Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19

0<67Ê5(-8,)(70<67Ê5(&+5e7,(1

/(027(7/$&+26(

Walter Burkert in memoriam

'HSXLV OHV pWXGHV SLRQQLqUHV G¶,VDDF &DVDXERQ DX ;9,,H VLqFOH HW
VXUWRXW GHSXLV OD QDLVVDQFH GDQV OHV DQQpHV TXDWUHYLQJW GX
H
;,; VLqFOH GX FRQFHSW GH Mysterienreligionen OHV ©P\VWqUHVª GH
O¶$QWLTXLWp JUHFTXH SXLV JUpFRURPDLQH RQW IDLW O¶REMHW
G¶LQQRPEUDEOHV UHFKHUFKHV TXL Q¶RQW SRXUWDQW UpXVVL TX¶j VRXOHYHU
OpJqUHPHQWOHYRLOHUHFRXYUDQWjODIRLVULWHVHWP\WKHV6HSURSRVHU
GH WUDLWHU GH ©QRXYHOOHV SHUVSHFWLYHVª VXU OHV P\VWqUHV DLQVL TXH
QRXV \ FRQYLHQW DXGDFLHXVHPHQW OHV RUJDQLVDWHXUV GH FH FROORTXH
VXSSRVH VRLW TXH QRXV SXLVVLRQV DMRXWHU j XQ GRVVLHU VRPPH WRXWH
OLPLWp OHV$QFLHQVD\DQWUHVSHFWpGHIDoRQUHPDUTXDEOHO¶H[LJHQFHGH
VHFUHW GHV FXOWHV j P\VWqUHV  GH QRXYHDX[ GRFXPHQWV OLWWpUDLUHV RX
DUFKpRORJLTXHVMXVTX¶LFLLQFRQQXVVRLWTXHQRXVVR\RQVHQPHVXUHGH
SURSRVHU GHV PpWKRGHV QRXYHOOHV SHUPHWWDQW GH IRUPXOHU OHV JUDQGHV
TXHVWLRQVVRXVXQDQJOHRULJLQDO
1¶pWDQWHQPHVXUHQLGHUpYpOHUGHVWH[WHVLQpGLWVQLGHSUpVHQWHU
XQHPpWKRGRORJLHQRXYHOOHMHPHSURSRVHGHUpIOpFKLULFLjODIRLVVXU
XQH VpULH GH WH[WHV HW VXU FHUWDLQHV DSSURFKHV DX[TXHOOHV RQ SRXUUDLW
IDLUHDSSHOGHIDoRQSOXVV\VWpPDWLTXHTX¶RQQHOHIDLWG¶KDELWXGH/HV
TXHOTXHV UpIOH[LRQV TXL VXLYHQW VXU OHV OLHQV HQWUH ©P\VWqUHª MXLI HW
©P\VWqUHªFKUpWLHQDLQVLTXHVXUOHVLivres de mystèresSHUPHWWURQW
DLQVL SHXWrWUH GH UHQRXYHOHU OH GpEDW VXU O¶RULJLQH GX ©P\VWqUHª
FKUpWLHQ HW VXU OH VHQV TX¶LO IDXW GRQQHU j FH FRQFHSW /D UpIOH[LRQ
PpWKRGRORJLTXHTXDQWjHOOHSRUWHUDVXUO¶LGpHGHFRPSDUDLVRQGDQV
O¶KLVWRLUH GHV UHOLJLRQV DQWLTXHV 4XH FRPSDURQVQRXV" $YHF TXHOV
LQVWUXPHQWV" (W GDQV TXHO EXW" 2X HQFRUH 4XHOV VRQW OHV
SUpVXSSRVpV j OD IRLV H[SOLFLWHV HW LPSOLFLWHV GH OD FRPSDUDLVRQ"

9RLU O¶H[FHOOHQW RXYUDJH V\QWKpWLTXH DYHF XQH ELEOLRJUDSKLH IRUW FRPSOqWH  GH
-1%5(00(5 Initiation into the Mysteries of the Ancient World %HUOLQ%RVWRQ
 /D PRQRJUDSKLH FODVVLTXH VXU OHV P\VWqUHV GHPHXUH FHOOH GH :%85.(57
Ancient Mystery Cults &DPEULGJH 0DVV   /RQGUHV  )DLVRQV DX PRLQV
UpIpUHQFH j GHX[ H[FHOOHQWV DUWLFOHV GH V\QWKqVH +&$1&,. ©0\VWHULHQ0\VWLNª
Handbuch der religionsgeschichtlichen Grundbegriffe ,9 6WXWWJDUW%HUOLQ&RORJQH
 S HW '=(//(5 ©0\VWHULHQ0\VWHULHQUHOLJLRQHQª Theologische
Realenzyklopädie%HUOLQS

Les Mystères: nouvelles perspectives. Entretiens de Strasbourg, éd. par Marc Philonenko,Yves Lehmann et Laurent
Pernot, Turnhout, Brepols 2017 (RRR 24), p. 45-62
FHG DOI: 10.1484/M.RRR-EB.5.113984
 *8<*6752806$

4XDQGOHPrPHSKpQRPqQH SDUH[HPSOHXQ©OLYUHVHFUHWª DSSDUDvW


GDQVGHX[V\VWqPHVFXOWXUHOVRXUHOLJLHX[GLIIpUHQWVLOIDXWrWUHDXVVL
DWWHQWLIDX[GLIIpUHQFHVGHIRQFWLRQTX¶DX[SDUDOOpOLVPHVVWUXFWXUDX[
2Q D EHDXFRXS pFULW HW VDQV GRXWH WURS  VXU OD TXHVWLRQ GHV
©P\VWqUHV SDwHQVª DX SOXULHO  HW GX ©P\VWqUH FKUpWLHQª DX
VLQJXOLHU  /H PRW mystƝrion ODWLQ mysterium  DSSDUDLVVDQW GDQV OHV
pFULWV SDOpRFKUpWLHQV j SDUWLU GX 1RXYHDX 7HVWDPHQW OHV FKHUFKHXUV
RQWWHQWpGHGpPRQWUHUTX¶LOV¶DJLWOjG¶XQHLQIOXHQFHGXODQJDJHGHV
©UHOLJLRQV j P\VWqUHVª TXH QRXV DYRQV PDLQWHQDQW DSSULV j
LGHQWLILHU GHSXLV OHV WUDYDX[ PDJLVWUDX[ GH :DOWHU %XUNHUW SOXW{W
FRPPHGHVFXOWHVTXHFRPPHGHVUHOLJLRQVDXVHQVSURSUHGXWHUPH 
(Q )UDQFH F¶HVW VDQV QXO GRXWH $OIUHG /RLV\ TXL D HX O¶LQIOXHQFH OD
SOXV LPSRUWDQWH FRPSDUDEOH j FHOOH GH 5LFKDUG 5HLW]HQVWHLQ HQ
$OOHPDJQH
/¶LGpHG¶XQOLHQJpQpWLTXHHQWUHOHVP\VWqUHVSDwHQVHWOHP\VWqUH
FKUpWLHQSURYLHQWGXIDLWTXHODWHUPLQRORJLHGHVFXOWHVjP\VWqUHV RX
FHUWDLQVGHVWHUPHVSULQFLSDX[ GHYLQWFRXUDQWHGDQVO¶$QWLTXLWpSRXU
GpILQLU OD OLWXUJLH HW OD SUDWLTXH ULWXHOOH GHV VHFWDWHXUV GH -pVXV
mystƝria RX teletai UHSUpVHQWHQW DLQVL O¶HQVHPEOH GHV ULWHV RX GHV
GRFWULQHV GHV FKUpWLHQV PDLV DXVVL FHUWDLQHV IRUPHV GH FXOWH SOXV
VSpFLILTXHV WHOV OH EDSWrPH RX O¶HXFKDULVWLH &H TX¶RQ RXEOLH WURS
VRXYHQW GH QRWHU F¶HVW TXH FHWWH WHUPLQRORJLH ©P\VWpULTXHª
Q¶DSSDUDvW TXH UDUHPHQW GDQV OD OLWWpUDWXUH FKUpWLHQQH DYDQW OH
H
,9 VLqFOHDORUVTXHOHPRWmystƝrionOXLPrPHVHWURXYHGpMjGDQVOH
1RXYHDX7HVWDPHQW
8QH WHOOH FRQFHSWLRQ LQVLVWDQW VXU OD VLPLOLWXGH GH YRFDEXODLUH
HQWUH WH[WHV SDwHQV HW WH[WHV FKUpWLHQV HVW IRQGpH VXU XQH doxa WRXW
DXVVLpYLGHQWHTXHVRXYHQWLPSOLFLWHOHPLOLHXUHOLJLHX[GDQVOHTXHO

&RPPH OH UHPDUTXH %XUNHUW OHV DQFLHQV FXOWHV j P\VWqUHV QRXV DSSDUDLVVHQW
FRPPH j OD IRLV SOXV IUDJLOHV HW PRLQV KXPDLQV TXH OH FKULVWLDQLVPH Ancient
Mystery Cults S  %XUNHUW QRWH TX¶j OD GLIIpUHQFH GX FKULVWLDQLVPH HW GX
MXGDwVPHDXFXQGHVP\VWqUHVSDwHQVQ¶DVXUYpFX
$/2,6< Les mystères païens et le mystère chrétien 3DULV 
55(,7=(167(,1 Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen : Ihre Grundgedanken
und Wirkungen /HLS]LJ%HUOLQ  6XU OH PLOLHX LQWHOOHFWXHO HW UHOLJLHX[ GDQV
OHTXHOpYROXHQWOHVLGpHVGH/RLV\YRLUe328/$7Histoire, dogme et critique dans
la crise moderniste 3DULV  6XU 5HLW]HQVWHLQ HW OD FRPSDUDLVRQ HQWUH
SDOpRFKULVWLDQLVPHHWFXOWHVjP\VWqUHVYRLU-=60,7+Drudgery Divine : On the
Comparison of Early Christianities and the Religions of Late Antiquity &KLFDJR
6PLWKV¶LQWpUHVVHDX[FKHUFKHXUVSURWHVWDQWVPDLVLJQRUHHQJUDQGHSDUWLHOH
PRQGHFDWKROLTXH6XUODTXHVWLRQGHO¶LQIOXHQFHSRVVLEOHGHVP\VWqUHVSDwHQVVXUOH
FKULVWLDQLVPHYRLU%5(00(5Initiation…FKDSLWUH9,S
0<67Ê5(-8,)(70<67Ê5(&+5e7,(1 

QDvWHWpYROXHOHSDOpRFKULVWLDQLVPHHVWDYDQWWRXWOHSDJDQLVPHJUpFR
URPDLQ 3OXV ODUJHPHQW GH *XLOODXPH %XGp j 0LFKHO )RXFDXOW OD
WUDGLWLRQVFLHQWLILTXHDFRQVLGpUpOHFKULVWLDQLVPHDQFLHQFRPPHD\DQW
RIIHUW XQH UpLQWHUSUpWDWLRQ GH OD FXOWXUH DQWLTXH 2U FHWWH FRQFHSWLRQ
HVW GHSXLV ORQJWHPSV FDGXTXH 'DQV XQH pWXGH FODVVLTXH SXEOLpH HQ
$'1RFNpPLQHQWVSpFLDOLVWHGHODUHOLJLRQGDQVOHVPRQGHV
JUHFHWODWLQDELHQPRQWUpODJUDQGHIUDJLOLWpGHO¶LGpHVHORQODTXHOOH
OHVVDFUHPHQWVFKUpWLHQVDXUDLHQWWURXYpOHXURULJLQHGDQVOHVP\VWqUHV
SDwHQV1RFNLQVLVWHVXUOHIDLWTXH3DXOQ¶XWLOLVHMDPDLVteletƝRXVHV
FRUUpODWLIVHWQ¶HPSORLHmueinTX¶XQHVHXOHIRLV(QFRQFOXVLRQ1RFN
V¶pWRQQH TXH OHV P\VWqUHV DLHQW HX VL SHX G¶LPSDFW VXU OH
FKULVWLDQLVPH /D FRQFOXVLRQ QpJDWLYH GH 1RFN YLHQW G¶rWUH UHSULVH
SDU-DQ%UHPPHUGDQVVRQDGPLUDEOHInitiation into the Mysteries of
the Ancient World 8QH WHOOH FRQFOXVLRQ HVW SOXV TXH FRQYDLQFDQWH
LQpOXFWDEOH&HTXLSRVHSUREOqPHF¶HVWDXWUHFKRVHOHIDLWTXH1RFN
QH SURSRVH SDV G¶H[SOLFDWLRQ DOWHUQDWLYH SRXU O¶RULJLQH GX P\VWqUH
FKUpWLHQ0DOJUpVRQJUDQGVDYRLUHWVDODUJHXUG¶HVSULW1RFNTXLQH
VDYDLWSDVO¶KpEUHXQ¶DYDLWSDVGpYHORSSpGHYpULWDEOHLQWpUrWSRXUOH
MXGDwVPH HW Q¶pWDLW SDV HQ PHVXUH GH FRQFHYRLU O¶RULJLQH MXLYH GHV
FRQFHSWLRQV SDOpRFKUpWLHQQHV &¶HVW OD TXHVWLRQ GH OD JHQqVH TXL
V¶LPSRVHLFLPDLVFHQ¶HVWFHUWDLQHPHQWSDVODVHXOHDSSURFKHSRVVLEOH
HQ KLVWRLUH GHV UHOLJLRQV GRPDLQH GDQV OHTXHO OD IRQFWLRQ Q¶HVW
DXFXQHPHQWPRLQVFDSLWDOHTXHO¶RULJLQH&HVHUDLWOHEXWG¶XQHDXWUH
pWXGH TXH G¶DQDO\VHU OHV FRQFHSWLRQV HW U{OHV GLIIpUHQWV GX P\VWqUH
GDQVOHMXGDwVPHHWOHFKULVWLDQLVPH


8QHDXWUHGLUHFWLRQGHODUHFKHUFKHVXUODTXHOOHMHQHSXLVP¶pWHQGUHLFLHVWFHOOH
TXL D pWp WUDFpH SDU )UDQ] &XPRQW SRXU OHTXHO OHV P\VWqUHV YHQDLHQW G¶2ULHQW -H
UHQYRLH j FH VXMHW j O¶LQWURGXFWLRQ KLVWRULRJUDSKLTXH GH &%211(7 HW GH )9$1
+$(53(5(1GDQVOHXUQRXYHOOHpGLWLRQGXJUDQGFODVVLTXHGH&80217Les religions
orientales dans le paganisme romain 7XULQ  S;,/;;,9 1RWRQV HQFRUH
TX¶$/HQQR\ HW '3UDHW SUpSDUHQW OD SXEOLFDWLRQ GH OD FRUUHVSRQGDQFH pFKDQJpH
SDU$OIUHG/RLV\HW)UDQ]&XPRQW
3RXU XQH FULWLTXH GH FHWWH DSSURFKH YRLU **6752806$ La fin du sacrifice :
mutations religieuses de l’Antiquité tardive3DULVFKDSLWUH
$'12&. ©+HOOHQLVWLF 0\VWHULHV DQG &KULVWLDQ 6DFUDPHQWVª UHSULV GDQV VHV
Essays on Religion and the Ancient World ,, =67(:$57 HG  2[IRUG±1HZ
<RUN,,S
©7KHVXUSULVHLVWKDWWKHSDJDQP\VWHULHVKDGVROLWWOHLQIOXHQFHRQ&KULVWLDQLW\ª
Essays…S
9RLUsupraQ
9RLU 635,&( ©7KH 5RDG WR &RQYHUVLRQ 7KH /LIH DQG :RUN RI $'1RFNª
Harvard Studies in Classical PhilologyS
 *8<*6752806$

-H PH SURSRVH GRQF GH SRVHU LFL OD TXHVWLRQ GH O¶RULJLQH GX
mystƝrion FKUpWLHQ GH IDoRQ GLIIpUHQWH HQ UHJDUGDQW GX F{Wp GX
MXGDwVPH(QILQGHFRPSWHF¶HVWHQPLOLHXMXLIHWQRQSDwHQTX¶HVW
QpOHFKULVWLDQLVPH&HWWHLGpHQ¶HVWFHUWHVSDVQRXYHOOHPDLVRQGRLW
FRQVWDWHU TXH MXVTX¶j SUpVHQW GH IDoRQ VXUSUHQDQWH OHV VDYDQWV RQW
UDUHPHQWSHQVpjpWXGLHUV\VWpPDWLTXHPHQWOHVUDSSRUWVSRVVLEOHVHQWUH
P\VWqUH MXLI HW P\VWqUH FKUpWLHQ &RPPHQoRQV SDU FLWHU TXHOTXHV
SDVVDJHVIRQGDPHQWDX[
0DUF©&¶HVWjYRXVTXHOHP\VWqUHGXUR\DXPHGH
'LHX D pWp GRQQpª j SURSRV GH FH WH[WH OHV SKLORORJXHV
SDUOHQWG¶KDELWXGHGX©Messiasgeheimnisª 
9RLUSDUDLOOHXUV,&RU©0DLVQRXVSDUORQVGHODVDJHVVH
GH'LHXFDFKpHGDQVOHP\VWqUHª
4XDQGRQSDUOHGH©P\VWqUHªLOIDXWVHVRXYHQLUTX¶LOSHXWV¶DJLUjOD
IRLV GX PRW HW GH OD FKRVH GHV legomena HW GHV drǀmena. 'H
O¶H[LVWHQFH GX WHUPH RQ QH SHXW HQ ERQQH ORJLTXH FRQFOXUH
QpFHVVDLUHPHQWjO¶H[LVWHQFHGHULWXHOV

'DQVXQHPRQRJUDSKLHVXUO¶pVRWpULVPHDQFLHQHWOHVRULJLQHVGHOD
P\VWLTXHFKUpWLHQQHSXEOLpHHQM¶DYDLVpPLVO¶K\SRWKqVHTXHGH
mystƝrion SDwHQ j mysterium FKUpWLHQ OHV FRQQRWDWLRQV pVRWpULTXHV
DYDLHQW GLVSDUX GX WHUPH &HFL SDUFH TXH OD JQRVH DYDLW DEVRUEp OD
FDSDFLWp G¶pVRWpULVPH GX SDOpRFKULVWLDQLVPH HW TXH OD WUDGLWLRQ
SDWULVWLTXH DYDLW FRQVHUYp OHV WHUPHV WRXW HQ WUDQVIRUPDQW OHXU
VpPDQWLTXH WUDGLWLRQQHOOH &H YRFDEXODLUH HVW DLQVL j OD UDFLQH GH OD
P\VWLTXH FKUpWLHQQH -¶DYDLV DXVVL UHPDUTXp TXH OH YRFDEXODLUH
©P\VWpULTXHª mystagǀgia  QH GHYHQDLW PDUTXDQW GDQV OD OLWWpUDWXUH
SDWULVWLTXH TX¶DX ,9H VLqFOH F¶HVWjGLUH j SDUWLU GX PRPHQW R OH
SDJDQLVPH HQ VHV GLYHUV DVSHFWV QH UHSUpVHQWDLW SOXV GH YpULWDEOH
GDQJHUSRXUOHFKULVWLDQLVPH,OpWDLWDORUVSOXVIDFLOHGHUHSUHQGUHHQ
SDUWLHOHYRFDEXODLUHGHVFXOWHVGpIXQWVRXPRULERQGVHQWRXWFDVFHX[
GHV FRQFHSWV D\DQW JDUGp XQH IRUWH UpVRQDQFH SRVLWLYH HW GpVRUPDLV
©GpVLQFDUQpVª SRXU DLQVL GLUH GH OHXU PLOLHX G¶RULJLQH &H

9RLU **6752806$ Hidden Wisdom : Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of
Christian Mysticism/H\GHHpGHQSDUWLFXOLHUS
/¶XVDJHGXYHUEHmystagǀgeinDSSDUDvWDX ,,,HVLqFOHFKH]2ULJqQHSOXVWDUGFKH]
OH3VHXGR'HQ\VO¶$UpRSDJLWHRXHQFRUHHQODWLQFKH]*UpJRLUHOH*UDQG3RXUXQH
0<67Ê5(-8,)(70<67Ê5(&+5e7,(1 

YRFDEXODLUH GHYDLW GHYHQLU HQ SDUWLH FHOXL GH OD P\VWLTXH


FKUpWLHQQH
&H TXH MH YRXGUDLV SUpFLVHU LFL F¶HVW GDQV XQ SUHPLHU WHPSV OH
FRQWH[WHMXLIGXP\VWqUHFKUpWLHQSULPLWLI-HWHQWHUDLHQVXLWHG¶pWXGLHU
OHSKpQRPqQHFRXUDQWPDLVSDUDGR[DOGHVOLYUHVGHP\VWqUH V RXGH
VHFUHWV FHV pFULWV pVRWpULTXHV TXL SUpWHQGHQW UpYpOHU DX[ LQLWLpV OHV
VHFUHWV GX FRVPRV 2Q V¶LQWHUURJHUD VXU OH VWDWXW HW OD IRQFWLRQ
SDUWLFXOLHUVTXHGHWHOVOLYUHVSHXYHQWDYRLUHXVHQPLOLHXPRQRWKpLVWH
j O¶LQWpULHXU G¶XQH UHOLJLRQ UpYpOpH HQ SULQFLSH  j WRXV HW j WRXWHV
SUpFLVpPHQWSDUFHUWDLQVWH[WHVDSSHOpVeFULWXUHV
,O V¶DJLW DXVVL G¶XQ SUREOqPH GH PpWKRGH PrPH VL O¶RQ DFFHSWH
TXH F¶HVW GDQV OH MXGDwVPH TX¶LO IDXW WURXYHU O¶RULJLQH GLUHFWH GX
P\VWqUHFKUpWLHQRQSHXWFRQFHYRLUFHIDLWGHGLYHUVHVIDoRQV6RLWOH
P\VWqUHJUHF OHPRWVHXOHPHQWRXODFKRVHHOOHPrPH SDVVHG¶DERUG
DXMXGDwVPHHWGHOjDXFKULVWLDQLVPHVRLWO¶pVRWpULVPHLPSUqJQHOHV
GLIIpUHQWV FRXUDQWV UHOLJLHX[ GX PRQGH DQFLHQ KHOOpQLVPH MXGDwVPH
PD]GpLVPH HW SOXV WDUG FKULVWLDQLVPH 1RWRQV TXH VL OD JQRVHHVW OD
WUDGLWLRQ pVRWpULTXH GDQV OH SDOpRFKULVWLDQLVPH OH UHMHW GH OD JQRVH
SDUOHV3qUHVGHO¶eJOLVHUHSUpVHQWHipso factoXQUHMHWGHODWUDGLWLRQ
pVRWpULTXHGRQFGXP\VWqUHGDQVOHFKULVWLDQLVPHDQFLHQ
/HSDUDGLJPHGXP\VWqUHSDwHQFRPPHVRXUFHFHQWUDOHGXP\VWqUH
FKUpWLHQ HVW DEDQGRQQp DXMRXUG¶KXL &H SDUDGLJPH FHSHQGDQW V¶LO
LQFOXW ELHQ OH MXGDwVPH KHOOpQLVWLTXH Q¶LQFOXW SDV OH MXGDwVPH
SDOHVWLQLHQ /¶RSSRVLWLRQ UDGLFDOH HQWUH OH MXGDwVPH KHOOpQLVWLTXH HW
KHOOpQRSKRQH XQMXGDwVPHRXYHUWDX[FDWpJRULHVLQWHOOHFWXHOOHVGHOD
SKLORVRSKLH JUHFTXH HW OH MXGDwVPH SDOHVWLQLHQ DUDPpRSKRQH HW
IRQFWLRQQDQW VHORQ OHV PRGHV GH SHQVpH KpEUDwTXH  HVW XQH YLHLOOH
WUDGLWLRQ GH OD WKpRORJLH SURWHVWDQWH VXUWRXW DOOHPDQGH $LQVL
)HUGLQDQG &KULVWLDQ %DXU   OH PDvWUH KpJpOLHQ GH
7ELQJHQSDUODLWLOGHO¶Abgeschlossenheit GXMXGDwVPHSDOHVWLQLHQFH
TXL OXL SHUPHWWDLW GH OH FRQWRXUQHU SRXU FRPSUHQGUH OHV SUHPLHUV
GpYHORSSHPHQWV GX FKULVWLDQLVPH /D GLVWLQFWLRQ UDGLFDOH HQWUH GHX[
MXGDwVPHV SUDWLTXHPHQW LPSHUPpDEOHV O¶XQ j O¶DXWUH VLPSOLILDLW OD
WkFKH GHV WKpRORJLHQV TXL DYDLHQW EHVRLQ j OD IRLV G¶XQ ©ERQª
MXGDwVPH DQQRQFLDWHXU GX FKULVWLDQLVPH HW G¶XQ ©PDXYDLVª
MXGDwVPH ILJp HW FDGXF PDLV HOOH QH UpVLVWH SDV j O¶H[DPHQ 2Q QH
SHXWFRPSUHQGUHOHMXGDwVPHGX,HUVLqFOHSDUH[HPSOHVDQVXWLOLVHUGH
FRQFHUWHWGHIDoRQV\QRSWLTXHOHVVRXUFHVJUHFTXHVHWKpEUDwTXHV,O

YXH G¶HQVHPEOH VXU OD WUDGLWLRQ QpRWHVWDPHQWDLUH HW SDWULVWLTXH YRLU $62/,*1$&
©0\VWqUHªDictionnaire de spiritualitéS
9RLU6752806$Hidden WisdomHQSDUWLFXOLHUFKDSLWUH,;S
 *8<*6752806$

V¶DJLWOjG¶XQHpYLGHQFHPpWKRGRORJLTXHGHERQVHQVHWSRXUWDQWORLQ
G¶rWUHWRXMRXUVDSSOLTXpH

'HSXLVODILQGX ;,;HVLqFOHOHVVDYDQWVVHVRQWSHQFKpVVXUO¶LGpH
GH P\VWqUH FKH] OHV MXLIV )UHGHULFN &&RQ\EHDUH   HQ
 FRQVLGpUDLW OHV 7KpUDSHXWHV GH 3KLORQ FRPPH GHV LQLWLpV j
FHUWDLQV P\VWqUHV 3RXU 5LFKDUG $XJXVW 5HLW]HQVWHLQ   OH
©6HUPRQ QDDVVqQHª FRQVHUYp SDU +LSSRO\WH SURYHQDLW G¶XQH
FRPPXQDXWp MXLYH SKU\JLHQQH GH OD *UDQGH 0qUH /H SKLORVRSKH
+DQV /HLVHJDQJ   HQILQ YR\DLW GDQV OH P\VWLFLVPH
SKLORQLHQXQHWUDQVIRUPDWLRQGHVFUR\DQFHVMXLYHVSDUOHV©UHOLJLRQVj
P\VWqUHVª
'DQV XQ WUDYDLO SXEOLp HQ  TXL VHPEOH ELHQ RXEOLp
DXMRXUG¶KXL /XFLHQ &HUIDX[ D pWXGLp O¶LPSDFW GHV P\VWqUHV VXU OH
MXGDwVPH DOH[DQGULQ 3UHQDQW OH FRQWUHSLHG GH WRXWH XQH WUDGLWLRQ
LGHQWLILDQW OH MXGDwVPH DOH[DQGULQ j VRQ GHUQLHU HW SOXV FpOqEUH
UHSUpVHQWDQW 3KLORQ G¶$OH[DQGULH &HUIDX[ DYDLW YRXOX PRQWUHU HQ
V¶DSSX\DQW VXU OHV UDUHV WUDFHV TXH QRXV OLYUHQW OHV IUDJPHQWV GH OD
OLWWpUDWXUH MXGpRDOH[DQGULQH SDUYHQXV MXVTX¶j QRXV WHOV OD Lettre
d’Aristée OH 3VHXGR+pFDWpH $UWDSDQ RX e]pFKLHO OH 7UDJLTXH TXH
GpMj GHX[VLqFOHVDYDQW3KLORQ OH MXGDwVPH V¶pWDLW SUpVHQWp GHYDQW OH
PRQGH SDwHQ FRPPH XQ mystƝrion 3RXU &HUIDX[ $EUDKDP G¶DERUG
0RwVH HQVXLWH DYDLHQW pWp LQLWLpV j OD GRFWULQH GLYLQH VHFUqWH QH OD
UpYpODQW TX¶j FHX[ TXL HQ pWDLHQW GLJQHV /H 1RP VHFUHW GH 'LHX OH
7pWUDJUDPPH TX¶RQ QH SRXYDLW OLYUHU TX¶DX[ P\VWHV OD UpVXPDLW
&HUIDX[ LQVLVWDLW VXU OH IDLW TX¶LO QH V¶DJLVVDLW SDV Oj GH PpWDSKRUHV
OLWWpUDLUHV &H Q¶HVW TX¶DYHF 3KLORQ TXH FHV LGpHV DXUDLHQW pWp
GpYDOXpHV SRXU DLQVL GLUH HQ GHYHQDQW GH VLPSOHV SURFpGpV 3RXU
WHUPLQHU &HUIDX[ QRWDLW TXH OD WUDQVFHQGDQFH GLYLQH SHUPHWWDLW j FH
MXGDwVPH ©P\VWpULTXHª GH V¶H[SULPHU ©VDQV TX¶DXFXQH SURIDQDWLRQ
DWWHLJQvWOHIRQGPrPHGHVGRFWULQHVª
(UZLQ5*RRGHQRXJK  HVWELHQHQWHQGXOHVDYDQWTXL
DOHSOXVIDLWSRXUSURPRXYRLUO¶LGpHG¶XQMXGDwVPHP\VWpULTXH'DQV
OHV WUHL]H YROXPHV GH VRQ opus maximum Jewish Symbols in the
Greco-Roman Period   *RRGHQRXJK YD SOXV ORLQ TXH
&HUIDX[VHORQOXLF¶HVWSRXU3KLORQOXLPrPHTXDQGRQOHFRPSUHQG

/&(5)$8;©,QIOXHQFHGHVP\VWqUHVVXUOHMXGDwVPHDOH[DQGULQDYDQW3KLORQª
Le MuséonS
Id.S
0<67Ê5(-8,)(70<67Ê5(&+5e7,(1 

ELHQ TXH OH FXOWH MXLI HVW XQ mystère HW OH MXGDwVPH WRXW FRPPH OD
UHOLJLRQ G¶,VLV VRXV VD IRUPH pVRWpULTXH HVW XQ mystère FRVPLTXH
LPPDWpULHO W\SLILp SDU O¶DUFKH G¶DOOLDQFH 3RXU *RRGHQRXJK
mystƝrion/aFKH]3KLORQHVWjFRPSUHQGUHDXVHQVSURSUHHWQRQSDV
DX VHQV PpWDSKRULTXH TXH FH PRW DYDLW SULV GDQV OD WUDGLWLRQ
SKLORVRSKLTXHGHSXLV3ODWRQHWOHVVWRwFLHQV
'HSXLV OD SXEOLFDWLRQ GHV Jewish Symbols *RRGHQRXJK UHVWH DX
FHQWUHGHWRXWHGLVFXVVLRQGHVP\VWqUHVMXLIV,OHVWFHUWDLQTX¶LODPLV
O¶DFFHQW VXU FHUWDLQV pOpPHQWV MXVTXHOj RXEOLpV G¶XQH SHQVpH
UHOLJLHXVH H[WUrPHPHQW YLEUDQWH 0DLV *RRGHQRXJK Q¶D SDV UpXVVL j
FRQYDLQFUH OD FRPPXQDXWp VDYDQWH GH O¶H[LVWHQFH G¶XQ FXOWH MXLI
P\VWpULTXHFRQFHSWXDOLVpVHORQOHVFXOWHVjP\VWqUHVKHOOpQLVWLTXHV
1RFN UHFRQQDvW FHUWHV O¶LPSRUWDQFH GX langage P\VWpULTXH FKH]
3KLORQ PDLV RSSRVH XQH VpULH G¶REMHFWLRQV IRQGDPHQWDOHV DX[ LGpHV
GH*RRGHQRXJK'HPrPH0DUNXV%RFNPXHKOQRWHTXHOHSitz im
Leben GX ODQJDJH ©P\VWpULTXHª DOOpJRULTXH GH 3KLORQ UHIOqWH
O¶LGLRPH OLWWpUDLUH HW SKLORVRSKLTXH FRQWHPSRUDLQ SOXW{W TXH
O¶REVHUYDQFH SRSXODLUH ,O HVW FHSHQGDQW SHUPLV G¶DSSOLTXHU j OD
WKqVHGHVP\VWqUHVMXLIVODUHPDUTXHpSLVWpPRORJLTXHGH1RFNDXVXMHW
GH O¶LGpH G¶XQ LPSDFW GHV P\VWqUHV SDwHQV VXU OH P\VWqUH FKUpWLHQ
©:LWKRXWH[DJJHUDWLRQDQGRYHUVLPSOLILFDWLRQOLWWOHSURJUHVVLVPDGH
LQ PRVW ILHOGV RI KXPDQLVWLF LQYHVWLJDWLRQª 6¶LO VHPEOH ELHQ TX¶LO
VRLW LPSRVVLEOH GH UHWURXYHU OD WUDFH G¶XQ ©P\VWqUHª MXLI RQ WURXYH
FHUWDLQHPHQW OH PRW OXLPrPH GDQV FHUWDLQV WH[WHV ELEOLTXHV HW
SDUDELEOLTXHVDLQVLTXHGDQVOD6HSWDQWH
&RPPHQRXVOHUDSSHOOH$QGHUV+XOWJnUG rƗzHVWXQPRWLUDQLHQ
HPSOR\p DXVVL HQ KpEUHX GDQV OH VHQV GH ©VHFUHWª HW TXL DSSDUDvW
QHXIIRLVGDQVOHVSDVVDJHVDUDPpHQVGHDaniel'DQVOHVWH[WHVGH


3RXU XQ Forschungsbericht YRLU */($6( ©-HZLVK 0\VWHU\ &XOWV VLQFH
*RRGHQRXJKªAufstieg und Niedergang der römischen WeltS
12&.©7KH4XHVWLRQRI-HZLVK0\VWHULHVªGDQVVHVEssays,S
0%2&.08(+/Revelation and Mystery in Ancient Judaism and Pauline Christianity
7ELQJHQS¬FHVXMHWYRLUDXVVL&5,(':(*Mysterienterminologie bei
Platon, Philon und Klemens von Alexandrien%HUOLQ±1HZ<RUN
12&.©+HOOHQLVWLF0\VWHULHVªS
9RLU *%251.$00 ³mystƝrion, mueǀ´ Theological Dictionary of the New
Testament ,9  &I %/*/$'' Revealing the P\VWHULRQ : the Use of
Mystery in Daniel and Second Temple Judaism%HUOLQ±1HZ<RUN
9RLUVDFRQWULEXWLRQGDQVOHSUpVHQWYROXPH
 *8<*6752806$

4RXPUkQsodDSSDUDvWVRL[DQWHGHX[IRLV'¶DSUqV)DEU\sodDWURLV
VHQVSULQFLSDX[O¶DVVHPEOpHGHODFRPPXQDXWpOHFRQVHLOGH<DKYp
HW OD FRPPXQDXWp FXOWXHOOH 'DQV 46  OD FRPPXQDXWp GH
4RXPUkQVHGpILQLWjODIRLVFRPPHODUpDOLVDWLRQGXFRQVHLOGXWU{QH
FpOHVWHHWFRPPHODVHXOHUpDOLVDWLRQOpJLWLPHGXWHPSOH/HsodHVWOD
FRQJUpJDWLRQ GH OD ILQ GHV WHPSV /HV P\VWqUHV OH VHFUHW HW
O¶pVRWpULVPHj4RXPUkQRQWIDLWO¶REMHWGHQRPEUHXVHVpWXGHVSUpFLVHV
GHSXLV GHX[ JpQpUDWLRQV HW SRXUWDQW FHUWDLQV FRQFHSWV FOpV UHVWHQW
HQFRUHDVVH]PDOFRPSULVFRPPHSDUH[HPSOHOHFRQFHSWFHQWUDOGH
rƗz nihye /HV FKDPSV VpPDQWLTXHV GH sod HW GH rƗz SDU DLOOHXUV
VHPEOHQWHQFRUHDVVH]PDOFHUQpV
&H VHUDLW XQH JUDYH HUUHXU GH PpWKRGH FHSHQGDQW TXH GH ERUQHU
DX[WH[WHVSUpFKUpWLHQVODUHFKHUFKHSRUWDQWVXUOHVVRXUFHVMXLYHVGHV
FRQFHSWLRQV FKUpWLHQQHV /D OLWWpUDWXUH WDOPXGLTXH HW UDEELQLTXH GH
O¶$QWLTXLWp WDUGLYH HVW QRWRLUH SRXU OD GLIILFXOWp TX¶RQ D j GDWHU
SUpFLVpPHQWODSOXSDUWGHVWUDGLWLRQVTX¶HOOHFRQVHUYHGXIDLWTXHOHV
WH[WHVFLUFXOqUHQWRUDOHPHQWSHQGDQWSOXVLHXUVJpQpUDWLRQVDYDQWG¶rWUH
UpGLJpV 'DQV FHWWH OLWWpUDWXUH LO VHPEOH j SUHPLqUH YXH ± PDLV XQH
pWXGH SUpFLVH TXL Q¶H[LVWH SDV V¶LPSRVHUDLW ± TXH rƗz sod HW hen
hokhmat ha-nistar OD VDJHVVH pVRWpULTXH  RQW GHV FKDPSV
VpPDQWLTXHV j SHX SUqV pTXLYDOHQWV 3RXU OHV UDEELQV OH mistorin
FDOTXH OLQJXLVWLTXH DX VLQJXOLHU GX JUHF mystƝrion  HVW XQ WHUPH
DVVH] IUpTXHQW HW G¶XQH JUDQGH SODVWLFLWp VpPDQWLTXH 'DQV XQ WUDLWp
GX 7DOPXG EDE\ORQLHQ OH VDEEDW OD FLUFRQFLVLRQ OHV PRLV
LQWHUFDODLUHV HW O¶DJQHDX SDVFDO VRQW WRXV DSSHOpV OH mistorin. 3RXU
Tehilim Rabba XQ RXYUDJH UpGLJp DX 9H VLqFOH HQ 3DOHVWLQH F¶HVW OD
0LVKQD TXL HVW OH mistorin GH 'LHX /H PLGUDVK Tanhuma GpFODUH
TXH OH mistorin GLYLQ HVW OD FLUFRQFLVLRQ GRQW OH VHFUHW IXW UpYpOp j
$EUDKDP 1RWRQV HQILQ TXH GDQV OHV Hekhalot Rabbati WH[WHV

9RLU+-)$%5<©sod ªTheological Dictionary of the Old Testament 
pGLWLRQDOOHPDQGH9RLUVXUWRXW6,7+20$6The « Mysteries » of
Qumran : Mystery, Secrecy and Esotericism in the Dead Sea Scrolls
4+YRLU)$%5<©sod ªS
6XUOHVWHUPHVrazHWraz nihyeYRLUHQSDUWLFXOLHU6HUJH58=(5©(VFKDWRORJLFDO
)DLOXUH DV *RG¶V 0\VWHU\ 5HDVVHVVLQJ 3URSKHF\ DQG 5HDOLW\ DW 4XPUDQ DQG LQ
1DVFHQW &KULVWLDQLW\ª Dead Sea Discoveries   S TXL G±PRQWUH
OHXUFRQWH[WHHVFKDWRORJLTXH
(QKpEUHXPRGHUQHrazWUDGXLW©P\VWqUHªDORUVTXHsodWUDGXLW©VHFUHWª
Beitsa,D
Psaumes RabbaE
0LGUDVKTanhumaVXUGenlo gila Ha-Kadosh Barukh Hu mistorin shel mila
ela le-Avraham
0<67Ê5(-8,)(70<67Ê5(&+5e7,(1 

P\VWLTXHVMXLIVGHO¶$QWLTXLWpWDUGLYHrƗzHWsodVRQWXWLOLVpVGDQVOHV
GHVFULSWLRQV GHV WHFKQLTXHV PDJLTXHV SHUPHWWDQW DX P\VWLTXH
G¶DWWHLQGUHjWUDYHUVOHVFLHX[OHWU{QHGLYLQ
(QVHIRQGDQWVXUXQSDVVDJHG¶XQHOHWWUHGH&OpPHQWG¶$OH[DQGULH
TX¶LODYDLWGpFRXYHUWHDXPRQDVWqUHGH6DLQW6DEDVGDQVOHGpVHUWGH
-XGpH O¶KLVWRULHQ GHV UHOLJLRQV DPpULFDLQ 0RUWRQ 6PLWK D YRXOX
GpPRQWUHU O¶H[LVWHQFH FKH] -pVXV G¶XQ HQVHLJQHPHQW HW G¶XQ ULWXHO
VHFUHWV6HORQOXLmystƝrionFKH]3DXOIDLWDOOXVLRQDXEDSWrPHTXLHVW
SRXUOXLO¶pTXLYDOHQWGHODFLUFRQFLVLRQ&RPPHRQVDLWOHVWKqVHVGH
6PLWKRQWVXVFLWpXQHSROpPLTXHWUqVYLROHQWHGHSXLVOHVDQQpHV
SROpPLTXH TXL QH VHPEOH SDV SUqV GH V¶pWHLQGUH 2Q D PrPH DFFXVp
6PLWKG¶DYRLUIDEULTXpOXLPrPHOHWH[WHGHODOHWWUHGH&OpPHQW-HQH
SXLVQLQHYHX[HQWUHUGDQVFHWWHSROpPLTXHTXLG¶DLOOHXUVDVRXYHQW
pWpIRUWSHXDFDGpPLTXH-HWLHQVjDMRXWHUTXHOHIDLWGHUpFXVHUOHV
DFFXVDWLRQVVFDQGDOHXVHVSRUWpHVFRQWUH6PLWKQ¶LPSOLTXHDXFXQHPHQW
G¶DFFHSWHU WRXWHV VHV K\SRWKqVHV 4XRL TX¶LO HQ VRLW 6PLWK D LQVLVWp
VXUOHIDLWTXHGDQVODGLVFXVVLRQGHVmystƝriaFKH]3KLORQRQRSSRVH
WURS VRXYHQW ULWHV pVRWpULTXHV HW GHVFULSWLRQ DOOpJRULTXH DORUV TXH
ULWXHOVVHFUHWVHWLQVWUXFWLRQSKLORVRSKLTXHQHVRQWSDVQpFHVVDLUHPHQW
H[FOXVLIVO¶XQGHO¶DXWUH
3RXU UpVXPHU O¶HQTXrWH PHQpH MXVTX¶LFL mystƝrion VHPEOH ELHQ
rWUH XWLOLVp DYDQW WRXW DX VHQV PpWDSKRULTXH GDQV OHV WH[WHV MXLIV HW
FKUpWLHQV FKH] 3KLORQ FRPPH FKH] 3DXO 8Q WHO XVDJH PpWDSKRULTXH
SRXYDLW FHUWHV VH SUpYDORLU G¶XQH ORQJXH WUDGLWLRQ SKLORVRSKLTXH
GHSXLV3ODWRQHWOHVVWRwFLHQV/DTXHVWLRQUHVWHFHSHQGDQWSRVpHSDU
TXHO PpFDQLVPH XQ PRW UHQYR\DQW j XQ FXOWH SDwHQ GHYLQWLO DVVH]
VpGXLVDQWHQPLOLHXPRQRWKpLVWHSRXUGpVLJQHUGHVUpDOLWpVUHOLJLHXVHV
VXEOLPHV" 8Q pOpPHQW GH UpSRQVH D pWp UpFHPPHQW SURSRVp SDU
O¶KLVWRULHQ GHV UHOLJLRQV &KULVWRSK $XIIDUWK &H FKHUFKHXU j TXL
QRXV GHYRQV OH FRQFHSW GH religio migrans FRPPH SULQFLSH
KHXULVWLTXHSRXUODFLUFXODWLRQGHVLGpHVHWGHVIDLWVUHOLJLHX[GDQVOH
PRQGH PpGLWHUUDQpHQ DQFLHQ pPHW O¶K\SRWKqVH TXH FH TX¶LO QRPPH

9RLUSDUH[HPSOHHekhalot RabbatiUpIpUHQFHVGRQQpHV
SDU060,7+ YRLUinfraQHW 
60,7+Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark&DPEULGJH 0DVV 
S
9RLU**6752806$ HG  Gershom Scholem and Morton Smith : Correspondence,
1945-1982 -HUXVDOHP 6WXGLHV LQ 5HOLJLRQ DQG &XOWXUH   /H\GH%RVWRQ 
,QWURGXFWLRQS9,,;;,9
60,7+Clement of Alexandria…SHWSVTT
&$8))$57+©0\VWHULHQªReallexikon für Antike und Christentum;;9
SSDUWS
 *8<*6752806$

XQH ©P\VWpULVDWLRQª Mysterisierung  UHIOqWHOD WUDQVIRUPDWLRQ GH OD


UHOLJLRQGDQVO¶(PSLUHURPDLQ,OVRXOLJQHTXHQXOOHSDUWODFULWLTXHHW
ODFULVHGXULWXHOQ¶DOOqUHQWDXVVLORLQTXHGDQVOHMXGDwVPHROHFXOWH
GX 7HPSOH VH WUDQVIRUPD HQ FXOWH GX /LYUH ,QGLYLGXDOLVpH OD
UHOLJLRQ GqV ORUV GHYLQW DYDQW WRXW H[SpULHQFH pPRWLRQ VHFUHW HW
FRQQDLVVDQFH VRXGDLQH JQRVH  'DQV XQH WHOOH DWPRVSKqUH
©P\VWqUHª GHYLQW XQ WHUPH GH FKRL[ SRXU IDLUH DOOXVLRQ j XQH
H[SpULHQFH VXEOLPH ©0\VWqUHª GRQF GDQV OHV WH[WHV MXLIV HW
FKUpWLHQV UHIOqWH FH TXH QRXV DSSHORQV DXMRXUG¶KXL O¶K\EULGLWp
UHOLJLHXVH OD YRORQWp GH IDLUH DSSHO j XQ WHUPH SURYHQDQW G¶XQ DXWUH
FDGUHFXOWXUHOSRXUVRXOLJQHUODQRXYHDXWpUHOLJLHXVH

Livres de mystères
2Q Q¶D SDV DVVH] UHPDUTXp PH VHPEOHWLO TXH GDQV GLIIpUHQWHV
FXOWXUHVGXPRQGHPpGLWHUUDQpHQDQFLHQRQWURXYHWRXWHXQHVpULHGH
Livres de MystèresRXLivres de Secrets3HQVRQVSDUH[HPSOHGDQVOD
OLWWpUDWXUH MXLYH DX Livre des Mystères GH 4RXPUkQ 2X HQFRUH DX
Sefer ha-RazimSOXVWDUGLIWH[WHKpEUHXDX[pFKRVPDJLTXHVGRQWOD
UpFHSWLRQPpGLpYDOHIXWH[WUrPHPHQWLPSRUWDQWH'DQVODOLWWpUDWXUH
SDWULVWLTXHLOIDXWPHQWLRQQHUDYDQWWRXWOHDe MysteriisG¶$PEURLVH
PDLV DXVVL OHV Mystères des Lettres de l’Alphabet XQ WH[WH JUHF
DQRQ\PH IRUW LQWpUHVVDQW GDWDQW SUREDEOHPHQW GX 9,H VLqFOH
1¶RXEOLRQV SDV GX ,,H VLqFOH OH Livre des Mystères GH %DUGDLVDQ GX
H
,,,  OH Livre des Mystères GH 0DQL &HV RXYUDJHV VRQW FHUWHV IRUW
GLIIpUHQWV OHV XQV GHV DXWUHV HW FHUWDLQV FHOXL GH %DUGDLVDQFHOXLGH
0DQL  VRQW SHUGXV &H TXL FRPSWH DYDQW WRXW LFL FHSHQGDQW HVW
G¶HVVD\HU GH FRPSUHQGUH FH TXH SHXW DYRLU VLJQLILp O¶LPSRUWDQFH GH
WHOV OLYUHV GDQV GHV PLOLHX[ VL GLIIpUHQWV HW GDQV XQH WUqV ORQJXH
GXUpHFDUODVXFFHVVLRQGHLivres de SecretsFRQWLQXHUDWRXWDXORQJ
GX0R\HQÆJHHQDUDEHHWHQKpEUHXDXVVLELHQTX¶HQODWLQHWHQJUHF


$XIIDUWKDSSXLHLFLVRQDUJXPHQWDWLRQVXU6752806$La fin du sacrifice
3RXUXQHGpPRQVWUDWLRQH[HPSODLUHGXIRQFWLRQQHPHQWG¶XQHWHOOHK\EULGLWpYRLU
&%211(7 Les enfants de Cadmos : le paysage religieux de la Phénicie
hellénistique3DULV&IPRQFRPSWHUHQGXGDQVStudia Classica Israelica,
S
4HW4
9RLUODQRXYHOOHpGLWLRQGXSefer HaRazimSDU%5(%,*(5HW36&+b)(5 KUJ 
Sefer ha-Razim I und II; Das Buch der Geheimnisse I und II. Band 2 : Einleitung,
Übersetzung und Kommentar7ELQJHQ
0<67Ê5(-8,)(70<67Ê5(&+5e7,(1 

/DTXHVWLRQTXLGRLWQRXVSUpRFFXSHUHVWFHOOHGHO¶DXWRULWpGHFHV
Livres de Mystères HQ SDUWLFXOLHU GDQV XQ PLOLHX GH UpYpODWLRQ
VFULSWXUDLUH 3RXU OHV MXLIV G¶DERUG OHV FKUpWLHQV HQVXLWH SXLV OHV
PXVXOPDQVODUpYpODWLRQGLYLQHHVWWRXWHQWLqUHLQVFULWHGDQVOH/LYUH
GLYLQ RX GDQV OHV /LYUHV GLYLQV UpYpOp V  j O¶KXPDQLWp 'DQV OHV
©UHOLJLRQVGX/LYUHªFHVeFULWXUHVUpYpOpHVFRQVWLWXHQWHQWKpRULHOH
SULQFLSHVXSpULHXUG¶DXWRULWp/¶DXWRULWpGHVeFULWXUHVHVWELHQHQWHQGX
WRXMRXUV LQWHUSUpWpH VHORQ GLIIpUHQWHV UqJOHV KHUPpQHXWLTXHV &HV
UqJOHV SHUPHWWHQW G¶H[WUDSROHU j SDUWLU GHV YHUVHWV GHV eFULWXUHV
UpYpOpHVGHOHXUVPRWVSDUIRLVPrPHGHVOHWWUHVOHVFRPSRVDQW(OOHV
VRQW pWDEOLHV HW FRQWU{OpHV SDU GHV VSpFLDOLVWHV UHOLJLHX[ VRXYHQW
KLpUDUFKLTXHPHQW RUJDQLVpV HW SDUIRLV SDU H[HPSOH FKH] OHV MXLIV 
UHSUpVHQWDQWODWUDQVIRUPDWLRQGHVDQFLHQQHVSUrWULVHVHWOHSDVVDJHGH
O¶DXWRULWpUHOLJLHXVHGHVSUrWUHVDX[QRXYHOOHVpOLWHVLQWHOOHFWXHOOHVOHV
UDEELQV
'DQVXQWHOV\VWqPHO¶LGpHG¶XQOLYUHVHFUHWWLHQWGXSDUDGR[H(OOH
SURSRVH HQ IDLW XQH UpYpODWLRQ SDUDOOqOH PDLV XQH UpYpODWLRQ
pVRWpULTXH SXLVTX¶HOOH QH V¶RIIUH TX¶j FHX[ j TXL OHV FOHIV RQW pWp
GRQQpHV SRXU OLUH HW FRPSUHQGUH O¶pFULW VHFUHW /H Livre de Secrets
SHUPHWGHFRQVHUYHUXQHDWWLWXGHpVRWpULTXHjO¶LQWpULHXUG¶XQV\VWqPH
UHOLJLHX[GHUpYpODWLRQ XQDXWUHPR\HQSRXUDUULYHUDXPrPHUpVXOWDW
pWDQWXQHKHUPpQHXWLTXHpVRWpULTXHjSOXVLHXUVQLYHDX[VXUOHPrPH
WH[WHGHO¶eFULWXUH 
2UOHVV\VWqPHVUHOLJLHX[GXPRQGHPpGLWHUUDQpHQHWGX3URFKH
2ULHQW DQWLTXH VHPEOHQW WRXV DFFHSWHU O¶LGpH G¶XQH ©GRXEOH YpULWpª
SRXU XWLOLVHU GH IDoRQ DQDFKURQLTXH FH WHUPH WHFKQLTXH GH OD
SKLORVRSKLH PpGLpYDOH  F¶HVWjGLUH G¶XQH UHOLJLRQ TXL V¶H[SULPH GH
IDoRQ VLPSOLILpH SRXU OH SHXSOH HW GH IDoRQ SURIRQGH SRXU OHV
PHLOOHXUVHVSULWV&HWWHLGpHGHODYpULWpV¶H[SULPDQWjGHX[QLYHDX[VH
UHWURXYH XQ SHX SDUWRXW GX PD]GpLVPH DQFLHQ DX FKULVWLDQLVPH GH
&OpPHQWG¶$OH[DQGULHHQSDVVDQWSDUOHV3\WKDJRULFLHQV(OOHUHIOqWH
ODFRPSOH[LWpGHVUDSSRUWVHQWUHpFULWXUHHWRUDOLWpGDQVGHVVRFLpWpVR
O¶pFULWXUH UHVWH XQ SKpQRPqQH DVVH] UDUH SRXU TX¶RQ SXLVVH YUDLPHQW
IDLUH FRQILDQFH DX[ WH[WHV pFULWV FRPPH WUDQVPHWWHXUV GHV YpULWpV OHV
SOXVSURIRQGHV3RXUTXHFHVYpULWpVUHVWHQWO¶DSDQDJHGHVVSpFLDOLVWHV
LOIDXWTX¶HOOHVVRLHQWFRGpHVDILQTX¶HOOHVQHSXLVVHQWrWUHGpFKLIIUpHV
TXHSDUFHX[TXLHQVRQWGLJQHV
&HUWHVOHVLivres de SecretsQ¶H[LVWHQWSDVVHXOHPHQWHQPLOLHXGH
UpYpODWLRQ PRQRWKpLVWH 6H UpIpUDQW HQ SDUWLFXOLHU DX 3DS\UXV *XURE
:DOWHU%XUNHUWDSXQRWHUTXHGHVOLYUHVRQWWUqVW{WpWpXWLOLVpVGDQV
 *8<*6752806$

OHVFXOWHVjP\VWqUHV0DLVGDQVXQWHOPLOLHXOHVLivres de Secrets
RQWXQVWDWXWSDUWLFXOLHUHQFHVHQVTX¶LOVVHPEOHQWFRQWUHGLUHOHVWDWXW
LQDOLpQDEOHGHVeFULWXUHUpYpOpHVHWGHO¶LGpHPrPHGHUpYpODWLRQTXL
HQSULQFLSHQHGHYUDLWSDVWROpUHUO¶pVRWpULVPH(QIDLWGDQVOHSDOpR
FKULVWLDQLVPHFHVRQWOHVPRXYHPHQWVTXHQRXVDYRQVSULVO¶KDELWXGH
G¶DSSHOHU ©OD JQRVHª TXL DEVRUEqUHQW DX ,,H VLqFOH OHV WUDGLWLRQV
pVRWpULTXHVSURYHQDQWGXMXGDwVPH RXGHVHVPDUJHV /DYLFWRLUHGHV
3qUHV GH O¶eJOLVH GDQV OH FRPEDW TX¶LOV PHQqUHQW FRQWUH OD JQRVH
DVVXUD HQ TXHOTXH VRUWH OH UHMHW GHV FRXUDQWV pVRWpULTXHV KRUV GX
FKULVWLDQLVPH RUWKRGR[H HQ OHV GpVLJQDQW FRPPH HVVHQWLHOOHPHQW
KpUpWLTXHV/HFKULVWLDQLVPHGqVORUVVHGpILQLWFRPPHXQHUHOLJLRQ
HVVHQWLHOOHPHQW RXYHUWH j WRXV GH IDoRQ pJDOHVDQV RIIULU DX[ OHWWUpV
F¶HVWjGLUHDX[WKpRORJLHQV DXFXQYpULWDEOHDYDQWDJHVRWpULRORJLTXH
2Q D Oj OHV pOpPHQWV G¶XQH VRFLRORJLH GX VHFUHW GRQW *HRUJ 6LPPHO
DYDLWSRVpOHVSUHPLHUVMDORQVLO\DSOXVG¶XQVLqFOHHWTXLGHSXLVQ¶D
SDVUpDOLVpGHSURJUqVYUDLPHQWGpFLVLI
/HLivre de Mystères RXLivre de Secrets HVWHQIDLWO¶pTXLYDOHQW
G¶XQ OLYUH DSRFU\SKH LO GpWLHQWODYpULWp TXLUHVWH FDFKpHSRXU WRXV
VDXISRXUFHX[TXLO¶RQWGpFRXYHUWHWTXLVDYHQWOHOLUH$LQVL0LFKHO
7DUGLHXWUDGXLWSDU©/LYUHVHFUHWªOHYRFDEOHapokryphon GDQVOHWLWUH
G¶°XYUHVJQRVWLTXHVWHOOHVTXHOHLivre secret de JeanUHWURXYpj1DJ
+DPPDGL /H VWDWXW SDUWLFXOLHU GHV Livres de Mystères GDQV OHV
UHOLJLRQV PRQRWKpLVWHV WLHQW DX IDLW TX¶LOV VHPEOHQW pFKDSSHU j
O¶DXWRULWp GHV eFULWXUHV UpYpOpHV RX SOXV SUpFLVpPHQW DX V\VWqPH
IRUPpSDUOHVeFULWXUHVHWOHXUWUDGLWLRQKHUPpQHXWLTXH7RXWVHSDVVH
FRPPHVLOH Livre de MystèresSHUPHWWDLWGHFRXUWFLUFXLWHUODWUDGLWLRQ
KHUPpQHXWLTXHjODIRLVOHWH[WHGHVeFULWXUHVOHVUqJOHVH[pJpWLTXHV
HWOHVDXWRULWpVKHUPpQHXWLTXHV3RXUXWLOLVHUXQYRFDEXODLUHZpEpULHQ
RQSHXWGLUHTXHOHVLivres de MystèresUHSUpVHQWHQWGHVPRXYHPHQWV
GH UpYROWH FRQWUH OD WHQGDQFH QDWXUHOOH j OD ©URXWLQLVDWLRQª GH OD
UHOLJLRQ HW OH GpVLU GH PDLQWHQLU OH ©FKDULVPHª SURSUH DX[
PRXYHPHQWVSURSKpWLTXHVHWDX[RULJLQHVGHVPRXYHPHQWVUHOLJLHX[
/H /LYUH VHFUHW GRQQH j FHOXL TXL HQ GpWLHQW OD FOHI XQH DXWRULWp
FRPPHV¶LOV¶DJLVVDLWG¶XQHUpYpODWLRQSDUWLFXOLqUHHQFRUHSOXVYUDLH

%85.(57Ancient Mystery CultsS
$LQVL O¶LQFLSLW GX Livre de Yehu VH UpIqUH DX[ ©P\VWqUHV FDFKpVª 9RLU
&K0$5.6&+,(6©+DXSWHLQOHLWXQJªGDQV&K0$5.6&+,(6-6&+5g7(5 KUJ 
Antike christliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung7ELQJHQ,S
07$5',(8 Codex de Berlin eFULWV JQRVWLTXHV  3DULV  6XU OHV
©P\VWqUHVª GDQV OHV WH[WHV JQRVWLTXHV FRSWHV YRLU OD FRQWULEXWLRQ GH 0DGHOHLQH
6FRSHOORDXSUpVHQWYROXPH
0<67Ê5(-8,)(70<67Ê5(&+5e7,(1 

SOXVSXUHTXHFHOOHGHO¶eFULWXUHRIIHUWHjWRXV/D0LVKQDHQFHVHQV
DSSHOpH HQ JUHF Deuterǀsis RX ©UpSpWLWLRQª GH OD 7RUDK  HVW XQ
mistorinGRQQpSDU'LHXj,VUDsO
(QIDLWOHVLivres de MystèresSURSRVHQWXQHDXWRULWpVDQVFDQRQ
RX SOXW{W XQ FDQRQ DOWHUQDWLI ,O QH IDXW GRQF SDV V¶pWRQQHU VL GH WHOV
OLYUHV VRXYHQW DSSHOpV ©DSRFU\SKHVª IXUHQW OH SOXV VRXYHQW
LGHQWLILpVDX[ PRXYHPHQWVKpUpWLTXHVGDQVOHMXGDwVPHFRPPHGDQV
OHFKULVWLDQLVPHGHO¶$QWLTXLWpWDUGLYH'HO¶DXWRULWpGX/LYUHVHFUHWj
FHOOH GX VDLQW GX WH[WH j O¶LQGLYLGX LO V¶DJLW Oj GX SDVVDJH j XQH
QRXYHOOH VHQVLELOLWp UHOLJLHXVH GDQV O¶$QWLTXLWp WDUGLYH GH OD YpULWp
TXLHVWjUpYpOHU HQSDVVDQWSDUODWUDGLWLRQTXLGRLWrWUHHQVHLJQpH j
O¶H[HPSOHTX¶LOIDXWGRQQHU

3RXUOHLivre des MystèresGH4RXPUkQF¶HVWODUpYpODWLRQHWQRQ


SDVODUDLVRQTXLRIIUHODFOHIGHODVDJHVVH OHPRWrƗzHVWXWLOLVpWUHL]H
IRLV GDQV O¶pFULW GRQW OH FRQFHSW FHQWUDO DX[ FRQQRWDWLRQV
HVFKDWRORJLTXHVPDLVTXLUHVWHDVVH]PDOFRPSULVHVWrƗznihye ¬
OD IRLV O¶LGpRORJLH O¶RUWKRJUDSKH HW OH ODQJDJH GH O¶pFULW VHPEOHQW
UHIOpWHUXQHRULJLQHGLIIpUHQWHGHFHOOHGHVDXWUHVWH[WHVGH4RXPUkQ
/H FHUFOH G¶RULJLQH HVW XQ JURXSH G¶pOLWH GpWHQDQW OD FRPSUpKHQVLRQ
FRUUHFWH GX SODQ GH <+:+ SRXU O¶XQLYHUV HW VDFKDQW FRPPHQW /XL
SODLUH SRXU rWUH VDXYp GX GHVWLQ UpVHUYp DX[ LJQRUDQWV HW DX[
K\SRFULWHV/DUpIpUHQFHHVWSUREDEOHPHQWjFHUWDLQVPLOLHX[VFULEDX[
GH-XGpHGHODSpULRGHPDFFDEpHQQHRXSUpPDFFDEpHQQH
/HSefer ha-razimRXLivre des SecretsHVWOHJUDQGFODVVLTXHGH
OD PDJLH MXLYH HW KpEUDwTXH ,O IXW XWLOLVp DXVVL ELHQ SDU OHV MXLIV TXH
SDU OHV FKUpWLHQV WRXW DX ORQJ GX 0R\HQ ÆJH HW MXVTX¶j OD
5HQDLVVDQFH /HV SOXV DQFLHQV PDQXVFULWV TXL QRXV VRLHQW SDUYHQXV
pPDQHQWGHPLOLHX[NDUDwWHVGX ,;HVLqFOH/Hterminus post quemGRLW
SUREDEOHPHQWrWUHIL[pDXGpEXWGX,9HVLqFOH1RWUHWH[WHHVWDLQVLSOXV
RX PRLQVFRQWHPSRUDLQGHVSDS\UXVJUHFVPDJLTXHVGHODOLWWpUDWXUH
UDEELQLTXHHWGHODOLWWpUDWXUHGHVHekhalot$YDQWOHGpOXJHOHSefer
ha-razimHVWSUpVHQWpj1RpSDUO¶DQJH5D]LHO/HOLYUHGpFULWOHVVHSW
ILUPDPHQWV HW OHXUV DQJHV 'HV QRPEUHX[ OLYUHV GRQQpV j 1Rp F¶HVW

4HW4
$LQVL 7(/*9,1 ©3ULHVWO\ 6DJHV" 7KH 0LOLHXV RI 2ULJLQ RI 4 0\VWULHV DQG 4
,QVWUXFWLRQVª GDQV --&2//,16 *(67(5/,1* DQG 5$&/(0(176 HGV 
Sapiential Perspectives : Wisdom Literature in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls/H\GH
/RQGUHV
 *8<*6752806$

FHOXLFL TXL HVW OH SOXV SUpFLHX[ FDU LO OXL UpYqOH SDUPL VHV VHFUHWV
FRPPHQWVHVDXYHUGXGpOXJHHQFRQVWUXLVDQWXQHDUFKH
'DWDQW GX ,9H VLqFOH OXL DXVVL PDLV WRXW DXWUH GDQV VD IRUPH
OLWWpUDLUH HW VD IRQFWLRQ HVW O¶RXYUDJH G¶$PEURLVH GH 0LODQ VXU OHV
P\VWqUHV GH O¶eFULWXUH TXL VH YHXW XQH H[SOLFDWLRQ GHV ULWHV VDFUpV
explanatio symboli  HW TXL FRPPHQFH DLQVL Celebrata hactenus
mysteria scrutaminum3RXUO¶DXWHXUODYpULWpGXP\VWqUHHVWpWDEOLH
SDU OHV P\VWqUHV GH O¶,QFDUQDWLRQ Suis utamur exemplis
incarnationisque mysteriis adstruamus mysterii ueritatem /¶eJOLVH
UHVSHFWH OD SURIRQGHXU GHV P\VWqUHV FpOHVWHV Unde et ecclesia
altitudinem seruans mysteriorum caelestium reicit a se«

/H Livre des Mystères GH 0DQL HVW SHUGX PDLV LO HVW SRVVLEOH GH
UHFRQVWLWXHUHQSDUWLHVRQFRQWHQXDXPRLQVGHIDoRQVSpFXODWLYHHQ
V¶DSSX\DQWVXUWRXWVXUOHVWUDGLWLRQVPDQGpHQQHV$LQVL,DLQ*DUGQHU
D UpFHPPHQW HVVD\p GH SURSRVHU XQH UHFRQVWLWXWLRQ GHV VXMHWV
SULQFLSDX[ WUDLWpV GDQV OH OLYUH GH 0DQL 'DQV OD PpWDSKRULTXH GHV
PsaumesPDQLFKpHQVOHLivre des MystèresHVWDSSHOp©OHELVWRXULGX
FKLUXUJLHQª /H WH[WH VHPEODLW FRQWHQLU XQH SROpPLTXH VRXWHQXH
FRQWUH OHV %DUGDLVDQLWHV HW WUDLWDLW GX ULUH GH -pVXV VH PRTXDQW GHV
LJQRUDQWV ± WKqPH TXL VH UHWURXYH GDQV FHUWDLQV WH[WHV JQRVWLTXHV HW
GRQWMHFURLVDYRLURIIHUWXQHLQWHUSUpWDWLRQQRXYHOOH3RXU*DUGQHU
TXL V¶RSSRVH HQ FHOD j OD PDMRULWp GHV VDYDQWV OH WH[WH VHPEOH DYRLU
UHIOpWpXQHGRFWULQHFRKpUHQWHGH0DQLVXUWRXWVXUO¶HVFKDWRORJLH
Le Mystère des Lettres grecques HVW XQ WH[WH FXULHX[ SURYHQDQW
VDQV GRXWH G¶XQ PRQDVWqUH GH 3DOHVWLQH E\]DQWLQH HW UpGLJp SHXWrWUH
DX 9H VLqFOH /H ©P\VWqUHª LFL IDLW DOOXVLRQ DX VHQV SURIRQG GHV
OHWWUHV GHO¶DOSKDEHW %LHQ TX¶LOV¶DJLVVH GHO¶DOSKDEHW JUHF HW TXHOH
WH[WH VRLW JUHF  FHW DOSKDEHW FRPSWH YLQJWGHX[ OHWWUHV FRPPH
O¶DOSKDEHWKpEUHXRXDUDPpHQ8QHERQQHFRPSUpKHQVLRQGXWH[WHGRLW

De Mysteriis  GDQV $PEURLVH GH 0LODQ Des Sacrements, Des Mystères,
Explication des SymbolespGWU'%%RWWH3DULVS
De MysteriisS
,*$5'1(5©0DQL¶VBook of Mysteries 3UROHJRPHQDIRUD1HZ/RRNDW0DQL
WKHµ%DSWLVWV¶DQGWKH0DQGDHDQVªARAMS
9RLU **6752806$ Le rire du Christ et autres essais sur le christianisme
ancien3DULV%D\DUG
eGLWLRQ HW WUDGXFWLRQ DOOHPDQGH SDU &%$1'7 Der Traktat vom Mysterium der
Buchstaben %HUOLQUHSULVGDQV6752806$The Scriptural Universe of Ancient
Christianity&DPEULGJH 0DVV SHWQRWHV
0<67Ê5(-8,)(70<67Ê5(&+5e7,(1 

SRVWXOHU j VD EDVH FHUWDLQHV WUDGLWLRQV MXLYHV HW MXGpRFKUpWLHQQHV ,O


V¶DJLW G¶XQSRWSRXUUL GH VSpFXODWLRQV SDOpRFKUpWLHQQHV VXU OHV OHWWUHV
HW OD FRVPRORJLH V¶LQVFULYDQW GDQV XQH WUDGLWLRQ LQWHOOHFWXHOOH
FRPPXQH DX[ GLYHUVHV FXOWXUHV HW UHOLJLRQV GX PRQGH PpGLWHUUDQpHQ
HW SURFKHRULHQWDO GHSXLV O¶$QWLTXLWp WDUGLYH MXVTX¶DX KDXW 0R\HQ
ÆJH&HWH[WHH[SULPHODUpYROXWLRQFXOWXUHOOHGHVPRLQHVIUXLWG¶XQH
DWWLWXGH UHOLJLHXVH IRQGpH VXU OH /LYUH UpYpOp HW V¶RSSRVDQW j OD
paideiaWUDGLWLRQQHOOH

/¶pFULWXUH pVRWpULTXH H[LJH OD IRUPDWLRQ G¶XQ FRGH (OOH SHUPHW j


ODIURQWLqUHVpSDUDQWLQLWLpVHWQRQLQLWLpVGHSDVVHUjO¶LQWpULHXUPrPH
GHODFRPPXQDXWp'DQVXQV\VWqPHUHOLJLHX[IRQGpVXUXQHeFULWXUH
UpYpOpH OH Livre des Mystères SHUPHW DLQVL GH FRQVHUYHU XQ
HQVHLJQHPHQW pVRWpULTXH VDQV TX¶LO VRLW EHVRLQ GH GpYHORSSHU XQH
KHUPpQHXWLTXH FRPSOH[H HW FHOD j SOXVLHXUV QLYHDX[ /¶DXWRULWp GX
Livre des Mystères HVW GRQF WRWDOH DORUV TXH O¶DXWRULWp GH O¶eFULWXUH
UpYpOpH HVW FDQDOLVpH SDU OD KLpUDUFKLH UHOLJLHXVH FHOOH GX Livre des
Mystères HVW GLUHFWH FRPPH FHOOH GX VDLQW GX ©+RO\ 0DQª OXL
PrPH SDUIRLV LGHQWLILp G¶DLOOHXUV j XQ OLYUH YLYDQW /H Livre des
Mystères QH SXLVH VRQ DXWRULWp TX¶HQ OXLPrPH VDQV IDLUH DSSHO D OD
WUDGLWLRQ KHUPpQHXWLTXH RX j OD KLpUDUFKLH HFFOpVLDOH 6HV VHFUHWV
V¶RXYUHQWjTXLVDLWOHOLUHHWLOVV¶RXYUHQWjOXLGLUHFWHPHQW
6LWRXVFHVLivres des MystèresSDUWLFLSHQWG¶XQHPrPHWUDGLWLRQLO
Q¶HQ UHVWH SDV PRLQV TXH FHUWDLQHV GH OHXUV FDUDFWpULVWLTXHV VRQW
GLIIpUHQWHV FKH] OHV MXLIV HW FKH] OHV FKUpWLHQV &KH] OHV MXLIV SRXU
OHVTXHOV O¶KpEUHX UHVWH OD ODQJXH GH OD UpYpODWLRQ O¶LGpH GH ODQJXH
VDFUpHUHVWHEHDXFRXSSOXVIRUWHSOXVYLYDQWHTXHFKH]OHVFKUpWLHQV

9RLU **6752806$ ©7KH 0\VWHU\ RI WKH *UHHN /HWWHUV $ %\]DQWLQH
.DEEDODK"ª GDQV Historia religionum   S UHSULV GDQV Idem The
Scriptural Universe of Ancient ChristianiW\&DPEULGJH 0DVV SHW
QRWHV
-H PH UpIqUH LFL j OD FRPPXQLFDWLRQ GH '75,3$/', ©6HFUHW %RRNV DQG
&RUSRUDWH2DWKVªjXQFROORTXHRUJDQLVpSDUOH&HQWHUIRUWKH6WXG\RI&KULVWLDQLW\
GH O¶8QLYHUVLWp +pEUDwTXH GH -pUXVDOHP OHV  HW  PDL  ©:KHQHYHU DQG
ZKHUHYHU WKH DGMHFWLYHV µVHFUHW¶ DQG µP\VWHULRXV¶ DUH XVHG SUDFWLFDOO\ DV
V\QRQ\PRXVZLWKµVDFUHG¶DQGµDXWKRULWDWLYH¶DVLWZDVFXVWRPDU\LQODWHDQWLTXLW\
WKHQHHGWRFRPPLWWRZULWLQJDQGVSUHDGµVDFUHG¶DQGµP\VWHULRXV¶ORUHDQGWKHUHE\
SURGXFHµDXWKRULWDWLYH¶DQGµVHFUHW¶ERRNV¶HQGVXSSDLULQJDVZHOODVFROOLGLQJZLWK
WKHGDQJHURISXEOLVKLQJWKHP±WKDWLVSRWHQWLDOO\WUXVWLQJWKHPWRXQLQLWLDWHGKDQGV
±DQGWKHUHE\SURIDQLQJWKHPª
 *8<*6752806$

OH SRXYRLUPDJLTXH GH OD ODQJXHHW PrPH GHV OHWWUHVUHVWH SOXV QHW
$LQVLRQSRXUUDSDUOHUGHWKpRVRSKLHFKH]OHVXQVGHP\VWLTXHFKH]
OHV DXWUHV 3DU DLOOHXUV O¶pVRWpULVPH UHVWHUD FHQWUDO GDQV OD .DEEDOH
DORUVTX¶LOVHUDLGHQWLILpFRPPHKpUpWLTXHGDQVOHFKULVWLDQLVPH'DQV
OHMXGDwVPHHQILQODWUDQVIRUPDWLRQUHOLJLHXVHDQQRQFpHSDUODILQGX
VDFULILFH ILW GH FHWWH UHOLJLRQ XQH UHOLJLRQ GH literati GDQV ODTXHOOH OH
/LYUHDLQVLTXHVHVFRPPHQWDLUHVDFTXLUHQWXQVWDWXWVDQVFRPPXQH
PHVXUHDYHFOHVWDWXWTX¶LOVGHYDLHQWUHYrWLUGDQVOHFKULVWLDQLVPH

*X\*6752806$
8QLYHUVLWpKpEUDwTXHGH-pUXVDOHP
8QLYHUVLWpG¶2[IRUG



%,%/,2*5$3+,(

$8))$57+ &  ©0\VWHULHQª Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum ;;9
S
%$1'7 & Der Traktat vom Mysterium der Buchstaben %HUOLQ
%2&.08(+/ 0  Revelation and Mystery in Ancient Judaism and Pauline
Christianity7ELQJHQ
%211(7 &  Les enfants de Cadmos : le paysage religieux de la Phénicie
hellénistique3DULV
%251.$00 * ³mystƝrion, mueǀ´Theological Dictionary of the New Testament
,9
%277( '% Ambroise de MilanDes Sacrements, Des Mystères, Explication des
Symboles 6RXUFHV&KUpWLHQQHVELV 3DULV
%5(00(5 -1  Initiation into the Mysteries of the Ancient World 0QFKQHU
9RUOHVXQJHQ]XDQWLNHQ:HOWHQ %HUOLQ%RVWRQ
%85.(57 : Ancient Mystery Cults&DPEULGJH 0DVV /RQGUHV
&$1&,. +  ©0\VWHULHQ0\VWLNª Handbuch der religionsgeschichtlichen
Grundbegriffe,96WXWWJDUW%HUOLQ&RORJQHS
&(5)$8; / ©,QIOXHQFHGHV P\VWqUHVVXUOHMXGDwVPH DOH[DQGULQDYDQW3KLORQª
Le MuséonS
&80217 ) Les religions orientales dans le paganisme romain7XULQ
0<67Ê5(-8,)(70<67Ê5(&+5e7,(1 

(/*9,1 7  ©3ULHVWO\ 6DJHV" 7KH 0LOLHXV RI 2ULJLQ RI 4 0\VWULHV DQG 4
,QVWUXFWLRQVª GDQV --&2//,16 *(67(5/,1* DQG 5$&/(0(176 pGV 
Sapiential Perspectives : Wisdom Literature in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls
6WXGLHVRQWKH7H[WVRIWKH'HVHUWRI-XGDK/, /H\GH/RQGUHVS
)$%5< +-  ©sod ª Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament  
pGLWLRQDOOHPDQGHS
*$5'1(5 , ©0DQL¶VBook of Mysteries 3UROHJRPHQDIRUD1HZ/RRNDW0DQL
WKHµ%DSWLVWV¶DQGWKH0DQGDHDQVªARAMS
*/$'' %/ Revealing the P\VWHULRQ : the Use of Mystery in Daniel and Second
Temple Judaism%HUOLQ±1HZ<RUN
/($6( * ©-HZLVK0\VWHU\&XOWVVLQFH*RRGHQRXJKªAufstieg und Niedergang
der römischen WeltS
/2,6< $ Les mystères païens et le mystère chrétien3DULV
0$5.6&+,(6 &  ©+DXSWHLQOHLWXQJª GDQV & 0$5.6&+,(6 -6&+5g7(5 KUJ 
Antike christliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung7ELQJHQ,
12&. $'  Essays on Religion and the Ancient World =67(:$57 pG 
2[IRUG±1HZ<RUNUppG
328/$7 e Histoire, dogme et critique dans la crise moderniste3DULV
35,&( 6  ©7KH 5RDG WR &RQYHUVLRQ 7KH /LIH DQG :RUN RI $'1RFNª
Harvard Studies in Classical PhilologyS
5(%,*(5 % ±6&+b)(5 3  KUJ  Sefer ha-Razim I und II; Das Buch der
Geheimnisse I und II. Band 2 : Einleitung, Übersetzung und Kommentar 7H[WV
DQG6WXGLHVLQ$QFLHQW-XGDLVP 7ELQJHQ
5(,7=(167(,1 5  Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen : Ihre Grundgedanken
und Wirkungen/HLS]LJ%HUOLQ
5,(':(* &  Mysterienterminologie bei Platon, Philon und Klemens von
Alexandrien 8QWHUVXFKXQJHQ ]XU DQWLNHQ /LWHUDWXU XQG *HVFKLFKWH  
%HUOLQ±1HZ<RUN
60,7+ -= Drudgery Divine : On the Comparison of Early Christianities and the
Religions of Late Antiquity&KLFDJR
60,7+ 0  Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark &DPEULGJH
0DVV 
62/,*1$& $ ©0\VWqUHªDictionnaire de spiritualitéS
6752806$ ** Hidden WisdomEsoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian
MysticismHpG
BB La fin du sacrifice : mutations religieuses de l’Antiquité tardive3DULV
BB Le rire du Christ et autres essais sur le christianisme ancien3DULV
 *8<*6752806$

BB pG  Gershom Scholem and Morton Smith : Correspondence, 1945-1982


-HUXVDOHP6WXGLHVLQ5HOLJLRQDQG&XOWXUH /H\GH%RVWRQ
BB ©7KH 0\VWHU\ RI WKH *UHHN /HWWHUV $ %\]DQWLQH .DEEDODK"ª Historia
religionumS
BB The Scriptural Universe of Ancient Christianit\ &DPEULGJH 0DVV  
SHWQRWHV
7$5',(8 0 Codex de Berlin eFULWVJQRVWLTXHV 3DULV
7+20$6 6, The « Mysteries » of Qumran : Mystery, Secrecy and Esotericism in
the Dead Sea Scrolls
=(//(5 '  ©0\VWHULHQ0\VWHULHQUHOLJLRQHQª Theologische Realenzyklopãdie
%HUOLQS
Les Mystères :
nouvelles perspectives

Entretiens de Strasbourg
édités par

Marc Philonenko
Yves LEHMANN Laurent PERNOT

H
F