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Integrating Pedagogy and Instructional Design in the

eLearning Approach for the Teaching of Mathematics

Integrating Pedagogy and Instructional Design in the eLearning


Approach for the Teaching of Mathematics

Norazah Mohd. Nordin, Halimah Badioze Zaman, and Rosseni Din

Faculty of Education
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
norazah_bmkpm@hotmail.com, drnmn@ukm.my

Abstract learning process should be given the highest


As eLearning is becoming more readily priority. One of the most interesting
available and accessible in formal and developments in the Information Age is the
informal contexts, more education emergence of the Internet technology in
institutions, including schools, are education where the teaching and learning
developing courses virtually. Educators are process play a major role. In such situation,
gradually incorporating elements of students’ roles will have to change: they will
eLearning in the discussions on integrating not only receive knowledge or truth but act
pedagogy and instructional design. Such as ‘explorers and seekers’ of knowledge or
integration is increasingly important in truth. This means that today, the education
mathematics as the subject involves thinking world is experiencing a change not just in
and creativity; readiness to face ambiguous terms of curriculum but also in terms of
problems and ability to refine them into a approaches to teaching and learning
clearer conceptualization and ability to strategies. These changes in learning
analyze problems using the heuristic strategies from traditional to dynamic
approach. Realizing the importance of the strategies based on the use of information
integration, a study is being undertaken to technology create a learner centred learning
develop a suitable instructional design environment. (Halimah Badioze Zaman et.
model using the eLearning approach. The al 1998). Research has shown that the
use of such approach would enhance potential of online learning has enabled
literacy and motivate interest towards institutions, including schools and educators
mathematics. The instructional design model to reach new learners at a distance, increases
incorporates the elements of Mathematical convenience, and expands educational
Approaches, Lesson Sequencing, Interactive opportunities (Hara & Kling 2001). The
Multimedia, Systematically Designed and most important role of an instructor in an
Developed Teaching and Learning Modules online environment is a high degree of
and Submodules, and Holistic Development interactivity and participation. This means
of Students. designing and conducting learning activities
that result in engagement with the subject
1 Introduction matter and with fellow learners using proper
As the ICT is becoming a new trend in pedagogical approaches are very important.
the communication of educational Research has also proven that students
information, the most suitable choice of generally face difficulties in understanding
educational media used in the teaching and mathematical concepts, operations and

Proceedings of the Second International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, August 4-7, 2005,
Bangkok, Thailand
9.1
Norazah Mohd. Nordin, Halimah Badioze Zaman, and Rosseni Din

formulas because mathematics has always environment force them to do reflection.


been taught in isolation to the lives of the According to Petrides’ study (2002),
students (Halimah Badioze Zaman et. al students reported it was very flexible to
1998). Mathematics is also a subject that work in collaborative groups in an online
involves thinking and creativity; readiness to course without arranging everyone’s
face ambiguous problems and ability to schedule as one might do in the
refine them into a clearer conceptualization; conventional face-to-face class. Students in
and ability to analyze problems using the Chizmar and Walbert’s (1999) study
heuristic approach. This paper hopes to use indicated that the ability to freely pick and
the concept of eLearning by highlighting the choose from one menu of diverse learning
instructional design model of the teaching of experiences enabled them to find the
mathematics (Matrices) to enhance literacy approaches that best fit the way they learn.
and to motivate interest towards Based on the above findings, many
mathematics. factors have to be taken into consideration
when designing the course materials,
2 Literature Review on eLearning including pedagogical approaches to ensure
The idea of using computer to assist the effectiveness in improving students’
training of people started long time ago like learning outcomes. According to Hara and
the use of Computer-assisted Training Kling (2001), pedagogical strategies are
(CBT). Since the invention of Internet and very important to promote learners’ online
various digital media, this idea of using learning experience, as well as the overall
these media for educational experience perceptions of online learning. Realizing the
emerges as what we call eLearning today. importance of the design, a study is being
According to Taylor (2002), educators have undertaken to develop a suitable
the perception that eLearning represents a instructional design model using the
challenging medium with the availability of eLearning approach. The use of such
multimedia enhancements, automated approach would enhance literacy and
submission of assignments and the ability to motivate interest towards mathematics. The
change ideas virtually instantaneously. instructional design model incorporates the
Taylor also added that in implementing elements of Mathematical Approaches,
eLearning, educators need to address a steep Lesson Sequencing, Interactive Multimedia,
learning curve. They have to become Systematically Designed and Developed
knowledgeable about eLearning, tackle it, Teaching and Learning Modules and Sub
learn how to adapt subject areas to an online Modules, and Holistic Development of
learning environment, and then make the Students.
commitment to keep up with the
technological advancement. 3 eLearning Model
McInnis (2002) argues that online Among many eLearning solutions, there
learning environments increase the are diverse definitions and services provided
opportunities for educators to organize by the experts and vendors. According to
student groups, instruct students and support Henry (2001), the key elements of ‘total’
student learning and evaluate student eLearning solution comprises Content,
performance. Furthermore, Vonderwell’s Technology, Service and Strategy. One of
(2003) studies on students’ view on the key success factors for an eLearning
elearning found out that asynchronous programme is the integration of these
environment allowed students to write components. The model is shown in Figure
carefully about their ideas, and this 1. This paper is highlighting the

Special Issue of the International Journal of The Computer, the Internet and Management

9.2
Integrating Pedagogy and Instructional Design in the
eLearning Approach for the Teaching of Mathematics

instructional design of the teaching of expert’s performance, the reflecting


secondary school mathematics embedded in approach is used. Finally, instructional
the Strategy component. design adopts the exploration approach to
push students into the mode of trying to do
4 Instructional Design of the Teaching the activities better on their own.
of Mathematics Embedded in the
eLearning Model 5.2 Lesson Sequencing
The instructional design of the teaching There are three aspects of lesson
of mathematics incorporates the elements on sequencing embedded in the development of
Mathematical Approaches, Hierarchy of the instructional design. The first aspect is
Teaching, Interactive Multimedia, scaffolding, which allows students to
Systematically Designed and Developed develop greater autonomy as they master
Teaching and Learning Modules and Sub subsets of the required skills. The next
Modules, and Holistic Development of aspect of lesson sequencing is increasing
Students. The instructional design is complexity, as the students become more
indicated in Figure 2. As can be viewed, the competent in a topic. The final aspect of the
online materials are developed based on the lesson sequencing is increasing diversity,
pedagogical, androgogical, and which will enable the students to learn when
technological aspects of teaching and and where the skills they learned are
learning to ensure the effectiveness of the relevant and useful.
teaching and learning activities received by
the students. 5.3 Teaching Modules
Figure 3 shows the details of the
5 Elements in the Instructional Design modules built in the mathematics course
The instructional design of the teaching materials based on the foundational aspects
of mathematics embedded in the Strategy of students learning process: Cikgu or
component of the eLearning Model is Teacher Module; Ulangkaji or Revision
designed and developed with the integration Module; Latihan Komprehensif or
of the following elements: Comprehensive Exercise Module and
Pengukuhan Bestari or Smart Reinforcement
5.1 Mathematical Approaches Module.
There are six teaching approaches The Cikgu/Teacher Module attempts to
embedded in the development of the give introduction to each subtopic by
instructional design as shown in Figure 2. presenting advance organizers (Woolfolk
The main teaching approach used is 1998), such as video clips and related
Expository Teaching. The instructional activities prior to the actual lessons. In the
design also uses modeling approach to show module, as shown in Figure 4, a video clip
how and why an expert does a task. The of a scenario about the trading process in a
third teaching approach is coaching, which Pasar Tani (a Malaysian well-known weekly
observes students as they work and correct wet market run by local farmers) was used.
their performance immediately as the The scenario is a potential fit between the
students go through the sub modules students’ schemas and the material to be
provided. The next teaching approach used learned. The module is considered very
is articulation. Articulation will get the important because it involves explanation of
students to articulate their own knowledge the mathematical concepts, the operation
and reasoning. In order to replay and involved, the steps and examples of how to
abstract students’ work and contrasting that understand the concept and solve the

Proceedings of the Second International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, August 4-7, 2005,
Bangkok, Thailand
9.3
Norazah Mohd. Nordin, Halimah Badioze Zaman, and Rosseni Din

problem in a more detailed manner. The sections, which are objective tests and
Cikgu/Teacher Module involves steps and subjective or structural test.
examples of how to understand certain The Pengukuhan Bestari or the Smart
concept and to solve problems in the Reinforcement Module enables fast learners
required manner. The module consists of who are good in certain topic to be given a
four sub modules namely: Penerangan or more enriching and challenging test to
Explanation, Contoh or Example, Latihan or motivate them further. The module consists
Exercise and Ujian Topik or Topical Test. of objective questions.
Penerangan sub module includes the
expository learning approach (Ausubel 5.4 Holistic Development of Students
1977) to introduce a topic that is to be taught The mathematics teaching and learning
with the aim to attract interest of the student. process involved in the specially designed
Contoh sub module includes steps and eLearning environment is based on the
examples on how to solve problems related multimedia technology, which integrates the
to the topic discussed. Latihan sub module multimedia elements such as texts, sounds,
involves monitoring students’ performance voices, animations, video and audio. Thus,
based on the exercises set by the system. In the technology has the capability to touch
this sub module, the questions are various modalities of the students’ interest
randomized and the given is specific. Ujian to learning and to motivate students’ interest
Topik sub module has the objective of in the learning process. The process of
testing students on the understanding of the delivering mathematical concepts,
specific topic in the system. generalization and application, which are
The Ulangkaji or Revision Module presented in all the modules is able develop
(Figure 5) has the same objective as the the aspects of cognitive, affective and
Cikgu Module but is designed specially for psychomotor in the following manner. The
the slow learners who cannot follow the multimedia elements used in the modules
Cikgu Module. The module involves steps have the capability to generate the students’
and examples of how to understand certain thinking process on the mathematical
concept and to solve problems in more concept that they are learning. The thinking
detailed manner meant for slow learners. process would indirectly help in the
The Ulangkaji Module has one extra sub development of the cognitive aspect of the
module, Contoh Terbimbing or Guided students. The development of the affective
Example sub module. This sub module uses aspect, which involves emotional respond is
more interactivity element of multimedia, so embedded mostly in Cikgu and Latihan
that the slow learner can interact more with Komprehensif modules. In Cikgu, the
the system. Students can work on the affective aspect, is embedded in the advance
module for as long as they wish without organizer in the form of video clips. The
feeling of embarrassment from others, first video clip presented, which involves a
before they continue on to a new topic in the scenario in a Pasar Tani, shows the farmers
Cikgu Module. selling their own products from their farms.
The Latihan Komprehensif or It is hoped that the multi racial Malaysians
Comprehensive Exercise Module (Figure 6) who do their marketing in the Pasar Tani
is built in the system with the aim of testing can instill a feeling of pride and gratitude to
students on the understanding of the overall be Malaysians among the students.
topics taught in the system (summative
evaluation). The modules includes two

Special Issue of the International Journal of The Computer, the Internet and Management

9.4
Integrating Pedagogy and Instructional Design in the
eLearning Approach for the Teaching of Mathematics

6 Conclusions 2004). Results have shown that the


This paper has tried to highlight briefly instructional design has successfully
the instructional design embedded in the enhanced the learning of mathematics
eLearning approach (Strategy component of (Matrices) and motivated the students to
the eLearning Model) of the teaching of learn mathematics. With the ICT being a
secondary school mathematics. The new emerging trend in the teaching and
approach has taken into account the learning mathematics, future research should
pedagogical aspects of delivery that enhance focus on what constitutes effective web-
effective and meaningful learning activities. based teaching and learning of mathematics
A case study on the effectiveness test has and the monitoring process of acquiring
been done in a smart school by using quasi- skills in mathematics using web-based for
experimental method based on the the secondary school.
ethnographic approach (Norazah & Halimah

Technology

Content

Service Strategy

Figure 1 The eLearning Model

Mathematics

MATHEMATICAL LESSON TEACHING & HOLISTIC INTERACTIVE


APPROACHES SEQUENCING LEARNING DEVELOPMENT MULTIMEDIA
MODULES

?? Expository ?? Scaffolding ?? CIKGU/TEACHER ?? Cognitive ?? Penerangan/


?? Modeling ?? Increasing Module ?? Affective Explanation
?? ULANGKAJI ?? Psychomotor ?? Contoh
?? Observation Complexity
/REVISION Module /Examples
?? Articulation ?? Increasing ?? LATIHAN ?? Latihan
?? Reflection Diversity KOMPREHENSIF/ /Exercises
?? Exploratory COMPREHENSIVE ?? Ujian
EXERCISES Topik/Topical
Module Tests
?? PENGUKUHAN ?? Pembelajaran
BESTARI/SMART Kadar Kendiri/
REINFORCEMENT Self-paced
Module Learning
?? Peneguhan/
Reinforcement
?? Pengayaan/
Enrichment

Figure 2 The Instructional Design of the Teaching of Mathematics

Proceedings of the Second International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, August 4-7, 2005,
Bangkok, Thailand
9.5
Norazah Mohd. Nordin, Halimah Badioze Zaman, and Rosseni Din

MATHEMATICS

CIKGU/TEACHER ULANGKAJI / LATIHAN PENGUKUHAN


MODULE REVISION KOMPREHENSIF/ BESTARI/SMART
MODULE COMPREHENSIVE REINFORCEMENT
EXERCISE MODULE
MODULE

Penerangan Contoh Latihan Ujian Topik


/Explanation /Example /Exercise /Topical Test
Submodule Submodule Submodule Submodule

Penerangan Contoh Contoh Latihan Ujian Topik


/Explanation /Example Terbimbing /Exercise /Topical Test
Submodule Submodule Guided Example Submodule Submodule
Submodule

Figure 3 Modules and sub modules in the mathematics course materials

Figure 4 Video Clip used in the Cikgu/Teacher Figure 5 Ulangkaji/Revision Module


Module

Figure 6 Latihan Komprehensif/ Comprehensive Exercise Module

Special Issue of the International Journal of The Computer, the Internet and Management

9.6
Integrating Pedagogy and Instructional Design in the
eLearning Approach for the Teaching of Mathematics

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Proceedings of the Second International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, August 4-7, 2005,
Bangkok, Thailand
9.7