Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

13 Aufrufe

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- 01_32.pdf
- Module-Edu-3105.pdf
- The Use of Ict in Teaching and Learning of Physical Education
- Modern Training Approaches
- Ict Advisor
- Instructional Designer or Project Manager or Program Manager or
- Hogg James P 201005 PhD
- Tracey Dalton - Final Reflection on Instructional Design Module
- Chapter-15-Designing-Training-Program.pptx
- checklist.pdf
- Edtech and Rizal
- reflection
- elenawinzeler resume instructional design
- how instructional design principles and theory influence the use of technology
- How Important is Use of Technology in Education
- alwoodley primary school - good practice example
- robbins resume
- swotpaper
- Curriculum Explanation
- brown k reflection

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

Approach for the Teaching of Mathematics

Faculty of Education

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

norazah_bmkpm@hotmail.com, drnmn@ukm.my

As eLearning is becoming more readily priority. One of the most interesting

available and accessible in formal and developments in the Information Age is the

informal contexts, more education emergence of the Internet technology in

institutions, including schools, are education where the teaching and learning

developing courses virtually. Educators are process play a major role. In such situation,

gradually incorporating elements of students’ roles will have to change: they will

eLearning in the discussions on integrating not only receive knowledge or truth but act

pedagogy and instructional design. Such as ‘explorers and seekers’ of knowledge or

integration is increasingly important in truth. This means that today, the education

mathematics as the subject involves thinking world is experiencing a change not just in

and creativity; readiness to face ambiguous terms of curriculum but also in terms of

problems and ability to refine them into a approaches to teaching and learning

clearer conceptualization and ability to strategies. These changes in learning

analyze problems using the heuristic strategies from traditional to dynamic

approach. Realizing the importance of the strategies based on the use of information

integration, a study is being undertaken to technology create a learner centred learning

develop a suitable instructional design environment. (Halimah Badioze Zaman et.

model using the eLearning approach. The al 1998). Research has shown that the

use of such approach would enhance potential of online learning has enabled

literacy and motivate interest towards institutions, including schools and educators

mathematics. The instructional design model to reach new learners at a distance, increases

incorporates the elements of Mathematical convenience, and expands educational

Approaches, Lesson Sequencing, Interactive opportunities (Hara & Kling 2001). The

Multimedia, Systematically Designed and most important role of an instructor in an

Developed Teaching and Learning Modules online environment is a high degree of

and Submodules, and Holistic Development interactivity and participation. This means

of Students. designing and conducting learning activities

that result in engagement with the subject

1 Introduction matter and with fellow learners using proper

As the ICT is becoming a new trend in pedagogical approaches are very important.

the communication of educational Research has also proven that students

information, the most suitable choice of generally face difficulties in understanding

educational media used in the teaching and mathematical concepts, operations and

Proceedings of the Second International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, August 4-7, 2005,

Bangkok, Thailand

9.1

Norazah Mohd. Nordin, Halimah Badioze Zaman, and Rosseni Din

been taught in isolation to the lives of the According to Petrides’ study (2002),

students (Halimah Badioze Zaman et. al students reported it was very flexible to

1998). Mathematics is also a subject that work in collaborative groups in an online

involves thinking and creativity; readiness to course without arranging everyone’s

face ambiguous problems and ability to schedule as one might do in the

refine them into a clearer conceptualization; conventional face-to-face class. Students in

and ability to analyze problems using the Chizmar and Walbert’s (1999) study

heuristic approach. This paper hopes to use indicated that the ability to freely pick and

the concept of eLearning by highlighting the choose from one menu of diverse learning

instructional design model of the teaching of experiences enabled them to find the

mathematics (Matrices) to enhance literacy approaches that best fit the way they learn.

and to motivate interest towards Based on the above findings, many

mathematics. factors have to be taken into consideration

when designing the course materials,

2 Literature Review on eLearning including pedagogical approaches to ensure

The idea of using computer to assist the effectiveness in improving students’

training of people started long time ago like learning outcomes. According to Hara and

the use of Computer-assisted Training Kling (2001), pedagogical strategies are

(CBT). Since the invention of Internet and very important to promote learners’ online

various digital media, this idea of using learning experience, as well as the overall

these media for educational experience perceptions of online learning. Realizing the

emerges as what we call eLearning today. importance of the design, a study is being

According to Taylor (2002), educators have undertaken to develop a suitable

the perception that eLearning represents a instructional design model using the

challenging medium with the availability of eLearning approach. The use of such

multimedia enhancements, automated approach would enhance literacy and

submission of assignments and the ability to motivate interest towards mathematics. The

change ideas virtually instantaneously. instructional design model incorporates the

Taylor also added that in implementing elements of Mathematical Approaches,

eLearning, educators need to address a steep Lesson Sequencing, Interactive Multimedia,

learning curve. They have to become Systematically Designed and Developed

knowledgeable about eLearning, tackle it, Teaching and Learning Modules and Sub

learn how to adapt subject areas to an online Modules, and Holistic Development of

learning environment, and then make the Students.

commitment to keep up with the

technological advancement. 3 eLearning Model

McInnis (2002) argues that online Among many eLearning solutions, there

learning environments increase the are diverse definitions and services provided

opportunities for educators to organize by the experts and vendors. According to

student groups, instruct students and support Henry (2001), the key elements of ‘total’

student learning and evaluate student eLearning solution comprises Content,

performance. Furthermore, Vonderwell’s Technology, Service and Strategy. One of

(2003) studies on students’ view on the key success factors for an eLearning

elearning found out that asynchronous programme is the integration of these

environment allowed students to write components. The model is shown in Figure

carefully about their ideas, and this 1. This paper is highlighting the

Special Issue of the International Journal of The Computer, the Internet and Management

9.2

Integrating Pedagogy and Instructional Design in the

eLearning Approach for the Teaching of Mathematics

secondary school mathematics embedded in approach is used. Finally, instructional

the Strategy component. design adopts the exploration approach to

push students into the mode of trying to do

4 Instructional Design of the Teaching the activities better on their own.

of Mathematics Embedded in the

eLearning Model 5.2 Lesson Sequencing

The instructional design of the teaching There are three aspects of lesson

of mathematics incorporates the elements on sequencing embedded in the development of

Mathematical Approaches, Hierarchy of the instructional design. The first aspect is

Teaching, Interactive Multimedia, scaffolding, which allows students to

Systematically Designed and Developed develop greater autonomy as they master

Teaching and Learning Modules and Sub subsets of the required skills. The next

Modules, and Holistic Development of aspect of lesson sequencing is increasing

Students. The instructional design is complexity, as the students become more

indicated in Figure 2. As can be viewed, the competent in a topic. The final aspect of the

online materials are developed based on the lesson sequencing is increasing diversity,

pedagogical, androgogical, and which will enable the students to learn when

technological aspects of teaching and and where the skills they learned are

learning to ensure the effectiveness of the relevant and useful.

teaching and learning activities received by

the students. 5.3 Teaching Modules

Figure 3 shows the details of the

5 Elements in the Instructional Design modules built in the mathematics course

The instructional design of the teaching materials based on the foundational aspects

of mathematics embedded in the Strategy of students learning process: Cikgu or

component of the eLearning Model is Teacher Module; Ulangkaji or Revision

designed and developed with the integration Module; Latihan Komprehensif or

of the following elements: Comprehensive Exercise Module and

Pengukuhan Bestari or Smart Reinforcement

5.1 Mathematical Approaches Module.

There are six teaching approaches The Cikgu/Teacher Module attempts to

embedded in the development of the give introduction to each subtopic by

instructional design as shown in Figure 2. presenting advance organizers (Woolfolk

The main teaching approach used is 1998), such as video clips and related

Expository Teaching. The instructional activities prior to the actual lessons. In the

design also uses modeling approach to show module, as shown in Figure 4, a video clip

how and why an expert does a task. The of a scenario about the trading process in a

third teaching approach is coaching, which Pasar Tani (a Malaysian well-known weekly

observes students as they work and correct wet market run by local farmers) was used.

their performance immediately as the The scenario is a potential fit between the

students go through the sub modules students’ schemas and the material to be

provided. The next teaching approach used learned. The module is considered very

is articulation. Articulation will get the important because it involves explanation of

students to articulate their own knowledge the mathematical concepts, the operation

and reasoning. In order to replay and involved, the steps and examples of how to

abstract students’ work and contrasting that understand the concept and solve the

Proceedings of the Second International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, August 4-7, 2005,

Bangkok, Thailand

9.3

Norazah Mohd. Nordin, Halimah Badioze Zaman, and Rosseni Din

problem in a more detailed manner. The sections, which are objective tests and

Cikgu/Teacher Module involves steps and subjective or structural test.

examples of how to understand certain The Pengukuhan Bestari or the Smart

concept and to solve problems in the Reinforcement Module enables fast learners

required manner. The module consists of who are good in certain topic to be given a

four sub modules namely: Penerangan or more enriching and challenging test to

Explanation, Contoh or Example, Latihan or motivate them further. The module consists

Exercise and Ujian Topik or Topical Test. of objective questions.

Penerangan sub module includes the

expository learning approach (Ausubel 5.4 Holistic Development of Students

1977) to introduce a topic that is to be taught The mathematics teaching and learning

with the aim to attract interest of the student. process involved in the specially designed

Contoh sub module includes steps and eLearning environment is based on the

examples on how to solve problems related multimedia technology, which integrates the

to the topic discussed. Latihan sub module multimedia elements such as texts, sounds,

involves monitoring students’ performance voices, animations, video and audio. Thus,

based on the exercises set by the system. In the technology has the capability to touch

this sub module, the questions are various modalities of the students’ interest

randomized and the given is specific. Ujian to learning and to motivate students’ interest

Topik sub module has the objective of in the learning process. The process of

testing students on the understanding of the delivering mathematical concepts,

specific topic in the system. generalization and application, which are

The Ulangkaji or Revision Module presented in all the modules is able develop

(Figure 5) has the same objective as the the aspects of cognitive, affective and

Cikgu Module but is designed specially for psychomotor in the following manner. The

the slow learners who cannot follow the multimedia elements used in the modules

Cikgu Module. The module involves steps have the capability to generate the students’

and examples of how to understand certain thinking process on the mathematical

concept and to solve problems in more concept that they are learning. The thinking

detailed manner meant for slow learners. process would indirectly help in the

The Ulangkaji Module has one extra sub development of the cognitive aspect of the

module, Contoh Terbimbing or Guided students. The development of the affective

Example sub module. This sub module uses aspect, which involves emotional respond is

more interactivity element of multimedia, so embedded mostly in Cikgu and Latihan

that the slow learner can interact more with Komprehensif modules. In Cikgu, the

the system. Students can work on the affective aspect, is embedded in the advance

module for as long as they wish without organizer in the form of video clips. The

feeling of embarrassment from others, first video clip presented, which involves a

before they continue on to a new topic in the scenario in a Pasar Tani, shows the farmers

Cikgu Module. selling their own products from their farms.

The Latihan Komprehensif or It is hoped that the multi racial Malaysians

Comprehensive Exercise Module (Figure 6) who do their marketing in the Pasar Tani

is built in the system with the aim of testing can instill a feeling of pride and gratitude to

students on the understanding of the overall be Malaysians among the students.

topics taught in the system (summative

evaluation). The modules includes two

Special Issue of the International Journal of The Computer, the Internet and Management

9.4

Integrating Pedagogy and Instructional Design in the

eLearning Approach for the Teaching of Mathematics

This paper has tried to highlight briefly instructional design has successfully

the instructional design embedded in the enhanced the learning of mathematics

eLearning approach (Strategy component of (Matrices) and motivated the students to

the eLearning Model) of the teaching of learn mathematics. With the ICT being a

secondary school mathematics. The new emerging trend in the teaching and

approach has taken into account the learning mathematics, future research should

pedagogical aspects of delivery that enhance focus on what constitutes effective web-

effective and meaningful learning activities. based teaching and learning of mathematics

A case study on the effectiveness test has and the monitoring process of acquiring

been done in a smart school by using quasi- skills in mathematics using web-based for

experimental method based on the the secondary school.

ethnographic approach (Norazah & Halimah

Technology

Content

Service Strategy

Mathematics

APPROACHES SEQUENCING LEARNING DEVELOPMENT MULTIMEDIA

MODULES

?? Modeling ?? Increasing Module ?? Affective Explanation

?? ULANGKAJI ?? Psychomotor ?? Contoh

?? Observation Complexity

/REVISION Module /Examples

?? Articulation ?? Increasing ?? LATIHAN ?? Latihan

?? Reflection Diversity KOMPREHENSIF/ /Exercises

?? Exploratory COMPREHENSIVE ?? Ujian

EXERCISES Topik/Topical

Module Tests

?? PENGUKUHAN ?? Pembelajaran

BESTARI/SMART Kadar Kendiri/

REINFORCEMENT Self-paced

Module Learning

?? Peneguhan/

Reinforcement

?? Pengayaan/

Enrichment

Proceedings of the Second International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, August 4-7, 2005,

Bangkok, Thailand

9.5

Norazah Mohd. Nordin, Halimah Badioze Zaman, and Rosseni Din

MATHEMATICS

MODULE REVISION KOMPREHENSIF/ BESTARI/SMART

MODULE COMPREHENSIVE REINFORCEMENT

EXERCISE MODULE

MODULE

/Explanation /Example /Exercise /Topical Test

Submodule Submodule Submodule Submodule

/Explanation /Example Terbimbing /Exercise /Topical Test

Submodule Submodule Guided Example Submodule Submodule

Submodule

Module

Special Issue of the International Journal of The Computer, the Internet and Management

9.6

Integrating Pedagogy and Instructional Design in the

eLearning Approach for the Teaching of Mathematics

References

Ausubel, D. P. (1997). “The facilitation of Norazah Mohd. Nordin & Halimah Badioze

meaningful verbal learning”. Educational Zaman (2004). “Hybrid Approach in

Psychologist, 12, 162-178. Designing Educational Package

Chizmar, J.F., & Walbert, M.S. (1999). “Web- (MATEMATIKA) Teaching and Learning

based learning environments guided by Mathematics”, Proceedings of the

principles of good teaching practice”. International Education Conference 456-

Journal of Economic Education, 30(3), 470

248-264. Petrides, L. A. (2002). “Web-based technologie s

Halimah Badioze Zaman et. al. (1998). “ME: A for distributed (or distance) learning:

multimedia based tutoring system for Creating learning-centered educational

mathematics”. Proc. The International experiences in the higher education

Conference on Information Technology and classroom”. International Journal of

Multimedia at Uniten (ICIMU 1998), Instructional Media, 29(1), 69-77.

Malaysia. 28-30 September. Taylor, R. W. (2002). “Pros. and cons of online

Hara, N., & Kling, R. (2001). “Student distress learning – A faculty perspective”. Journal

in Web-based distance education”. of European Industrial Training, 26(1), 24-

EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 3. 37.

Henry, P. (2001). “E-Learning technology, Vonderwell, S. (2003). “An examination of

content, and Services”. Education and asynchronous communication experie -nces

training, 43(4), 249-255. and perspectives of students in an online

McInnis, C. (2002). “The impact of technology courses: A case study”. Internet and

on faculty performance and its evaluation”. Higher Education, 6, 77-90.

New Directions for Institutional Research, Woolfolk, A. E. (1998). Educational

114, 53-61. psychology, 7th Ed. Boston: Allyn and

Bacon.

Proceedings of the Second International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, August 4-7, 2005,

Bangkok, Thailand

9.7

- 01_32.pdfHochgeladen vonTan Geat Lian
- Module-Edu-3105.pdfHochgeladen vonAmy Watson
- The Use of Ict in Teaching and Learning of Physical EducationHochgeladen vonFrancis Abulude
- Modern Training ApproachesHochgeladen voncristinacost
- Ict AdvisorHochgeladen vonV
- Instructional Designer or Project Manager or Program Manager orHochgeladen vonapi-77532217
- Hogg James P 201005 PhDHochgeladen vonjameshoggphd
- Tracey Dalton - Final Reflection on Instructional Design ModuleHochgeladen vontraceydalton
- Chapter-15-Designing-Training-Program.pptxHochgeladen vonanik mostafa
- checklist.pdfHochgeladen vonDeila Broberg Taylor
- Edtech and RizalHochgeladen vonFrancis Calubayan
- reflectionHochgeladen vonapi-309577580
- elenawinzeler resume instructional designHochgeladen vonapi-244288068
- how instructional design principles and theory influence the use of technologyHochgeladen vonapi-277853352
- How Important is Use of Technology in EducationHochgeladen vonJesus Luna
- alwoodley primary school - good practice exampleHochgeladen vonapi-222941187
- robbins resumeHochgeladen vonapi-427745777
- swotpaperHochgeladen vonapi-374548902
- Curriculum ExplanationHochgeladen vonJoshua Cox
- brown k reflectionHochgeladen vonapi-320305196
- Performance Consultant or Instructional Systems DesignerHochgeladen vonapi-77736935
- English Integ AugustHochgeladen vonCHERRY RIVERA
- Accomplishment Report.docHochgeladen vonROSE TASI
- ONLINE ASSIGNMENTHochgeladen vonAjith Manu
- final project tech edHochgeladen vonapi-224390226
- Titles.jenelle.binmaleyHochgeladen vonNors Cruz
- Untitleddocument(4)Hochgeladen vonJulala Dando
- revised standard three of the national educational technology standardsHochgeladen vonapi-270732603
- Ict in VocationalHochgeladen vonPraneeth AP
- Do You Think That HandsHochgeladen vonThian Fang Ming

- aelbert-cuyp.pdfHochgeladen vontelarannaa
- Perception, The Eye, TechnologyHochgeladen vonshhtikla
- Atap LysaghtHochgeladen vonriedwan
- Customer Demographic Effecting Bank SelectionHochgeladen vonSalman Yousfi
- The Economics of Ethanol from Sweet SorghumHochgeladen vonLuiz Lacerda Fh
- PET Speaking Part 2Hochgeladen vonHelenna Alvarez Sanchez
- Essential Micro Answers-1 EvenHochgeladen vonlionshare148
- How to Prepare and Cook Food SafelyHochgeladen vonnursunb
- chapter 5 electrons in atomsHochgeladen vonapi-256257174
- -l-llll.docHochgeladen vonptnagarjuna55
- United States v. Joseph E. Griffin, Jr., 525 F.2d 710, 1st Cir. (1976)Hochgeladen vonScribd Government Docs
- Gender equalityHochgeladen vonShashwat Singh
- Henriette's MAAP Results 2014Hochgeladen vonhenriettehansen
- www.ijerd.comHochgeladen vonIJERD
- Ando AQ6317B - Optical Spectrum Analyzer.pdfHochgeladen vonchaparal
- Nepalese Journal on Geo-informatics Number 14Hochgeladen vonTri Dev Acharya
- DATAMINING WITH GENECLUSTER 3.0 SOFTWAREHochgeladen vonPoul Ram
- Oil Palm ShellsHochgeladen vonFarzad Dehghan
- nellanalysisHochgeladen vonapi-302650839
- UIC Architecture Presentation BoardsHochgeladen vonmichaelrmims
- Coping With Drug Addiction in Your Family.20121012.203008Hochgeladen vonanon_726391613
- Srivaishnava Prayer BookHochgeladen vonsatisharigela_asr
- Production and Distribution of the CommonHochgeladen vonKat Pse
- Fez HonerkampHochgeladen vonashfaqamar
- An Introduction to the Concept of Vegetarianism Among Hindus in MalaysiaHochgeladen vonHemakkesha Arumugam
- Implementation of science based on the 5E Learning Model.pdfHochgeladen vonPriya Mokana
- Brain Model Ned HermannHochgeladen vonAravindan Muthu
- A Sailwing WindmillHochgeladen vonDawn Smith
- Thermal Pasteurization Requerements for the Inactivation of Salmonella in FoodsHochgeladen vonTomislav Ćurić
- 2006 PWC-Boats Tech Update TroubleshootingHochgeladen vonJD