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Herausgeber: Prof. Dr. Fritz F. Steininger, Senckenbergische Naturforschende G esellschaft,


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Schriftleitung: Dr. Peter Königshof, Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg,


Frankfurt am Main

Wissenschaftlicher Prof. Dr. Peter von Bitter, Toronto, Canada; Prof. Dr. Volker Fahlbusch, München,
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Titelbild: The world at Middle Eocene Times and the beginning of the Paratethys Realm
(POPOV et al., this volume)

Herausgeber des Sergej Valentinovich POPOV & A. Y. ROZANOV, Paleontological Institut RAS, Profsoyuznaya 123,
vorliegenden Bandes: 117868 Moscow, Russland, serg.pop@mail.ru; Fred RÖG L, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien,
Burgring 7, A­1014 Wien, Österreich; Fritz F. STEININGER, Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum
Senckenberg, Senckenberganlage 25, D­60325 Frankfurt; Irina G eorgievna SHCHERBA,
GEON­Centre of Geophysical and G eoecological Research, Tectonic Laboratory,
Chistiy per. 4, Str. 1, 119034 Moscow, Russland; Michal KOVAC, Comenius University,
Dept. of geology and paleontology, Faculty of Sciences, Mlynska dolina G ,
842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia

Paleontological Institut RAS, Moscow

Herstellung: Senckenbergische Naturforschende G esellschaft (SNG ), Senckenberganlage 25,


D­60325 Frankfurt am Main

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ISSN 0341 ­ 4116


ISBN 3­510­61370­8
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg 250 1-46 Frankfurt a. M , 16. 09.2004

Popov, S.V., Rögl, F., Rozanov, A.Y., Steininger,


F. F., Shcherba, I. G. & Kovac, M. (Eds)

Lithological-Paleogeographic maps of Paratethys


10 Maps Late Eocene to Pliocene

Partly sponsored by European Science Foundation


Preface

The encompassing aim of the European Science Foundation Programm "Environments and Ecosystem Dynamics of
the Eurasian Neogene (EEDEN), is the detailed analysis of the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental
change through the integration of multidisciplinary studies focussing on some selected, already fairly well-known
"high-resolution" time intervals in the Neogene of the Eurasian realm. These intervals are known to (a) include major
changes in the composition of terrestrial communities, (b) portray large-scale palaeogeographical reorganizations and
changes in overall environmental conditions in the terrestrial realm and (c) allow the establishment of high-resolution
stratigraphie correlations with data and interpretations pertaining to regional and global aspects of the coeval devel-
opment of marine environments. They cover ( 1 ) the latest Miocene to Early Pliocene ( H R I 1 : 7 - 4 Ma ago), ( 2 ) the
latest Middle Miocene to early Late Miocene ( H R I 2 : 1 2 - 8.5 Ma ago) and ( 3 ) the late Early to early Middle Miocene
( H R I 3 : 1 7 - 1 4 Ma ago).
The research strategy of the EEDEN - programm was realized through three corresponding, internally comprehensive,
but mutually complementary and overlapping programme components. These are the terrestrial database component,
the time-stratigraphic / palaeogeographic component, and the palaeobiological component.
One of the fundamental components, the time-stratigraphic / palaeogeographic component, needs to incorporate
the latest dates available to reconstruct the paleogeographic / palinstastic evolution of the Tethys / Mediterranean
and the Paratethys realms and to incorporate all these results in a continous sequence paleogeographic maps. Such
paleogeographic / palinstastic maps as they are published here are the base for the goals of the EEDEN programm to
reconstruct the Environments and Ecosystem Dynamics of the Eurasian Neogene. This new paleogeographic atlas is
the continuation of earlier works within the last decade presented by DERCOURT et al. 1 9 8 5 , 1 9 9 3 , 2 0 0 0 ; HAMOR (Ed.)
1988; KOVAC 2 0 0 2 ; RÖGL 1 9 9 8 ; RÖGL & STEININGER 1 9 8 3 , 1 9 8 4 ; SENES 1 9 6 0 ; STEININGER & RÖGL 1 9 8 2 , 1 9 8 4 ; STEININGER
et al. 1 9 8 5 ; ZIEGLER 1 9 9 0 .
We are grateful to the European Science Foundation and the Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, which
have sponsored the publication of these paleogeographic maps within the EEDEN Programm.

Fritz F. Steininger
Frankfurt am Main, Oktober 2 0 0 4
Contents

Introduction 1

POPOV, S. V., SHCHERBA, I. G. & STOLYAROV, A. S.: M a p l : Late Eocene (P riabonian - Beloglinian) 3

POPOV, S. V., SHCHERBA, I. G. & STOLYAROV, A. S.: Map 2: Early Oligocène (Early Rupelian,

Early Kiscellian - P schekhian) 7

POPOV, S. V., SHCHERBA, I. G. & STOLYAROV, A. S.: Map 3: Late Oligocène (Chattian - Egerian - Kalmykian) 11

POPOV, S. V , SHCHERBA, I. G. & STOLYAROV, A. S.: Map 4: Early Miocene (Burdigalian, Eggenburgian,
Sakaraulian) 15
GONCHAROVA, I. G., SHCHERBA, I. G. & KHONDKARIAN, S. O.: Map 5: Early Middle Miocene
(Langhian, Early Badenian Chokrakian) 19

ILYINA, L. В., SHCHERBA, I. G. & KHONDKARIAN, S. O. & Goncharova, I. A.: Map 6: Mid Middle Miocene
(Middle Serravallian, Late Badenian, Konkian) 23

PARAMONOVA, N. P ., SHCHERBA, I. G. & KHONDKARIAN, S. O.: Map 7: Late Middle Miocene


(Late Seravallian, Sarmatian s.S., Middle Sarmatian s.l.) 27

ILYINA, L. В., SHCHERBA, I. G. & KHONDKARIAN, S. O.: Map 8: Mid Late Miocene (Late Tortonian - Early
Messinian - Early Maeotian - Late P annonian) 31

KHONDKARIAN, S. O., SHCHERBA, I. G. & POPOV, S. V.: Map 9: Latest Miocene (Late Messinian,
Early P ontian - Late P annonian) 35

KHONDKARIAN, S. O., P ARAMONOVA, N. P . & SHCHERBA, I. G.: MAP 10: Middle Late P liocene
(Piacentian - Gelasian, Late Romanian, Akchagilian) 39

References 42

Annex: Lithological-P aleogeographic maps (1-10) of Paratethys


Introduction

The fundamental reorganization of the Tethyan Realm in the Cenozoic was caused by the African / Apulian / Arabian
- Eurasian continent - continent collision starting during the Eocene. This resulted in the uplift and emergence of
the evolving Alpine chains from the Pyrenees in the west to the Lesser Caucasus - Elburz - Kopetdagh island arcs
in the east. With respect to paleogeography, the collision resulted in the break-up of the Tethyan Realm into southern
(circum - Mediterranean) and northern (Paratethyan) domains, as well as in their strong fragmentation and an increase
in biogeographical differentiation in the course of time. From the Oligocène onward the northern domain became subject
to recurrent isolation from the Mediterranean and the world ocean.
The post-collision paleogeography and evolution of the Paratethys area from the fore-Alpine region to the Tien-
Shan and Kopetdagh are portrayed by means of ten 1 : 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 maps covering the late Eocene (Priabonian), Oligocène
( 2 maps), Miocene ( 6 maps) and late Pliocene. Each map was constructed as a palinspastic map on the relevant geo-
dynamic base ( 1 : 2 0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 ) . Integrated biogeographical approach was relevant for palinspastic reconstructions of
the active Alpine Fold Belt, where the influence of plate tectonics was too severe and nap tectonics occur. The key
information on the restoration of land bridges, marine straits and gulfs was achieved from paleobiogeographical data,
since geodynamical events can hardly be reconstructed other than by the means of the areal distribution patterns of
main fossil groups.
Within the last decade several paleogeographic / palinspastic reconstructions of the Tethys and Paratethys have
been presented (DERCOURT et al. 1 9 8 5 , 1 9 9 3 , 2 0 0 0 ; RÖGL 1 9 9 8 . Previous paleogeographic researches of the Paratethys
area were very schematic (SENES 1 9 6 1 ; STEININGER, RÖGL 1 9 8 4 ; RÖGL 1 9 9 8 ) or concerned some parts of the Paratethys
only (VINOGRADOV 1 9 6 7 - 1 9 6 9 ; HAMOR (ed.) 1 9 8 8 ; ZIEGLER 1 9 9 0 ; KOVAC 2 0 0 2 ) . One major weakness of these recon-
structions was the incorporation of insufficient and incorrect data on the eastern Paratethys regions. Publications on
paleogeography of the vast regions of the Transcaspia (Turan Plate, Kazakhstan, West Siberia), folded zones of the
Greater and Lesser Caucasus, Kopetdagh, Tien-Shan and Pamir are very rare - even in Russian - and thus inacces-
sible for worldwide usage. More detailed summary works ("Atlas..." 1 9 6 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) - were compiled 4 0 years ago, and
they were based on a static picture of sediment / facies distribution. During the last decades abundant geophysical and
borehole data on unexposed strata have been collected, and mobilistic ideas, slope-slip process analysis, and methods
of palinspastic reconstructions were applied.
Compilators of the Paratethys maps are a team of paleontologists, stratigraphers, lithologist, tectonist, which had
formed during the work on "Neogene paleogeographic Atlas of Central and Eastern Europe". A more detailed set of
Paratethys maps were elaborated within the framework of the Peri-Tethys Programme ( 1 9 9 6 - 1 9 9 8 , grant 2 5 PTP, leader
S.V. POPOV), but the published results (HAMOR et al., 1 9 8 8 ; DERCOURT 2 0 0 0 ) do not reflect the entire set of collected
informations. I.G. SHCHERBA was tectonic curator for all maps. The detailed paleogeographic reconstructions of the
north Black Sea area, Ciscaucasia, Volga - Don, and Mangyshlak, prepared by lithologist A. S. STOLYAROV, have served
as a base for the Late Eocene, Oligocène, and Early Miocene Paratethys maps. All Neogene maps in the Transcaspian
part have been compiled by S.O. KHONDKARIAN, a geologist from "Aerogeologia". Malacologists and stratigraphers
from the Paleontological Institute RAS were curators of the maps: S.V. POPOV (maps 1-4), I.A. GONCHAROVA (map 5 ) ,
L.B. ILYINA (maps 6 , 8 ) , N.P. PARAMONOVA (maps 7 , 1 0 ) . Regional co-authors of the maps are Ju.I. IOSIFOVA (Paleo-Don),
M. KOVAC (West Carpathians), A. NAGYMAROSY, I. MAGYAR (Pannonian Basin), T.V. JAKUBOVSKAJA (Belorus), T.N. PIN-
CHUK (Cis-Caucasia), G. POPESCU, A. Rusu (Transylvania, S.Carpathians), B.I. PINKHASOV (Turan area for the Paleogene
maps), F. RÖGL (Hellenids, fore-Alpine Basin), A.V ZAJTSEV (Paleo-Donets), and A.S. ZASTROZHNOV (Paleo-Don). Drafts
for the Black Sea depressions were adapted from D.A. TUGOLESOV et al. ( 1 9 8 5 , 1 9 9 3 ) . Palinspastic reconstructions for
the title-pages were compiled by S.V. POPOV and I.G. SHCHERBA in collaboration with K. GÜRS (north-west Europe),
M. KOVAC (Alpine-Carpathian part), V A . KRASHENINNIKOV (North Arabia), and I.A. GONCHAROVA (map 5 ) . Computer
versions of the Paratethys maps and reconstructions were compiled by E.S. POPOVA.
Our paleogeographic research was additionally supported by the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research
(grant 0 4 - 0 5 - 6 4 4 5 9 ) and sponsored by the Hans Raussing Foundation.
Publishing of maps in Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg became possible through the courtesy of
Prof. F.F. STEININGER, technical handling was done by P. KÖNIGSHOF.

1
POPOV et al.: Late Eocene (Priabonian - Beloglinian) 37-34 Ma

M a p 1: Late Eocene The vast West Siberian Sea was an effective barrier for
(PRIABONIAN - BELOGLINIAN) the Asian terrestrial vertebrate invasions. Marine connec-
tion of this sea with the Arctic Basin had been lost before
Late Eocene time.
Time slice definition and biochronology

The mapped interval includes the entire Priabonian: the Alpine - Carpathian Basin
Globigerapsis semiinvoluta - Globorotalia centralis
(PI5-17) planktic foraminifer zones, the Chiasmolithus The deep-water part of the Paleogene Alpine-Carpathian
oamaruensis - Sphenolithus pseudoradians (NP18-20) Basin represented a system of deep troughs of the Rhe-
and the lower part of the Coccolithus subdistihus (NP21) nodanubian - Magura zone and the Crosno - Moldavian
calcareous nannoplankton zones, the Charlesdowniella zone (the Dukla, Silesian, Subsilesian, Skiba, Tarcau, etc.
clathrata angulosa dinocyst zone, and the Nummulites troughs), situated to the northeast, separated in the southern
fabiani and N. radiatus zones. The corresponding numeri- areas by highs (cordilleras) that occasionally overhung
cal ages for the lower and upper limits of the interval are as emergent islands the water. Flysch sediments of small
about 37 and 34 Ma, respectively (according to BERGGREN thickness accumulating in these troughs were penetrated
etal. 1995). by thick sandy cones and turbidity currents from the cordil-
leras and adjacent platform. Toward the second half of the
The mapped interval for the Central Paratethys includes
Late Eocene, the bottom topography in the central areas of
the nummulitic limestones, the Bryozoa and Buda Marls
the Alpine-Carpathian Basin was partly flattened by sedi-
of the Hungarian Paleogene Basin, based on nummulites,
ments and carbonate sedimentation took place (Sheshory
planktic foraminifer and nannoplankton data. The Cluj
marly deposition). The flysch basin in the Carpathians was
Limestone and the Braby Marl of Transylvania are cor-
about 2 0 0 - 5 0 0 km wide (e.g. BALDI 1 9 8 6 , KOVAC et al.
related with the Priabonian, based on the same groups.
2 0 0 2 ) , but towards the end of the Late Eocene, sediments
Flysch deposits (up to 1500 m thickness) and the lower
in the southern areas of the flysch basin began to fold as
part of the Sheshory Marl have a Priabonian age in the Fly-
a result of drift of the East Alpine - Western Carpathian
sch Carpathians, based on the presence of Globigerapsis
lithosphère fragment (microplate Aleapa, sensu CSONTOS
tropicalis and Discoaster barbadiensis (NP 18-20).
et al. 1 9 9 2 ) in the northeasterly direction along the sys-
The Beloglinian successions of the Trans-Caucasus
tem of transform faults (BALLA 1 9 8 4 , NAGYMAROSY 1 9 9 0 ,
and Cis-Caucasus contain planktic foraminifers Globig-
CSONTOS e t a l . 1 9 9 2 ) .
erapsis tropicalis - Globoquadrina corpulenta (PI5-16)
and regional Turborotalia centralis zones, nannofossils of The southern margin of the Outer Carpathian flysch
the Discoaster barbadiensis zone (NP18-20); and dinocyst sea was represented by two deep-water basins (the Cen-
Charlesdowniella clathrata angulosa Zone (KRASHENIN- tral Carpathian Paleogene Basin and the Szolnok flysch
NIKOV & MUZYLEV 1975, BUGROVA et al. 1988, KRASHENIN- basin). In the Eocene - earliest Oligocène, the Hungarian
NIKOV & AKHMETIEV 1996). Paleogene Buda Basin was open towards the Ligurian part
of the Ancient Mediterranean Region (BALDI 1 9 8 6 ) , and
represented the northern part of the Apulian shelf zone. The
Paleogeography and paleoenvironments Transylvanian shelf areas with their biogenic calcareous
sedimentation were probably connected with the shal-
The Priabonian North Peri-Tethys was one of the most low-water Fore-Rhodopian and Macedonian basins via
spacious and the last semi-open Paleogene basin of West the Moravian Zone in Serbia. The Fore-Carpathian Shelf
Eurasia. It was connected via the Pripyat Strait with the Sea was open in the east towards the Greater Caucasian
North Sea Basin, which had no connection to the Atlantic (Beloglinian) Basin.
at this time. Contacts with the Tethyan Realm (Ancient
Mediterranean) took place through the Pre-Alpine and
Slovenian straits, the Central Iran Basin, and the Lesser Greater Caucasus - Turan Basin (Beloglinian)
Caucasus Strait. The Central Dinaride Region became
dry land in the terminal Priabonian and the relict bathyal The deep-water basin system was divided into the West-
depression moved to the Pindos - Gavrovo zone of the ern Black Sea, the Eastern Black Sea, and the Greater
Hellenides. The Burgas-Kazanlik and Varna (Kamchia) Caucasus domains by the Andrusov and Shatsky ridges
gulfs, that occur side by side today, probably belonged (SHCHERBA 1 9 9 3 ) . In the central parts of the Black Sea
to different basins, separated by a terrestrial barrier that depression, up to 3 0 0 - 5 0 0 m of clayey sediments were
extended from the Balkan Thrust Zone along the Black deposited during the (undivided) Paleocene - Eocene,
Sea Anatolian coast up to the Eastern Pontides and the as can be inferred from seismic surveys (TUGOLESOV et
Lesser Caucasus. Mammals of Central Asian origin (an- al. 1 9 8 5 ) . Flysch sequences were accumulated in the
thracothere association) could migrate along this land up Adzharo-Trialetic areas of the Eastern Black Sea domain
to Southern Bulgaria, Slovenia and Transylvania. (Tbilisi Flysch, up to 1 0 0 0 m). The modern South Caspian

4
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 250, 2004

Depression is a relict of a deep, steep-walled trough of the mulated in the deep-water shelf area (up to a few hundred
Greater Caucasus - Kopetdagh Basin. Primary width of meters) of the Scythian Sea, the south-western parts of the
the trough was more then 2 0 0 km (SHCHERBA 1 9 9 3 , KOPP Turan sea, and in the Transcaucasian area (Kura Depres-
& SHCHERBA 1 9 9 8 ) . sion). The marls belong to the Globigerapsis tropicalis
The southern border of the Beloglinian Basin was regional zone. Clastic - mainly clayey - sediments were
a chain of islands, which included the Pontian, Lesser deposited in the shallow shelf zone of the Scythian and
Caucasus, and Elburz-Kopetdagh uplifts, belonging to the Turan seas which can be followed to the Turgaj, West
southern part of a former Mesozoic island arc. The islands Siberia, Fergan-Tadjic and Tarim regions. Sands had
of Lesser Caucasus - South Elburz were of volcanic origin. very limited distribution in the Beloglinian Basin (South
Sandy - carbonate facies with Nummulites accumulated Ukraine, North Aral).
on the Transcaucasian southern shelf. The composition The north-eastern succession yields abundant but low
of the biota shows a strong Tethyan influence in the early diversity associations of benthic foraminifers, ostracods,
Priabonian, then a sudden impoverishment occurred in and mollusks, with half of the species being endemic for
the second half, which, together with invasions of Central the Turanian Province. The Tarim Basin was an eastern gulf
Asian vertebrates, indicates the formation of a continental of the Turan Sea in the early Priabonian, but later marine
barrier between the Tethyan and Paratethyan realms. sedimentation came to an end in the basin. The Elburz
Biogenic marly sediments with rich age-diagnostic - Kopetdagh land was an effective southern barrier of the
planktic fauna and flora (forams, nannofossils) were accu- Turan Sea at least from the Mid Eocene.

5
POPOV et al.: Early Oligocène (Early Rupelian, Early Kiscellian - Pschekhian)

Map 2: Early Oligocène Paleogeography and paleoenvironments


(Early RUPELIAN,
The effects of the African - Arabian - Eurasian collision,
Early KISCELLIAN - PSCHEKHIAN)
uplifting in the Alpine Foldbelt, and eustatic sea-level
drop at the terminal Eocene caused the separation of the
Time slice definition and biochronology northern basins from the Tethyan Realm. From the begin-
ning of the Oligocène these intercontinental domains with
The Eocene/Oligocene boundary is taken by present spécifie paleo- and biogeography, hydrological regime,
authors as a boundary between the Priabonian and the and dynamics of sedimentation were collectively named
Rupelian, the base of which is marked in the Paratethys the Paratethys (LASKAREV 1924, BALDI et al. 1980) The
by the appearance of planktic foraminifers of the Glo- Paratethys was subdivided into the Central European (Al-
bigerina tapuriensis Zone (PI8), within the Coccolithus pine-Carpathian) and the Euxinian-Caspian basins.
subdistichus nannoplankton Zone (NP21) (CAVELIER & The isolation of the Paratethys along with the terminal
POMEROL 1986). The mapped interval - early Rupelian Eocene cooling and changes to mesophilic humid climatic
s.l. - is roughly equivalent to the planktic foraminiferal conditions with intensive runoff, as well as deepening of
zone P I 8 and includes the upper part of the calcareous the basin bottom, led to thermohaline water stratification
nannoplankton zone NP21 and the entire NP22. The and to a primarily estuarine water circulation pattern,
corresponding numerical ages for the lower and upper eventually resulting in recurrent episodes of stagnation
limits of the interval are about 34 and 32 Ma, respectively and, consequently, accumulation of dysoxic to anoxic
(BERGGREN e t a l . 1995). sediments. Such sediments were predominant during the
The mapped interval for the Central Paratethys is the Oligocène and Early Miocene and referred to as "mayko-
early Kiscellian. In the Hungarian Paleogene Basin - a pian and menilitic fades" in the Paratethys (from the
stratotypic area for the Kiscellian - the Tard Clay Member beginning of NP22).
without its uppermost part ("Cardium lipoldi beds") is of
early Rupelian age, based on planktic foraminifer (PI8)
and nannoplankton (NP21, 22) data (BALDI et al. 1984, Alpine-Carpathian Basin
NAGYMAROSY & BALDI-BEKE 1988). Sandy calcareous
deposits of the Hoia and Mera beds with benthic fauna At the beginning of the Oligocène, specific marine con-
of Tethyan affinity are the facial analogues of the lower ditions existed in the central deep part of the basin, with
Kiscellian in Transylvania. condensed suboxic sedimentation (up to 10-15 m). Later
In the Carpathian Flysch Basin, the upper part of the hydrothermal activity and embedding of biogenic elements
Sheshory Marl as well as the Subchert and Chert members (phosphorus, nitrogen) led to explosive diatom and/or
are of early Rupelian age; only the latter two members are nannoplankton growth (near the NP22/23 boundary, lower
represented on the paleogeographic map. These deposits Chert level). Monospecific composition of the diatom and
belong to NP22 nannoplankton zone and Wetzeliella sym- nannoplankton flora reflects the onset of brackish condi-
metrica (D13b) dinocyst Subzone (ANDREYEVA-GRIGOROVICH tions. High turbiditic activity indicates steep slopes of the
et al. 1986, KRHOVSKY et al. 1993). In the Pre-Alpine Foredeep, Carpathian Trough.
the lower Marine Molasse (UMM) is the mapped interval, in The Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin was part of the
spite of its wider stratigraphie position based on planktic fo- eastern Alcapa shelf. The Harshegy Sandstone was accu-
raminifers (P17-P20), nannoplankton (from NP21 to NP24), mulated in the shallow part, whereas the anoxic Tard Clay
dinocyst and mammal data (BERGER 1992, 1996). with andesitic tuff sublayers was deposited in the deeper
The Pshekhian Regiostage is the mapped unit in the part of this shelf. The basin was episodically connected
Eastern Paratethys. Its basal part contains the Globigerina with the North Italy Basin via the Slovenian corridor, but
tapuriensis (PI8), Coccolithus subdistichus (NP21), and biogeographically the influence of the North Sea Basin
Phthanoperidinium amoenum (D13a) zones (KRASHENIN- was stronger (BALDI 1986, NAGYMAROSY 1990).
NIKOV & AKHMETIEV 1996). The middle part of the stage The Transylvanian Basin with sandy - calcareous
includes nannoplankton of the Helicopontosphaera sedimentation in its shallow part (Hoia and Mera beds)
reticulata Zone (NP22) and the dinocyst Wetzeliella sym- was part of the Apuseni Shelf. Biogeographical data in-
metrica Subzone (Dl3b). The upper part is characterized dicate its connection with the Fore-Rhodopian Basin of
by dinocysts of the Wetzeliella gochtii Zone (D14a) and the Tethyan Realm.
nannoplankton of the NP22-23 transitional interval. Shallow-water sandy-clayey sediments of the narrow
Magnetostratigraphy provides a good control for the northern shelf were preserved in the Pre-Alpine Foredeep
Pshekhian sequence (MOLOSTOVSKII & KHRAMOV 1997, and are known in turbidite composition only in the Car-
KUNAEV 1990), because it belongs almost entirely to a pathian Flysch Basin.
reversed polarity zone (C 12r, according to BERGGREN et al.
1995) with three normally magnetized subzones (C13n)
in the earliest Pshekhian.

8
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 250, 2004

Eastern Paratethys deep Black Sea - Great Caucasus - South Caspian depres-
sions by a system of islands and shallows stretching from
After the terminal Eocene regression, a new transgression the Ukrainian Shield to the highs of Mangyshlak and North
took place at the beginning of the Oligocène. According Ustjurt. The paleobotanical and paleozoological evidence
to biogeographical data, the main connection of the basin shows a gradual change from a xerophytic subtropical
with the open sea was in the west, towards the North Sea climate to a temperate mesophilic one.
Basin. The Western Great Caucasus (Lagonaki), Dzirul and
Dysoxic clayey facies, which reflects a hydrogen (?) Crimea Islands occupied isolated positions in the mid-
sulfide poisoning, was very typical for the deep part of dle part of the Maykopian basin. The Pontides, Lesser
the Maykopian Basin during Oligocène - Early Miocene. Caucasus, and Elburz were an uplifting system, which
These conditions led to the accumulation of dissolved separated the Eastern Paratethys from the Tethyan Realm.
manganese in the sulphidic zone and its subsequent The narrow southern shelf extended along this land.
precipitation on the shelf. Varna (NE Bulgaria), Nikopol The next period of the early Oligocène Paratethys his-
(South Ukraine), Chiatura (West Georgia), and Mangysh- tory (NP23, D14a Wetzeliella gochtii subzone) was con-
lak are localities with commercial amounts of manganese nected to the first separation of the basin from the world
sedimentary ores (second part of NP22, D13b Wetzeliella ocean and a consequent reduction of salinity.
simmetrica Subzone).
The northern part of the Eastern (Maykopian) Para-
tethys was occupied by a spacious shallow shelf zone with
coarser clastic sedimentation. It was separated from the

9
POPOV et al.: Late Oligocène (Chattian - Egerian - Kalmykian)

Map 3: Late Oligocène existed towards the North Sea Basin. According to BERGER
(CHATTIAN - EGERIAN - KALMYKIAN) (1996) and SISSINGH (1997) the Western Paratethys had a
temporal marine connection via the Rhine Graben System,
although from other data the graben only had brackish
Time slice definition and biochronology conditions during that time. The Central Paratethys was
connected with the Mediterranean via the Slovenian cor-
The mapped interval includes the entire Chattian and ridor. The position of the marine passage to the Eastern
covers a time-window from about 30 to 24 Ma. In fully Paratethys, however, cannot be ascertained, because the
oceanic successions the Chattian corresponds to the Glo- marine late Oligocène deposits are not easy to determine
borotalia opima opima (P2 lb) and Globigerina ciperoensis in the Dnieper-Donets Depression and unknown in the
(P22) zones. The Chattian stratotype area (NW Germany) Pripyat and the North Poland areas, where the early Oli-
is characterized by the upper part of the nannoplankton gocène strait existed.
zone NP24 and zone NP25, planktic foraminifer zone
P22 and presence of Lepidocyclina morgani, Miogypsina
septemtrionalis, dinocysts belong to the upper part of the Alpine-Carpathian Basin
Chiropteridium partispinatum zone, or zones D14b, D15
(POMEROL 1981). The part west of the Silesian - Audia zones of the Carpathi-
The time-equivalents of the Chattian in the Central an Flysch Basin was uplifted and partly emergent (BEER &
Paratethys are the Upper Kiscellian and the Lower Ege- SHCHERBA 1984). Uplifting is proved by coarse-rhythmic
rian; however, only the Egerian is represented on the terrigenous flysch of the lower Crosno Formation, the
map. The marly clay of the Egerian Formation contains sandy facies of the Kliwa and Fusaru Formations, and
nannoplankton of the upper part of NP24 and NP25 zones, olistostromes with coarse clastic material of the foreland
and Globorotalia opima opima and Miogypsina septem- area, as in the Eastern Alps, the Marmarosh and Getic
trionalis forams (NAGYMAROSY & BALDI-BEKE 1988). In Mesozoic massifs. Presence of turbidites gives evidence
Transylvania, most of the Vima Formation, the Buzach of steep slopes of the troughs.
Sandstone and its time-equivalents belong to the Chat- Regression took place on the southern shelf, and coarse
tian, based on nannoplankton and planktic foraminifers clastic brackish deposits with lignite predominated in the
(POPESCU et al. 1996). western part of the Hungarian and Transylvanian shelves.
The Middle Menilites (Lopjanica), lower Crosno, Andésite volcanic activity occurred along the Peri-Adriatic
Zdanice - Hustopece and Pucioasa Formations of the and Middle Hungarian sutures (BALLA 1984), and in de-
Carpathian successions contain a similar upper Oligocène pressions of eastern Serbia and southern Bulgaria, whereas
microfauna and phytoplankton (CICHA et al. 1971, A N - in the Morava - Shumadian area lagoonal and lacustrine
DREEVA-GRIGOROVICH et al. 1986, KRHOVSKY et al. 1993, coal-bearing sediments were deposited, sometimes with
POPESCU et al. 1996). acidic volcanic intercalations (ANDJELKOVIC et al. 1991).
The Middle Maykopian Subseries of the Pre-Caucasus Sandy clays and conglomerates of the north and south
is correlated with the upper Oligocène, based on nanno- shelves are known in the central - western parts of the
plankton (NP24, NP25 - data of J.Krhovsky) and dinocysts Pre-Carpathian and Pre-Alpine foredeeps (Lopjanica;
(AKHMETIEV et al. 1995). turbidites of Puchkirchen Beds, up to 1000 m).
Most of the Kalmykian Suite of the Volga - Don area
is the type of the Kalmykian Regiostage of the Eastern
Paratethys (POPOV et al. 1993) and corresponds to the Eastern Paratethys
Chattian. The Karatomakian and Baigubekian suites of
the Turan part are time-equivalents of the Kalmykian and The main bathymétrie features of the late Oligocène basin
Chattian, based on of the Spiroplectammina terekensis system of the Eastern Paratethys were fairly similar to
- Elphidium onerosum benthic foraminifer local zone, those of the Early Oligocène. The isolation of the Para-
mollusk associations with Chlamys bifida (zonal species tethys in combination with the generally moderately warm,
of the Chattian A), and Cerastoderma prigorovskii, and humid climatic conditions and intensive runoff resulted
Chiropteridium partispinatum dinocyst Zone. in an estuarine water circulation pattern and recurrent
episodes of stagnancy of parts of the water column, and,
consequently, in the accumulation of anoxic sediments.
Paleogeography and paleoenvironments Anoxic clayey sedimentation was predominant in the
Crimea-Caucasian-Kopetdagh deep-water environments
After the Solenovian episode, when the entire Paratethys ("maykopian facies").
was characterised by brackish salinities and endemic biota, The south shelf area was reduced in comparison with
connections with the world ocean opened again and a the early Oligocène one. Sea regressed from the Adzharo-
marine regime was re-established in the late Oligocène. Trialetic region (Akhaltsikhe) and Araks Depression. The
Biogeographical data indicate that marine connections coarse terrigenous littoral facies are traced along the north-

12
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 250, 2004

ern slope of the Lesser Caucasus. Clayey deposition with Depression. Exploitable concentrations of uranium and
episodic intercalations of anoxic facies and sandy tubidites rare-earth elements were associated with these facies in
continued to accumulate in the deeper shelf zone. the Volga-Don and Mangyshlak districts.
The Russian landmass and the Ural and Kazakhstan Sandy-silty accumulation with scanty euryhaline ben-
Highs to the north, and the Lesser Caucasus - Elburz - thic fauna prevailed in the shallow zone. The Cerastoderma
Kopetdagh uplifts to the south were the main sources of prigorovskii - Lenticorbula helmerseni mollusk asso-
clastic material in the Eastern Paratethys. ciation and the Elphidium onerosum - Cibicides ornatus
The northern and especially the eastern shelves expe- benthic foraminifer assemblage were very characteristic
rienced transgression after the late Solenovian regressive for the entire northern and eastern shelf zone in the late
phase. Clayey sedimentation without age-diagnostic Kalmykian time.
fossils and benthic remains predominated in the outer The Turanian domain was an area of mainly shallow
shelf area. Specific planktic dinocyst associations testify shelf accumulation. Movements along the Amudarja
anoxic influences even into the photic zone. The Terek- and Western Aral regional fault systems controlled the
Mangyshlak and Indol-Kuban deepest shelf depressions facies distribution and thickness of the marine sequences.
were filled up by clastic material, showing clinoformic Reddish sandy - silty successions with evaporites were
geometry, and attaining up to 1000-2000 m thickness, as deposited in the Kyzylkum bay and in the eastern part
can be inferred from seismic surveys (KUNIN et al. 1989). of the Fore-Kopetdagh bay. The Karatau, Tien-Shan, and
Condensed deposition with abundant fish remains was Kopetdagh were the main positive topographic features
typical for the northern border of the Terek-Mangyshlak of the eastern border.

13
POPOV et al.: Early Miocene (Burdigalian - Eggenburgian - Sakaraulian)

M a p 4: Early Miocene of an anti-estuarine (Mediterranean) circulation system as


(BURDIGALIAN - EGGENBURGIAN well (KRHOVSKY et al. 1 9 9 3 ) .

- SAKARAULIAN)
Eastern Paratethys
Time slice definition and biochronology
After a widespread, short-term transgression at the begin-
ning of the Miocene, regressive tendencies became pre-
The mapped interval covers a time-window from about
dominant in the domains of the Eastern Paratethys. This
2 0 . 5 to 19.0 Ma and correlates with the early Burdigal-
is especially evident in the northern parts of the Eastern
ian. It is characterized by nannoplankton associations of
Paratethys, i.e., in the southern Ukrainian area and in the
the upper part of N N 2 and the lower part of N N 3 . These
Volga - Don, Pre-Caspian, Ustjurt and Aral regions.
zones can be recognized in the warm-water, fully marine
Clays, rich in organic matter and pyrite, continued
sequences of the Central Paratethys, which allows cor-
to accumulate in the outer shelf areas and in depressions
relation of the Early Burdigalian with the Eggenburgian
during the Early Miocene (including the Sakaraulian). The
regional stage (STEININGER et al. 1 9 8 5 , NAGYMAROSY &
supposedly time-equivalent, rich and diversified shallow-
MÜLLER 1 9 8 8 ) . The Boudky and Poljanica formations
water mollusk associations from the southern part of the
and the lower part of the Upper Crosno Formation are
Transcaucasus area, as well as the time-equivalent benthic
time-equivalents of the Eggenburgian in the Carpathian
foraminifers and fish associations from the Crimea and
Basin as well as the Upper Marine Molasse (OMM) of the
Pre-Caucasus include Indo-Pacific immigrants, presently
Pre-Alpine Foredeep (BERGER 1 9 9 2 ) . More scanty paleon-
inhabiting tropical-subtropical seas (mollusks such as
tological data are available for the Sakaraulian regiostage
Fragum, Plagiocardium, or the fish genus Alepes). Salin-
of the Eastern Paratethys. Correlation of the Sakaraulian
ity was nearly euhaline. Palynological evidence from the
with the Eggenburgian is based on mollusk data from the
Sakaraulian stratotype area indicates an increase in sub-
Georgian sections of the mid-Kura Stratotypic region. At
tropical and exotic elements (L.A. PANOVA, pers. comm.).
the same time, the overlying Kozahurian sequences are
Arid floral elements (e.g. Ephedra) from deposits which
certainly correlated with the upper Ottnangian, based on
accumulated at the eastern margin of the Eastern Parateth-
the common brackish endemic fauna (POPOV & VORONINA
yan realm, indicate seasonal climatic conditions including
1 9 8 3 ) , so the Sakaraulian may correspond to a broader
dry summers (AKHMETIEV in POPOV et al. 1 9 9 3 ) .
interval (Eggenburgian - early Ottnangian).
The Early Miocene bathymétrie contours of the central
area of the Eastern Paratethys were like the Oligocène ones
(SHCHERBA 1 9 9 3 ) ; the deepest parts of the basin correspond
Paleogeography and paleoenvironments
to the Western Black Sea, Eastern Black Sea and Greater
Caucasus - South Caspian depressions.
As in the Oligocène, most of the successive Early Miocene
A narrow, elongated southern shelf zone extended from
deep-water environments were characterized by clayey
Western Georgia towards Eastern Azerbaijan. As a result of
sedimentation under dysoxic to anoxic conditions, asso-
continuing uplift of the Lesser Caucasus, Talysh and Elburz
ciated with an estuarine circulation system. Rich shallow
chains, sandy sedimentation prevailed in the Transcaucasus
benthic warm-water fauna, diverse planktic associations
southern shelf. Rich and diverse benthic associations (more
as well as floristic data from the shallow Inner-Carpathian
than 1 0 0 species of bivalves) are known from sandy and
basins and southern part of Transcaucasia reflect the cli-
gravely sediments of Central Georgia.
matic optimum of the mid Early Miocene.
The Eastern European platform, including the Pre-
Caspian area, became emergent during the interregional
Alpine-Carpathian Basin regression. The major positive topographic features, which
acted as provenance areas for clastic supply, included the
The Eggenburgian was transgressive in the Pannonian Ural Mountains, the Pre-Ural Highland, and the Ukrainian
and Pre-Alpine parts. Sedimentological evidence from the and Donets lands. The Dnieper-Donets and Pripyat depres-
mainly sandy shallow-water deposits as well as the rich sions were transformed into alluvial plains with lakes.
fossil associations testify fully marine conditions, and high The Scythian Plate continued to represent the northern
tidal activity (SZTANO 1 9 9 4 ) proves a free connection to shelf of the Eastern Paratethys. Its northern, shallow-water
the Mediterranean via the Pre-Alpine passage. areas were subject to sand and silt deposition. The Terek-
Silty-clayey and turbiditic sequences were accumu- Mangyshlak Depression developed from a very deep shelf
lated in the deepest part of the Outer Carpathian "residual basin with condensed sedimentation into a region beyond
flysch trough" (Crosno and Silesian zones). At the same shallow-water shelf deposition. Outer shelf depositional
time, most of the Carpathian Basin became an area of environments existed at the southern part of the Scythian
carbonate clastic deposition. These facies successions may Plate. The deep shelf conditions as expressed in the deposi-
reflect not only shallowing, but warming and development tion of dysoxic clays prevailed in the northern Crimea area

16
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 250, 2004

and in the Fore-Caucasian basin. The Indol-Kuban Depres­ in the South Mangyshlak, Karakum and Fore-Kopetdagh
sion represented the deepest part of the northern shelf areas domains. In the South Mangyshlak Basin a change from
of the Eastern Paratethys, where "Upper Maykopian" (i.e., shallow-water into deep-water shelf environments oc­
undivided lower Miocene) sequences reach thicknesses curred (STOLYAROV data in POPOV & STOLYAROV 1 9 9 6 ) . The
of up to 1 0 0 0 - 1 5 0 0 meters. Coeval uplift of the Central Karakum - Fore-Kopetdagh Gulf was separated from the
Caucasus resulted in an increased supply of clastic mate­ main basin systems of the Eastern Paratethys by the large
rial into the Fore-Caucasian Basin (Laba sands, siltstones Tuarkyr Island. Farther to the east, shallow-water elastics
of the Olginskaja Suite). accumulated in the Fore-Kopetdagh Gulf. In this basin
In the northern shelf areas overall sedimentary changes the middle part of the Aktepe Sands were dated as Saka­
occurred from accumulation of muds towards deposition raulian (VORONINA et al. 1 9 9 3 ) . Source area of the sands
of sands and silts during the Sakaraulian. Concurrently, was the Kopetdagh Land. Only the northwestern part of
the oxygenation of bottom water improved and, conse­ the Kopetdagh area was submerged. It was a deep shelfal
quently, benthic communities diversified and inhabited depression where anoxic clayey deposition continued.
newly established biotopes. The lowlands and continental depressions of southern
Shallow seas occupied the northern (Ustjurtian and Pre- West Siberia, Turgaj, South Kazakhstan, Tien Shan and
Aralian) parts of the Turan Plate during the beginning and Tadjik regions together constituted a paleogeographic
the later part (Kozahurian or "Rzehakia time") of the Early complex comprising large fresh-water lakes ("Great
Miocene. In between, i. е., during the Sakaraulian, conti­ Lake Time"), in which mostly clayey, reddish sediments
nental environments prevailed in these areas. In contrast, accumulated.
marine, sandy to clayey Sakaraulian deposits accumulated

17
GONCHAROVA et al.: Early Middle Miocene (Langhian, Early Badenian, Chokrakian)

M a p 5: Early Middle Miocene rotated counterclockwise about 45 degrees (MEULENKAMP


(LANGHIAN, Early BADENIAN, et al. 2000). The Aegean area experienced large­scale
south­westward directed thrusting. The Arabian platform
CHOKRAKIAN)
experienced major transgression during first part of the
Mid Miocene. The northern part of the G ulf of Suez
­ Red Sea rift system was open but an emerged isthmus
Time slice definition and biochronology
probably still separated it from the basins of the southern
rift system.
The mapped interval includes the Early Badenian of the
Central Paratethys and the Chokrakian of the Euxinian
­ Caspian Basin; they are roughly correlated with the
Alpine ­ Carpathian ­ Pannonian domains
Langhian (see stratigraphie scheme). Alternatively, the
Early Badenian was proposed to correlate mainly with the
In the terminal Burdigalian, the northvergent thrusting of
Tarkhanian based on NN5 nannoplankton identified in the
the Eastern Alps ended. Marine deposition in the Fore­Al­
lower Badenian as well as in the Tarkhanian (RÖG L 1998,
pine molasse basin persisted only near the Rhone graben
ANDREYEVA­ G RIG OROVICH & SAVITSKAYA 2000). However,
(Valence Basin). Uplift of the southern margin of the Bo­
Helicosphaera ampliaperta, a zonal species of NN4,
hemian massif led to its paleogeographic isolation from
was recorded in both the middle and upper units of the
Tarkhanian (NOSOVSKY & BOG DANOVICH 1984, KONENKOVA
the Central Paratethys. The Alpine thrust front persisted
& BOG DANOVICH 1994). In addition, from the lower Upper in activity, and coarse clastic fan material was deposited
Tarkhanian ZAPOROZHETS (1999) identified an assemblage along the Alpine margin.
of dinocysts correlatable with the Karpatian and Burdi­ Folding and thrusting in the Outer Carpathians led to
galian, including Tuberculodinium vancampoae (index the development of a new active thrust front, resulting in
species of the lower Miocene Subzone VII b), Hys trichos - about 60% shortening of this part of the basin (OSZCZYPKO
phaeropsis obs cura and Lingulodinium machaerophorus. & SLACZKA 1985). In the Carpathian foredeep a sharp
Like the Karpatian, the lower Tarkhanian also includes decrease in average accumulation and subsidence rates
a marine mollusk association with inherited Rzehakia. accompanied with lateral eastward migration of foreland
That is why we correlate at least the lower half of the depocentres and opening of the Pannonian back­arc
Tarkhanian with the lower Miocene and the Karpatian, basin system took place (MEULENKAMP et al. 1996). The
and the Chokrakian with the lower Badenian (except for so­called "Tegel" facies (sand­free calcareous clays) was
the lowermost part of the latter). most abundant in the lower Badenian. Sands with very rich
mollusk assemblages and algal­bryozoan limestones were
The lower boundary of the lower Badenian (Moravian),
deposited in coastal areas along the northern and eastern
like that of the Langhian, is marked by the first appearance
margins of the basin.
of Praeorbulina glomeros a, dated at about 16,4 Ma (BERG ­
In the Pannonian domains, the deepest early Badenian
GREN et al. 1995, MEULENKAMP et al. 2000). Regional cor­
depocentres developed in the Great Hungarian Plain area,
relation within the Central Paratethys is based on planktic
Drava and Sava basins (transitional area from Tisza mi­
(P. glomerosa and Orbulina s uturalis Zones) and benthic
croplate to Dinarides), and in the western parts of the
foraminifers (lower and upper Lagenid subzones: G RILL
Apuseni region (MEULENKAMP et al. 1996). Beginning
1941, CICHA et al. 1998). In the Alpine foredeep, the lower
of the orogenic compression is marked by the uplift of
part of the Upper Freshwater Molasse (О SM) is correlated
with the lower Karpatian ­ Badenian based on mammals Apuseni, Mecsek, Transdanubian Central Range, a cycle
(uppermost MN4­MN5). of paralic brown coals, and by andésite volcanism (up
to 3000 m, Central Hungarian line, northern Hungary
The Eastern Paratethys Chokrakian is clearly subdivided
­ southern Slovakia).
into lower and upper substages (Zuk and Bryk beds). The
lower Chokrakian is marked by the local Ts chokrakella
caucasica benthic foraminifer zone and characterized by
Euxinian ­ Caspian Basin
a marine mollusk association with Aequipecten varnen s si ,
Ervilia praepodolica, and Cerithium cattleyae. The upper
The basin bottom experienced sharp differentiation pos­
Chokrakian is characterized by impoverished associations of
sibly associated with the Styrian orogenic phase. It caused
benthic foraminifers (Florilus parvus Zone) and mollusks.
uplift of the axial zone of the Eastern Paratethys including
emergence of the Caucasus archipelago. The resulting
relief enhancement led to slope instability and subsequent
Paleogeography and paleoenvironments deposition of coarse­grained terrigenous elastics, including
turbidites (SHCHERBA 1993).
After the late Burdigalian paleogeographic and paleoen­ The early Chokrakian sequences are transgressive,
vironmental reorganization, oceanization of the Western particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the basin
Mediterranean basin continued; the Sardo­Corsican block system. Irrespective of the regional transgression, con­

20
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 250, 2004

nections with the world ocean became more restricted. conditions existed in the Trancaspian domain, as evidenced
Early Chokrakian exchange of water masses with the by the vast distribution of evaporites and reddish-colored
Mediterranean realm and Mesopotamian Basin probably elastics.
occurred via the mid-Araksian corridor and through basins The deepest parts of the northern shelf of the Euxin-
in Iran, eastern Turkey and NW Syria (GONCHAROVA 1989, ian-Caspian Basin were the West Kuban and the southern
GONCHAROVA & SHCHERBA 1997, GONCHAROVA et al. 2 0 0 1 , part of Terek-Caspian depressions. In the Kobystan - South
2002). The prevalence of marine environments with fluc- Caspian depression, deep water environments were re-
tuating salinities changed in later Chokrakian time into a tained only east of the Lazarevskoe-Kobystan trough. The
semi-marine (<15%o) regime with impoverished euryhaline southern shelf showed deep water deposits in the Iori-Kura
faunas. In mid-Chokrakian time an unstable land bridge depression. Algal-bryozoan reefs developed on the top
intermittently connected the Greater Caucasus island with of escarpments. In the Transcaspian domain, in addition
Asia Minor and Africa, thus permitting immigration of to the North Ustjurt and Fore-Kopetdagh depressions of
African mammals {Orycteropus, Kubanochoerus) into the pre-Chokrakian age, the North-Caspian, South Mangysh-
Euxinian - Caspian Basin (ZHEGALLO in GONCHAROVA & lak and a few depressions in the South Aral - Kopetdagh
SHCHERBA 1997). The Chokrakian climate was probably region were formed anew.
subtropical with warm-water mollusks (GONCHAROVA The Russian Highland and the Ural High were the main
1989), mesophylic subtropical floral elements and, locally, positive topographic features in the Chokrakian. The Rus-
mangrove-type vegetation, all indicative of the "second sian Highland was drained by the Paleo-Don, whereas the
Miocene climatic optimum" (AKHMETIEV 1993) persisting Paleo-Donets drained the Dnieper-Donets Lowland.
from the Tarkhanian into the Chokrakian. Relatively arid

21
ILYINA et al.: Mid Middle Miocene (Middle Serravallian, Late Badenian, Konkian)

M a p 6: Mid Middle Miocene Marine sedimentation continued in the back-arc ba-


(Middle SERRAVALLIAN, Late BADENIAN, sins. The East Slovakian Basin was connected with the
Transylvanian Basin through the Transcarpathian depres-
KONKIAN)
sion, and all these basins were connected with the central
Pannonian area as well. In Transylvania and in front of
the eastern Carpathians characteristic deep water pelites
Time slice definition and biochronology
with plankton (radiolarian-bearing laminites, marly clays
with Spiratella) were deposited. Part of the late Badenian
The mapped interval for the Paratethys includes the late
deep water sediments are now covered by the Carpathian
Badenian substage in the Central Paratethys and the
nappes due to the overthrusting movements.
Konkian regiostage in the Euxinian-Caspian basin sys-
Along the northern and eastern margins of the foredeep
tem. These intervals are roughly equivalent based on a
basin, on the Moldavian and Moesian platforms red-algal
common upper boundary with the Sarmatian regiostage,
limestones and detrital and sandy sediments with rich
nannoplankton of NN6-7 zones (ANDREEVA-GRIGOROVICH
coastal fauna were deposited. Thickness of the Upper
& NOSOVSKY 1976, RÖGL & MÜLLER 1976), and similar
Badenian sediments in this shallow part of the basin does
macrofossil associations and evaporite distribution in the
not exceed 80 m. Subsidence influenced a rate of sedi-
underlying middle Badenian (Wielician) and Karaganian
mentation which was most intensive in front of the central
deposits, respectively.
Carpathians and in some depressions in back-arc basins,
The local Velapertina indigena Zone with endemic
where sediment thickness attains 1000-2000 m.
species and benthic foraminifer association of the Bulimina
In the Pannonian area, the mantle diapir became ac-
- Bolivina Zone (GRILL 1941) are used for correlation of
tive and took over the decisive role in the development of
the Upper Badenian (Kosovian) sequences within the
the Pannonian area and surrounding Carpathian regions
Carpathian - Pannonian region. Regional correlation of
(VASS 1979). The upper Badenian sediments are deposited
the Konkian is based on polyhaline associations of mol-
discordantly and transgressively. Intense subsidence is
lusks (NEVESSKAYA et al. 1986, ILYINA 2000a), planktic and
significant for this period in the south part of the Great
benthic foraminifers (KRASHENINNIKOV 1959), and nanno-
Hungarian Plain and Small Hungarian Plain and 300 m to
plankton (NN6-7) (ANDREEVA-GRIGOROVICH & NOSOVSKY
500 m of predominantly clayey marls were accumulated
1976, MINASCHVILI 1992, MUZYLEV & GOLOVINA 1987)
(HALMAI in CICHA et al. 1998). Algal reef limestones and
in the lower Konkian, and on impoverished associations
sands with intercalated pelites were formed marginally.
with domination of specific euryhaline bivalve species
The late Badenian is characterized by an exceptionally
(Parvivenus konkensis, Acanthocardia andrussovi, Er-
rich polyhaline warm water fauna and flora, including
vilia pusilla trigonuld) in the upper Konkian (Veselanian
mollusks, corals, red algae, sea urchins, ostracods, and
Beds).
foraminifers. Nevertheless, on the basis of ecological
demands of the fauna and flora, a climate colder than in
the early Badenian was assumed (PLANDEROVA 1990). At
Paleogeography and paleoenvironments
the Badenian/Sarmatian boundary the fossil composition
changed abruptly and polyhaline groups disappeared.
After the late Burdigalian tectonic reorganization intense
The volcanism was stronger than in the early Badenian.
horizontal and vertical movements continued during the
Submarine andésite volcanism predominated, especially in
Serravallian, especially in the Appenine zone and in the
the south of the Apuseni Mountains, in back-arc basins, and
Southern Alps and Carpathians. Turbiditic deposition,
along the central Hungarian line in the Pannonian depres-
tectonic breccias, and synsedimentary faults testify thrust
sion. Andesitic-rhyolitic volcanics exceed thicknesses of
phenomena in the Padan foredeep, Vento Basin, and the
2000-3000 m in north Hungary - south Slovakia (HALMAI
Tuscan area. The Leitha orogenic phase further uplifted
in CICHA e t a l . 1998).
the Alpine - Carpathian - Dinarides chains. The most
intensive nappe tectonics of the Carpathian region took
place in this compressional cycle.
Euxinian-Caspian Basin

Carpathian-Pannonian realm The Konkian basin system extended from northeast Bul-
garia and eastern slopes of Dobrogea to the Ustjurt and
The lateral migration of the West Carpathian-Pan- Kopetdagh. However, its size was reduced compared to
nonian megablock, the last space reduction in the front of the preceding Karaganian Basin.
the Carpathian segment and the overthrusting of the outer The early Konkian Basin was inhabited by marine poly-
nappe fronts to their modern position took place after the haline fauna and phytoplankton, very similar to - though
late Badenian. During the late Badenian, the Carpathian less diverse than - the Badenian biota. 97 bivalve and more
uplift slowed down, a marine regime was renewed and a than 50 gastropod species are known from the Konkian
new transgression began. against 316 bivalves in the Upper Badenian (STUDENCKA et

24
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 250, 2004

al. 1998) and about 1000 mollusk species in the whole Bad- Shallow environments dominated over the Eastern
enian. The distributional pattern of the Konkian mollusks Pararethys; relatively deep ones were preserved in the relict
indicates that the Eastern Paratethys was connected with Western and Eastern Black Sea and South Caspian depres-
the Mediterranean Tethys in its southeastern part, prob- sions and in the Indol - Kubanian and Terek - Caspian
ably through the re-opened Araks Strait (GONTSCHAROVA foredeeps. Detrital - shelly limestone and marls prevailed
& SHCHERBA 1997), and/or the Lesser Caucasus passage in the south Ukrainian and Turanian shelves and terrig-
(ILYINA 2000b). The late Konkian (Veselanian) fauna was enous sandy-clayey facies dominated in the central part
poorer than the early Konkian one, and it was dominated of the Scythian and Transcaucasian shelves. Evaporitic
by euryhaline endemic species and subspecies, which layers (of gypsum composition) are widely spread along
were rare or unknown in the Badenian basin (Acanthocar- the eastern margin of the Konkian Basin and in the Turkish
dia andrussovi, Mactra basteroti konkensis, Parvivenus - Iranian middle Miocene.
konkensis, Ervilia pusilla trigonula). Salinity of the early The northern dryland was presumably low-lying; the
Konkian sea was estimated to have been more than 30%o, main sources of coarse elastics were situated along the
and of the late Konkian - about 20%o (MERKLIN 1953). southern shoreline (Talysh, eastern Kopetdagh).

25
PARAMONOVA et al.: Late Middle Miocene (Late Serravallian, Sarmatian s. s., Middle Sarmatian s.l.)

Map 7: Late Middle Miocene of the Sarmatian endemics increased from the second part
of the early Sarmatian through the mid-Sarmatian. Salinity
(Late SERRAVALLIAN, SARMATIAN
had regionally specific composition. Based on bioeco-
s.s.,Middle SARMATIAN s.l.) logical data it was estimated as 16-18%o in the Pannonian
and Dacic basins and Galiczian Gulf and 1 4 - 1 5 %o in the
Euxinian-Caspian Paratethys (KOJUMDGIEVA 1 9 6 9 ) .
Time slice definition and biochronology

The mapped intervals in the Central and Eastern Paratethys


Carpatho-Pannonian region
are not identical. In the Central Paratethys the mapped
interval covers the entire Sarmatian s.s. (sensu BARBOT DE
The lower Sarmatian (Volhynian) sea covered the whole
MARNY in SUESS 1866), which corresponds to lower and
eastern part of the Carpathian foredeep. But the Badenian-
lower middle substages (sensu ANDRUSOV 1899 or Volhy-
lowermost Sarmatian deposits were folded and thrust over
nian and lower Bessarabian - SIMIONESCU 1903) of the
the autochthonous Miocene in front of the central Car-
Eastern Paratethys Sarmatian s.l.. The upper Bessarabian
pathians. The mapped picture reflects a younger situation
and Khersonian (upper) substages of the Euxinian - Cas-
when the sea retreated eastward and was widespread on
pian Basin Sarmatian s.l. correlate with the Pannonian
the Volhynian, Moldavian and on the eastern and northern
of the Central Paratethys. First appearance of the horse
parts of the Moesian plates. Relatively deep water marly
Hipparion in the upper Bessarabian of the Eastern and
clayey facies are known from the southeastern part of
Pannonian zone " C " of the Central Paratethys is a distinct
the foredeep. The most characteristic middle Sarmatian
marker for this correlation (RÖGL in CICHA et al. 1998). In
shallow platform facies were detrital organogenic and
the Eastern Paratethys the mapped interval corresponds
bioherm limestones.
to the maximum transgression, which took place in the
The Pannonian Basin formed the western part of the
middle Sarmatian (Bessarabian).
epicontinental Sarmatian sea, and it was connected to the
The base of the Sarmatian was dated as 13.6 Ma (VASS
Eastern Paratethys across the South Carpathians in the
et al. 1987, CHUMAKOV 1993). According to nannoplank-
vicinity of the Iron Gate (PAPP et al. 1 9 7 4 ) . The thick-
ton determination (NN6/7) and current Astronomical
ness and facies of the Sarmatian reflect three basin types
Polarity Time Scale dating of the base of mammal zone
(MAGYAR et al. 1 9 9 9 ) . Small back-arc basins close to the
MN7/8 as 12,8 Ma (KRIJGSMANN 1995), the beginning of
Carpathian thrust fronts (Styrian, Vienna, East Slovakian,
the Sarmatian may be as young as 13 Ma (RÖGL in CICHA
Transylvanian) subsided rapidly during the Sarmatian and
etal. 1998).
show deep water deposition and sediment thickness which
The local foraminiferal zones Elphidium reginum,
exceeds 1 km. In contrast, the central part of the Pannonian
E. hauerinum for the Volhynian and Nonion granosum
Basin was covered by shallow sea; the littoral carbonates
Zone [= Porosononion (sub)granosum] for the lower Bes-
and clastic facies indicate that numerous islands existed
sarabian are used for regional correlation in the Central
there, and the thickness of the Sarmatian sediments is usu-
Paratethys (GRILL 1941, CICHA et al. 1998). In the Dacic
ally less than 100 m. The third type involved linear series
Basin, which belonged to the Eastern Paratethys from the of deep basins, which framed the shallow-water central part
Sarmatian, nannoplankton assemblages with Discoaster of the Pannonian Basin (western Transdanubia, Zala Basin,
kugleri (NN7) were recognized in the Volhynian; Catin- Sava depression). These trenches were filled primarily by
aster coalitus, C. calyculus (NN8) were recorded from clastic sediments with thicknesses of hundreds of meters
the upper Volhynian - lowermost Bessarabian and Dis- and contain a sublittoral fauna.
coaster hamatus (NN9) was identified in the Bessarabian
The upper Badenian-Sarmatian volcanism culminated
(MARUNTEANU & PAPAIANOPOL 1998).
in the Sarmatian and, compared to the previous period, it
Regional correlation of the Euxinian-Caspian Sar-
was shifted towards the east (HALMAI in CICHA et al. 1 9 9 8 ) .
matian is based mainly on bivalve associations and it
Andesitic-rhyolitic volcanics exceed 2000-3000 m in
has higher resolution for the shallow-water facies (PARA-
thickness in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin.
MONOVA in ILYINA et al. 1976, PARAMONOVA 1994).

Paleogeography and paleoenvironments Eastern Paratethys

The Sarmatian basin was the most extended Paratethys The Eastern Paratethys in Sarmatian time included all
basin in the Miocene. In the Sarmatian the open oceanic Paratethyan basins except for the Intra-Carpathian depres-
connections closed and the polyhaline fauna and microflora sion (Dacic and Euxinian basins with Galiczian gulf and
of the late Badenian-Konkian were eliminated. The whole Caspian).
Paratethys was inhabited by homogeneous euryhaline The Sarmatian Basin was strongly transgressed and
biotas, with mainly endemic species, which evolved from transgression continued in the Bessarabian, especially on
the Badenian and Konkian ancestors. Systematic diversity the northern and eastern margins, where it covered the

28
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 250, 2004

north Pre-Caspian and the western part of the Turan Plate typical mid-Sarmatian fauna (Mactra, Obsoletiforma,
(KOLESNIKOV 1940). The Caucasus orogenic movements Plicatiforma, Barbotella among mollusks) from the sec-
had led to coarser clastic sedimentation around the Greater ond part of the Bessarabian. Terrigenous shelfal marine
Caucasus and local regressions in the Transcaucasia. deposition prevailed in the Transcaucasia.
Deep water sedimentation continued in the Black-Sea, Based on the semimarine regime and nannoplankton
in the South Caspian depressions with the Kura Gulf, associations with polyhaline zonal species in the Dacic
and in the Indol-Kubanian and Terek-Caspian foredeeps. basin, we propose communication between the Eastern
Maximal thickness of elastics (up to 2000 m) is known Paratethys and the Mediterranean through the Aegean
from the Kura depression. Marly clays with Cryptomactra area. These temporal connections came to an end in the
was the most usual facies in the shelfal depressions. Bryo- Khersonian, when the rich endemic Sarmatian biotas
zoan bioherms were located on the top of the submarine became extinct.
escarpments. The Eastern European Platform was a lowland, which
Shallow environments with carbonate deposition did not give abundant clastic material. Coarse molasse
dominated over the northern Eurasian shelf of the Eastern terrestrial deposits (up to 300 m) were accumulated along
Paratethys and on the Turan Plate. On the Caucasian shelf, the eastern Kopet-Dagh and Pamir-Tien Shan zone.
the primarily clayey sedimentation changed to sandy with

29
ILYINA et al.: Mid Late Miocene (Late Tortonian - Early Messinian, Early Maeotian, Late Pannonian)

Map 8: Mid Late Miocene vanian Basin also dried up, so Lake Pannon was restricted
(Late TORTONIAN - Early MESSINIAN, to the southern part of the basin, where several hundred
meter deep subbasins existed. The deep basins were filled
Early MAEOTIAN, Late PANNONIAN)
up by prodelta turbidites and then by prograding deltaic
sediments. The southern shoreline, running parallel with
the Sava and Danube rivers along the northern foots of
Time slice definition and biochronology
the Dinarides, changed very little during the lifetime of
Lake Pannon.
Correlation of the Maeotian with the Mediterranean scale
Whether the lacustrine basin ever experienced marine
is one of the most questionable points in the Paratethyan
water incursions is ambiguous. Rare and sporadic findings
stratigraphy. The most usual correlation proposed corre-
of polyhaline nannofossils (KOLLANYI 2 0 0 0 ) and presence
spondence of the Maeotian with the middle - upper Torto-
of supposedly marine elements in dinocyst associations
nian (ILYINA & NEVESSKAJA 1 9 7 9 , MURATOV & NEVESSKAYA
(SUTO 1 9 9 5 ) seem to suggest that marine connections were
1986, RÖGL 1 9 9 8 ) . According to recent magnetostrati-
not fully lost. However, the benthic fauna of mollusks and
graphic and nannofossil research ( N N 1 1 ) and correlation
ostracods was almost fully endemic, and reflects a constant
with the current Astronomical Polarity Time Scale (SNEL et
brackish lacustrine environment (MÜLLER et al. 1 9 9 9 ) .
al. 2 0 0 1 ) the Maeotian has to correlate with the uppermost
Tortonian - lower Messinian. In the Pannonian Basin this
interval corresponds to the late Pannonian, early Congeria
Euxine-Caspian Basin
rhomboidea, early Galeacysta etrusca biochrons (MAGYAR
etal. 1999).
The sea level drop at the Sarmatian s.l.-Maeotian transi-
tion was estimated as about 3 0 0 m (TUGOLESOV et al. 1 9 8 5 ,
ROBINSON 1 9 9 5 ) . Unconformities between the freshened
Paleogeography and paleoenvironments
or hypersaline upper Sarmatian and semimarine early
Maeotian deposits are very common, suggesting drying
Large-scale tectonic and sedimentary-paleogeographic
up of large areas. The maximum of the transgression oc-
turnover affected the late Neogene Mediterranean and
curred in second part of the early Maeotian (STEVANOVICH
Paratethyan realms in the Tortonian (about 8 Ma ago
& ILYINA 1 9 8 2 , NEVESSKAYA et al. 1 9 8 6 ) , when the basin
- MEULENKAMP et al. 2 0 0 0 ) as a consequence of the Attic
system extended from the northern margin of the Moe-
orogenesis. Horizontal tectonic movements in the western
sian Plate (Dacic Basin) to south Mangyshlak in the east.
Mediterranean, with uplift in the Betic and Rifean regions
However, its size was reduced relative to that during the
and consequent shoaling and/or closing of the Betic Cor-
Sarmatian.
ridor and shoaling of the Rifean Strait with accumulation
of evaporites from the late Tortonian, opening of the Tyr- The early Maeotian Basin was inhabited by mainly
rhenian and Dead Sea basins, inception of stable marine endemic species and subspecies of euryhaline Mediter-
deposition in the Aegean domain, and southward directed ranean genera, which evolved in gulfs and lagoons of
depocenter migration in the fore-Apennine Basin deter- the late Tortonian - early Messinian sea. Salinity of the
mined the main features of the Messinian paleogeographic, early Maeotian sea was estimated to be 13-14%o, up to
biogeographic and sedimentological history of the circum- 17-18%o (ILYINA et al. 1 9 7 6 ) . Later this impoverished fauna
Mediterranean realm. and microflora of marine origin became extinct and the
late Maeotian basin was inhabited by brackish associations
Planktic and shallow benthic associations of the late
with Congeria, Theodoxus, Pseudoamnicola, Turricaspia,
Tortonian - early Messinian were rich and rather diverse
brackish and freshwater diatoms, and dinocysts. However,
and indicate subtropical environments with normal marine
ephemeral marine ingressions took place during the entire
salinity. Major geological features along the southern
Maeotian, as evidenced by the presence of layers with
margin of the European platform include the end of sedi-
more diverse marine fauna and microflora in the upper
mentation in the fore-Alpine and fore-Carpathian molasse
part of the lower Maeotian (in western Georgia - ILYINA
basins and further differentiation between the domains of
et al. 1 9 7 6 ) , as well as intercalations with Mactra super-
the Central and Eastern Paratethys.
stes, Spheronassa, polyhaline nannoplankton (LULIYEVA
in SEMENENKO 1 9 8 7 ) , and marine diatoms with Coscino-
Pannonian Basin discus, Thalasiosira decipiens, Nitzschia praereinholdi
(Radionova, unpublished data) in the upper Maeotian
The northwestern part of the Pannonian Basin, i.e. the successions of western Georgia, Kerch, and Taman, and by
Vienna and Danube basins, had been filled by deltaic de- the appearance of polyhaline nannoplankton associations
posits prograding from the northwest and northeast from in the upper Maeotian of the Dacic Basin (MARUNTEANU
the uplifted Alps and Carpathians, and a significant part & PAPAIANOPOL 1 9 9 8 ) .
of the basin had been transformed into alluvial plains by Connections with the Mediterranean are proposed in
late Pannonian times (MAGYAR et al. 1 9 9 9 ) . The Transyl- the Aegean region, where lagoonal mollusk associations

32
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 250, 2004

of the lower Messinian (North Greece, Serres, Dafni clastic molasse deposits were accumulated in continental-
Formation) are very similar to the lower Maeotian mol- coastal areas of the Transcaucasia - in the Kura and Rioni
lusks (STEVANOVICH & ILYINA 1982, POPOV & NEVESSKAYA depressions. The Turan Plate became a lowland mainly
2000). without deposition. Orogenic movements in the Kopetd-
Shallow environments dominated over the Eastern agh and Pamir-Tien Shan zone led to the appearance of
Paratethys, deep water ones existed only in the Black Sea a spacious molasse belt along their foothills, composed
and South Caspian depressions and relatively deep water of course-clastic red-colored sequences (SHCHERBA 1993,
(more then 200-300m) in the Indol-Kubanian and Terek- SHCHERBA et al. 2001).
Caspian foredeeps. In much of the Eurasian shelf, shallow Based on biogeographical data (full sets of the early
limestones, clays, and sands accumulated. Oolitic and Maeotian-Pontian mollusks and ostracods in the Azerbai-
detrital - shelly limestones developed in the south Ukraine, jan and South Mangyshlak associations), we proposed that
Crimea, Azov area and south Mangyshlak. Alluvial-deltaic at least temporary communications existed between the
deposition prevailed around growing orogenic structures Euxinian and Caspian basins in the Transcaucasia before
of the Greater Caucasus and along the northern margin of the late Pontian (NEVESSKAYA et al. 1986). The connection
the Euxinian Sea (SHCHERBA et al. 2001). could have been located between the Adzharo-Trialeti fault
The east European platform represented a lowland with system, which came to its modern position in the late Kim-
the mid-Russian High in its centre, and the Volhynian, merian, and the southern border of the Dzirul Massif.
Ukrainian and Donets highs in its southern parts. Thick

33
KHONDKARIAN et a l : Latest Miocene (Late Messinian, Early Pontian - Late Pannonian)

M a p 9: Latest Miocene of "Lago Mare" facies took place. We try to reflect all this
(Late MESSINIAN, Early PONTIAN - complex history on a single map.
The brackish fauna and microflora of the "Lago Mare"
Late PANNONIAN)
facies included numerous genera and species, common
with the Paratethys: endemic limnocardiins, Congeria,
Melanopsis among mollusks, Loxoconcha djaffarovi os-
Time slice definition and biochronology
tracod association, Galeacysta etrusca among dinocysts.
The origin of this assemblage was probably connected
Correlation of the Pontian with the Mediterranean scale
with more ancient - Pannonian-Paratethyan biota, but their
is disputable. The most usual correlation proposed corre-
subsequent development unfolded independently. Some
spondence of the Pontian with the entire Messinian (ILJINA
components of this specific biota, together with more rare
& NEVESSKAJA 1979, MURATOV & NEVESSKAYA 1986, RÖGL
Pannonian elements, were ancestral for the younger Pon-
1998). This correlation, however, is contradicted by the
tian fauna of the Euxinian-Caspian Paratethys; they moved
paleomagnetic data. Based on primary reversed polarity
from the Mediterranean to the Eastern Paratethys through
of the Pontian, it is possible to correlate it with Chron 6
intermediate basins (Aegean, Dacic) (EBERZIN 1 9 4 9 ,
of the Harland scale and with the upper Tortonian - lower
NEVESSKAYA et al. 1 9 8 6 , POPOV & NEVESSKAYA 2000).
Messinian, as proposed by M.A.Pevzner, or alternatively
with the lower part of Chron 4 (=C3r) and with the upper
Messinian, according to V.M.Trubikhin (PONTIEN in STE-
Pannonian Basin
VANOVIC et al. 2000). The first point of view was supported
by absolute age data (CHUMAKOV 1993) and zonal nanno-
Late Congeria rhomboidea, late Galeacysta etrusca
plankton determinations (NN9-NN10 in base of the Maeo-
biochrons. Progradation from the northwest almost com-
tian - data of LULIYEVA in SEMENENKO 1987). Nevertheless,
pletely filled up the western part of the basin; only the
according to magnetostratigraphic results and calcareous
Drava Basin remained subaqueous. Delta lobes in the
nannofossil data (NN11, NN12 - MARUNTEANU & PAPA-
central part of the basin approached the lower Tisza River
IANOPOL 1998) from the Dacic Basin of South Romania and
from the northwest. Progradation from the northeast was
correlation with the current Astronomical Polarity Time
far slower than from the northwest. The deep lacustrine
Scale (SNEL et al. 2001), as well as biogeographic data
environment was restricted to what are now SE Hungary,
on the origin of the Pontian fauna (POPOV & NEVESSKAYA
NE Croatia, and N Serbia. The endemic mollusk and os-
2000), the Pontian corresponds to the upper Messinian
tracod fauna of Lake Pannon flourished, and - probably
and correlates with the salinity crisis. In the Pannonian
in several pulses - migrated into the Eastern Paratethys
Basin this interval corresponds to the late Pannonian, late
through the Dacic Basin.
Congeria rhomboidea, late Galeacysta etrusca biochrons
(MAGYAR et al. 1999).

Euxinian-Caspian Basin

Paleogeography and paleoenvironments The Eastern Paratethys reconstruction corresponds to


maximum sea extent in the early Pontian (Novorossian).
The main paleogeographic features and bathymetry of The early Pontian Basin was strongly transgressed, espe-
the late Messinian basin system were inherited from the cially on its northern and eastern margins. On the north
early Messinian. The salinity crisis markedly changed the the early Pontian sea covered the south half of the Donets
sedimentological processes and facies in the basin; the high, which had been dry land and a source of clastic
earlier bathymétrie zones became more distinct, because material since the Paleogene, and northward reached the
evaporites of different composition were deposited in the Volga-Don and Ergeni areas. In the northwest the early
different zones. Pontian sea formed three big gulfs: North-Pre-Caspian,
We used the double-phase model of the Messinian North-Ustjurtian, and South Mangyshlakian. The lower
crisis (CLAUZON et al. 2001). According to this hypothesis Pontian sediments are known in the Turkish coast of the
sea level dropped in two phases separated by a flooding Black Sea (ÖSZAYAR 1 9 7 7 ) . The Dacian Basin biogeo-
event. The first phase (5.8 Ma) affected only the Mediter- graphically belonged to the Eastern Paratethys.
ranean basin margins and led to accumulation of the lower Sandy deposition prevailed in its shallow coastal
evaporites of gypsum composition. The second phase, areas and muddy sedimentation in deeper environments.
characterized by a drastic sea level drop exceeding 1500 Calcareous, shelly-detrital facies were widespread on
m, affected the whole basin (5.6 Ma). As a consequence, the northern inner shelf of the Euxinian-Caspian Basin.
deep canyons were incised in the basin margins (paleo- Towards the Caucasus, Kopetdagh and western clastic
Nile, Rhone, Ebro et al.) and thick evaporate series (up to sources the facies changed to muddy and sandy deposits.
2 km according to seismic data) were accumulated in the Deep water environments existed only in the Black Sea
bathyal plains. Between the two phases brackish deposition and South Caspian depressions.

36
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 250, 2004

Based on the prevailingly brackish fauna, salinity of 5 . 6 Ma by MEULENKAMP et al. 2 0 0 0 ) . According to biogeo-
the basin was low, but didn't fall under 5-8%o. The Da- graphic data, however, the Caspian-Euxinian connection
cian part, where Parvivenus widhalmi - the single bivalve was maintained during the entire Pontian: specific late
species of marine origin in Eastern Paratethyan Pontian Pontian species common in the Euxinian and Dacian
- was absent, was probably more freshened. At the same basins are known from the upper Pontian of Azerbaijan
time the presence of nannoplankton zonal associations (NEVESSKAYA et al. 1 9 8 6 ) .
(MARUNTEANU & PAPAIANOPOL 1 9 9 8 ) in the middle ( N N 1 1 ) The east European platform represented a lowland
and upper ( N N 1 2 ) Pontian testifies to episodic ingressions with the mid Russian High in its central part. Thick clastic
of marine waters. Connection probably took place via the molasse deposits were accumulated in continental - coastal
Aegean Gulf of the late Messinian sea (STEVANOVIC et al. areas of the Transcaucasia-in the Kura and Rioni depres-
1989, POPOV & NEVESSKAYA 2 0 0 0 ) . sions. Conglomerates, clays, and sands of the Dushet
A sharp regression at the beginning of the late Pontian Formation (Maeotian-Pontian, up to 2 0 0 0 m) were ac-
(Portaferrian) led to the drying of the northern outer shelf cumulated in fluvial environments, containing remains of
of the Euxinian Basin. The Stavropolian Strait was closed, terrestrial and freshwater mollusks, mammals, and plants.
the Caspian Basin was separated from the Euxinian one in Rivers that transported this material discharged into a lake
its northern part, and the eastern lake-sea became restricted in the mid-Kura depression, where low-carbonate sandy
to the modern Middle and South Caspian with the Kura clays (up to 2 5 0 0 m) of the Maeotian-Pontian Shirak For-
gulf. The date of this sea level fall approximately corre- mation were deposited. The Turan Plate became a lowland
lates with the drastic sea level drop in the Mediterranean mainly without deposition.
( 5 . 7 Ma, according to TRUBIKHIN in STEVANOVIC et al. and

37
KHONDKARIAN et al.: Middle-Late Pliocene (Piacentian - Gelasian, Late Romanian - Akchagilian)

M a p 10: Middle-Late Pliocene domains, accumulation of continental elastics took place


(PIACENTIAN - GELASIAN, in local depressions during the Mid to Late Pliocene.
However, in the southwestern part, the Drava and Sava
Late ROMANIAN - AKCHAGILIAN)
basins were filled by Pliocene deposits, which reached
to about 1000 m (MEULENKAMP et al. 1996). The Plio-
Pleistocene alkali-basaltic volcanism played an important
Time slice definition and biochronology role in the intra-arc domains and occurred in the Styrian
and Danube basins, Great Hungarian Lowland, Transyl-
Due to the non-marine character of many younger Pliocene
vania and Slovakian-Hungarian volcanic domain (SZABO
Peri-Tethyan sequences it is often not possible to subdivide
etal. 1992).
the middle/upper Pliocene. So the Pliocene map reflects a
Brackish and fluvio-lacustrine foredeep sedimentation
broad time-interval from about 3.4 to 1.8 Ma and displays
continued only in the southeast in the Dacic Basin, where
paleogeographic configuration and environments that oc-
the Pliocene (Dacian-Romanian) sequences reach thick-
curred after the late Early Pliocene large-scale tectonic
nesses of thousands of meters. Ephemeral brackish-water
reorganization. In terms of regional Paratethys stages and
ingressions came from the adjacent Euxinian domain
horizons, it corresponds to the Romanian of the Dacic
only in the eastern part of the overall fluvio-lacustrine
Basin, the Kujalnician of the Euxinian Basin, and the
Dacic basin.
Akchagilian of the Caspian Basin.
The Romanian was characterized by the extinction of
limnocardiines and appearance of unionids, viviparids, and
Euxinian Basin, Kujalnician
melanopsids, reflecting a further decrease in water salinity.
Nevertheless, zonal calcareous nannoplankton associations
Since the latest Miocene (late Pontian time), the Eastern
are known from these layers (NN 15-NN16 - MARUNTEANU
Paratethys had been subdivided into two major basins, the
& PAPAIANOPOL 1998). In the Pannonian Basin this interval
Dacian - Euxinian basin system and the Caspian Basin.
corresponds to the upper part of the geochronologically
The Pliocene faunas of the former were inherited from
poorly defined freshwater "Paludina beds".
the Pontian. The area of the brackish mid-late Pliocene
The Akchagilian sequences reflect a semi-marine re-
Kujalnician Basin corresponded approximately to the
gime in the spacious Caspian Basin, and their stratigraphie
modern Black Sea area with the south Ukrainian shelf and
position is rather well established by magnetostratigraphic
Azov-Kuban and Rioni gulfs. The brackish Kujalnician
data (C2+C2An - TRUBIKHIN 1977). Regional correlation
Sea had no direct connection with the ocean, but there was
of the Akchagilian is based on euryhaline fauna of marine
an ephemeral corridor connecting it with the Akchagil-
origin with mainly endemic species. The Kujalnician part
ian basin of the Caspian region: layers with Akchagilian
of the Eastern Paratethys differs in the presence of spe-
Avimactra and Cerastoderma dombra are known in the
cific brackish mollusks and ostracods, inherited from the
Kujalnician sequences of the Azov area. Shallow-water ter-
Pontian - Kimmerian fauna.
rigenous elastics with Kujalnician faunas are known from
the North Black Sea Depression, eastern Crimea, Kerch
Paleogeography and paleoenvironments and Taman peninsulas, Kuban and Rioni depressions. In
all these regions the Kujalnician deposits are characterized
Major features of the circum - Mediterranean paleogeography by similar fossils of brackish ostracods and mollusks, such
after the early Pliocene orogenesis were increasing subsidence us Prosodacna, Pachydacna, Chartoconcha, Pontalmyra,
rates of the Tyrrhenian and southern Aegean depressions and Oraphocardium, Viviparus (NEVESSKAJA et al. 1984).
uplift of the surrounding mountain chains. Pliocene vertical The central and western part of the East European Plat-
movements initiated the development of the present-day form, occupied by the Volhyn-Ukrainian and mid-Russian
paleogeographic features and river system (MEULENKAMP et highlands, was intersected by branched river systems. Seis-
al. 2000). In the western Mediterranean domain, the Strait of mic and sedimentary data portray the intensive growth of
Gibraltar originated at the beginning of the Pliocene, after the rapidly advancing deltas from platform rivers (paleo-Prut,
Betic and Rifean corridors were closed in the late Messinian. paleo-Dnester, paleo-Dnieper in the north-western part of
Shallow marine environments persisted all along the northern the Black Sea, and paleo-Donets in the Azov-Kubanian
coast of the African continent. Fluvial and limnic facies were region) as well as from uplifting orogens of the Greater
deposited during the Mid Pliocene in the Rhine graben, as a Caucasus (paleo-Kuban, rivers of Western Ciscaucasia,
result of a new phase of rifting. Rioni Gulf) and Pontides.

Carpatho-Pannonian region Caspian Basin, Akchagilian

Major folding and thrusting in the Outer Carpathians came The pre-Akchagilian Balakhanian freshwater basin was
to an end by the late Pliocene. In the intra-Carpathian restricted to the South Caspian depression and the Kura

40
Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 250, 2004

Gulf. The lowering of sea level resulted in deeply incised the southern marginal areas of the basin, terrigenous and
valleys (up to a few hundred meters) of the paleo-Volga, calcareous sediments with rich endemic faunas (Avicar-
paleo-Kura and paleo-Amudarja rivers. The Akchagilian dium, Miricardium, Andrussella, Avimactra - PARAMONOVA
Sea invaded this rugged relief. It was characterized by a 1994) were deposited in mid-Akchagilian time.
hemi-marine regime with reduced salinity and euryhaline Northwards, the Akchagilian Sea ingressed eventually
biota of marine origin. Numerous endemic taxa (genera the Volga and Kama basins. Poor and uniform, euryhaline
and species) of mollusks, ostracods and diatoms evolved faunas in the northern parts of the basin system reflect
from lagoonal Mediterranean ancestors. The place of reduced salinities as compared to those of the main basin.
connection with the Mediterranean remains highly During the mid-Akchagilian, marine ingressions reached
speculative. Polyhaline nannoplankton associations from as far as the paleo-Murgab, Tedzhen and Amudarja valleys
Azerbaijan and brackish-marine Pliocene deposits from and the south Aral Gulf.
eastern Turkey (upper Euphrates valley - STEININGER et A new phase of orogenic movements resulted in a
al. 1985, CHEPALYGA 1995) show a possible corridor from pronounced increase of clastic supply from the evolving
the eastern Mediterranean to eastern Transcaucasia or the chain towards the bordering plains. The coarsest molasse-
South Caspian depression. type elastics were laid down around the Greater Caucasus,
Relatively deep-water, clayey deposits (up to 350-500 m) Eastern Kopetdagh, Pamir and Tien Shan orogenic belts.
accumulated in the entire central part of the basin from the Eruptions in the Kazbek area of the Central Cau-
pre-Caspian area to the South Caspian depression, in the casus and Adzharo - Trialet Ridge produced abun-
Kobystan part of the Lower Kura and the deep-water Fore- dant volcanoclastics (MURATOV & NEVESSKAYA 1986).
Kopetdagh depressions. In the relatively shallow parts of

41
POPOV et a l : Lithological­Paleogeographic maps of Paratethys

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46
Contents annex:

Map 1: Late Eocene (PRIABONIAN - BELOGLINIAN)

Map 2: Early Oligocène (Early RUPELIAN, Early KISCELLIAN - PSCHEKHIAN)

Map 3: Late Oligocène (CHATTIAN - EGERIAN - KALMYKIAN)

Map 4: Early Miocene (BURDIGALIAN, EGGENBURGIAN, SAKARAULIAN)

Map 5: Early Middle Miocene (LANGHIAN, Early BADENIAN, CHOKRAKIAN)

Map 6: Mid Middle Miocene (Middle SERRAVALLIAN, Late BADENIAN, KONKIAN)

Map 7: Late Middle Miocene (Late SERRVALLIAN, SARMATIAN s.S., Middle SARMATIAN s.l.)

Map 8: Mid Late Miocene (Late TORTONIAN - Early MESSINIAN - Early MAEOTIAN - Late PANNONIAN)

Map 9: Latest Miocene (Late MESSINIAN, Early PONTIAN - Late PANNONIAN)

Map 10: Middle Late Pliocene (PIACENTIAN - GELASIAN, Late ROMANIAN - AKCHAGILIAN)

Stratigraphie scheme of the Late Paleogene - Neogene Paratethys and mapped intervals
Mammal - Zones
Nannoplankton
Foraminifera
POLARITY
Time (Ma)
CHRONS

Calcareous
EPOCHS
Eastern

Planktic
Central

- Zones

Steininger, 1999
Zones
Mediter- Paratethys Paratethys
ranean Dacic
Stages Rögl, Magyar et al.,
Snel,
Marunteanu, Euxinian Caspian
Meulenkamp, Nevesskaya et al.,1986; Berggren
Berggren et al., 1995 1998 1999 2001 Trubikhin, 1989 et al., 1995
0 NN20-21 MQ1- 4
C1n IONIAN PT1
C1n CALABRIAN 1.8 NN19 MN18
PL6 NN18 MN17
C2 “Paludina beds”
MAP10
GELASIAN
PLIOCENE

AKCHAGILIAN PL5 NN16b-17


ROMANIAN (freshwater) ROMA- KUJALNICIAN MN16
C2An PIACENZIAN PL3-4 NN16a
3.4
C2Ar
NIAN PL2 NN14-15 MN15
4.4 BALAKHANIAN
ZANCLEAN DACIAN KIMMERIAN NN13
C3n Dinocysts Mollusks DACIAN PL1 MN14
5 5.3
NN12
Babadzhanian
C3r
C3An
5.3
MESSINIAN PONTIAN
Galeacysta Proso- PONTIAN Bosphorian + Portaferian
6.1 Novorossian
M14 MN13 MAP 9
L. MIOCENE

etrusca dacno- Akmanaian Congeria novorossica


C3Ar Congeria mya
C3Br rhomboidea MAEOTIAN b NN11 MN12
C4n
C4r
Spiniferites validus
C. prae- L. decorum
Bagerovian Dosinia maeotica
M13 MN11
MAP 8

SARMATIAN s.l.
rhomboidea Upper M. bulgarica Mactra
C4An
TORTONIAN Mactra caspia NN10
C4Ar PANNONIAN Spiniferites paradoxus L. ponticum Khersonian tumida a MN10
Mactra balcica
10 L. conjungens (N16) NN9b
C5n Pontiad. pecsvaradensis Cong. Plicatiformes MN9
11.0 S.bentorii oblongus czjzeki C.hoernesi Middle fittoni Criptomactra
S. b. pannonicus Bessarabian pesanseris M12 (N15)
NN9a/b
MAP 7
M. MIOCENE

C5r Mecsekia ultima “L.“praeponticum Mactra vitaliana M11-M8 NN7-8 MN


C5An Elphidium hauerinum Lower (N14-N11)
C5Ar
SARMATIAN s.s. Elphidium reginum Mactra eichwaldi Abra reflexa 8-7
Volhynian
SERRAVALLIAN Upper Kosovian Bulimina - Bolivina KONKIAN NN6
MAP 6
BADENIAN

C5ABn

C5ACn Barnea M7 (N10)


C5ADn
Middle Wieliczian Spiroplectammina KARAGANIAN Spaniodontella gentilis MN6
C5Bn 15
C5Br
16.4
LANGHIAN Lower Moravian Lagenid - Zone CHOKRAKIAN Upper
Lower
Florilus parvus
Tsch.caucasica
M6 (N9)
M5 (N8)
NN5
MN5
MAP 5
C5Cn TARKHANIAN Gl. tarchanensis
C5Cr KARPATIAN M4 (N7)
Saccammina NN4
C5Dn
Rzehakia - Lymnopagetia KOZAKHURIAN zuramakensis M3 MN4
C5Dr OTTNANGIAN
Early MIOCENE

C5En BURDIGALIAN Flexopecten palmatus - (N6)


C5Er
NN3
Macrochlamys holgeri Neobulimina
C6n
20
EGGENBURGIAN
Oopecten gigas
SAKARAULIAN elongata M2
MN3
MAP 4
C6r (N5)
C6An
C6Ar NN2 MN2
C6AAr AQUITANIAN KARADZALGANIAN M1 b
C6Bn M. tani - Cibicides (N4)
C6Br
M. gunteri ornatus - MN1
EGERIAN

C6Cn 23.8 a NN1


Elphidium
onerosum - MP
M. formosensis 28-30
25 Porosononion
Upper dendriticus P22 NP25
CHATTIAN Miogypsinoides
complanata
KALMYKIAN MP27
-
MAP 3
Spiroplectammina
OLIGOCENE

Lower terekensis MP24


b
P21
Kiscel Clay
KISCELLIAN S.L.

a NP24
Lepidocyclina
praemarginata Upper Troch. florifera
30 P20
SOLENOVIAN MP23
NP23
RUPELIAN P19 -
Beds with Janshinella, “C. lipoldi“ Lower (Polbian)
MP21
Sp.carinata oligocenica
NP22
33.7
Merian Nummulites
fichteli
PSHEKHIAN Lenticulina herrmanni
Cibicides salensis
P18
NP21
MAP 2
P17
L. EOCENE

Bolivina
Nummulites P16 NP
35 fabianii Globigerapsis tropicalis- MP20
PRIABONIAN PRIABONIAN BELOGLINIAN
Globigerina corpulenta
P15
19-20
- MAP 1
NP18 MP17

40

Stratigraphic scheme of the Late Paleogene - Neogene Paratethys and mapped intervals

Marine environments Brackish environments


Semi-marine environments Freshwater environments
Map 1. Late Eocene (PRIABONIAN - BELOGLINIAN)
12 0 52 0 18 0 24 0 30 0 36 0 42 0 480 54 0 60 0 66 0 52 0 72 0
DRE

Dnieper
SDE POLISH

Ural
GULF

ol
N WAR Do

Tob
S ZAW

Elba
n
A
SAMAR
A SYRT URAL TURGAJ DA

Od
GAN
RUSSIAN LAND KAR
A

ra
PRA PRIPYAT
HA
HIGH

Bug
Prip’at
BOHEMIAN sna HIGH
De G
ORENBUR
STRAIT

Morava
48 0 MU
HIGH , , , , ,
Wisla STRAIT KAZAKHSTANIAN HIGH
NC , , , , 48 0

MUGOD
HE , , , ,

aj
, N , , ,
SARATOV

g
, , , , ,
URALSK

Tur
, , . (1000) , ,
, +

|
, , +
CENTRAL CARPATHIAN
,

,
, ,
+
. 150
, , , ,
ALPINE PALEOGENE BASIN 72 0

Z H A RY
+

|
+
VOLHYNIAN KIEV
+
WI +
BRA - CARP 50

50
AT H I A N
+ + + EN +
ALPINE TISL

|
AVA
B A S I N. 120 ica gan
ved PRE-CASPIAN zkaz
HIGH HIGH d

|
Me 50
Dze
DNIEPER - DONETS SEA

,
12 0 Tisa

,
Dn
Dr BUDA. (400) ,

|
es 150

,
ava . 150 ter 100

+
+ BUD

,
+ APE Don

?
+

Ju
+ ST ,
BAY

zB
+

+
. 148
TR O U G H ,

,
S ZO LN O K

ug
+
+

|
+ + + ,
50

,
, ,
+

0
10
. 120
Dun

ZAG

|
. 100

Ural
+

REB Do

,
,

ne
au
+

,
ts

ba
|
APUSENI U KR AI N IA N AR VOLGOGRAD

,
Sa TISZA TRANSYLVANIAN 50
+

Em
va C H IP EL AG

,
. 100 O
+

|
HIGH
DONETS HIGH

Pru
LAND

,
0
Ma . 300

35
. 20
+

ros

50
44 0 SHELF
,

Don 50

Vo

|
44 0

lg
50
100
15ROSTOV-NA-DONU
0 60

a
100

|
BEO . 100 50 0
10 50

+
GRA BERLATSKY 100
ina

D SYRDARJA
Dr

+
,

|
L

100
SERBIAN
,

STRAIT ARA
,

15
0 200 Syr
,

0
+
150
ASTRAKHAN da

15
,

+ 0 50
BASIN rja
,

. 150 + 0 20

|
SAR + 15
SEA DEPRESSION
,

,
,

AYE , 100 40 250


V 100
SCYTHIAN 100
,

O
,

|
100
SEA
,

50 . 150

25
BUCU

50
0
200

10
REST 50 Kalaus . 255
,

MOESIAN
DI

I 100

|
n
,

AP UL IA N . 400 Kuba 20
NA

LAND
,

, 100
,

|
. 70 . 250 Kuma
RI

100
GR
,

+
,

a + 20
Dun
AN

50
+
MA
,

+
EA

|
,

TEREK-
,

100
, KYZYLKUM
,
CE

SOFIJ BALKANIAN TE

50
,

0
50 25
,
,

|
DO

15
SH EL F WESTERN R. +500+

50
+ +
,

A DARYALYK -
+
,

TURAN
,

HIGH
+
NI

30
,

|
,

25
+

|
+
20
,
PIND

AN

+
MANGYSHLAK
+
,

+
,

+ |
(50 +
BLACK SEA
+
,

0)
SHELF
Va

) + 10 us

|
0
ST

(25 + +
C A . 100 Terek 30 Nuk
,

|
50
,

rd
+

+ 25
RA

. 1000 30 |
DAUDAN
ar+

Ma
,

LA

40 0 U C
O+ S+

| | | | | |
ric | |
IT

EASTERN
| |

DEPRESSION

AN
,

40
a
DEPRESSION 40 0
ND

|
SH
A S

DR
. 40
,

(250 AT S + + +
) KY

US
|
+
RHODOPE

Am
+

U S
+

+
RID 25
,

|
30
50

OV
+ GE

ud
|

40
+

DEPRESSION FERGANA -
+

+
BLACK SEA SEA
+
+

ar
+ + + |

HIGH
+ +

|
+
+

RI

ja
+
+ +
| +
+
+

DG
,

+ + . 100 + +
+

|
DZIRULA + +

|
+
. 70
+

+ | + + +

+
. 2000 ISTAN + +

+
|
+
+

DEPRESSION
,

|
+

|
THRACIAN
| |
| BUL |
|
+ +
ra
+ +
+
TRO

B+ +A
|
. 20
Ku
. 4000 |
,

+ ) ) +
BASIN 25
0
(800
|
. 300 +
+ |
ou
,

+
( . 600 . 90
,

Cardz
. 128 |
+
S I
| |
,

. 400
LESSE
|
TBILISI |
. 130
|
TADJIC
,

UGH

N
+ |

R SOUTH
+ |
+
,

+
+

|
|
. 80
,

KURA
+

. 250
H IG H
|
+
TI D ES CA BAKU
EA ST ER N PO N GH . 800 + + +
UC
. 210 + . 120
N TROU
|
+
+ CASPIAN
E R E VA

+
EREVAN + AS DEPRESSION BASIN
MENDERES ANKARA
+ + +
. 200
US 600 .
ATHE +
N S HIGH + +
ARMENIAN s
. 500
TALYSH . 210
BASIN
. 650 ak TROUGH DEPRESSION FORE-KOPETDAGH
. 100
SIVAS DEPRESSION Ar
ANATOLIAN ak
. 300
NAKHICHEVAN
+ . 1000
40
0

EAST AD
+

36 0 ASCHAB
+

lirm SHELF ARAKS


Kizi . 1100 . 280

+
DEPRESSION 36 0
+

,
LAND
Atrek SHELF

+
, ,
, . 120 66 0
H IG H EASTERN

+
+
+
AURUS
+ +
MEDITERRANEAN T +
+
+ + +
+ +
KOPETDAGH
+
+
+
+ + +
+ + + +
LAND gab

+
,
+ +
Tigris EASTERN + Mur
,

+
ate
BASIN hr
+

Eup

+
100
MESOPOTAMIAN
+

EL + IRAN
+

18 0 BU
,

+
300
A N D+
+
BASIN CENTRAL IRAN BASIN RZ
L
+
500
GULF
24 0 30 0 36 0 42 0 48 0 36 0 54 0 60 0

SCALE 1 : 7 500 000


75 0 75 150 225 300 375
Map 1. Late Eocene (PREABONIAN - BELOGLINIAN)

Legend III. PALEOGEOGRAPHY


Marine environments:
I. LITHOLOGY:
Shallow shelf
Breccia
Deep shelf
Conglomerate
Deep shelfal depressions
Sand and sandstone
Continental slope and basin bottom
Silt and siltstone
Continental environments:
Clay
Freshwater lakes, marshes
Marl
Lowlands
Limestone Highlands
Silicitolits Mountains
a Boundary of different paleogeographic conditions,
Intrusive massivs b a - established, b - inferred
Terrigeneous flysch Lithofacies boundaries
Calcareous flysch Boundary of recent extension of deposits
Sea - continent boundary
Anhydrite and gypsum
Bioherms
Ashes and tuff material
Delta, fans
Turbidites
II. MINERAL RESOURCES
Volcanoes
Coal Sediment source
Salts 75 Thickness in sections , established and
. (650) aproximate
Oil and gas 10 Isopachites
|
|
Synsedimentary faults and flexures
a+ +
b+ + Overthrusts: a - synsedimentary,
a
b - postsedimentary
b Transcurrent faults:
a - synsedimentary, b - postsedimentary

Published and unpublished materials were used:


Andjelkovic, Eremia, Pavlovic et al., 1991; Atlas of lith.-palaeog. maps of Russian Platform..., 1961;
Atlas of lith.-paleog. maps of USSR,1967; Atlas Peri-Tethys, 2000; Atlas Tethys palaeoenvir. maps,
1993; Baldi, 1986; Balla, 1984; Chekunov, Veselov, Gilkman, 1976; Csontos, Nagymarosy, Horvath,
Kovac, 1992; Dercourt, Zonenshain et al., 1984; Gansser (Central Iran Basin); Goff, Jones, Horbury,
1995; Jones, Racey, 1994; Karasev (North Iran); Kovac et al., 1994; Kopp, Shcherba. 1998; Luttig,
Steffens, 1975; Nagymarosy, 1990; Poisson et al., 1997; Ponikarov, Kazmin, Kozlov, Krasheninnikov
et al., 1968; Rögl, 1998; Rögl, Steininger, 1983; Sandulescu, Micu, 1989; Shcherba, 1993; Sissingh,
2001; Steininger, Wessely, 2000; Stolyarov, 1991; Stolyarov et al. in “Biotical and geol. events,
1996; Tugolesov, Gorshkov, Meisner et al. , 1985; Wagner, 1996; Zigler, 1990
Map 2. Early Oligocene (early RUPELIAN, early KISCELLIAN, PSHEKHIAN)
12 0 52 0 18 0 24 0 30 0 36 0 42 0 480 54 0 60 0 66 0 52 0 72 0
DRE .6
SDE

Ural

ol
N WAR 20

epr
Do

Tob
S ZAW SYRT

Elba
A n

Dn
SAMAR
A URAL TURGAJ DA

Od
PRIPYAT GAN
RUSSIAN LAND KAR
A

ra
PRA
HA

50
Bug
Prip’at HIGH
BOHEMIAN STRAIT sna
De URG
ORENB HIGH STRAIT

Morava
48 0 MU
HIGH , , , , ,
Wisla KAZAKHSTANIAN
NC , , , , 48 0

MUGOD
HE , , , ,

aj
, N , , ,
SARATOV

g
, , , , ,
VOLHYNIAN URALSK

Tur
, , , ,

CA
,

|
, ,

20
50
,
HIGH

,
, ,

RP
, ,
, , 72 0

Z H A RY
,
HIGH

|
KIEV
CENTRAL CARPATHIAN

AT
WI BRA
EN ,
ALPINE TISL PALEOGENE BASIN ,

|
HI
AVA ica gan
HIGH DNIEPER - DONETS ved PRE-CASPIAN zkaz

AN
d

|
HUNGARIAN Me Dze
BASIN

,
12 0 Tisa

,
Dr , Dn

|
es

,
ava BASIN tr

+
BUD

BA
,
APE Don

?
+

Ju
ST
SLOVENIAN BAY

zB
SI
+
110
TR O U G H
,

,
STRAIT
S ZO LN O K

ug
+

|
N
,
+ + + ,
Dun

ZAG

Ural
REB Do 230
,

TISZA ne
au

APUSENI ts (30)

ba
|
Sa TRANSYLVANIAN U K R A IN IA N IS VOLGOGRAD

Em
va THMUS
LAND

Pru
MaHIGH Mn DONETS HIGH 10
(20)
ros 100

t
0 . 250

|
SHELF
,

44 0 Mn Don

Vo
10
44 0

lg
ROSTOV-NA-DONU

|
,
,
, , 20
BEO ,
50
GRA
ina

,
? 50

|
50
,

D 20 0
Dr

,
10
,

100 L
,

ARA
,

Syr

,
00
,

+
ASTRAKHAN

|
BI 1 200 da
,

,
+

50
CO RLA rja
,

,
+ 200
SCYTHIAN 20
,
+ RR DS 155
SEA
,
,

SAR
,

ID KY 300

|
,
AYE

50
OR SYRDARJA
,
,

U
,
V O
SEA
,

0
BUCU 20

0
60

|
30
,

REST Kalaus
MOESIAN
,

|
400

10
DI

I DEPRESSION
,

n
,

0
AP UL IA N Kuba

15
|
20 132

0
,

100
NA

HIGH

|
,

100
,
300
,

|
50
,

Kuma 200
U
,

RI

300
AP

GR
,

|
,

+
a + 20

200
|
Dun
AN

+
,

10
20
1000
EA

0
,
,

TEREK-
UL

Mn

10
,
,
,

(200
TE

|
BALKANIAN (300) 0
,

|
) 50 Mn
,
DARYALYK - KYZYLKUM
IA

,
,

,
,

SOFIJ
SH EL F R+

50
,

A
,

20
50
TURAN
,

0
,

|
N

HIGH 1
MA

| | 0
,

+ + +
, ,

|
WESTERN
,

|
Mn
+
10
,
PIN

+
MANGYSHLAK
CE
,

|
+
+
BAY
+
,

Va

DO

+ + us
C A
+
Terek Nuk
|
+ +
DAUDAN
,

+ |
,

rd
DOS
LA

+
BLACK SEA
NI

20 200
ar

Ma
,

LA

U C
|
40 0
|
10
AN

| |
ric | | | | 15
EASTERN
| |
300
ND

0
,

550
a 40 0
|
DEPRESSION
ND

SH
A S 400
ST
,

0
AT S 20

AN
RHODOPE + + +

10
|
(20 KY
DEPRESSION
+

Am
RA

DR
0)
U S
+
SW DEPRESSION

|
|

200
EL

ud
200

US
+

IT

L
BLACK SEA
,

ar
|
400

OV
+ + 10

|
+

ja
+
SEA
+ |
+
HIGH +
+ + + +
+ | +

SW
+
+

+
. 50 + +

|
+
,

+ |
+ + 100
Mn +

EL
ISTAN
+ | + +
TRO

+
DEPRESSION
|

L
+
| |
BUL

+
| |
THRACIAN | + +
| +
ra
+ +
+
B+ +A
|

Ku
+ |
. 750
,

BASIN +
,

| + |
+
ou
+
,

Cardz
+ |

S I
UGH

| |
+
,

|
TBILISI |
,

|
,

LESSER C A . 150
+ + N + SOUTH 50
20 |
,

+
UCA
+

|
|
,

IGH SUS
,

ES H
+

ID KURA +
BAKU
|

PONT
+ + + +
ANATOLIAN E RN EREVAN TROUGH +
+ CASPIAN
|

EAST
,

+
. 100
EREVAN +
ANKARA DEPRESSION
ATHE
+ + + + + + ARMENIAN 90
N S
SIVAS BASIN aks DEPRESSION FORE-KOPETDAGH 16
+

EAST LAND BASIN Ar 45


+

+
36 0 + ak AD
Kizi
lirm ASCHAB

+
MENDERES 36 0
, Atrek
EASTERN BAY

+
, ,
MEDITERRANEAN
,
HIGH 66 0

+
S H IG H KOPETDAGH
TA U R U + + + +
+
+ + +
+ +
+
+
+ LAND
+ gab

+
BASIN
,
+
Tigris +
+ Mur
,

s +

+
ate +
phr
+
+
Eu

+
MESOPOTAMIAN EL
+
CENTRAL IRAN ND
+
18 0 BU
,

BASIN RZ LA
+
+

BASIN + +
+
+

24 0 30 0 36 0 42 0 48 0 36 0 54 0 60 0

SCALE 1 : 7 500 000


75 0 75 150 225 300 375
Map 2. Early Oligocene (early RUPELIAN, early KISCELIAN, PSCHEKHIAN)

Legend
III. PALEOGEOGRAPHY
I. LITHOLOGY:
Marine environments:
Breccia
Shallow shelf
Conglomerate
Deep shelf
Sand and sandstone
Deep shelfal depressions
Silt and siltstone
Continental slope and basin bottom
Clay
Continental environments:
Anoxic clay
Freshwater lakes, marshes
Marl Lowlands
Limestone Highlands
Silicitolits Mountains
a Boundary of different paleogeographic conditions,
Intrusive massivs b a - established, b - inferred
Terrigeneous flysch Lithofacies boundaries
Boundary of recent extension of deposits
Anhydrite and gypsum
Sea - continent boundary
II. MINERAL RESOURCES Bioherms
Coal Delta, fans
Oil and gas Turbidites
Mn Manganese Volcanoes
U Uranium and rare earth Sediment source
75 Thickness in sections , established and
Ferrugeneous ores . (650) aproximate
10 Isopachites
|
|
Synsedimentary faults and flexures
a+
+
b+ + Overthrusts: a - synsedimentary,
a b - postsedimentary
b Transcurrent faults:
a - synsedimentary, b - postsedimentary

Published and unpublished materials were used:


Andjelkovic, Eremia, Pavlovic et al., 1991; Atlas of lith.-palaeog. maps of Russian Platform..., 1961;
Atlas of lith.-paleog. maps of USSR,1967; Atlas Peri-Tethys, 2000; Atlas Tethys palaeoenvir. maps,
1993; Baldi, 1986; Balla, 1984; Berger, 1996; Chekunov, Veselov, Gilkman, 1976; Csontos,
Nagymarosy, Horvath, Kovac, 1992; Dercourt, Zonenshain et al., 1984; Furrer, Soder, 1995; Gansser
(Central Iran Basin); Goff, Jones, Horbury, 1995; Jones, Racey, 1994; Karasev M.S. (North Iran); Kovac
et al., 1994; Kopp, Shcherba. 1998; Luttig, Steffens, 1975; Nagymarosy, 1990; Nagymarosy,
Baldi-Beke, 1993; Poisson et al., 1997; Ponikarov, Kazmin, Kozlov, Krasheninnikov et al., 1968; Rögl,
1998; Rögl, Steininger, 1983; Saidov, Kuschanin (Fore-Elburz Depression); Sandulescu, Micu, 1989;
Shcherba, 1993; Sissingh, 2001; Steininger, Wessely, 2000; Stolyarov, 1991; Stolyarov et al. in
“Biotical and geol. events, 1996; Tugolesov, Gorshkov, Meisner et al. , 1985; Wagner, 1996; Yetis,
Kelling, Gokcen, Baroz, 1995; Yilmaz, Norton, Leary et al., 1996; Zigler, 1990
Map 3. Late Oligocene (CHATTIAN - EGERIAN - KALMYKIAN)
12 0 52 0 18 0 24 0 30 0 36 0 42 0 480 54 0 60 0 66 0 52 0 72 0
DRE
SDE

Ural

ol
N WAR

epr
Do

Tob
S ZAW 30

Elba
A n SYRT
URAL

Dn
A
SAMAR NDA

Od
PRIPYAT
LAND AGA
RUSSIAN KAR

ra
PRA HIGH
HA TURGAJ

50
Bug
Prip’atDEPRESSION
BOHEMIAN D esn
a
URG
ORENB HIGH

Morava
48 0 MU
HIGH , , , , ,
Wisla LOWLAND KAZAKHSTANIAN
NC , , , , 50 48 0

MUGOD
HE , , , ,

aj
+
, N +
, , ,
SARATOV

g
, , , , ,
URALSK

Tur
, , , ,
, , , + +

,
,
+

|
,

CA

30
, ,
+
HIGH

,
72 0

Z H A RY
,
RP

|
KIEV
ALPINE WI
EN BRA VOLHYNIAN

AT
TISL

|
HIGH AVA HUNGARIAN ica

H
DNIEPER - DONETS

+
ved gan
zkaz

IA
HIGH d

|
Me Dze

+
,

N
12 0 Tisa BASIN

,
Dn

+
Dr ,
NORTH

|
es

,
ava tr

+
BUD

,
Don

BA
APE BASIN

?
+

Ju
SLOVENIAN ST +

zB
SI
+
TR O U G H
,
STRAIT
S ZO LN O K PRE-CASPIAN . 140 .3

ug
|
+
N
++ +
+
BAY
Dun

+
ZAG

Ural
REB Do . 10

+
,

. 500
TISZA ne . 25
a

+
APUSENI ts

ba
|
Sa VOLGOGRAD

+
,

Em
va LAND TRANSYLVANIAN UKRAINIAN HIGH DONETS

|
+ +

Pru
MaHIGH HIGH PRE-ARALIAN

,
ros

|
,

44 0 Don . 250
KA

Vo
BASIN BAY 44 0
RA

lg
50 ROSTOV-NA-DONU . 174

a
TA

|
BEO
, ,
Dne
pr U
GRA
,
? 100
ina

200

|
,

D 100 . 143
Dr

L
,

ARA
BI
,

,
CO RLA SCYTHIAN Syr

+
ASTRAKHAN

|
da
,

+ RR DS 50 . 139
200 rja
,

SAR + + ID KY U
SEA
,

OR U
,

?
,

AYE 200

|
, ,
V O 1000 100
,
,

,
U CENTRAL
SEA

0
10
,

BUCU |

|
,

REST INDOL-KUBAN Kalaus


,

100
DI

I 400 |
,

50
MOESIAN uban
,

AP UL IA N UK 300
,

NA

DEPRESSION
HIGH

|
,

500
,

00
,

. (2000) 700 10Kuma


,

50
RI
AP

TURAN
,

200