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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

BS NURSING 1 – SY 2020-2021
BICOL UNIVERSITY POLANGUI CAMPUS

EUVI GLENN S. REFORSADAO


Reference: Endocrine System ppt.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM GLANDS

body. Endocrine glands and cells secrete minute


amounts of chemical messengers called hormones into
the bloodstream, rather than into a duct. Hormones
then travel through the general blood circulation to
target tissue or effectors. The target tissues have
receptors for specific hormone. Hormones produce a
particular response in the target tissues.

TYPES OF HORMONES
Water-soluble hormones
 Includes proteins, peptides, amino acids
 Most common
 Example – growth hormone, antidiuretic,
prolactin
Lipid-soluble hormone
 Includes steroid and eicosanoids
 Example – LH, FSH, androgens

CONTROL OF HORMONE RELEASE


Blood-borne chemicals can directly stimulate the
release of some hormones. These chemicals are
CELL SECETION TYPE referred to as humoral stimuli because the circulate in
Autocrine: the blood. Humoral refers to body fluids, including
 Released by cells and a local effect on same blood. Hormone release can also be under neural
cell type control. Following action potentials, neurons release a
 Example – eicosanoids neurotransmitter into synapse with the cells that
Paracrine produce the hormone. Hormone release can also be
 Released by cells that affect other cell types in controlled by other hormones. It occurs when a
close proximity hormone is secreted that, in turn, stimulates the
 Example – somatostatin secretion of other hormones. The same three types of
Neuron transmitter and neuromodulators stimuli (humoral, neural, and hormonal) can stimulate or
 Secreted by nerve cells inhibit hormone release.
 Example – nervous system function
Hormones and neurohormones HUMORAAL REGULATION
 Secreted into blood and bind to receptor sites
 Example – epinephrine and insulin

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM FUNCTION


1. Metabolism
2. Control of food intake and digestion
3. Tissue development
4. Ion regulation
5. Water balance
6. Heart rate and blood pressure regulation
7. Control of blood glucose and other nutrients
8. Control of reproductive functions
9. Uterine contraction and milk release
10. Immune system regulation

CHARACTERISTICS
The endocrine system is composed of endocrine glands
and specialized endocrine cells located throughout the
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
BS NURSING 1 – SY 2020-2021
BICOL UNIVERSITY POLANGUI CAMPUS

EUVI GLENN S. REFORSADAO


Reference: Endocrine System ppt.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

NEURAL REGULATION
INHIBITION OF HORMONE RELEASE
Humoral inhibition of hormone releases generally
involves the action of companion hormones. Usually
each of the companion hormones performs an opposite
function. For example, to raise blood pressure, the
adrenal cortex secretes the hormone aldosterone in
response to low blood pressure, but to lower it the heart
atria secrete atrial natriuretic peptide. They work
together to maintain homeostasis of blood pressure.
Neurons inhibit targets just as often as they stimulate
targets. If the neurotransmitter is inhibitory, the target
endocrine gland does not secrete its hormone. In
control of hormone release by other hormones, that
reduce the release of the hormone being controlled. For
example, thyroid hormones can control their own blood
vessels by inhibiting their anterior pituitary tropic
hormone.

REGULATING OF BLOOD HORMONE LEVELS


Two major mechanisms maintain hormone levels in the
blood within aa homeostatic range: negative feedback
and positive feedback. Most hormones are regulated by
a negative-feedback mechanism, whereby the
hormone’s secretion in inhibited by the hormone itself
once blood levels have reached a certain point. Some
hormones are regulation by positive feedback, as
exemplified by tropic hormone action.

NEGATIVE AAND PPOSITIVE FEEDBACK


HORMONAL REGULATION

HORMONE RECEPTORS
A hormone can stimulate only the cells that have the
receptor for that hormone. The portion of each receptor
molecule where a hormone binds is called a receptor
site. The receptor site has specificity, allowing only one
hormone to bind to it. Some hormones, such as
epinephrine, can bind to a “family” of receptors that are
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
BS NURSING 1 – SY 2020-2021
BICOL UNIVERSITY POLANGUI CAMPUS

EUVI GLENN S. REFORSADAO


Reference: Endocrine System ppt.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

structurally similar. This specificity is due to molecular


shape and chemical characteristic. Lipid-soluble and
water-soluble hormones bind to their own classes of NUCLEAR AND MEMBRANE-BOUND RECEPTORS
receptor.
Lipids-soluble hormones bind to nuclear receptors due
to their lipid solubility and small molecular size allowing
to easily pass through the cell membrane.
Water-soluble hormone binds to membrane-bound
receptors. Water-soluble hormones are polar molecules
and cannot pass through the cell membrane.

LIPID-SOLUBLE HORMONE RECEPTORS


Lipid-soluble hormones bind to nuclear receptors due to
their lipid solubility and small molecular size, allowing to
easily pass through the cell membrane and nuclear
membrane. Nuclear receptors can also be located in
the cytoplasm, but then move to the nucleus when
activated. When hormone bind to nuclear receptors, the
hormone-receptor complex interacts with nuclear DNA
to regulate specific gene transcription.

WATER-SOLUBLE RECEPTOR
Water-soluble hormones, such as protein and peptide
types, cannot pass through the cell membrane. ATION OF NUCLEAR RECEPTORS
Interactions are with membrane-bound receptors, that Lipid-soluble hormones stimulate protein synthesis.
are proteins that extend across the cell membrane, with Lipid-soluble hormones diffuse across the cell
their hormone-binding sites exposed in the cell membrane and bind to their receptor, with the complex
membrane’s outer surface. When the hormone binds to now binding to hormone-response element on DNA.
the receptor, it turns on intracellular enzymes that This action regulates the transcription of specific
ultimately cause the response dictated by the hormone- messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) molecules and
receptor interaction protein synthesis occurs.

TARGET TISSUE SPECIFICITY AND RESPONSE NUCLEAR RECEPTOR

MEMBRANE RECEPTOR ACTIONS


Membrane receptors act in two ways, either altering the
activity of G proteins on the inner surface of the cell
membrane or directly altering the activity of intracellular
enzyme, elicits specific responses in cells, including the
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
BS NURSING 1 – SY 2020-2021
BICOL UNIVERSITY POLANGUI CAMPUS

EUVI GLENN S. REFORSADAO


Reference: Endocrine System ppt.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

production of molecules called, second messenger. A


second messenger molecule is produced inside a cell
once ligand binds to its membrane-bound receptor. A SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION
second messenger, such as cyclic adenosine Hormone that stimulates the synthesis of second
monosphate (cAMP), then activates specific cellular messengers act quickly and have an amplification
processes inside the cell in response to the hormone. effect. Each receptor produces thousands of second
messenger, leading to a cascade effect and ultimately
G-PROTEIN ACTIVATION amplification of the hormonal signal. With amplification,
Many membrane-bound receptors produce responses a single hormone activates many second messengers,
through the action of G proteins, which consist of 3 each of which activates enzymes that produce an
subunits. G protein are so named because one of the enormous amount of final product. The efficiency of this
subunits binds to guanine nucleotides. G-proteins, after second-messenger amplification is virtually unparalleled
several sequential action, interact with adenylate in the body.
cyclase, an enzyme that converts ATP to cAMP (cyclic
adenosine monospphate). Cyclic adenosine CASCADE EFFECT
monosphate binds to protein kinases and activates
them. Protein kinases are enzymes that, in turn,
regulate the activity of other enzymes. Depending on
the other enzyme, protein kinases can increase or
decrease its activity. Phosphodiesterase, an
intracellular enzyme, breaks down cAMP and thus
result in noo further cell stimulation.

CYCLIC AMP SYNTHESIS PITUITARY GLAND


Small gland in brain. Controlled by hypothalamus.
Divided into 2 regions: anterior and posterior. Secretes
at least 6 hormones.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
BS NURSING 1 – SY 2020-2021
BICOL UNIVERSITY POLANGUI CAMPUS

EUVI GLENN S. REFORSADAO


Reference: Endocrine System ppt.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES


Growth hormone:
 Target tissue: most
 Functions: stimulates growth in bones,
muscles, and organs
 Abnormalities: too much GH can cause
giantism and Too little GH causes pituitary
dwarfism.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH):
 Target tissues: thyroid gland
 Functions: regulates thyroid gland secretions
 Abnormalities: too much TSH, thyroid gland
enlarges and Too little TSH, thyroid gland
shrink.

REGULATION OF THYROID HORMONE SECRETION

ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND ACTIONS


Anterior pituitary gland synthesizes hormones, that is
under the control of the hypothalamus. Neurons of the
hypothalamus secrete releasing hormones that
stimulate the production and secretion of specific
hormone. Inhibiting hormones decrease the secretion of
a specific anterior pituitary hormone.

HYPOTHALAMUS AND ANTERIOR PITUITARY


ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES
Gonadotrophin hormone LH
LH (luteinizing) for females:
 Target tissue: ovaries
 Function: promotes ovulation and
progesterone production
LH for males:
 Target tissue: testes
 Function: sperm production and testosterone
Gonadotrophin hormone FSH
Follicle-stimulating for females:
 Target tissue: follicles in ovaries
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
BS NURSING 1 – SY 2020-2021
BICOL UNIVERSITY POLANGUI CAMPUS

EUVI GLENN S. REFORSADAO


Reference: Endocrine System ppt.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

 Function: follicle maturation and estrogen


secretion

FSH for males:


 Target tissue: seminiferous tubules (testes) THYROID GLAND
 Function: sperm production One of largest glands. Requires iodine to function.
Prolactin: Secretes thyroid hormone secreted by follicular cells:
 Target tissues: mammary glands and ovaries  Target tissues: most
 Functions: milk production  Function: regulates metabolic rates and is
Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH): needed for growth
 Target tissues: melanocytes in the skin Calcitonin secreted by parafollicular cells:
 Function: stimulate melanin production in  Target tissues: bone and some other tissues
melanocytes  Function: reduces blood calcium level when
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH): high.
 Target: cells of adrenal cortex
 Functions: stimulates production of certain THYROID HORMONE DISORDER
corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism:
 Decreased metabolism
POSTERIOR PITUITARY ACTION  Weight gain, reduced appetite, fatigue
The posterior pituitary gland synthesizes and releases  Low temp. and pulse
hormones produced by neuroendocrine cells in the  Dry, cold skin
hypothalamus. The two hormones released from the  Myxedema in adults
posterior pituitary are antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and  Cretinism in infants
oxytocin. Hyperthyroidism
 Increased metabolism
POSTERIOR GLAND HORMONES  Wight loss, increased appetite, nervousness
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH):  Higher temp. and pulse
 Target tissues: kidneys  Warm, flushed skin
 Function: conserve water  Graves’ disease (leads to goiter)
 Abnormalities: diabetes insipidus
 Low ADH PARATHYROID GLAND
 Kidneys to produce large Parathyroid hormone (PTH):
amount of dilute  Target tissues: bones and kidneys
 (Watery) urine  Function: regulates blood Ca2+ levels (more
 Can lead to dehydration and than calcitonin)
thirst If Ca2+ is low then osteoclasts break down bone matrix
Oxytocin and less Ca2+ is lost in urine. If Ca2+ is high then
 Target tissues: uterus osteoclasts don’t break down bone matrix and more
 Functions: increases uterine contractions Ca2+ is lost in urine.
during labor.

HYPOTHALAMUS AND POSTERIOR PITUITARY


ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
BS NURSING 1 – SY 2020-2021
BICOL UNIVERSITY POLANGUI CAMPUS

EUVI GLENN S. REFORSADAO


Reference: Endocrine System ppt.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

part, called the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla


and the adrenal cortex function as separate endocrine
glands.

REGULATION OF BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS


ADRENAL GLANDS

THYROID GLAND AND PARATHYROID GLANDS

ADRENAL GLAND HORMONES


Adrenal medulla hormones:
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine:
 Target tissues: heart, blood vessels, liver, fat
cells
 Functions: released as part of fight or flight
response.

REGULATION OF ADRENAL MEDULLARY


SECRETIONS

ADRENAL GLAND ACTIONOS


The adrenal glands are two small glands located
superior to each kidney. Each adrenal gland has an
inner part, called the adrenal medulla, and an outer
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
BS NURSING 1 – SY 2020-2021
BICOL UNIVERSITY POLANGUI CAMPUS

EUVI GLENN S. REFORSADAO


Reference: Endocrine System ppt.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

ADRENAL GLAND HORMONES


Adrenal cortex hormone: ADRENAL GLAND HORMONES
Aldosterone Androgens
 Type of mineralocorticoids  Target tissues: most
 Target tissues: kidneys  Function: males secondary sexual
 Function: causes Na+ and H2O to be retained characteristics. Female, sex drives
and K+ be secreted, indirectly involved with
blood pressure and blood volume PANCREAS ACTIONS
The pancreas is mixed gland, with an exocrine portion
REGULATION OF ALDOSTERONE SECRETION and an endocrine portion. The exocrine portion of the
pancreas secretes digestive enzyme. The endocrine
part of the pancreas consist of pancreatic islets (islets
of Langerhans), which are dispersed throughout the
exocrine portion of the pancreas. The islet consists of
three cell types, each of which secrets a separate
hormone. Alpha cells secrete glucagon, beta cells
secrete insulin, and delta cells secrete somatostatin.
These three hormones regulate the blood levels of
nutrients, especially glucose.

PANCREATIC STRUCTURE

ADRENAL GLAND HORMONES


Cortisol:
 Type of glucocorticoids
 Target tissues: most
 Functions: increases breakdown of fat and
protein for energy uses reduces inflammatory
and immune responses

REGULATION OF CORTISOL SECRETION


PANCREAS HORMONE
Insulin
 Target tissues: liver, skeletal muscle, adipose
tissue
 Function: regulates blood glucose levels. After
a meal glucose levels are high and insulin is
secreted. Extra glucose is stored in form of
glycogen.

INSULIN ABNORMALITITES
Diabetes mellitus:
 Causes: too little insulin or faulty insulin
receptors
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
BS NURSING 1 – SY 2020-2021
BICOL UNIVERSITY POLANGUI CAMPUS

EUVI GLENN S. REFORSADAO


Reference: Endocrine System ppt.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

 Symptoms: exaggerated appetite, excess  Function: acid in sperm and reproductive


urine, dehydration, thirst, fatigue organ development and function
 Type I: insulin dependent (daily injections
required)
 Type II: insulin independent, often found in
obese people, can be treated with diet but can OVARIAN HORMONES
turn into type I. Estrogen/Progesterone
PANCREASE HORMONEA  Target tissue: most
Glucagon:  Function: involved in uterine and mammary
 Target tissues: liver gland development and menstrual cycle
 Function: regulates blood glucose levels. THYMUS GLAND HORMONE
Between meals glucose levels drops and Thymosin
glucagon is secreted. Glucagon allows  Target tissues: immune system tissues
glycogen to be broken down into glucose.  Function: promotes immune system
development and function
REGULATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS
PINEAL GLALND HORMONE
Melatonin
 Target tissues: hypothalamus
 Function: plays a role in onset of puberty and
controls circadian rhythms. Light affects its
function.

TESTES HORMONE
Testosterone
 Target tissues: most