o s t and m u l t i p l e
radar t a r g e t s appeared s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . The c a p s u l e
a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t s u s t a i n major damage from t h e s e e v e n t s
as evidenced by t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d from t h e c o n t i n u o u s
o p e r a t i o n of a l l c a p s u l e t e l e m e t r y c h a n n e l s t o c a p s u l e
i m p a c t , o r f o r a b o u t 143 seconds a f t e r b o o s t e r f a i l u r e .
The impact p o i n t as e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e r a d a r s was approxi-
m a t e l y 4 m i l e s o f f s h o r e . No c a p s u l e sequence e v e n t s
s i g n a l s were r e c o r d e d by t h e t e l e m e t r y . This condition
would be e x p e c t e d a t t h i s t i m e of f l i g h t because t h e
b o o s t e r s i g n a l s i n i t i a t i n g c a p s u l e sequences w e r e n o t
t o be e n a b l e d i n t h e b o o s t e r u n t i l 170 s e c o n d s , Thus
t h e l a n d i n g and r e c o v e r y s y s t e m c o u l d n o t have been a c t i -
v a t e d and d i d n o t f u n c t i o n .
The c a p s u l e wreckage was found and r e c o v e r e d t h e
d a y f o l l o w i n g t h e t e s t i n s i x t y f e e t of w a t e r n e a r t h e
p r e d i c t e d impact p o i n t .

10
7.0 RESULTS
7.1 Launch O p e r a t i o n s

7.1.1 Prelaunch A c t i v i t i e s
T h e c a p s u l e w a s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e pad and mated t o t h e
b o o s t e r o n X-2 d a y s . The c a p s u l e p l a s t i c r a i n c o v e r w a s f i t t e d
and a d j u s t e d and checked o u t f o r p r o p e r u m b i l i c a l e j e c t i o n .
During X - 1 day t h e primary a c t i v i t y on t h e c a p s u l e i n v o l v e d
making r e s i s t a n c e c h e c k s o f a l l p y r o t e c h n i c b r i d g e c i r c u i t s .
T h e s e t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l p y r o t e c h n i c s were s a t i s f a c t o r y .
A l s o d u r i n g X - 1 d a y , t h e normal b o o s t e r a c t i v i t i e s were accom-
p l i s h e d , and t h e b o o s t e r w a s r e p o r t e d t o b e r e a d y t o s t a r t
p r e c o u n t o p e r a t i o n s as planned. I n t h e c a p s u l e p r e c o u n t , f i n a l
checks were made on t h e c a p s u l e p y r o t e c h n i c s , the b a t t e r i e s
were c o n n e c t e d , t h e h a t c h was i n s t a l l e d and p r e s s u r e checks
were made. The b o o s t e r precount a c t i v i t i e s proceeded normally w i t h
no a p p a r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s . As p l a n n e d , t h e c a p s u l e and booster
s t a r t e d t h e 215 minute d e t a i l e d c o u n t a t 3:55 a . m . EST.
T h r e e h o l d s and one recycle r e q u i r e d an a d d i t i o n a l
43 minutes which i n c r e a s e d t h e t o t a l countdown t i m e r e q u i r e d
t o 258 m i n u t e s .
Approximately 8 hours b e f o r e l a u n c h t i m e , t h e launch
s i t e weather c o n d i t i o n s were i n t e r m i t t e n t r a i n and complete
c l o u d c o v e r . Local wind v e l o c i t y w a s w e l l w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a -
t i o n s s p e c i f i e d f o r t h i s t e s t . Weather f o r e c a s t s p r e d i c t e d
t h a t v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s would g r a d u a l l y improve. Weather
c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i n t e n d e d l a n d i n g area were n e a r i d e a l f o r
c a p s u l e l a n d i n g and r e c o v e r y . F o r e c a s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t no
a p p r e c i a b l e change was l i k e l y t o o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t e s t .
During t h e c o u n t , a l l c a p s u l e and b o o s t e r s y s t e m s
c h e c k o u t s were accomplished smoothly w i t h no a p p a r e n t d i f f i -
c u l t i e s or changes t o planned p r o c e d u r e s . A t T-35 m i n u t e s ,
t h e count w a s held f o r the following reasons: (1) D e l a y s i n
t h e p y r o t e c h n i c hookup and (2) Delays i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of
camera equipment on t h e l a u n c h complex. T h e s e dblBps can
be a t t r i b u t e d mostly t o t h e weather c o n d i t i o n s . The afore-
mentioned p y r o t e c h n i c a n d camera a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d about
15 minutes of t h e h o l d ; t h e h o l d w a s t h e n extended t o
e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t of t h e poor v i s i b i l i t y on t h e l a u n c h
pad camera c o v e r a g e . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g photo-
g r a p h i c coverage w a s n o t s o impaired as t o j u s t i f y f u r t h e r
d e l a y of t h e t e s t . The t o t a l h o l d a t t h i s t i m e amounted t o
3 0 m i n u t e s . A t T-7 minutes, t h e c o u n t w a s h e l d t o complete

-
l i q u i d oxygen sub-cooled topping. T h i s d e l a y w a s caused
by d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g f l i g h t l i q u i d oxygen l e v e l
t h r o u g h t h e 2-inch t o p p i n g l i n e y T h i s is a common occur-
r a n c e . T h e r e q u i r e d l e v e l was reached d u r i n g t h e h o l d , and
t h e c o u n t w a s resumed. A t T-19 s e c o n d s a s h o r t hold of
a b o u t 1 minute w a s r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c a u s e of no
water r e a d y l i g h t o n t h e t e s t c o n d u c t o r ' s c o n s o l e . I t w a s
11
7.1.1 Prelaunch A c t i v i t i e s (continued)
l e a r n e d t h a t t h e ready s w i t c h w a s i n a d v e r t e n t l y n o t thrown,
and upon a c t u a t i o n of t h e s w i t c h , t h e l i g h t came o n . The c o u n t
w a s t h e n r e c y c l e d t o minus 25 seconds and c o n t i n u e d a s planned
w i t h no o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d . I n g e n e r a l , t h e over-
a l l launch o p e r a t i o n w a s smoothly i n t e g r a t e d and c o n d u c t e d ,
and t h e r e w a s no i n d i c a t i o n a t any t i m e of any s y s t e m m a l -
function i n t h e capsule or t h e booster.

12

c
7.1.2 Weather C o n d i t i o n s a t Launch

A t t h e t i m e of l i f t - o f f t h e weather w a s r e p o r t e d as
follows :
Planned l a n d i n g area:
Clouds - .1 coverage w i t h low c l o u d b a s e a t
2000 f e e t

Waves - 3 feet

S u r f a c e winds - 13 k n o t s from 095 d e g r e e s

Visibility - 8-15 m i l e s
Launch s i t e :

Clouds - .3 coverage a t 1500 f e e t

. 2 coverage a t 3200 f e e t

1 . 0 coverage a t 9000 f e e t

Winds - See f i g u r e 7.5-3


Sea l e v e l p r e s s u r e - 1008.8 m i l l i b a r s
Visibility - 3 miles i n r a i n showers

An o b s e r v a t i o n f r o m t h e h e l i c o p t e r , a i r b o r n e o v e r
t h e edge of t h e Banana R i v e r i n d i c a t e d r a p i d l y lowering c e i l i n g
and v i s i b i l i t y due t o a low hanging r a i n c l o u d moving a c r o s s
t h e Skid S t r i p from t h e s o u t h .

13
c
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7.2 T r a j e c t o r y and B o o s t e r Performance

NOTE: RANGE ZERO TIME FOR THIS TEST WAS ESTABLISHED AS


13:13:03 ZULU, (2-INCH LIFT-OFF TIME WAS 13:13:03.92
ZULU) EXCEPT WHERE NOTED ALL TIMES GIVEN I N THIS REPORT
ARE BASED ON RANGE ZERO TIME.

7.2.1 Trajectory
From l i f t - o f f t o 36 seconds t h e G o E. Burroughs
Guidance System y i e l d e d t r a j e c t o r y r a t e d a t a which were
i n t e r m i t t e n t and n o t s u i t a b l e f o r r e d u c t i o n . The guid-
ance s y s t e m performed normally from 36 t o 58.65 s e c o n d s
( r a n g e time) a t which t i m e a l l l o c k w a s l o s t and n e v e r
regained,
Real t i m e impact p r e d i c t i o n on t h e RSO p l o t b o a r d
w a s s u p p l i e d by t h e Cape FPS-16 u n t i l 57 seconds. A t
t h i s t i m e an a t t e m p t was made t o u s e AZUSA d a t a . When
AZUSA proved u n u s a b l e , t h e Cape FPS-16 d a t a were used
from 73 seconds u n t i l l o s s of s i g n a l . The XN-1 radar w a s
n o t used i n t h e Impact P r e d i c t o r computer because of
mechanical d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e d a t a d i g i t i z e r .

The t r a j e c t o r y d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n is based
on t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d from f o l l o w i n g t r a c k i n g f a c i l i t i e s :
Facility Range t i m e , s e c o n d s
G. E. Burroughs 36-58.65
AZUSA 34-58 6 5
Cape FPS-16 10-20
31-58
80-171

A f t e r 58.65 s e c o n d s , t h e t r a j e c t o r y i s based on t h e Cape


FPS-16 d a t a and an i n t e g r a t e d t r a j e c t o r y u s i n g t h e G. E.
Burroughs c o n d i t i o n s a t t h i s t i m e .
The f o l l o w i n g v a l u e s were o b t a i n e d from t h e Burroughs
computer n e a r t h e t i m e when t h e powered f l i g h t w a s t e r m i n a t e d .

Time, secs (Range t i m e ) 57.19 57.69 58.19


L a t i t u d e , deg n o r t h 28.4898 28 4896 28 4894
L o n g i t u d e , deg w e s t 80.5178 80.5166 80.5155
Altitude, f t 32589 33242 33878

15
7.2.1 T r a j e c t o r y (Cont'd)
I n e r t i a l velocity, ft/sec 2436 - 2483
I n e r t i a l f l i g h t path angle 31.93 - 32.02
(from h o r i z o n t a l ) , deg
I n e r t i a l heading a n g l e 94.96 - 95.16
(from n o r t h ) , deg
Earth f i x e d v e l o c i t y , f t / s e c 1484 1506 1528
Earth f i x e d f l i g h t path 60.25 59.83 59.49
Angle, deg
E a r t h f i x e d heading a n g l e , 104.04 104.25 104.12
deg
Mach number 1.51 - 1.56
Dynamic p r e s s u r e , l b / f t2 889 - 899

The Mach number and dynamic p r e s s u r e g i v e n above are


based on a s t a n d a r d ARDC 1959 atmosphere. C a l c u l a t i o n s u s i n g
t h e d e n s i t y measured p r i o r t o t h e l a u n c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e
dynamic p r e s s u r e s g i v e n above and i n t h e f i g u r e s of t h i s s e c t i o n
a r e about 8 p e r c e n t low. The dynamic p r e s s u r e s e n c o u n t e r e d w e r e
a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e m a x i m u m expected.
The ground t r a c k is shown i n f i g u r e 7.2.1-1. Because of
h i g h winds (see f i g u r e 7 . 1 . 2 - l ) , t h e t r a c k d e v i a t e s c o n s i d e r -
a b l y from t h e nominal.

A p l o t of a l t i t u d e v e r s u s r a n g e is shown i n f i g u r e 7.2.1-2,
Time h i s t o r i e s of t r a j e c t o r y q u a n t i t i e s are shown i n f i g u r e s
7 . 2 . 1 - 3 t o 7.2.1-5. F i g u r e 7.2.1-1 shows t h e p o i n t where t h e
c a p s u l e wreckage w a s l o c a t e d and r e c o v e r e d a f t e r t h e f l i g h t .
A l s o shown are t h e impact p o i n t o b t a i n e d from t h e Cape FPS-16
r a d a r t r a c k i n g , t h e impact p o i n t c a l c u l a t e d from t h e c o n d i t i o n s
a t t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of powered f l i g h t based on G. E. d a t a , and
t h e c a l c u l a t e d vacuum and i n t e g r a t e d impact p r e d i c t i o n computer
impact p o i n t . The c a l c u l a t e d and FBS-16 p o i n t s w e r e c o r r e c t e d
f o r wind e f f e c t s . The e f f e c t s of t h e h i g h winds a t t h e lower
a l t i t u d e s c a n be n o t i c e d i n t h e i n i t i a l phase of t h e ascent
and i n t h e d e s c e n t a t a l t i t u d e s below 30,000 f e e t . The o n l y
impact p o i n t s s u p p l i e d t o t h e r e c o v e r y f o r c e s immediately
a f t e r f l i g h t w e r e t h e FPS-16 e l l i p t i c and i n t e g r a t e d v a l u e s
o b t a i n e d from t h e impact p r e d i c t i o n computer. More r e f i n e d
v a l u e s were s u p p l i e d on t h e day f o l l o w i n g t h e f l i g h t .

16
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7.2.2 Booster Performance
Engine i g n i t i o n appeared t o be smooth and normal. Release
and l i f t - o f f w e r e normal a f t e r t h e planned hold-down t i m e . In-
f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e b o o s t e r per-
formance w a s normal i n a l l r e s p e c t s u n t i l 58.5 seconds a f t e r
lift-off. A t t h i s t i m e some b o o s t e r t e l e m e t r y w a s l o s t as a r e s u l t
of an u n e x p l a i n e d a b r u p t e v e n t . T h i s e v e n t c a u s e d l a r g e d i s t u r b -
a n c e s i n t h e c a p s u l e and b o o s t e r l o n g i t u d i n a l a c c e l e r a t i o n d a t a .
The c a u s e of t h i s d i s t u r b a n c e is p r e s e n t l y unknown. There are
s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s , however, t h a t a f t e r t h e d i s t u r b a n c e , t h e
e n g i n e s c o n t i n u e d t o o p e r a t e f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of t i m e . It
a p p e a r s t h a t sometime between 59.0 and 60.0 s e c o n d s , t h e b o o s t e r
e x p e r i e n c e d major s t r u c t u r a l damage.

22
7.3 Capsule Measurements

7.3.1 Motions and Loads


The MA-1 c a p s u l e motions and l o a d s p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n
were o b t a i n e d from t h e c a p s u l e f l i g h t telemeter r e c o r d s ,
p o r t i o n s of which a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n . See f i g u r e 4,O-1
f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e a x i s s y s t e m .
The f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n of any d e v i a t i o n from normal
l a u n c h a n g u l a r r a t e s and a c c e l e r a t i o n s o c c u r r e d a t 58.52
sec from 2-inch motion a s seen i n f i g u r e s 7 . 3 . 1 - 1 and 7.3.1-2.
A t t h i s t i m e a n e g a t i v e l o n g i t u d i n a l a c c e l e r a t i o n impulse
( i n t h r u s t d i r e c t i o n ) of g r e a t e r t h a n 25 g ' s w a s d e t e c t e d
on t h e h i g h r a n g e l o n g i t u d i n a l a c c e l e r o m e t e r . T h i s 25 g
n e g a t i v e acceleration was a t t a i n e d a t 58.52+0.006 s e c o n d s .
A t 58.52+0.012 seconds a 10 g p o s i t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n w a s
d e t e c t e d . T h i s c y c l e i s completed i n about 20 m i l l i s e c o n d s .
The l e v e l of l o n g i t u d i n a l g ' s t h e n went t o z e r o f o r a p p r o x i -
m a t e l y 0.10 seconds t h e n i n c r e a s e d t o 8 g ' s t h r u s t f o r
a n o t h e r 0 . 1 0 seconds b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g t o t h e b o o s t e r t h r u s t
l e v e l , A t a b o u t 59 seconds t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n began t o d e c r e a s e
i n an i r r e g u l a r manner u l t i m a t e l y r e a c h i n g a maximum of a b o u t
7 . 5 g r e t a r d a t i o n ( d r a g ) . The c a p s u l e normal and t r a n s v e r s e
a c c e l e r o m e t e r s a l s o i n d i c a t e d some s i d e l o a d s of s h o r t dura-
t i o n a t approximately 5 8 . 7 s e c o n d s ; s t a r t i n g a t 5 9 . 5 s e c o n d s
b o t h of t h e s e accelerometers evidenced an o s c i l l a t i o n of t h e
t y p e t h a t would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c a p s u l e and i t s p o s s i b l e
a t t a c h e d b o o s t e r p a r t s w a s a f r e e body. From t h e a n g u l a r
r a t e traces in f i g u r e 7.3.1-2 an a b r u p t change of a l l rates
is s e e n a t a b o u t 59.5 seconds.
I n t e g r a t i o n of t h e r a t e s from 58.5 t o 5 9 . 0 s e c o n d s
i n d i c a t e an a n g l e change of c l o s e t o 10 d e g r e e s . C o r r e l a t i o n
w i t h b o o s t e r t e l e m e t r y d a t a was n o t made because t h e b o o s t e r
d a t a are q u e s t i o n a b l e from 58.5 seconds t o l o s s of b o o s t e r
telemetry.
Shown i n f i g u r e s 7.3.1-3 and 7.3.1-4 are t h e c a p s u l e
a c c e l e r a t i o n and r a t e measurements n e a r T+101 s e c o n d s , From
r a d a r t r a c k i n g , t h e c a p s u l e a t t h i s t i m e w a s a t an a l t i t u d e
of approximately 40,000 f e e t and w a s descending. The r a t e s
and a c c e l e r a t i o n s shown i n t h i s f i g u r e a r e t y p i c a l f o r a
tumbling maneuver
The c a p s u l e a c c e l e r a t i o n s and r a t e s j u s t b e f o r e impact
are shown i n f i g u r e s 7.3.1-5 and 7.3.1-6. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
of t h e c u r v e s a r e a g a i n t y p i c a l of a r a p i d l y r o l l i n g and
tumbling body

23
3
w
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REFERENCE
LONG ITUD 1 NAL ACCELERAT ION (LO RANGE)

FIGURE 7.3.1-3 CAPSULE ACCELERATIONS NEAR T=100 SEC

- 26
-
CAPSULE EVENTS
RAD/ SEC
102 SEC
IOi SEC
P I T C H RATE --

-2.0
RAD/SEC

REFERENCE

-1.0
Y A W RATE '
RAD/SEC

t
r 1.0
-3.0

0.5

0
ROLL RATE -. ,

FIGURE 7.3.1-4 CAPSULE ANGULAR H A l E S NEAli 1;IOO SEC


21
1
* .I I LOSS OF SIGNAL

199 SEC ' 200 SEC


-- - ._- -1
201 SEC
.- _.
i io2 SEC
-.--
j- LONG I T U D l NAL ACCELERAT I ON (LO RANGE J
'

REFERENCE

NORMAL ACCELERATION

FIGURE 7.3.1-5

- W
CAPSULE ACCELERATIONS P R I O R TO L O j S OF S I G I ~ A L
28'
E TIME
-
I CAPSULE EVENTS J I
RADjSEC .
,j.f 199 SEC 200 SEC 202 5 E C

e2.0
LOSS OF S I G N A L -
'I .o
0
-1.0

z.: P I T C H RATE

+ I .o .REFERENCE -

I-:.,
p fUUO/SEC
YAW RATE 7
/

t 0.5,

[ :o:5

-
RANGE T I M E l-
29
F I GURE 7 .3.1-6 CAPSULE ANGULAR RATES P R I O R TO LUSS UF SIGiUAL
7.3.2 V i b r a t i o n Measurements

Accelerometer - The c a p s u l e h i g h f r e q u e n c y v i b r a t i o n s
( i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e x - a x i s ; see f i g u r e 4.0-1) as measured
by t h e accelerometer d u r i n g f l i g h t v a r i e d from a p p r o x i m a t e l y
1 . 0 g peak t o peak, a t 20 seconds of f l i g h t t i m e , t o approx-
i m a t e l y 3.0 g peak t o peak d u r i n g t h e 1 0 s e c o n d s p r i o r t o t h e
a p p a r e n t b o o s t e r f a i l u r e . The predominant f r e q u e n c y w a s 200
c p s . T h e above d a t a were measured by t h e c a p s u l e l o n g i t u d i n a l
a c c e l e r o m e t e r ; t h e s p e c i a l a c c e l e r o m e t e r s u s e d for t h e FRF
v i b r a t i o n measurements ( s e e appendix) were n o t connected d u r -
ing f l i g h t .

NOTE: F r e q u e n c i e s above 300 c p s would have been g r e a t l y


a t t e n u a t e d by t h e f l i g h t accelerometer.

S t r a i n gage - S h i n g l e s t r a i n measurements i n d i c a t e d nor-


m a l e n g i n e n o i s e a t l i f t - o f f and t h e e x p e c t e d aerodynamic n o i s e
up t o a Mach number of 1. The predominant frequency of t h e ob-
s e r v e d s h i n g l e s t r a i n was a t t h e s h i n g l e f i r s t r e s o n a n t f r e -
quency of 350 t o 600 c y c l e s p e r s e c o n d . The r e s o n a n t f r e q u e n c y
of t h e s h i n g l e w a s e s t a b l i s h e d by e a r l i e r ground t e s t s . Above
a Mach number of 1 t h e s t r a i n gage i n d i c a t e d l a r g e p r e s s u r e
and s t r a i n f l u c t u a t i o n s a t a frequency of 200 c p s . These f l u c -
t u a t i o n s d i d n o t appear t o damage t h e s h i n g l e i n t h a t t h e s t r a i n
gage c o n t i n u e d t o o p e r a t e t o water impact.
The c a p s u l e onboard t a p e r e c o r d e r s have been r e c o v e r e d
i n t a c t and w i l l p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l d a t a . T h r e e a d d i t i o n a l
s h i n g l e s had s t r a i n g a g e s d i r e c t - r e c o r d e d on t h e t a p e r e c o r d -
ers ( n o t t e l e m e t e r e d ) ; i n a d d i t i o n , a microphone, i n s t a l l e d
u n d e r n e a t h a s t r a i n - g a g e d s h i n g l e w a s d i r e c t - r e c o r d e d on a t a p e
r e c o r d e r . A p r e l i m i n a r y examination of these d a t a w a s made
by d i r e c t playback of t h e r e c o r d e r t a p e s and i t was found t h a t
t h e s e d a t a r e f l e c t e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as
observed from t h e t e l e m e t e r e d s t r a i n gage d a t a .

30
7.3.3 Other Measurements
Pressures - F i g u r e 7.3.3-1 is a p l o t of t h e c a p s u l e c a b i n
and c a p s u l e h e a t - s h i e l d - c a v i t y p r e s s u r e v s t i m e .

The c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t i n g v a l v e located on t h e s m a l l
p r e s s u r e bulkhead appeared t o f u n c t i o n p r o p e r l y . The p r e s s u r e
decreased w i t h a l t i t u d e u n t i l t h e r e g u l a t i n g p r e s s u r e of ap-
p r o x i m a t e l y 5.4 p s i a w a s reached. A t t h i s p o i n t t h e c a b i n
p r e s s u r e h e l d c o n s t a n t f o r about 50 s e c o n d s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t
c a b i n leaks, i f any, were n e g l i g i b l e . The v a l v e opened
a g a i n d u r i n g d e s c e n t and e q u a l i z e d t h e p r e s s u r e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .
I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e v a l v e c o n t i n u e d t o o p e r a t e
s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a f t e r t h e b o o s t e r f a i l u r e and t h a t t h e c a b i n
p r e s s u r e remained c o n s t a n t d u r i n g t h e t i m e t h e v a l v e w a s
closed. I t t h u s a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c a p s u l e p r e s s u r e v e s s e l
remained s t r u c t u r a l l y sound and s e a l e d d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e
b o o s t e r m a l f u n c t i o n . There w a s no p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s y s t e m on
board t h e c a p s u l e .
Another p o i n t of i n t e r e s t i s t h a t t h e h e a t - s h i e l d - c a v i t y
p r e s s u r e w a s n o t unduly h i g h ( f i g u r e 7.3.3-1) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t
( a t l e a s t f o r t h e l o w Mach numbers of t h i s f l i g h t ) t h e shock
wave from t h e main clamp r i n g had l i t t l e o r no e f f e c t on t h e
pressures i n the cavity.
Heating - Because of t h e low s p e e d s i n v o l v e d , no s i g -
n i f i c a n t e x i t h e a t i n g d a t a were o b t a i n e d from t h i s f l i g h t .
The 51 thermocouples d i s t r i b u t e d throughout t h e c a p s u l e s t r u c -
t u r e and s h i n g l e s f u n c t i o n e d p r o p e r l y from l i f t - o f f t o c a p s u l e
impact.
The thermocouples were a t t a c h e d t o t h e c a p s u l e s t r u c t u r e
and s h i n g l e s i n such a manner t h a t breakup of t h e s t r u c t u r e
o r l o s s of a thermocoupled s h i n g l e i n f l i g h t would have
opened t h e c i r c u i t ( s ) of t h e a f f e c t e d t h e r m o c o u p l e ( s ) . Such
a n open c i r c u i t would have been immediately a p p a r e n t .
From t h e p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e measurements d i s c u s s e d
i n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e r e i s strong evidence t h a t t h e capsule
remained i n t a c t and s t r u c t u r a l l y sound, d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e
b o o s t e r m a l f u n c t i o n , down t o c a p s u l e impact.

31
16

14

12

10
cd
.r(
m
a
L 8
23
3
H 6

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 100
T i m e , seconds

Figure 7.3.371 - MA-1 capsule pressure measurements

7 32
7 . 4 Capsule Systems Performance

7.4.1 Instrumentation and Telemetry


For the MA-1 launch, 203 seconds of data were obtained
via the telemetry link. Evaluation of the onboard recorded
portions of the instrumentation system is not included in
this report. The onboard tape recorders have been recovered.
The tapes are in good condition and are being processed at
this writing.
Examination of the telemetry records showed all channels
performed satisfactorily. Channel noise is modest (less than
2% of band width for all channels) and should not hinder
evaluation and reduction. Zero shifts recorded during pre-
launch checks are less than 201% of band width with the
exception of the 7.35 kc channel, which had zero shifted 3%.
No zero shifts were noted during flight.
At loss of signal, all sensors were intact including
all 51 thermocouples and the single strain gage instrumented
via telemetry. Evaluation of the cavity pressure channel,
whose pressure sensor was exposed to atmospheric pressure,
indicated data were received to capsule impact.
The brevity of the flight precluded the possibility of
determination of antenna pattern by study of signal strength.

33
7.4.2 Electrical Power
In general, the performance of the capsule's electrical
power system, before and during the abbreviated flight, was
satisfactory. During the prelaunch condition, all console
switches and monitor functions were accomplished with no dis-
crepancies noted. The capsule's main, camera, and recovery
batteries were within the specified voltage tolerances prior
to launch. The main (instrumentation) battery voltage was
telemetered and remained constant at 27.4 volts until impact.
Analysis of the two event data traces (. 96 kc and 10.5
kc), showed that the flight terminated before any of the
programmed events occurred.

7.4.3 Other Systems


The sequencing, landing and recovery systems were not
exercised during the flight since the flight was terminated
before the systems were programmed to be enabled.

34
7.5 Recovery
The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e recovery f o r c e s i n t h e d e s i g -
n a t e d recovery areas is shown i n f i g u r e s 7.5-1 and 7.5-2.
The g e n e r a l p l a n of a c t i o n following launch w a s t o t r a n s -
m i t (by v o i c e r a d i o ) t h e p r e d i c t e d l a n d i n g p o i n t i n f o r m a t i o n
from t h e recovery c o n t r o l c e n t e r t o t h e downrange recovery
commander. The recovery commander would t h e n a c t i v a t e
a p p r o p r i a t e e l e c t r o n i c and v i s u a l a i r c r a f t s e a r c h p l a n s t o
l o c a t e t h e c a p s u l e , Following l o c a t i o n , c a p s u l e pickup
would be by e i t h e r h e l i c o p t e r o r s h i p , whichever c o u l d be
done more q u i c k l y . There were no p r e l a u n c h movements of
%he recovery f o r c e s from t h e planned l o c a t i o n s .
A t approximately T+140 seconds ( 8 :15 a . m . E. S.T. ) ,
t h e launch s i t e recovery commander i n t h e a i r b o r n e h e l i -
c o p t e r w a s a d v i s e d t h a t r a d a r w a s t r a c k i n g a descending
o b j e c t and t o s t a n d by f o r v e c t o r i n g t o t h e impact a r e a .
The T-boats ( s e e f i g u r e 7.5-1) r e p o r t e d no v i s u a l s i g h t -
i n g s and t h a t v i s i b i l i t y had d e t e r i o r a t e d t o 0-3 m i l e i n
r a i n showers. The h e l i c o p t e r w a s v e c t o r e d t o an area
approximately 7 m i l e s downrange on a b e a r i n g of 105 d e g r e e s
from Pad 14. Radar t r a c k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and I P 709 and
G. E. Burroughs impact p r e d i c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y
of p a r t s being s c a t t e r e d from 4 t o 7 m i l e s downrange. A t
approximately 9 ~ 3 0a . m . t h e T-boat from t h e n o r t h e r n p o s i -
t i o n j o i n e d t h e h e l i c o p t e r i n t h e search area. No i n d i c a t i o n
of c a p s u l e o r b o o s t e r impact w a s found i n t h e a r e a . H e l i -
c o p t e r s e a r c h w a s maintained (by s u c c e s s i v e r e l i e f s by t h e
two o t h e r h e l i c o p t e r s ) u n t i l approximately 10:30 a . m . The
sea c o n d i t i o n s c o n t i n u e d t o d e t e r i o r a t e and were r e p o r t e d
t o be v e r y choppy w i t h 8 f o o t swells. A t 1 1 : O O a.m. t h e
s e a r c h w a s t e m p o r a r i l y suspended due t o t h e extremely poor
search conditions.
Search o p e r a t i o n s were recommenced a t 7 : O O a . m . on
J u l y 30. A d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of r a d a r f i x e s and impact
p r e d i c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d probable l a n d i n g areas a t 34 and
5 m i l e s due e a s t of Pad 14.
A t approximately 12 o ' c l o c k t h e T-boat began recover-
i n g c a p s u l e p a r t s . Salvage o p e r a t i o n s were c o n t i n u e d u n t i l
sundown, and approximately 90-95% of t h e c a p s u l e , i n c l u d i n g
a l l p y r o t e c h n i c d e v i c e s were recovered. The c a p s u l e wreck-
age w a s l o c a t e d 4 . 6 n a u t i c a l m i l e s due e a s t of Pad 14 on
t h e ocean bottom i n 60 f e e t of water. F i g u r e 7.5-3 shows
t h e recovery area. Salvage o p e r a t i o n s were resumed a t 7:OO

35
7 . 5 Recovery (Cont ' d)

a . m . on J u l y 31. A s of t h i s w r i t i n g no s i g n i f i c a n t amount
of b o o s t e r hardware has been r e c o v e r e d ,
The f o l l o w i n g e v a l u a t i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s are made
concerning t h e recovery o p e r a t i o n s :

a. The communications were good.

b. The s e a r c h and l o c a t i n g procedures were s e v e r e l y


hampered by t h e poor weather and s e a c o n d i t i o n s .

The f o l l o w i n g recommendations concerning recovery are


made f o r f u t u r e o p e r a t i o n s :
a. The launch s i t e weather r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r f u t u r e
o p e r a t i o n s , where t h e c a p s u l e escape s y s t e m w i l l be u t i l i z e d ,
s h o u l d be such as t o provide t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e o d o l i t e
t r a c k i n g of a c a p s u l e descending i n t h e launch s i t e a r e a .

b. An a i r c r a f t equipped w i t h a SARAH r e c e i v e r s h o u l d
be provided i n t h e launch s i t e area f o r an a d d i t i o n a l i n -
d i c a t i o n of recovery system sequencing.

36
I

i
i

I
- - T BOAT
-.
0

AI
-LAND CONVOY NO. 1

. ' T BOAT/
a'

FIGURE 7.5-2 LAUNCH SITE RECOVERY FORCES DEPLOYED I N THE CAPE AREA
1
I
I N I T I A L SEARCH AREA 7

ENTRAL CONTROL
+
'CAPSULE LOCATED
.-

28'25' N. LAT. ---7 . . .. - ..


.. -.. . .. -
.
-
80.35' W. LONG. 80.30' W. LONG. 80'25' W. LONG
I
I

FIGURE 7.5-3
I --

SEARCH AND RECOVERY AREAS

39
7.6 Capsule P o s t f l i g h t I n s p e c t i o n
A s p r e v i o u s l y stated i n t h e S e c t i o n on Recovery, a p p r o x i -
m a t e l y 90 t o 95 p e r c e n t of t h e c a p s u l e wreckage w a s r e c o v e r e d .
A l l of t h e recovered c a p s u l e p a r t s were found i n a c i r c u l a r
area of approximately 50 f o o t r a d i u s i n d i c a t i n g v e r y s t r o n g l y
t h a t t h e c a p s u l e w a s i n t a c t a t t h e t i m e of c o n t a c t w i t h t h e
water. From a g e n e r a l i n s p e c t i o n of t h e wreckage, i t appeared
t h a t a t impact t h e c a p s u l e must have been t i l t e d s u c h t h a t
f i r s t c o n t a c t w a s made by t h e edge of t h e h e a t s h i e l d and t h e
r e g i o n of t h e c o n i c a l section between s t r i n g e r s 16 t o 23.
(The e n t r a n c e h a t c h is located i n t h i s area of t h e c o n i c a l
section. )
A l l p y r o t e c h n i c d e v i c e s and e x p l o s i v e s on board t h e cap-
s u l e were r e c o v e r e d w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of o n e p a r a c h u t e e j e c t
bag g a s g e n e r a t o r and t h e two a u x i l i a r y u m b i l i c a l e x p l o s i v e
d i s c o n n e c t s . A l l t h e recovered p y r o t e c h n i c d e v i c e s were
examined, and i t w a s v e r i f i e d t h a t none had f i r e d , w i t h t h e
p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e two p a r a c h u t e r e e f i n g c u t t e r s ( s e e
below). A l l t h r e e p o s i g r a d e r o c k e t motors were r e c o v e r e d .
Two of t h e s e had been t o r n away from t h e i r mountings i n t h e
r e t r o p a c k , one motor s t i l l remained a t t a c h e d . None of t h e
t h r e e motors had been f i r e d . B o t h SOFAR bombs were a l s o re-
c o v e r e d . One of t h e s e bombs had a r u p t u r e d case; however,
t h e powder c h a r g e w a s s t i l l i n t a c t .

The c a p s u l e telemeter, programmer, on-board recorders and


on-board cameras were recovered. The r e c o r d e r s were examined
and determined t o have f u n c t i o n e d p r o p e r l y , The r e c o r d e r t a p e s
have been reproduced and found t o c o n t a i n d a t a on a l l six tracks.
The main p a r a c h u t e was r e c o v e r e d , b u t t h e r e s e r v e p a r a c h u t e
w a s s t i l l m i s s i n g a t t h i s w r i t i n g . The shroud l i n e s of t h e
main p a r a c h u t e were found t o have been p u l l e d from t h e deploy-
ment b a g , and hence it is f e l t t h a t t h e two r e e f i n g c u t t e r s
may have been t r i g g e r e d b y t h i s a c t i o n ; however, t h i s h a s n o t
been d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h i s t i m e . The a n t e n n a c a n i s t e r
w i t h t h e drogue p a r a c h u t e and mortar were r e c o v e r e d p r a c t i c a l l y
i n t a c t . A l l a n e r o i d s , t h e SARAH beacons and f l a s h i n g l i g h t
were also s a l v a g e d .
The main and tower marman bands and t h e i r f a i r i n g s were
r e c o v e r e d i n t o t o . The s t u b tower w a s found wedged t i g h t l y a g a i n s t
t h e a n t e n n a f a i r i n g . One-half of t h e f i b e r g l a s s c o v e r i n g on t h e
b l a s t s h i e l d of t h e s t u b tower w a s s t i l l a t t a c h e d t o t h e b l a s t
s h i e l d ; however, t h e o t h e r h a l f w a s m i s s i n g . T h e r e w a s no
e v i d e n c e of any e r o s i v e a c t i o n on t h i s c o v e r i n g .

40
7.6 Capsule P o s t f l i g h t I n s p e c t i o n ( c o n t ' d)

The a b l a t i o n s h i e l d was e x t e n s i v e l y damaged i n t h e area


of impact and s u f f e r e d loss of a l a r g e s e c t i o n and g e n e r a l
delamination. Some s h i n g l e s were i n d i v i d u a l l y r e c o v e r e d , and
many were s t i l l a t t a c h e d t o t h e g e n e r a l c a p s u l e wreckage; how-
e v e r , it is n o t p o s s i b l e t o give an a c c o u n t i n g o f s h i n g l e s a t
t h i s writing.

One s m a l l s e c t i o n (about 10 i n c h e s long) of t h e a d a p t e r


r i n g w a s l o c a t e d w i t h t h e c a p s u l e wreckage. A p o r t i o n of t h e
a d a p t e r s k i n s t r u c t u r e approximately 10 i n c h e s s q u a r e w a s a l s o
l o c a t e d with t h e capsule.
The o n l y p o r t i o n of t h e b o o s t e r found i n t h e c a p s u l e impact
area w a s t h e lox b o i l - o f f valve. T h i s v a l v e w a s l o c a t e d i n t h e
v i c i n i t y of t h e c a p s u l e h e a t shield--approximately 15 f e e t away.

41
7.7 Range I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n Performance

A t l a n t i c Missile Range (AMR) i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s u p p o r t w a s


very good f o r t h i s test. A l l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n committed t o t h e
t e s t , e x c e p t f o r a few o p t i c s i t e m s , were manned and o p e r a t i o n a l .
The s o l i d c l o u d cover prevented t h e o p t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n from
p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e f a i l u r e t h a t o c c u r r e d .
Following is p r e l i m i n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t a t u s of
i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and coverage o b t a i n e d .

Optics:
No. of Items No. of I t e m s
Committed -
Used

Metric 13 12
Engineering S e q u e n t i a l 43 39
Documentary 37 41
Radar:
Although r a d a r s a t P a t r i c k , Cape Canaveral and Grand
Bahama I s l a n d (GBI) were committed t o s u p p o r t t h e t e s t , o n l y
t h o s e a t P a t r i c k and t h e Cape a c q u i r e d and t r a c k e d . P r e l i m i n a r y
t r a c k i n g r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h e following.
Tracking Time
S ta t i o n From To
Patrick XN- 1 +30 sec +205 sec
Cape FPS- 16 +16 sec +160 sec
Cape Mod. I1 +15 sec +170 sec

Cape Mod. I1 +15 sec +170 sec


Cape Mod. IV +8 sec +80 sec

Telemetry :
Receiving I n t e r v a l
Station -Item -Link From To
Cape TLM 18 I (Booster) 0 sec +59 sec
I1 (Capsule) 0 sec +203 sec
GBI T r i Helix I (Booster) +52 sec +62 sec
I1 (Capsule) +52 sec +172 sec

42
7.7 Range I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n Performance ( c o n t ' d )
AZUSA;
P r e l i m i n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s AZUSA coverage from
+30 sec t o +60 sec.
Command Functions:
The Range S a f e t y O f f i c e r t r a n s m i t t e d t h e manual f u e l c u t o f f
s i g n a l as planned a t 0 8 1 7 ~ 2 5 . 5E a s t e r n S t a n d a r d T i m e (261.58
seconds a f t e r 2-inch l i f t o f f ) . T h i s t r a n s m i s s i o n had no b e a r i n g
on t h e t e s t s i n c e , as e s t a b l i s h e d l a t e r , f a i l u r e and impact had
already occurred a t t h i s t i m e ,

43
7.8 Film Review

I g n i t i o n , l i f t o f f , and powered f l i g h t appeared normal i n


t h e e n g i n e e r i n g s e q u e n t i a l f i l m s . Due t o t h e u n f a v o r a b l e
weather c o n d i t i o n s , t h e t r a c k i n g f i l m coverage ( p e r i m e t e r
cameras) w a s v e r y poor both a s t o d u r a t i o n and q u a l i t y . T h e
s i l h o u e t t e of t h e t e s t v e h i c l e d i s a p p e a r e d a t T + 27 seconds
( a l t i t u d e about 7500 f e e t ) and t h e b o o s t e r flame w a s n o t
v i s i b l e a f t e r T + 36 seconds ( a l t i t u d e about 11,000 f e e t ) .
The q u a l i t y of t h e f i x e d camera coverage ( l a u n c h s i t e cameras)
was a c c e p t a b l e f o r t h e intended purpose. The coverage was
good w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t c a p s u l e u m b i l i c a l release and
stub tower r a i n c o a t p u l l - o f f were n o t r e c o r d e d . (Umbilical
release and tbwer r a i n c o a t p u l l - o f f were v i s u a l l y observed
from t h e blockhouse and were s a t i s f a c t o r y . ) Fixed camera
f i l m d i d show t h a t t h e tower raincoat w a s d a n g l i n g along t h e
s i d e of t h e Midas tower a t l i f t - o f f , i n d i c a t i n g p r o p e r re-
moval. I t w a s observed that t h e s t u b tower r a i n c o a t w a s
i n t a c t up t o t h e t i m e i t was p u l l e d . The lower raincoat
on t h e c o n i c a l s e c t i o n of t h e c a p s u l e w a s t o r n (from t h e bot-
t o m up t o approximately t h e window) on t h e leeward s i d e , b u t
appeared t o p r o v i d e ample p r o t e c t i o n . From t h e f i l m s , t h e A t l a s
e n g i n e f i r i n g sequence w a s observed t o be s u s t a i n e r , b o o s t e r
#1, b o o s t e r #2, and v e r n i e r s l a s t .

. 44
8.0 CONCLUSIONS
The Mercury-Atlas No. 1 f l i g h t t e s t w a s a b r u p t l y t e r m i n a t e d
. approximately one minute a f t e r l a u n c h by an i n - f l i g h t f a i l u r e
of an undetermined n a t u r e . S o l i d c l o u d c o v e r a t t h e t i m e of
l a u n c h p r e c l u d e d t h e u s e of o p t i c a l r e c o r d s i n t h e i n v e s t i g a -
t i o n of t h i s f a i l u r e . The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s are made re-
garding t h i s f l i g h t test:
1. None of t h e primary c a p s u l e t e s t o b j e c t i v e s were
met.
2. The s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y of t h e c a p s u l e w a s main-
t a i n e d throughout t h e f l i g h t u n t i l impact w i t h t h e
water.
3. The c a p s u l e on-board i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n performed i n a
h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y manner t h r o u g h o u t t h e f l i g h t
t o impact w i t h t h e water.
4. T h e on-board i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n showed t h e p r e s e n c e
of s h i n g l e v i b r a t i o n of a n o n - d e s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e
n e a r a Mach number of o n e .

5. The c a b i n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r performed s a t i s f a c -
t o r i l y throughout t h e f l i g h t .

6. A l l o t h e r on-board s y s t e m s ( l a n d i n g and r e c o v e r y )
were n o t e x e r c i s e d because of t h e c o n d i t i o n s under

I
7. All Department of Defense s u p p o r t f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n I
w a s v e r y good.

45
9.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

1. The n e x t Mercury-Atlas m i s s i o n (MA-2, c a p s u l e N o .


6 ) s h o u l d be r e v i s e d so t h a t t h e t e s t o b j e c t i v e s o r i g i n a l l y
d e s i g n a t e d f o r t h e MA-1 m i s s i o n c a n be a c h i e v e d .

2. The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e c a u s e of f a i l u r e of t h e
MA-1 f l i g h t test s h o u l d b e v i g o r o u s l y pursued i n o r d e r t h a t
any changes deemed n e c e s s a r y t o c a p s u l e or b o o s t e r hardware
may be i n c o r p o r a t e d p r i o r t o t h e n e x t t e s t . F u l f i l l m e n t of t h i s
recommendation r e q u i r e s continued c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t on r e c o v e r y
of p a r t s of t h e MA-1 b o o s t e r .

3. For a t l e a s t t h e next t w o Mercury f l i g h t o p e r a t i o n s ,


weather c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d be s u c h as t o allow good d e t a i l e d
p h o t o g r a p h i c c o v e r a g e d u r i n g t h e powered phase of f l i g h t t o
t h e r a n g e l i m i t s of t h e b e s t AMR t r a c k i n g cameras.

46
10.1
10.0
- APPENDICES
Capsule H i s t o r y
Capsule number 4 (MA-1) a r r i v e d a t Cape Canaveral Missile
T e s t Center a t 3 p.m. on May 23, 1960. The a p s u l e w a s complete
e x c e p t f o r f l i g h t i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , p a r a c h u t e s and p y r o t e c h n i c
devices.
Following a s a t i s f a c t o r y leakage r a t e t e s t , t h e c a p s u l e
w i r i n g w a s v e r i f i e d d u r i n g which t i m e a l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n
w a s b e i n g f i n a l l y bench-tested as a s y s t e m .
The f i r s t o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n tests i n t h e c a p s u l e
revealed unanticipated d i f f i c u l t i e s materially affecting the
planned work s c h e d u l e . Changes i n philosophy f o r hangar
checks became necessary. A l l malfunctioning f l i g h t instruments
w e r e r e p l a c e d by a backup s y s t e m , o r a dummy weight, s o t h a t
work c o u l d proceed both on t h e c a p s u l e weight and b a l a n c e
measurements and t h e f l i g h t i n s t r u m e n t s . T h i s work r e q u i r e d
two a d d i t i o n a l weeks over and above t h e scheduled work p e r i o d .
T h i s s l i p p a g e w a s caused by p r o c e d u r a l problems w i t h t h e weight
and b a l a n c e f i x t u r e s as w e l l a s t h e aforementioned d i f f i c u l t i e s
w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e o v e r a l l i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n system.
Following t h i s p e r i o d c a p s u l e s y s t e m s tests were r u n i n
t h e hangar c a p s u l e checkout room. These tests f o r m a l l y v e r i f i e d
t h e sequence system and t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s y s t e m . Minor d i s -
c r e p a n c i e s were n o t e d i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s y s t e m d u r i n g t h e
c a p s u l e s y s t e m t e s t s , b u t f i x e s were s c h e d u l e d d u r i n g t h e com-
p l e x t e s t i n g i n o r d e r t o accomplish t h e F i r s t Mate w i t h t h e
b o o s t e r as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e . C a l i b r a t i o n c u r v e s f o r t h e f r e o n
and p o r t a b l e a i r - c o n d i t i o n i n g u n i t s were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d .
The first mechanical mating of t h e c a p s u l e with t h e b o o s t e r
(No. 50D) o c c u r r e d on J u l y 5, 1960. Alignment w a s good and no
rework was r e q u i r e d . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n t e s t s and p r e l i m i n a r y
u m b i l i c a l p u l l tests were performed and were s a t i s f a c t o r y . Com-
p l e x w i r i n g and blockhouse c o n s o l e s were found t o be i n good
o r d e r . Mechanical problems with f r e o n c o o l i n g and b o o s t e r
e l e c t r i c a l i n t e r f a c e p l u s thundershowers f o r c e d postponement
of t h e t e s t .
The F i r s t Mate and I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n T e s t w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y
completed on J u l y 6, 1960. The l a n d i n g and r e c o v e r y systems
were s u b j e c t e d t o c a p s u l e power and RF r a d i a t i o n and a l l of t h e
1/16 ampere f u s e s , s i m u l a t i n g p y r o t e c h n i c i g n i t e r s , s u r v i v e d
the test.
The c a p s u l e w a s r e t u r n e d t o Hangar S. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and
t e l e m e t r y packages were removed and reworked. A new aerodynamic
f a i r i n g f o r t h e upper clamp r i n g w a s f i t t e d t o t h e c a p s u l e . A
h e a v i e r gauge p e r i s c o p e door w a s f i t t e d and i n s t a l l e d . A f t e r
reassembly and b r i e f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n tests, t h e c a p s u l e w a s a g a i n
mated t o t h e b o o s t e r i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e F l i g h t Acceptance
Composite T e s t (FACT).
10.1 Capsule H i s t o r y ( c o n t ' d)

The FACT w a s attempted J u l y 13 and proceeded t o T-90


minutes. I t was postponed as a r e s u l t of m a l f u n c t i o n s of
b o o s t e r s y s t e m s . These s y s t e m s were mandatory f o r t h i s t e s t
both from t h e s t a n d p o i n t of b o o s t e r as w e l l a s c a p s u l e t e s t
objectives.
A second FACT w a s conducted t h e f o l l o w i n g day, and t h e
d e s i r e d r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d u n t i l about T-3 minutes when t h e
c a p s u l e t e l e m e t r y RF power a m p l i f i e r and a s s o c i a t e d power s u p p l y
f a i l e d . T h i s f a i l u r e w a s determined t o have r e s u l t e d from a
h i g h v o l t a g e s t a n d i n g wave r a t i o (VSPJR) caused by t h e close
p r o x i m i t y of t h e metal l e g s of t h e s t u b tower. Antenna l o a d i n g
s t u d i e s were conducted w i t h v a r i o u s p a r t s and m c k - u p s of t h e
s t u b tower. A c o n f i g u r a t i o n i n which f o u r of t h e s i x s t u b
tower l e g s i n c o r p o r a t e d 2-inch i n s u l a t i o n i n s e r t s r e s u l t e d i n
a c o n f i g u r a t i o n s u i t a b l e f o r proceeding w i t h t h e t e s t program.
A f t e r m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e tower l e g s and n e c e s s a r y t e s t s , t h e
FACT w a s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y concluded on J u l y 18.
The F l i g h t Readiness F i r i n g T e s t (FRF) w a s conducted on
J u l y 21. No problems w i t h t h e c a p s u l e were encountered. A l l
of t h e four-amp f u s e s s i m u l a t i n g p y r o t e c h n i c i g n i t e r s i n t h e
c a p s u l e l a n d i n g and recovery systems were blown d u r i n g t h e
FRF o r i n a s p e c i a l t e s t immediately a f t e r t h e FRF. A s a t i s -
f a c t o r i l y low c a b i n leakage r a t e w a s measured b e f o r e and a f t e r
t h e FRF.

Between FRF and launch, t h e c a p s u l e was r e t u r n e d t o t h e


hangar, t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r s and cameras were removed, re-
l o a d e d , and r e p l a c e d , t h e t e l e m e t r y w a s checked, and t h e re-
covery s e c t i o n equipment w a s removed. T h e c a p s u l e w a s t h e n
reassembled w i t h l i v e p y r o t e c h n i c s ( e x c e p t p o s i g r a d e r o c k e t s )
and i n s t a l l e d i n t h e o p t i c a l alignment f i x t u r e . The weight
and l a t e r a l c.g. p o s i t i o n of t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n f i g u r a t i o n w e r e
r e d e t e r m i n e d and t h e l i v e posigrade r o c k e t s were r e a l i g n e d t o
t h i s c.g. Two of t h e f o u r i n s u l a t o r s i n t h e s t u b tower l e g s
were lengthened t o f u r t h e r reduce t h e VSWR. The c a p s u l e w a s
moved t o t h e complex f o r l a u n c h and f i t t e d w i t h a p l o y e t h y l e n e
r a i n c o v e r . Umbilical p u l l - t e s t s were made t o develop and
q u a l i f y t h i s r a i n cover.
The launch o p e r a t i o n was normal and uneventful, except f o r
d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o w k t e r e d i n t h e extremely wet c o n d i t i o n s on t h e
g a n t r y . Some d i f f i c u l t y was e x p e r i e n c e d i n checking and hooking
up p y r o t e c h n i c s , b e c a u s e of t h e n e c e s s i t y of m a i n t a i n i n g d r y con-
d t i i o n s a t t h e connectors.
10.2 FRF Vibration Measurements

During t h e f l i g h t r e a d i n e s s s t a t i c f i r i n g of t h e e n g i n e s ,
c a p s u l e a c c e l e r a t i o n s were measured p a r a l l e l and normal t o
t h e c a p s u l e x-axis (see f i g u r e 4.0-1 f o r d e s c r i p t i o n of
c a p s u l e a x i s system). The a c c e l e r o m e t e r s were mounted on t h e
c a p s u l e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e ( t r u n n i o n s ) . The r e s p o n s e of t h e
vibration-measuring s y s t e m was e s s e n t i a l l y f l a t from 20 c p s
t o 2,000 c p s .
The d i r e c t i o n of t h e normal a c c e l e r a t i o n s w a s 20° c o u n t e r -
clockwise from t h e y-axis (viewed along t h e x-axis i n t h e p o s h
tive-acceleration direction -
see f i g u r e 4.0-1). Accelerations
i n both d i r e c t i o n s showed o v e r a l l r . m . s . v a l v e s a t approximately
3.0 g. A power s p e c t r a l d e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n of each u s i n g a
25 c p s (approximately) f i l t e r band showed peaks a t t h e follow-
i n g magnitudes a t t h e i n d i c a t e d f r e q u e n c i e s :
Longitudinal Normal

Frequency g2/cps Frequency gz/cps


CPS
190 .09 390 .040
330 .034 730 .026

7 50 .015

49