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METODĄ SIŁ.

## Siły wewnętrzne od obciążenia zewnętrznego. Dobieram układ podstawowy w ten sposób

aby zachować symetrię:

δ 11 ⋅ X 1 + δ 12 ⋅ X 2 + δ 13 ⋅ X 3 + ∆ 1P = 0

δ 21 ⋅ X 1 + δ 22 ⋅ X 2 + δ 23 ⋅ X 3 + ∆ 2 P = 0
δ ⋅ X + δ ⋅ X + δ ⋅ X + ∆ = 0
 31 1 32 2 33 3 3P

M ⋅Mk M ⋅ Mi
δ ik = ∫ i ds ∆ iP = ∫ P ds
EI EI

M1

M2

M3

MP

MS

## Korzystając z metody Wereszczegina- Mohra całkowania iloczynu dwóch funkcji (w tym

jednej prostoliniowej) otrzymuje się:
M ⋅ M1
δ 21 = ∫ 2 ds = 0
EI
M ⋅M2 1 1  2  1 1 1 2 
δ 22 = ∫ 2 ds = ⋅ 2 ⋅  ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 6  + ⋅ 2 ⋅ [6 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 6] + ⋅  ⋅ 12 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 12  =
EI EI 2  3  2 EI EI  2 3 

=
1
EI
[
48 10 + 504 ]
M ⋅ M3
δ 23 = ∫ 2 ds = 0
EI
M ⋅ M1
δ 31 = ∫ 3
EI
ds =
1
EI
8 10 + 90 [ ]
M ⋅M2
δ 32 = ∫ 3 ds = 0
EI
M ⋅ M3 1 1  2  1 1 2 1  1 2 1 
δ 33 = ∫ 3 ds = ⋅ 2 ⋅  ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅  ⋅ 1 + ⋅ 2 ⋅  ⋅ 6 ⋅ 1 ⋅  ⋅ 1 + ⋅ 4  + ⋅ 6 ⋅ 4 ⋅  ⋅ 4 + ⋅ 1 =
EI EI 2  3  2 EI 2 3 3  2 3 3 
1 4 
=  10 + 42
EI  3 

M P ⋅ M1 1 1 2  2 4 ⋅ 2 2  1 
∆ 1P = ∫ ds = − ⋅ 2 ⋅  ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 56 ⋅  ⋅ 6  + ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ ⋅  ⋅ 6  −
EI EI 2 3  3 8  2 

1
EI
 2
⋅ 12 ⋅ 56 ⋅ 6 + ⋅ 12 ⋅
3
4 ⋅ 12 2 
8
⋅ 6 = −
1
EI
[
464 10 + 3744 ]
 
M ⋅M2
∆ 2P =∫ P ds = 0
EI
M ⋅M3 1 1 2  2 4 ⋅ 22  1 
∆ 3P =∫ P ds = − ⋅ 2 ⋅  ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 56 ⋅  ⋅ 1 + ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ ⋅  ⋅ 1 −
EI EI 2 3  3 8  2 
1 1 2 1  1 2 1  2 4 ⋅ 6 2  5  1  232 
− ⋅ 2 ⋅  ⋅ 56 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 1 + ⋅ 4  + ⋅ 128 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 4 + ⋅ 1 + ⋅ 6 ⋅ ⋅   = −  10 + 1668
2 EI 2 3 3  2 3 3  3 8  2  EI  3 

## Sprawdzenie globalne delt:

2
MS
∫ EI ds = ∑∑i k
δ ik
2
MS 1 1 2  1 1 2 1  1 2 1 
∫ EI ds = EI ⋅  2 ⋅ 13 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅  3 ⋅13 + 2EI ⋅  2 ⋅ 6 ⋅13 ⋅  3 ⋅ 13 + 3 ⋅ 16  + 2 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 16 ⋅  3 ⋅ 16 + 3 ⋅ 13 +
1 1 2 1  1 2 1  1  1 2  1  340 
+ ⋅  ⋅ 4 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 4 + ⋅ 1 + ⋅ 1 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 1 + ⋅ 4  + ⋅  ⋅ 12 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 12  = ⋅ ⋅ 10 + 942
2 EI  2 3 3  2 3 3  EI  2 3  EI  3 
1  340 
∑∑ δ
i k
ik = δ 11 + δ 12 + δ 13 + δ 21 + δ 22 + δ 23 + δ 31 + δ 32 + δ 33 =
EI
⋅
 3
⋅ 10 + 942

## Politechnika Poznańska Adam Łodygowski ®

MP ⋅MS
∫ ds = ∑ ∆ iP
EI
MP ⋅MS 1 1 2  2 4 ⋅ 22  1 
∫ EI ds = − ⋅ 
EI  2
⋅ 56 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 
3
⋅ 13  +
 3
⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅
8
⋅  ⋅ 13 −
2 
1 1 2 1  1 2 1  2 4 ⋅ 6 2  39 
− ⋅  ⋅ 56 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 13 + ⋅ 16  + ⋅ 128 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 16 + ⋅ 13 + ⋅ 6 ⋅ ⋅   −
2 EI 2 3 3  2 3 3  3 8  2 
1 1 1 2  1 2 1  2 4 ⋅ 6 2  5 
− ⋅  ⋅ 56 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 4 + ⋅ 1 + ⋅ 128 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 4 + ⋅ 1 + ⋅ 6 ⋅ ⋅   −
2 EI 2 3 3  2 3 3  3 8  2 
1 1 2  2 4 ⋅ 2 2  1  1 1624 
− ⋅  ⋅ 56 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 10 ⋅  ⋅ 1 + ⋅ 2 ⋅ ⋅   = − ⋅ ⋅ 10 + 5412
EI  2 3  3 8  2  EI  3 
1 1624 
∑ ∆ iP = ∆ 1P + ∆ 2 P + ∆ 3P = − EI ⋅  3 ⋅ 10 + 5412

## Mając dane wszystkie wielkości podstawiam je do układu równań i rozwiązuje go:

δ 11 ⋅ X 1 + δ 12 ⋅ X 2 + δ 13 ⋅ X 3 + ∆ 1P = 0

δ 21 ⋅ X 1 + δ 22 ⋅ X 2 + δ 23 ⋅ X 3 + ∆ 2 P = 0
δ ⋅ X + δ ⋅ X + δ ⋅ X + ∆ = 0
 31 1 32 2 33 3 3P

( ) ( ) (
 48 ⋅ 10 + 216 ⋅ X 1 + 0 ⋅ X 2 + 8 ⋅ 10 + 90 ⋅ X 3 − 464 ⋅ 10 + 3744 = 0

)
( )
0 ⋅ X 1 + 48 ⋅ 10 + 504 ⋅ X 2 + 0 ⋅ X 3 + 0 = 0

( )
 8 ⋅ 10 + 90 ⋅ X 1 + 0 ⋅ X 2 +  4 ⋅ 10 + 42  ⋅ X 3 +  232 ⋅ 10 + 1668  = 0
 3   3 
X 1 = 5,489344[kN ]
X2 = 0
X 3 = 27,687978[kN ]

MP

## Politechnika Poznańska Adam Łodygowski ®

TP

NP

Sprawdzenie kinematyczne:
MP

## Politechnika Poznańska Adam Łodygowski ®

Mi

Mn ⋅Mi
ui = ∫ ds
EI
1  2 4 ⋅ 22 1  1  4,623 + 15,687 2 4 ⋅ 6 2  0,031
ui = ⋅ − ⋅ 40 ⋅ ⋅ 3 + ⋅ 40 ⋅ 4,623 ⋅ 4 + ⋅ ⋅6⋅6 − ⋅6⋅ ⋅ 6 =
EI  3 8 2  EI  2 3 8  EI

## Dobieram odpowiedni przekrój dwuteowy:

1,2 ⋅ M
≤ σ dop
W
1,2 ⋅ 1567kNcm kN
≤ 19,5 2
W cm
W ≥ 96,43

Dwuteownik 120:
I = 328cm 4
[
W = 54,7cm 3 EI = 672,4 kNm 2 ]
h = 12,0cm

## Siły wewnętrzne od osiadania podpór.

Układ podstawowy przyjmuję podobnie jak w poprzednio:

## Politechnika Poznańska Adam Łodygowski ®

1 1 
∆ 3∆ = −∑ Ri ∆ = ∆ 2 ∆ = −  ⋅ (0,01) − ⋅ (0,01) + 1 ⋅ 0 = 0
2 2 
Delty wykorzystuję z obliczonego wcześniej układu podstawowego:
δ 11 ⋅ X 1 + δ 12 ⋅ X 2 + δ 13 ⋅ X 3 + ∆ 1∆ = 0

δ 21 ⋅ X 1 + δ 22 ⋅ X 2 + δ 23 ⋅ X 3 + ∆ 2 ∆ = 0
δ ⋅ X + δ ⋅ X + δ ⋅ X + ∆ = 0
 31 1 32 2 33 3 3∆

( ) ( )
 48 ⋅ 10 + 216 ⋅ X 1 + 0 ⋅ X 2 + 8 ⋅ 10 + 90 ⋅ X 3 + EI ⋅ (0 ) = 0

( )
0 ⋅ X 1 + 48 ⋅ 10 + 504 ⋅ X 2 + 0 ⋅ X 3 + EI ⋅ (0,004 ) = 0

( )
 8 ⋅ 10 + 90 ⋅ X 1 + 0 ⋅ X 2 +  4 ⋅ 10 + 42  ⋅ X 3 + EI ⋅ (0) = 0
 3 
X 1 = 0[kN ]
X 2 = −0,0041[kN ]
X 3 = 0[kN ]
M∆ n

## Politechnika Poznańska Adam Łodygowski ®

Sprawdzenie:

n
M ⋅Mi
1 ⋅ VK + ∑ Ri ∆ = ∫ ∆ ds
EI
1 1  2  1 1 1  2 
1 ⋅ VK − 0,012 = − ⋅  ⋅ 40 ⋅ 0,0246 ⋅  ⋅ 6  − ⋅ [0,0246 ⋅ 6 ⋅ 6] − ⋅  ⋅ 0,0492 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 6 
EI  2  3  2 ⋅ EI EI  2  3 
V K = 0,01000074[m] ≈ 0,01[m]

## Siły wewnętrzne od wpływu temperatur:

Schemat podstawowy przyjęto jak w poprzednim zadaniu:
t d = 30 0 C ∆t ' = 40 0 C α t = 1,2 ⋅ 10 −5
t g = −10 0 C ∆t" = 0 0 C h = 0,12m
t m = 10 0 C t0 ' = 00 C
[
EI = 672,4 kNm 2 ]
t 0 " = 20 0 C
Delty od temperatur obliczam według wzoru:
α ∆t
∆ it = ∫ M i t ds + ∫ N iα t t 0 ds
h
M1

N1

α t ∆t  1 40   40 
∆ it = ∫ M i ds + ∫ N iα t t 0 ds = − 2 ⋅  ⋅ 40 ⋅ 6 ⋅ ⋅ 12 ⋅ 10 −6  +  6 ⋅ 12 ⋅ ⋅ 12 ⋅ 10 −6  = −0,4397893
h  2 0,12   0,12 

## Politechnika Poznańska Adam Łodygowski ®

M2

N2

α t ∆t
∆ it = ∫ M i ds + ∫ N iα t t 0 ds = (symetria i ∆t = 0 ) = 0
h

## Politechnika Poznańska Adam Łodygowski ®

M3

N3

α t ∆t  1 
∆ it = ∫ M i
h
ds + ∫ N iα t t 0 ds = − 2 ⋅  ⋅ 40 ⋅1 ⋅
40  5
⋅12 ⋅10 − 6  − 2 ⋅  ⋅ 6 ⋅
40
[ ]
⋅12 ⋅10 − 6  − 1 ⋅ 6 ⋅1,2 ⋅10 −5 ⋅ 20 = −0,146738
 2 0,12  2 0,12 

δ 11 ⋅ X 1 + δ 12 ⋅ X 2 + δ 13 ⋅ X 3 + ∆1t = 0

δ 21 ⋅ X 1 + δ 22 ⋅ X 2 + δ 23 ⋅ X 3 + ∆ 2t = 0
δ ⋅ X + δ ⋅ X + δ ⋅ X + ∆ = 0
 31 1 32 2 33 3 3t

## Podstawiamy obliczone delty od wpływu temperatur:

( ) ( )
 48 ⋅ 10 + 216 ⋅ X 1 + 0 ⋅ X 2 + 8 ⋅ 10 + 90 ⋅ X 3 − EI ⋅ (0,439789 ) = 0

( )
0 ⋅ X 1 + 48 ⋅ 10 + 504 ⋅ X 2 + 0 ⋅ X 3 + EI ⋅ (0) = 0

( )
 8 ⋅ 10 + 90 ⋅ X 1 + 0 ⋅ X 2 +  4 ⋅ 10 + 42  ⋅ X 3 − EI ⋅ (0,146738) = 0
 3 
X 1 = 0,6184[kN ]
X 2 = 0[kN ]
X 3 = 0,5921[kN ]

Mt

Tt

Tt

Mi

## Politechnika Poznańska Adam Łodygowski ®

Ni

Mt ⋅ Mi α ∆t
Vk = ∫ ds + ∫ M i t ds + ∫ N iα t t 0 ds = 0
EI h
1  1  1  6,0784 + 4,3024  α ⋅ ∆t  1 
Vk = ⋅ 2 ⋅  ⋅ 40 ⋅ 4,3024 ⋅ 4 + ⋅2⋅ ⋅ 6 ⋅ 6 − t ⋅  ⋅ 40 ⋅ 6 + 12 ⋅ 6
EI  2  2 EI  2  h  2 
1  1  1  6, 0784 + 4,3024   1 
Vk = ⋅ 2 ⋅  ⋅ 40 ⋅ 4,3024 ⋅ 4 + ⋅ ⋅ 6 ⋅ 6 − 0,004 ⋅  ⋅ 40 ⋅ 6 + 12 ⋅ 6
672,4 2  672,4  2  2 
Vk = 0,000025099[m]

Korzystam z twierdzenia redukcyjnego. Wykorzystuję końcowy wykres momentów dla
układu statycznie niewyznaczalnego i rysuję wykres momentów od przyłożonej jednostkowej
siły wirtualnej dla schematu zastępczego.

## Politechnika Poznańska Adam Łodygowski ®

Mn ⋅M
Vu = ∫ ds
EI
1 2 4⋅ 22  5  1 1 2  1 2 4⋅2  5
2
3  
 ⋅ ⋅ 40 ⋅ ⋅  ⋅ 0,1185  + ⋅ ⋅ 40 ⋅ 2,315 ⋅  ⋅ 0,1185  + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅  ⋅ 0,1185 − ⋅ 2,9251 + 
1  2 3 8  8  2 2  3  2 3 8  8 8  
Vk = ⋅ +
EI  1 1  2 1  1 1 2 1  
+ ⋅ ⋅ 40 ⋅ 2,315 ⋅  − ⋅ 0,1185 + ⋅ 2,9251 + ⋅ 4,63 ⋅ ⋅ 40 ⋅  ⋅ 2,9251 − ⋅ 0,1185  
 2 2  3 3  2 2 3 3  
1 1 2 1  1 1 2  2 4 ⋅ 6 2  2,9251 + 4,1116 
+ ⋅  ⋅ 4,63 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 2,9251 + ⋅ 4,1116  + ⋅15,67 ⋅ 6 ⋅  ⋅ 2,9251 + ⋅ 4,1116  + ⋅ 6 ⋅ ⋅−  +
2 EI  2 3 3  2 3 3  3 8  2 
1 1  2 1  1  1 2  2 4⋅62  1,5808 + 0,3952 
+ ⋅  ⋅15,67 ⋅ 6 ⋅  − ⋅1,5808 − ⋅ 0,3952  + ⋅ 4,63 ⋅ 6 ⋅  − ⋅1,5808 − ⋅ 0,3952  + ⋅ 6 ⋅ ⋅  +
2 EI2  3 3  2  3 3  3 8  2 
1 1  2  2 4 ⋅ 2 2  0,3952 
+ ⋅  ⋅ 40 ⋅ 4,63 ⋅  − ⋅ 0,3952  + ⋅ 40 ⋅ ⋅  = −0,0093[m]
EI  2  3  3 8  2 