Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23
George Washington University Christianity and the Religion of Love in Romeo and Juliet Author(s): Paul

George Washington University

Christianity and the Religion of Love in Romeo and Juliet Author(s): Paul N. Siegel Source: Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 4 (Autumn, 1961), pp. 371-392 Published by: Folger Shakespeare Library in association with George Washington University

Accessed: 22/02/2011 12:03

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless

you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.

Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at .

Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission.

JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Folger Shakespeare Library and George Washington

Folger Shakespeare Library and George Washington University are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Shakespeare Quarterly.

http://www.jstor.org

Christianityand theReligionofLovein RomeoandJuliet*

PAUL N. SIEGEL

HE long establishedtraditionalinterpretationof Romeo and Juliet is thatit is a dramaof fateor of sheermisfortunein whichtheloversare notat all responsibleforthecatastrophe they suffer.' Recently,however, a numberof scholarshave argued that the Elizabethans,with their Christianback- ground of thought, would have regarded theloversas guilty sinnersratherthan as innocentvictims.2What has not been appreciatedby eitherof thesetwo groupsof criticsis thatRomeo and Juliet,one of many Elizabethan adaptationsof storiesof disastrouslove derived from Italian novelle,was affectedbythemannerin whichtheseotheradaptationsused the ideas of thereligionof lovethatpersistedfromtheMiddle Ages. What had beenan aristocraticcultbecamein thehandsof theElizabethan adaptersof the Italian novellea meansof middle-classentertainment.To the straightforwardlyrealisticaccountsof Boccaccioand Bandello,theyadded a furtherdash of spiceand thena generousportionof moralizationto give the mixturea properlymedicinalflavorforan audiencethatthoughtof literature

* This paperwas read in a somewhatdifferentversionbeforetheColumbiaUniversitySeminar in theRenaissance.Its completionwas speededby a releasefromteachingtimeby theadministra- tionof Long IslandUniversity,to whichI wish to expressmygratitude. 1 Cf.F. S. Boas,Shakspereand hisPredecessors(New York,i896), p. 2I4; R. G. Moulton,The Moral Systemof Shakespeare(New York, I903), p. 6i; GeorgeP. Baker,The Developmentof

Shakespeareas a Dramatist(New York,I907),

p. 255; C. H. Herford,Shakespeare'sTreatmentof

LoveandMarriage(London,I921),

p. 245; AllardyceNicoll,BritishDrama(NewYork,I925),

p. 25;

RaymondM. Alden,Shakespeare(NewYork,i922),

pp. I70-I7I;

E. K. Chambers,Shake-

speare:A Survey(London,I929), pp. 70-7I; ElmerEdgarStoll,Shakespeare'sYoungLovers(Ocx- fordUniversityPress,I937), pp. 4-5; ThomasMarcParrott,ed., Shakespeare:Twenty-threePlays and theSonnets(New York,I938), pp. i66-i67; HazeltonSpencer,The Artand Life of William Shakespeare(New York,I940), p. 220; WilliamAllan Neilsonand CharlesJarvisHill, edd., The CompletePlays and Poems of WilliamShakespeare(New York, I942), p. 975; GeorgeLyman

Kittredge,ed., SixteenPlays of Shakespeare(New York, I948), p. 674; H. B. Charlton,Shake-

spearianTragedy(CambridgeUniv. Press,I952),

Romeoand Juliet(CambridgeUniv.Press,I955), pp. xxiii-xxiv. 2 Cf. H. Edward Cain, "Romeo and Juliet:A Reinterpretation",SAB, XXII (I947),

RoyW. Battenhouse,"ShakespeareanTragedy:A ChristianInterpretation",The TragicVisionand

the ChristianFaith,ed. NathanA. Scott,Jr.(New York, I957), pp. 89-94; FranklinM. Dickey, Not WiselyBut Too Well (HuntingtonLibrary,I957); Romeoand Juliet,ed. CharlesJasperSisson witha commentarybyW. H. Auden (New York,I958: "The Laurel edition"),pp. 2I-39. A few recentcritics(HarleyGranville-Barker,Prefacesto Shakespeare[PrincetonUniv. Press,I9411, II,

340-342; Donald Stauffer,Shakespeare'sWorldof Images [New

JamesCampbell,ed., The LivingShakespeare[New York,I9491, p. 3I3) have assignedresponsi-

bilityto Romeoand Julietwitha bettersenseof proportion.Cf. also A. C. Bradley,Shakespearean

Tragedy(London, I924), say.

p. 5I; J. Dover Wilsonand Ian Duthie,edd.,

i63-I9I;

York, I9491, pp. 55-57; Oscar

extendswhatthesecriticshave to

p. 29. My studyin partsupportsand

372

SHAKESPEARE QUARTERLY

as a sugar-coatedpill,increasingtheamountoftheseingredientsalreadyin-

creasedininterveningFrenchtranslations.3Theirbooks,whichRogerAscham

lamentedcouldbefoundin"everyshopinLondon",'anticipatedPamela,Char-

lotteTemple,andthemodernHollywoodBiblical"epics",in whichtheaudi- enceisinvitedtosinvicariouslywiththepaganswhilebeingedifiedbythepious sentimentsoftheChristians.In theirstoriesdealingwithlovethereadercould findsensationalincidentsprovidinggratifyingthrillspresentedtohimas moral instruction.Each ofthemproclaimedthatpassionatelovebroughtdestruction and death,butat thesametimeglorifiedthisloveand,in keepingwiththe doctrineofthereligionoflove,presentedfaithfulnessinitas thehighestvirtue. Whatis in theotherElizabethanworksdrawnfromtheItaliannovellea crudelymechanicalmixtureofa glorificationofpassionateloveanda Christian moralisticcondemnationof it is in Shakespeare'sRomeoand Julieta subtle blendofthesetwoingredients.In theotheradaptationstheauthoroscillates betweenfrivolouslyinconsistentattitudestowardthelovers;in Romeoand

Julietthesemutuallycontradictoryattitudesaretransformedintoa complexly unifiedattitude.As inShakespeariantragedygenerally,perceptionofthehero's fatallackofbalancedoesnotprecludeadmirationandsympathy.Moreover,the ideasofthereligionofloveandthoseofChristianity,insteadofmerelybeing placedin incongruousjuxtapositionas in theothernovellaadaptations,arein RomeoandJulietinterwovenintoa unifiedartisticpattern.Thusintheother adaptationstheideathatLoveis a godinsupremecontroloverhumanbeings

andtheideathatdivineprovidencerulestheaffairsofmenarejuggledwith-

outrimeorreason.In RomeoandJulietthemedievalandRenaissanceconcept thatsexualloveis a manifestationofthecosmicloveofGod,whichholdsto- gethertheuniversein a chainofloveandimposesorderon it,actsas a nexus betweenthetwodoctrines.It maybesaidofShakespeare'sdrama,as HaroldS. WilsonsaidofChaucer's"Knight'sTale","Divineloveprovidentiallyworks throughimperfecthumanlovetoa higherend."5 Thisis nottosaythatShakespeareexpresseda logicallyconsistentoutlook encompassingtheideasofbothChristianityandthereligionoflove.He was concernedwithartisticunity,notwithlogicalunity.The ideasofthereligion ofloveandthoseofChristianitynotonlyworktogether;theyalsopullin op- positedirections,creatinga dramatictensionwhichis relievedonlywiththe transcendenceofloveattheveryend.Accordingtoa tenetofthemedievalre- ligionoflovethatcontinuedtobe expressedin theElizabethanadaptationsof novelle,joiningthelovedone in deathqualifiestheloveras one of Cupid's

saintsandensuresthatthetwomeetin the"Paradisein whichdweltthegod oflove,and in whichwerereservedplacesforhis disciples."6Accordingto Christianity,suicide,unlessrepentanceoccursbetweentheactand death,en- suresdamnation.In RomeoandJuliet,unlikeHamlet,Othello,Macbeth,and

3 Cf. RenePruvost,MatteoBandelloand ElizabethanFiction(Paris, I937), pp. Io6-Io8. For a

discussionof themoralsurfaceforpoetrydemandedby themiddle-classaudience,see J.W. Saun-

ders,"The

WilliamR. Muellerand Don CameronAllen (JohnsHopkinsPress,1952), pp. 1-34. 4 RogerAscham,The Scholemaster,ed. EdwardArber(Boston,i898), p. 8o. 5 Harold S. Wilson,"The Knight'sTale and theTeseida Again", Universityof TorontoQuar-

terly,XVIII ('I949), 1I45.

Falade of Morality",That SoueraineLight: Essaysin Honor of Edmund Spenser,ed.

6

WilliamG. Dodd, CourtlyLove in Chaucerand Gower(Boston,1913), p. I .

CHRISTIANITY AND THE RELIGION OF LOVE

373

KingLear,itis thelovers'paradiseofthereligionoflove,nottheafter-lifeof Christianreligion,whichis adumbratedat thecloseof thetragedy.W. H. Auden'sstatementthattheElizabethansmusthavebelievedthatanystage characterwho committedsuicidewithoutexpressingrepentancebeforehis deathwas goingto hell7is validonlyfora playsuchas Othello,wherethe Christianafter-lifeis consistentlyand unambiguouslythoughfaintlyadum- brated.ForRomeoandJulietitdisregardsShakespeare'suseofthetraditionof

thereligionofloveanditsdoctrineofthelovers'paradise.If

thatdramaticuseofthistraditionwasacceptedbytheChristianElizabethans, it shouldbe rememberedthatit originatedin theChristianMiddleAges.In thistradition,C. S. Lewispointsout,love,at times"an escapefromreligion"

it seemsstrange

andatothertimes"a rivalreligion",canalsobe"anextensionofreligion"and evena "combination"ofall ofthesethings.8

We had bestbeginbyreviewingthegroupofElizabethanadaptationsof novellethattellthe"tragicalhistories"ofunfortunateloverswhomeetfamily hostilityandfinallydieforlove.In thisreviewwe shallnotbe concernedwith thedeviationsoftheseadaptationsfromtheiroriginals,forwhatis ofsolein- terestto us is theattitudestowardspassionatelovewhichtheElizabethan popularaudiencefoundin them.We shallseehowthetenetsofthereligion oflove-thatLoveis an all-powerfulgod,thathe exerciseshisdominionpar- ticularlyovertheyoung,thathisruleis a law ofnature-areusedto justify andexaltpassionatelove,andhowat thesametimeorthodoxChristianethics

areusedtocondemnit.Byexaminingfirstthemechanicalmixtureofglorifica-

tionandcondemnationintheseadaptations,we shallbe betterabletoanalyze theblendofthesetwoingredientsin RomeoandJuliet.Also,thereaderwill notethereferencestoan after-life,boththosetotheparadiseofthereligionof

loveforthosefaithfultoloveindeathandthosetothehellofChristianity.Our observationofthesewillalertus to suchreferencesin RomeoandJulietand enableus thebettertounderstandtheirsignificance. The firstpublishedworkin thisgroupofadaptationsis WilliamWalter's GuystardeandSygysmonde(1532), a versifiedadaptationofBoccaccio'staleof GuiscardoandGhismondaintheDecameron.Thistale,withwhosere-tellings weshallbegin,was,withthetaleofRomeoandJuliet,withwhichitwasmore thanoncelinked,themostpopularofthenovellastories.ThomasPeendspoke ofthetwostoriesas amongthegreatlovestoriesofall timein The Pleasant Fableof Hermaphroditusand Salamacis(i565), and BarnabyRichspokeof theirfamein A RightExelentandPleasauntDialoguebetweneMercuryand an EnglishSouldier (I574) 9 WilliamPainterincludedbothin hisPalaceof

Pleasure(i566).

The taletoldbyBoccacciois ofGhismonda,a widowwho,knowingthat herfatherTancredwillnotpermitherto re-marry,looksaboutforthesecret solaceof loveand findsit in thepersonof Guiscardo,herfather'sservant.

7 Romeo and Juliet("The Laurel edition"),p. 38. For a discussionof the intimationsof Othello'sdamnation,see Paul N. Siegel,ShakespeareanTragedyand the Elizabethan Compromise (New YorkUniv. Press,I957), pp. I2I-I40. 8 C. S. Lewis,The AllegoryofLove (OxfordUniv.Press,I936), pp. 2I-22. 9Early EnglishVersionsof the Tales of Guiscardoand Ghismondaand Titus and Gisippus fromtheDecameron,ed. HerbertG. Wright,EETS (OxfordUniv.Press,1937), p. cviii.

374

SHAKESPEARE QUARTERLY

imprisonedbyhimandsentthe cup.Callingto herloverthat

heartofhermurderedloverin thebottomofa sheis comingto him,shepoisonsherself.The

worldly,sophisticatedheroine,anda gooddealofthestoryis

spiriteddefenseofherselfin replytoherfather'supbraidingofher,forwhich

which,speakingofher

youthandnaturaldesires,sheassertsthatifherfatherdidnotwanthertohave

an illicitaffairhe shouldhavegothermarriedoffinsteadofkeepingherby him,presentsthecaseforthesovereigntyoflove.

thestorymayalmostbe saidtoexist.This defense,in

CaughtinflagrantedelictobyTancred,sheis

author'ssympathyis withhis

givenovertoher

Waltertellsthestoryin a fairlystraightforwardway,butit is

punctuated

throughoutbytheobtrusivecommentsoftheprinter,R. Coplande,delivered

withtheregularitybutnotthelyricismofa

have a schizophreniccharacter,forat somecrisesCoplandecondemnsthe

Greekchorus.Thesecomments

loversand at othershe exaltsthem.As HerbertG. Wrightpointsout,there is no reasonto believethatCoplande'ssermonizingmetwithWalter'sdisap-

proval,as Walterhimselfinveighedagainstthebad

prologuehewrotetoTheSpectacleofLoversinthesamewaythattheprologue to Guystardeand Sygysmondedoes.10Coplande'scomments,however,are certainlyinorganic.WhenGuystardeand Sygysmondegivethemselvesup to love,Coplandeexclaims(p. io6):

effectsofidlenessin the

o folyssheGuystarde/0 vnwyseSygysmonde

o newePryamus[sic]/0 yongewantonThysbe.

He commentsotherwise,however,afterSygysmonde'sdefenseof herselfto

herfather.Remindinghimthatsheis

youngandmadeoffleshandblood,not

ironorstone,sheasserts(p.II7):

I beyngeinvoluptuousyte BothenyghtanddaymymyndeI

Myflamyngehetehowquencheditmyghtbe.

dydapply

ThisspeechmakesCoplandeexclaim(p. I20):

o constantlady/0 lyghtoflouersshene

o turtletrue

WalterhimselfexcusesSygysmondebecauseofherfaithfulness(p. I2I):

Alasswetewoman/thoulouednotformede. Noryetein comune/butstedfastlytoone. At theendhe followsthemedievalconventionofprayingforhisheroand heroine:

To thesetwolouersIesuofhisgrace

Grauntmercy& inheuentohauea

place.Amen.

Coplande,however,addstothisconclusiona moralisticenvoyinwhichhe

on thepoemto"sheweexample/wylfullappetyte"tothosewho"chaynedbe

inloue"(pp. I28-I29).

calls

CHRISTIANITY AND THE RELIGION OF LOVE

375

The nextversionof the Guiscardo-Ghismondastoryis thatof Painter. Painter,as he generallydoes,givesa quitedirecttranslation,and hisversion is theclosestonetoBoccaccio.In hisdedicatoryepistle,however,he insistson hismoralisticintention.Whileadmittingthat"bythefirstfaceandview,some ofthese[stories]mayseemetointreatofvnlawfulloue",he defendsthemon thegroundthattheyteachthatpassionleadsto "ruine,ouerthrow,inconuen- ienceand displeasure"."Yet,despitePainter'sannouncedmoralisticpurpose, he permitsGismondato deliverwithas muchspiritas everherspeechin whichshe chargesherfatherwithhavingdisregarded"thelawe of youth" (I, I70) thatimpelsyoungpeopletogratifytheirsexualdesire.And,although Gismondaisdescribedatthebeginningas a ladywho,"yonge,lustie,andmore wiseperaduenturethena womanoughttobe" (I, i66),decidestofinda manto be herlover,sheis laterpresentedas admirablein herfidelity.Attheendher father,repentant,respectsherdyingwishandcausesthelovers"honorablieto be buried,and intombedbothin onegrave,notwithoutgreatsoroweofall

thepeopleofSalerne"(I, i75).

The nextversionofthestory,a play,The Tragedieof Tancredand Gis- mundbyRobertWilmotandothers,waspublishedin I59i afterhavingbeen actedat courtin I567. The Tragedieof Tancredand Gismundis an austere Senecandrama,completewithchorusesand furies,butit continuesto mix condemnationand glorificationof thelovers.The dedicatoryepistleto "the GentlemenStudentsoftheInnerTemple"statesthattheplayisconcernedwith "commendingvertue,detestingvice,and liuelydecipheringtheirouerthrow thatsuppressenottheirvnruelyaffections";the"prefacetotheQueenesMaidens ofHonor"statesthatthroughtheplaythedeadGismundapraysforthem"to pittieherannoy".Gismundais shownas pitiablein herthwarteddesireto marryGuiszhard,buthersuccumbingto loveis spokenofin termsofmoral condemnation.At thesametimeit is presentedas well-nighinevitable.Thus

Cupid,proclaiminghispower,says:

GismundI haulentisedtoforget

TwasI allur'dheronceagainetotrie

thesowersweetesthatLouersbuytoodeere.12

Gismundaherselfsaystoherfatherthatsheisdeservingofdeath,pleadingonly thatLove "wouldnotendurecontrolmentanymore:/But violentlyenforst

myfeebledheart"(11.II71-II72).

When she comesto commitsuicide,however,she dies exaltedly,not re- pentantly,exclaimingas she takes the'poison,"Dreadlesse of death (mine Earle) I drinkto thee" (1. I719). It is Tancredwho pointsa moralas he kills himself:

Now fatherslearnby ne, Be wise,bewarndetovsemoretenderly The iewelsofyourioyes.(11.I855-I857)

"1WilliamPainter,The Palace of Pleasure,ed. JosephHaslewood (London, 1813), I, iii.

12 The Tragedyof Tancredand Gismund,The Malone SocietyReprints(OxfordUniv. Press,

1914),

11. 594-599.

376

SHAKESPEARE QUARTERLY

At the conclusionIulio, one of Tancred'sgentlemen,actingas themoralizing epilogue,informstheaudienceof Tancred'sdamnationforhavingcommitted suicide in "despaire":"With violenthands he that his life doth end,/ His damnedsoulto endlesnightdothwend" (11.i863-i864). He saysnothingabout the fateof Gismunda'ssoul,but she herselfin committingsuicidehad said:

"Now passe I to the pleasantland of loue,/Where heauenlyloue immortall

flourisheth"(11. I725-I726).

evidentlythelovers'paradiseofthereligionoflove,thesameparadiseforwhich one of theheroinesin GeorgePettie'slove storiespresentshercredentialsas a martyroflovein committingsuicide:"I thinkmyselfto havesatisfiedmyduty, and purchasedtherebya passportto theplace and paradisewheremyhusband hathhis habitation.'3Yet thedestinationof Gismunda'ssoul is uncertain,for

she concludesherspeechby callingupon hell,not heaven,to witnessthatshe

dies forGuiszhard's"pure love",and Iulio in the epiloguecondemnsher by

implication:"Now humblypraywe thatour Englishdames

mayauoidtheshames/That followssuchas huein wantonlust"(11.i877-i880).

The last publishedElizabethanversionof the Guiscardo-Ghismondastory,

The "pleasantland of loue" of whichshe speaksis

theirhonors

a narrativepoem"The StatlyTragedyof Guistardand Sismond",was printed in I597 froma manuscriptwrittenduringthelatterhalfof the fifteenthcen- tury.In thispoem,althoughSismond'ssexualpassionis notblinkedat ("lustie youthand coragebrentheras fyre"),14Guistardand Sismondare presentedas modelsoftruegentilityratherthanas theworldly-wisecreaturesthatBoccaccio's heroand heroineare.The conclusion,whichis copiedfroman earlierfifteenth- centurymanuscript,GilbertBanester's"The Tale ofGuiscardoandGhismonda",

is verysympatheticto thelovers.The moraldrawnis thatloveis irresistibleto

youthand shouldnotbe opposedbycruelparents(p. 97):

Youthwillto youth,louewilltoloueeuermore, Andshortlyinmymindethisprocessetoconclude, Each thingwilldrawto hissimilitude.

Tancred'ssoul is said to be "in greatperill"becausehe would notletSismond get married.The poetprays,however,forhis heroine'ssoul and at the same timeholdsher up as a modelof womanhood,as, accordingto the religionof love,she was (p. 99):

Thatas I trustsheis inblissecelestiall, As offaithandtrothall louerssurmounting, Shewasa mirrourvntowomenall, Exampleoftrueandstedfastlouegiuing:

WhereforeI beseechhimthatis ofallthing Lordgouernour,andcomfortagenbale, Grauntall louersioy.Andthusendethmytale.

The God of Christianityand thegod of loveare hereindeedconfused.

The nexttwo talesof unfortunateloversthwartedby parentalopposition, aside fromArthurBrooke's"TragicallHistoryeof Romeus and Juliet"and

13 GeorgePettie,A PetitePallaceofPettiehisPleasure,ed. I. Gollancz(London,1908), I, 45-46. 14 EarlyEnglishVersions,p. 43.

CHRISTIANITY AND THE RELIGION OF LOVE

377

Painter'sversionofthestory,whichI shallleavetotheendofmysurvey,ap-

pearinGeoffreyFenton'sCertaineTragicallDiscourses(I567),

storiesderivedfromBandello.Fenton,likePainter,whileadmittingthat"at

thefirstesighte,theisdiscoursesmayeimportecerteynevanytyesorfondeprac- tisesin love",affirmsthattheydemonstrate"theinconveniencehappenyngeby thepursuteoflycenceousdesyer".'5Fenton'smoralizingis muchheavierthan thatofPainter,buthissensationalismis alsogreater,andhissympathyforhis lovers,guiltyornot,is evident. The titleof thefirstof hisstoriesI shallexamine,whichdeservesto be quotedin full,is indicativeofitstone:"The Longand LoyallLovebetwene LyvyoandCamylla,togetherwiththeirlamentabledeath;theonedyingofa passionofjoyethefirstnighthe embracedhis mystresin bedde;theother passedalsothesameway,as overcomewithpresentsorowforthedeathofhim whomshelovedno Jessethenherselfe"(I, 85). Fentoncondemnsthelovers' excessivepassionas causingtheirdamnation,assertingflatlythattheywere"th' unnaturalmorderersoftheirownesoules"(I, 88),butthemoralis laidon as witha trowel.It doesnotatallgrowoutofthestory,inwhichthelovers,for- biddentoseeeachotherbyCamilla'sfather,aresympatheticallydepictedand theirpassionis presentedas irresistible."Whatangryedomeofthegoddsor sinysterpermissionofthefatesis this",criesLivio,on findingthatLove has "madehimselfelord"(I, 9i, 89) overhismind.Theirbriefbutintensedelight, moreover,is so describedthatmanyno doubtwouldhavefeltas Byrondidin commentingthathecouldnotpityJuanevenifhehadbeensqueezedtodeath betweenJuliaandAntonia.AlthoughFentoncondemnssuchsecretmarriages as thatofLivioandCamillaas a violationoffilialobediencethatmustbepun- ishedbyGod,attheconclusionheblamesnottheloversbutCamilla'sbrother, whoinstigatedherfather:his"crueltywasthecauseofthedeathoftheii only flowersandperagonsin Italy"(I, I28). The loversthemselvesareenshrinedin a burialvaultofmarble. In Fenton'sotherstoryof parentaloppositionto love,Perillo,a prodigal youngbankrupt,who"seamedinvincibleagainsteall goodcouncel",fallsin lovewithCarmosynaandis "madetractable"byLove,which"plieththemost strongeandstubborneupponearthe",sothat"onepoysondrivethouteanother" (II, 2I8). Her father,a wealthymerchant,refusesthematch,butPerillo,after muchhardshipandadventure,gainsrichesandmarriesher.On themarriage night,however,thehotJuneweatherbreedsa thunderstorm,"whereof(as the feareof thetempesthadd dryventhebrideand bridgromto embraceone another)so oneofthesaydfatallmynistersofdestenye,whychewe callprop- erlythunderbolts,dartedwithsuthevehemencieupponthe one and other thatitgaveendetotheirpleasureandlifeat oneblowe."So Perillo wasnotabletoavoid"thefurieoftheheavensandinclemencyeofhisfates"or "thegreatewrongewhichtheguiderofamarusdestiniessemedto do to the loyalteoftheyoungeman"(II, 234). Thustheultimatepoweris leftindeci- sivelypoisedbetweendivineprovidence,fate,andthegodoflove. Ourlasttwostoriesofthetype,asidefromtheRomeo-Julietstoryitself,are versetranslationsoftalesfromBoccaccioinGeorgeTurberville'sTragicalTales

translationsof

15 CertainTragicalDiscoursesof Bandello,tr.GeoffreyFenton(London, 1953), I, 8.

378

SHAKESPEARE QUARTERLY

(1587) .1 The firstis fromthewell-knowntalewhichwas thesourceofKeats's Isabella,or the Pot of Basil. In Turberville'spoem Elizabeth,a wealthymer- chant'sdaughter,fallsin love withtheboywho keepsherbrothers'shop.The lovers

Sportas themaneris Of wantonCupidscrue, That morerespectthepresenttoyes, Than troublesthatensue.17

Elizabeth,however,is excused,as Ghismondawas, because (p. i85)

shewasripetowed. And yetwithouta marriedmate, Her lustieprimesheeled.

Her piningaway afterherbrothersstealfromher thebasil pot in whichshe has buriedthehead of thelovertheyhave murderedis describedin a manner as patheticas thepedestrianverseallows,butTurbervilledrawsa moralat the

conclusion(p. i99):

Loe herethelotteofwickedloue, Beholdthewretchedend Of willfulwightes,thatwholydoe On Cupideslawesdepend.

In his envoy,however,Turbervilleacknowledgesthesovereigntyof Cupid and condemnsnottheloversbutthebrothers(p. 202):

Bynatureso thelaw ofloueis set, As nonehathwilorpowerfromhimtowrest. Whereforethiswrongwasgreattheydidthismaide:

The brotherswerea littlenottoblame, Thatwouldthewenchfromfixedfansiestaid:

Andthoughtbyforceto quenchherkindledflame.

Turberville'sotherversetalecan onlybe describedas a burlesque,wittingor unwitting,ofthetype.Girolamus,thefourteen-year-oldson ofa richmerchant's widow,is madlyin love withhis playmatefrombabyhood,Salvestra,a tailor's daughter,who desireshimequallyardently.His mother,wishinga bettermatch and seeingthatwhippingsdo notdo anygood,sendshimofftoParis.Whilehe is there,Salvestrais marriedto a curtain-maker.Girolamus,hotterin lovethan ever,comesback. He stealsintoherhouseat nightand makeshis way to the bed whereshe lies by her soundlysleepinghusband.There followsan erotic scenein whichhe begsherto yieldgraceand she refuses.Finally,he entreats her,since he is frozen,to permithim "to warmehimselfewithinher bed",

16I shall omitfromthissurveythe storiesof Germanicusand Agrippinaand of Curatiusand Horatiain A PetitePallace of Pettiehis Pleasure,for,althoughinfluencedby the adaptationsof novelle,Pettie'sbook re-tellsclassicallove storiesratherthan thosein the Italian novelle.More- over,it has a sophisticatedwit which,togetherwith the dedicationto "the gentlegentlewomen readers",leads one to suspectthatit was writtenfora morecourtlyaudiencethanthevolumesof Painterand Fenton.Pettiehas sensationalincident,glorificationof passionatelove, and moraliza- tion,as do theadaptationsofnovelle,butthesensationalismand theglorificationof love are under- cut by theplayof witand themoralizationis clearlytongue-in-cheek. 17 GeorgeTurberville,TragicalTales (Edinburgh,1837), p. z86.

CHRISTIANITY AND THE RELIGION OF LOVE

379

promisingherhe wouldnot"hernakedcarkassewith/His manlymembers tutche"(p.273).To thissheassents.Asheliestherethinkingofher"shamefull scorne",heis "broughttodeepdespaire"and,deciding"nottolive",givesup theghostforthwithand lieslifeless"bySaluestrassauageside"(p. 274).She wakesherhusband,tellshimthestory,andhas himbringthecorpseto the doorofGirolamus'smother.At thefuneralpitycomesto Salvestratoolate. ThrowingherselfonGirolamus'body,sheexpires.Turbervillegravelyappends

(p.

parentsshould"giue consent,/Andnotrepinewhenmindestomatcharebent." Second,womenshould"perusetheplagueof herthatpytylackt"and take exampletheir"rygorto remoue".Third,"Cupidosknyghts"should"take heede"to"courtenomanswyfeembracenomaryagebed",formarriedwomen whosubmitmustprovefaithless. The tellingsoftheRomeo-JulietstorybeforeShakespearecontainthesame

mixtureoftheChristianmoralisticcondemnationandtheglorificationofpas-

sionateloveas theotherElizabethanadaptationsoftheItaliannovelle.Arthur

Brookein hisprefatoryaddressto thereaderaccusestheloversof"thralling themselvestounhonestdesire"andof"abusyngthehonorablenameoflawefull

mariage,tocloketheshameofstolnecontractes"Y.8This,however,is

moralsurfaceconventionallyexpectedin theseadaptations.His sympathyin thepoemitselfisentirelywiththelovers.He describesthemarriagenightwith

considerablezest,makingbawdyjokesandexclaimingin transport,"I graunt

thatI envietheblissetheylivedin

grauntmeyet"(p. 309). AndwhenJulietcommitssuicide,shespeaksofher and Romeus'"partedsprites"as beingreunitedto livetogethereternally"in placeofendlesselightandblisse"(p. 357) withouta wordofauthorialdisap- proval.On thecontrary,Brookeconcludeshispoemwitha reverentialdescrip- tionofthemonumenterectedbytheirparentsto commemorate"so perfect, sound,andso approvedlove"(p. 363). So too,althoughPainter,as wehaveseen,insistedthathislovestorieswere

meantto showthe destructiveconsequencesof passion,his "Rhomeoand Julietta"is entirelysympathetictothelovers.As in Brooke,themarriagenight is describedecstatically,andthelovers'paradiseofthereligionofloveis re- ferredtobyJuliettawhenshecommitssuicidesayingthatshe"franklyoffreth

vp hirsoule

getherintheplaceofeuerlastingioy"(II, 387).

283) threedifferentmoralstothestory.First,sinceCupidis all-powerful,

onlythe

Fortunesuchdelightas theyrsdydnever

thatoursoulespassingfromthislight,mayeternallyliueto-

The love of Romeoand Julietis thepassionatelove describedin these ElizabethanadaptationsofItaliannovelle.We neednotturnasidewithVic- torianprudishnessfromJuliet'santicipationof the marriagenightin her "Gallopapace,youfiery-footedsteeds"soliloquy(III. ii. 1-33) toaffirmthatno otherShakespearianheroinecouldhave utteredit. Desdemonaelopeswith Othello,butherloveforhimis spiritual("I sawOthello'svisagein hismind" -I. iii. 253) ratherthanphysical,and theconsummationof theirmarriageis postponed,as is clearfromtheherald'sannouncementofthenuptialfestivities and themarriagemorningserenadeof Cassio'smusicians,untiltheyare at

18Narrative and

DramaticSources of Shakespeare,ed. GeoffreyBullough (Columbia Univ.

Press,1957), pp. 284-285.

380

SHAKESPEARE QUARTERLY

Cyprus.Ophelia,farfrombeingsweptawaybyherlove,permitsherselftobe

lessonedbyherfatherand herbrotherto returnHamlet'sgifts.As forthe romanticcomedyheroines,theyare,as Rosalindsays,apterto lovethanto

confesstheydo,engagingtheirloversin

theirarms.One cannotimagineJulietspendinghertimedressedas a boy makingmock-loveto Romeo.FriarLaurence,on hearingtheardorof their

expressionsof love,hastensto performthemarriageceremonybeforetheir

passiongetsoutofhand:"Byyourleaves,youshallnotstayalone/Till

churchincorporatetwoin one"(II. vi.36-37). Intensethoughtheirpassionis, however,it is exalted.The salaciousness presentin manyoftheadaptationsofnovelleis refinedaway.Julietis nota GhismondamakingapproachestoGuiscardooranElizabethmakingapproaches to herbrothers'apprentice.ShakespearedepartsfromBrooke,whohasJuliet,

fallingin lovewithRomeusat firstsight,whispertohimatthedance"I am

yours",as "allherpartesdidshake"(p.

ofShakespeare'sJulietcomesafterRomeohasalreadyheardherdivulgeitin soliloquyso that,romanticallyardentthoughsheis,sheretainshermaidenly modesty.So too,ifJulietis an eagerbride,sheis alsoa blushingonewhocalls uponnightto "hoodmyunmann'dblood,batingin mycheeks,/Withthy

skirmishesofwitbeforelayingdown

holy

294)

withpassion.The avowaloflove

blackmantle"(III.ii.14-15). And,dangerousthoughtheprudentFriarLau-

rencemayfindittoleavethemaloneunmarried,their"bentoflove"is

"honor-

able",their"purposemarriage".19In Brooke,on theotherhand,FriarLau- rencerelatesthattheythreatenedthat"excepthegraunttherytesofchurchto

geve,/Theyshalbeforstbyearnestlovein

Shakespeare,then,tookcarenotto losehis audience'ssympathyforthe lovers.Romanticallypassionatethoughtheirloveis,itis,likethatofFenton's

LivioandCamilla,consummatedonlyinmarriage.LikethatofFenton'slovers,

it is,however,a marriagewhichhasthesavorofa hurriedlysnatchedillicit delight.Thisloveis toointense,tooprecipitate,tobringanythingbutdisaster. Thisis theburdenofFriarLaurence'swarnings:"Lovemoderately;longlove

dothso;/Too swiftarrivesas tardyas tooslow"(II.

sinnefullstatetolive"(p. 36i).

vi.14-15).

SinceDowden'sarraignmentofGervinus,ithasbeencustomarytoregard

a fussy,evencomical,old busybody,utterlyincapableof

skiir"

Gil

gwJ

unimaginative.And beforedismissing

FriarLaurenceas

performinga choricfunction.ThusDuthiespeaksofhimas "thiswell-meaning

butdull timid-aniJjnm "-drnfi' y

marryRomeoandJulietin secretandwhodevisestheplanofthepotioncan

scarcely,however,be calledtimidand

hissententiousutterancesas dullitiswelltoexaminethem.

FriarLaurencesuppliesthemoralizingwithwhichtheauthorsoftheadap-

Shakespeare,however,thismoraliz-

tationsofnovellewouldgarnishthem.In

ingis notextraneoustothework,althoughitdoesnotcontainwithinitselfits

complexity.FriarLaurence'scommentsconcerningtheconductofRomeoare

justand

recklessabandon,in fact,onlyrepeatthemisgivingsofJulietat thetimeof theiravowalsoflove:

foreshadowtheconclusion.His warningsaboutimmoderatenessand

19II. ii. 143-144.

The factthatthe love of Romeo and Julietis not adulterousis one of the

thingswhichmake it a deviationfromthe love-deathmyth,in whichlove and deathare blended in a mysticecstacy.This mythhas beentracedbyDenis de Rougemontin his Love in the Western

World(New York, 1940).

CHRISIIANITY AND THE RELIGION OF LOVE

38I

I havenojoyofthiscontractto-night:

It is toorash,toounadvised,toosudden; Too likethelightning,whichdothceasetobe

Ereonecansay"Itlightens."(II.

ii. 117-120)

It is notmerelythefailureof FriarJohnto getto Mantua,thelastaccident in a fatalchainof mishaps,thatbringsaboutthedeathof thelovers;it is the

speed withwhichRomeo acts,a speed which

throughout.Romeo'sdriveto deathin thelastact is onlytheculminationof a

drive which reachesits goal at the conclusion.The words "I long to die"

(IV.

distinguishesthe lovers'action

i. 66), withwhichJuliet,threatening,knifein hand,to killherself,impels

FriarLaurenceto hisdesperatestrategem,expresswellthedriveto deathofthe

twolovers.Readylikehalf-cockedpistolstogo offor,as

Romeo,"like powderin a skillesssoldier'sflask"(III. ii 132),

to suicide.The hastyjumpingto conclusionsand the thoughtsof deathwith whicheach respondsto the initialdisasterof Tybalt'sdeathforeshadowthe suicidesas theresultofmisunderstandingat theend as surelyas thefrequently pointedout dreams,premonitions,referencesto deathas a lover,and mentions offate.Juliet,mistakingtheNurse'slamentationsoverTybaltforan announce-

mentof Romeo's death,exclaims:"Vile earth,to earthresign;end motion

here;/ And thou and Romeo press one heavy bier!" (III. ii.560).

Romeo will in factbe dead,havingkilledhimselfin the mistakenbeliefthat

sheis dead,shewillindeedjoin himtolie in one gravewithhim.

FriarLaurencesaysof

theyare prone

When

his banishmentand mis-

takingthe Nurse's descriptionof Juliet'sgrieffor an indicationthat she is

sorrowingoverTybaltand has rejectedhim,is abouttokillhimselfwhenFriar Laurence restrainshim,reclaiminghim fromdespairwith a lengthyspeech thatcontainssome propheticpassages:

So too Romeo,overwhelmedat the thoughtof

Hold thydesperatehand:

Artthoua man?

Thywildactsdenote The unreasonablefuryofa beast Wiltthouslaythyself? Andslaythyladytoothatlivesin thee, Bydoingdamnedhateuponthyself? Take heed,takeheed,forsuchdiemiserable.(III. iii.i08-145)

"Desperate"is a word thatRomeo uses about himselfat the end, as he im- mediatelythinksofthemeansbywhichhe maykillhimself:"O mischief,thou

art swift/ To enterin the thoughtsof desperatemen!" (V.i . 35-36). He also

usesthesameimageofthewild beast-it is, as G. Wilson

out,one of the "disorder"imagesthatrun throughShakespeare'swork20-to

describehis moodin warningBalthasarnotto spyon himin thegraveyard:

Knighthas pointed

The timeand myintentsaresavage-wild, Morefierceand moreinexorablefar Than emptytigersortheroaringsea. (V. iii. 37-39)

And in slayinghimselfhe does indeedslayJuliet.

20G. WilsonKnight,The ShakespearianTempest(OxfordUniv. Press,1932),

paSSim.

382

SHAKESPEAREQUARTERLY

If,however,FriarLaurence'swarningis prophetic,theintensityofthelove ofRomeoandJulietis presentedas itsownjustification.Theirloveis reckless, tendingto destruction,butit is glorious.Each utteranceofFriarLaurenceis balancedbyoneofRomeo.We shouldnot,withDowden,disregardthoseof

FriarLaurenceor,withDickey,disregardthoseofRomeo:bothsetsofutter-

anceshavevalidity.Whatin theothernovellaadaptationsaretwoopposing viewsof lovevoicedbytheauthorwithoutregardforself-contradictionare heretwoviewsappropriatelyvoicedbytwodramaticcharacters,foreachof whomtheaudiencehas sympatheticunderstanding. Of thephilosophicaldiscussionof his situationin whichFriarLaurence wishestoengagehimRomeosays:

Thoucanstnotspeakofthatthoudoestnotfeel:

Wertthouasyoungas I,Julietthylove, Anhourbutmarried,Tybaltmurdered, Dotinglikemeandlikemebanished,

Thenmightstthouspeak

(III. iii.64-68)

The adviceofthephilosopheris no doubtwise,butwouldhe himselfbe able tofollowit ifhe hadtheyouthfulheartofRomeo?If not,"hangup philos-

ophy!"(1.57).Philosophyisfortheold,notfortheyoung,whomustfollowthe

lawoflovetaughttothembytheirhearts.The sensitivemembersoftheEliza- bethanaudiencewouldhavelookedupontheparticipantsofthisdialoguewith

a doublevision.TheywouldhavebeenabletoseeRomeothroughtheeyesof

FriarLaurenceas a "fondmadman""withhisowntearsmadedrunk"(11. 52,

83),onewhoviolatedallthefamiliarpreachingsofthemoralphilosophersand

thedivinesbypermittinghispassiontoovercomehisreason.Atthesametime, respondingsympatheticallytoRomeo'sstatementofthefamiliarideathatlove has an irresistiblepoweroveryouth,theywouldalsohavebeenableto see FriarLaurencethroughhiseyesas an oldmanincapableofgenuinelyentering

intothefeelingsoftheyoung. Moreover,Romeoexpressesnotmerelythepoweroftheloveglorifiedinthe novellebutalsoitsrewards.SidebysidewithFriarLaurence'sadjurationthat immoderatelovemustcometospeedydestructionis Romeo'sassertion,a kind ofdedicationto lovemadeimmediatelybeforethesacramentofmarriageis performed:

Comewhatsorrowcan, It cannotcountervailtheexchangeofjoy Thatoneshortminutegivesmeinhersight:

Do thoubutcloseourhandswithholywords, Thenlove-devouringdeathdowhathedare; ItisenoughI maybutcallhermine.(II. vi.3-8)

If suchlovebringssorrowanddeath,itis neverthelessworthit. FriarLaurence'sownimagecapturestheambivalentfeelingtowardRomeo

andJuliet'sloveprojectedbytheplay:

Theseviolentdelightshaveviolentends

Andintheirtriumphdie,likefireandpowder,

Whichas theykissconsume.(II.

vi.9-Il)

CHRISTIANITY AND THE REUIGION OF LOVE

383

Ifthisloveis destructive,itis alsoecstatic.Takenin conjunctionwith"kiss", "die"suggeststheconsummationofthesexualactwhichis oneoftheEliza- bethanmeaningsoftheword.Suchviolentdelightmaybe short-lived,butits completionis a "triumph",a wordthatmeansnotonly"rapturousdelight"but "splendor"and"victory"(NED, 2, 3, 5). Burningone'scandleat bothends, EdnaSt.VincentMillayfound,makesa lovelylight;bythesametoken,bring- ingfireandgunpowdertogethermakesa splendidexplosion.The imageofthe explosionor flashoflightning,an importantrunningimagethroughoutthe play,is Shakespeare'sartisticmeansofexpressingthatviewofpassionatelove whichwasexpressedwithcrudesensationalisminFenton'sdescriptionofbride andbridegroomstruckdowntogetherbylightningin theirnuptialembrace.

Destructiveastheirloveforeachotheristothelovers,throughitprovidence is shownas workingoutitsownends.Butbeforewe candiscussthisaspectof RomeoandJulie,we mustfirstlookat thehistoryoftheconceptthatsexual loveis a manifestationoftheall-pervadingloveof God,throughwhichthe universeis governed. Thisconcept,as AlanM. F. Gunnhaspointedout,is an extensionofthe classical-ChristiandoctrineoftheMiddleAgesandtheRenaissancethatGod, overflowingwithlove,createda universe,hierarchicallyordered,inwhichevery thingconceivableis present.

ThephilosophyofplenitudeandtheideaoftheScaleofBeingdemanded, notonlythatallpossibilities-fromthehighesttothelowest-berealized, butthatwhenoncerealizedin thevariouselementsandspeciesofthe

createduniverse,theybemaintainedbythecreatures'constantexerciseof

thereproductive,thegenerativepowerwithwhichtheyhadbeenendowed

byNatureactingas thedeputyoftheEternalBeing

reproductivefunction,thecreatureswouldbe participatingorcooperating inthecreativeorgenerativeactivityoftheEternalBeing,thatactivityin

Byfulfillingthe

which

his'goodness'andhis'love'werebelievedto lie.21

Gunnfindsthatthisconcept,althoughit had beenforeshadowedbefore, receiveditsfirstfullexpositionin Jeande Meun'sportionoftheRomande la

Rose.RosemondTuve,tracingitfromtheMiddleAgestoSpenser,findsitex-

pressedin diverseplaces,in "courtlyromancessetinthegardenoftheGod of Love",in"praisessungtothepowerofLove,ofVenus,orofDame Nature", in "half-scientific,half-philosophicaltreatiseswith a Neo-Platoniccast of thought",and in "didacticpoetryintent(likethetreatises)uponpreaching

certaintenetsofChristiantheology".22

In poemswrittenin thecourtlylovetraditionthepraiseofsexualloveas a manifestationofGod'screativeenergyis unqualified;inotherworksthepraise ofsexualloveamonghumanbeingsis restrictedtolovewithinmarriage.Com- montoboth,however,is theideathata cosmiclove,permeatingtheuniverse and findingexpressionin sexuallove,worksagainstthechaoswhichwould otherwiseprevail.Opposedto"thepowerofMutability"is "thepowerofLove (Peace,Natura,Harmony,theProvidenceorWisdomofGod)".23The power

21 Alan M. F. Gunn,The Mirrorof Love: A Reinterpretionof "The Romance of the Rose"

(TM

TechPress,1952), p. 212.

22 RosemondTuve,"A MedievalCommonplacein Spenser'sCosmology",SP, XXX (I933),

23 Tuve, 143n-

I47.

384

ofloveholdstogethertheuniverse,whichis constantlythreateningtogetout oforder.Itbringsaboutuniversalandsocialharmony,reconcilingtheelements, whichwouldotherwisebeatwarwitheachother,anddoingthesameformen. Itiswiththeoperationofthecosmicloveinsociety,inotherhumanrelations as wellas in sexuallove,thatwe arehereconcerned.SinceGod loves,says ChaucerinhisinvocationtoVenusintheproemtoBookThreeofTroilusand Criseyde,He willnotrefuseloveto others.Love,thesourceofall happiness, animatesall livingthingsin theirseasonsandamonghumanbeingsholdsto- getherinunityrealmandhousehold.Thisconceptofloveas thebondholding togetherhumansocietyas wellas theuniverseitselfwasalsoexpressedduring theRenaissance.

SHAKESPEARE QUARTERLY

Thusin

BarnabyGooge'sZodiacofLife,a translationofMarcellusPalen-

genius'ZodiacusVitaeoftenusedas a textbookin Shakespeare'stime,thereis

a passage24beginningwiththestatementofthetraditionalthemesoftheuni-

versalityofloveamongall creatures,whichfeel"Cupidsflame";of"louesas-

suredknot",butforwhich"theworldeshouldstraightbe

elementsdecay";ofthe"principleofreplenishment"bywhich"theloueof

God,thatalldothguide",maintainseverlastingorderbycontinuingthespecies

despitethedeathofindividuals.It thenexaltspeaceas ministeringtotheuni-

versalfecundity:"In timeofpeacedo all thingsgrowe,and

be."NextitlamentsthelossofthegoldenageandthetriumphofDiscord:

all thingsliuely

at an end,andthe

AllthingsdoesDiscordeviledisturbe,withragedmotionsad,

Nowefierceweforcedaretobe,andlaweswithswordtostake:

Thefuriesallofhelltheyswarme,a thousandbrondestheyshake, A thousandsnakeswithall,andmouetheproudhiemindedKings Andcommonpeoplemadtobe

The contradictionbetweenthepictureofa universegovernedbytheloveof God andthepictureofsocietyruledbyDiscordis resolvedin a laterpassage on mutabilitybytheBoethian26philosophyofa lawunderlyingseemingaim- lessturmoilandofa divineprovidencebywhichGod usesseemingaccident andevilforan ultimatelygoodpurpose(p. 139):

ButwhetherFortunegouerneall,orhowsoeueritbe,

OrDiuelsguidethestateofmen:yetwithoutDestinie

Dothnothingpasse.ButallthingsruldebymindofGodonhie,

Withoutwhosepowernothingisdone.

Spenser'sdescriptionofConcordisanallegoricalrepresentationoftheopera-

tionin humansocietyofthecosmiclovewhichis alsomanifestedin thelove betweenthesexes.Concord,themotherof"blessedPeace"and "Friendship",

JohnErskineHankinshas

stronglyarguedfortheinfluenceof Googeon Shakespearein Shakespeare'sDerivedImagery(Uni-

24 BarnabyGooge,The Zodiake of Life (London,I588), pp. 50-51.

versityofKansasPress,1953).

25 Gunn, p. 2I3.

26 AlthoughGunndoesnotciteBoethiusas one of thosewho anticipatedtheconceptof sexual

love as an expressionof God's pervasiveuniversallove,Boethiushad statedthatthe"loue of God"

governsthe universeand humanrelations:it "kepyththe worldin

and "knittethtogetherthe sacramEtof wedlockewith chasteloue betweenman and

Boethius'Consolationof Philosophy,tr. GeorgeColville,1556, ed. ErnestBelfortBax (London,

due orderand good accorde"

wyfe"-

I897), pp. 51-52.

Boethius,translatedby bothJeande Meun and Chaucer,continuedto be trans-

latedand readduringtheElizabethanperiod.

CHRISTIANITY AND THE RELIGION OF LOVE

385

sitsatthedoorwayoftheTempleofVenus,whois "thereworshippedofeuery liuingwight"(F. Q.,IV. x.34,29). Closebyis a gardenofmarvelousfecundity andseemlyorder,wherelovers"frankelytheretheirlouesdesirepossesse"(st.

28). Thisis appropriate,forVenus,bywhom"alltheworld

doesdaily"thesamerepayre"bycausingall livingthingsto seek"in genera- to quenchtheirinwardfire"(st. 47,46). On eithersideofConcord

aretwoyoungmen,HateandLove,whoarehalf-brothersand"bothstrongly arm'd,asfearingoneanother",whomConcord"forcedhandtoioyneinhand,/ AlbethatHatredwastheretofullloth"(st.32,33). Concordsubdues"strife, andwarre,andanger"and indeedcontainstheconflictoftheelementsthem- selves,holdingthemas "theirAlmightiemakerfirstordained,/And bound

themwithinuiolablebands"(st.34,35). Opposedto Concordis "Ate,mother ofdebate,!Andall dissention,whichdothdaylygrow/Amongstfrailemen,

thatmanya publike state/ Andmanya priuateoftdothouerthrow"(IV.

Ate'smaliceis suchthatshemaligns"euenth'Almightieselfe",becauseHis overflowinglovemakesHim mercifulto manand "vntoall hiscreaturesso
benigne"."Forallthisworldsfaireworkmanshipshetride,/Vntohislastcon-

fusionto bring,/Andthatgreatgoldenchainequitetodiuide,/Withwhich

itblessedConcordhathtogethertide"(IV.

functionas Googe'sCupid,whoretains"all thingscreated"in "louesassured knot",andAtehasthesamefunctionas Googe'sDiscord,whosepowerseems tobedailyincreasingbutwhoreallycannotundotheorderestablishedbyGod. So tooConcordissimilartoNature,andAteissimilartoMutabilityinSpenser's Cantosof Mutability,wheretheconflictbetweenthetwo is resolvedin a

Boethianmanner.27

RomeoandJulietdramatizesthisconceptofa cosmiclovemanifestingitself throughsexualloveand workingagainststrifeand disorderin society.The loveofRomeoandJulietis opposedtothehateoftheirparents.Althoughthe

lightningpoweroftheirlovehelpstobringabouttheirdestruction,itis,after

all,onlythehatredexistingbetweenthetwohousesthatmakesfatalthemag-

neticattractiontowardeachotherofthetwoyounglovers.As inShakespearian tragedygenerally,althoughtheherocontributesto hisowndisaster,themain causeofitliesodtsideofhim.The loversmaybe imprudent,buttheparents areguilty.The swiftandviolentpassionofRomeoandJulietis theanswering forcetotheirparents'furiousandviolenthate.Hatekillsthelovers,butlove, theloveofheaven,redressingorderandrestoringconcordthroughtheloveof RomeoandJuliet,triumphsoverthehatewhichhasendangeredthepeaceof Verona. At onecrucialpoint,however,thetimethathe killsTybalt,Romeogives up loveforhate.For,in killingTybalt,he actsin thevengefulmannerof

was made",

i.i9).

i.30).

Concordthushasthesame

Tybalt. Tybalt,a followerof thelatestforeign-imported,new-fangledaffectations and an accomplishedduelistwhofightsbythebook,bothin hismannerof fencingandinhisobservationofa highlyformalizedcodeofhonor,resembles thosemembersof theElizabethanfeudalisticnobilitywho adoptedItalian manners.Animatedbytheenduringenmityof theItalianate,he causesthe

27 Cf. BrentsStirling,"The ConcludingStanzas of Mutabilitie",SP, XXX (I933), StirlingfindsthatBoethiusinfluencedSpenserdirectly.

193-204.

386

strifebetweenthetwohouses,burninglessstronglybecauseoftheageofthe chiefparticipantsand itssuppressionbythePrince,to flareup again.In the

firstsentencehe utters,"I hatetheword['peace']"(I. i.77), he proclaimshis identity,as itwere,astheincarnationofthespiritofhatredgoverningthefeud.

A two-dimensional"humors"character,he no doubtwouldhavebeenremi-

niscentto Elizabethansofsuchpersonifiedabstractionsas Discordand Ate.28

In fact,hisopeningwordsresemblethoseofEnvy,whointheTudormorality

playImpatientPovertyannouncesitas hisfunctiontounravelthetiesoflove betweenmanandwifeandbetweenhumanbeingsgenerally:

SHAKESPEARE QUARTERLY

I hateConscience,Peace,LoveandRest; Debateandstrife,thatloveI best, Accordingtomyproperty. Whena manlovethwellhiswife,

I bringthematdebateandstrife

Thereshallnoneighbourloveanother

WhereI dwellby.29

WhenTybaltconfrontsRomeo,therefore,it is irefulHate

confronting

Love. Tybalt'ssharpinsult,"Romeo,thehateI beartheecan afford/No bettertermthanthis,-thouarta villain",is metbyRomeo'sgentlerejoinder,

Tybalt,thereasonthatI havetolovethee

Dothmuchexcusetheappertainingrage To sucha greeting.(III. i.63-67)

In makingthisreply,Romeo,freshfromhismarriageand overflowingwith

tenderness,is followingtheChristianethicoflovinghisneighboras himself, returningloveforhate.Whenhe goeson to saythathe lovesthenameof Capuletas hisown,weseeatworkthatcosmiclovewhichmakesuseofsexual lovetoknittogetherthefragmentedportionsofwhatshouldbea unifiedsocial

organism.

Buttheforcesofdisorderaretoostrongforsucha knittingtogethertotake placewithoutpainand sacrifice.Romeoand Tybaltcannotbe reconciledas yet.WhenMercutiois killedbyTybalt,Romeoexclaims:

0 sweetJuliet, Thybeautyhathmademeeffeminate

Andinmytempersoften'dvalour'ssteel!(11.ii8-i20)

His love,hefeels,hasdeprivedhimofthespiritofa trueman,onewhowill brooknoinjury.Whenthe"furiousTybalt"comesback,furyis thistimemet byan "appertainingrage",notbyloveas before."Awaytoheaven,respective lenity",Romeocriesout,"Andfire-eyedfurybe myconductnow!" (II. i2-& i29). Considerategentleness,Christianforgiveness,he consignsto heaven; furylookingthrougheyesoffirethatareblindtomercy,thefuryofTybalt,is nowtobehisguide.His wordsarelikethoseofOthellowhenOthellodeposes love,theChristianloveandforgivenessofDesdemona,as hisrulerandsetsup hate,theSatanichateandvengefulnessofIago,initsstead:

28 Cain cites(p. 176) Choler'sdescriptionofhimselfas an Italianateduelistin ThomasNabbes' Microcosmus:A MoralMask,producedalmosta halfcenturyafterRomeoand Juliet,and comments withbutlittleexaggeration:"He seemsto differfromTybaltonlyin name."

29 EarlyEnglishDramatists,ed. JohnS. Farmer(London, 1907), p. 329.

CHRISTIANITY AND THE RELIGION OF LOVE

387

All myfondlovethusdo I blowtoheaven Yieldup,0 love,thycrownand heartedthrone To tyrannoushate!(III. iii. 445-449)

And hateand vengefulfurylead Romeoto disaster. But this aberrationfromlove is only momentary,as is Juliet'sviolent denunciationof Romeo whenshe is toldin the nextscenethathe has killed Tybalt.It is,moreover,one thatwouldhaveelicitedthehighestsympathyfrom an Elizabethanaudience.Dueling was interdictedby Elizabeth,but the pro- hibitionwas widelydisregarded.In the populardrama the Italianate'ssensi- tivityto anythingresemblinga slight,his concernwiththe punctiliosof the duello,his readinessto use anyunderhandedmethodto avengehis honor,are frequentlyattacked;however,the poltrooneryof a Sir Andrew Aguecheek, whowilltakeanyinsultwithoutfighting,is as frequentlymocked.The general feelingseemsto havebeenthattheBiblicaltextoftencitedbytheElizabethan

moralistsand preachers,"Recompenseto no man evil for

beloved,avenge not yourselves,but rathergive place to wrath",while the higheststandardof morality,could in life be carriedonly so far.To be a professionalduelistor a Machiavellianavengerwas one thing; to refuseto fightunderany circumstanceswas another.The deeplyreligiousSir Philip Sidney,theheroof theLondon masses,althoughdenouncingextremetouchi- nessof spiritand perseverencein enmityin Arcadia,80soughtpermissionfrom Elizabethto fighta duel withtheEarl of Oxford.The Elizabethanaudience would,therefore,have regardedRomeonot so muchas a sinneras one forced by the ironyof fateto departimmediatelyafterhis marriagefromhis course oflove,thecourseto whichGod's love,actingupontheuniverseand constantly re-establishingorder,directshim. In returningto theircourseof love Romeo and Julietfulfiltheiradverse destiny,but it is a destinywhichservesthepurposeof divineprovidence."A greaterpower than we can contradict",Friar Laurence tells Juliet,"Hath thwartedour intents"(V.iii. I53-I54), and in recountingto the Princewhat had happenedhe reiterateshisfaithin God's mysteriousways:"I entreatedher come forth,/And bear thisworkof heavenwithpatience"(11.26o-26i). His faithis justifiedby theconclusion.Romeo and Julietare,as Capuletsays,the "poorsacrifices"of theirparents'enmity,thetragicscapegoatsthroughwhom theirparentsexpiatethe sin of theirvengefulness.As was statedin the pro- logue, which the Prince's concludingformalspeech recalls,"theirparents' but theirchildren'send, naughtcould remove."The death of the lovers,says the Prince,actingas a moralizingepilogue,is the awful retribu- tionof heavenupon theirfeudingfamilies:

Dearly

Capulet,Montague, See whata scourgeis laiduponyourhate,

Thatheavenfindsmeanstokillyourjoyswithlove!(11.291-293)

His wordsare richin significance,bearinga numberof meaningsdependent

see how heavenfindsmeansto

killyourhappiness,punishingyou throughthelove of yourchildren;(2) see

on differentmeaningsoftheword"love": (i)

30 Sir Philip Sidney,The Countessof Pembroke'sArcadia,ed. AlbertFeuillerat(Cambridge

Univ.Press,I922),

p. 439.

388

SHAKESPEARE QUARTERLY

howheavenfindsmeanstokillyourhappiness,punishingyouwhilelovingyou; (3) seehowheavenfindsmeansto killyourhappiness,punishingyouwhile destroyingyourhatethroughtheforceofcosmiclove.

If,however,RomeoandJulietmakesuseofthereconciliationbetweenCupid andGod thathadbeeneffectedbyhavingCupidactas a ministerofGod in maintainingsocialharmony,it alsomakesuseoftheancientconflictbetween CupidandGod.MostcriticshaveobservedthattheloveofRomeoandJuliet is transcendentin death.Theyhavenotobserved,however,howtheideasof thereligionof loveare usedto gainthiseffect,and theyhavenotseenthe tensionthatwasresolvedbythistranscendenceoflove. We haveseenthepropheticforceofFriarLaurence'swarningin thelines quotedearlier;thiswarning,however,is concernednotonlywithwhatwill happento Romeohereon earth.It is concernedalsowithwhatwillhappen tohimafterdeath.LikethemoralizingFenton,who,as wehaveseen,asserted thathisheroandheroinearedamned,themoralizingFriarLaurencespeaksof damnation."Desperate"connotedtoElizabethansdespair,a heinoussin.To die in despair-andthisis whatis impliedbythephrase"die miserable"-isto ensureperdition.In committingsuicideRomeowoulddo "damnedhate"upon himselfbecausesuicideis an actofself-hatredthatis damnable.The ideais madeevenmoreexplicitinthelinesthatfollow:

Whyrail'stthouonthybirth,theheaven,andearth? Sincebirth,andheaven,andearth,allthreedomeet In theeatonce;whichthouatoncewouldstlose.(III. iii.ii9-i2i)

As Kittredgecomments,"heaven"refersto"heaven'smercy",onwhichRomeo has railedand whichhe would"lose"-thatis,"abandon-i.e.,bythesinof suicide."3'Is thiswarningofdamnationprophetic?This is thequestionthat hangsheavyoverthelastact.It is answeredonlywithRomeo'sfinalspeech. The act beginswithRomeo'stellingof thehappydreamhe has had,in whichJuliet,findinghimdead,"breathedsuchlifewithkissesin mylips" thathe "revived,and was an emperor"(V.i.8-9). This dreamis ironically falsein accordancewiththefolkbeliefthatdreamsgo bycontraries.In an- othersense,however,itis profoundlytrue,for,as we shallsee,it signifiesthe comingtriumphoftheloversoverdeath. ImmediatelyafterRomeotellsofhisdreamofdeathandre-awakening,he receivesthefatalmisinformationof Juliet'sdeath.The exclamationthathe uttersisa contrasttohisexclamationoverthecorpseofTybalt.No longerdoes he passivelyaccepthimselfas "fortune'sfool"(III. ii.I41): "Is it evenso? thenI defyyou,stars!"(1. 24). Withthequietstrengthof thislineRomeo attainstragicheroism.He is no longerthehelplessplaythingofFortunesince hecanbya singleactdepriveherofherpoweroverhim.Totallycommitted tolove,hechoosesdeath.Butishea tragicheroeternallydoomed?His defiance ofthestarscouldbe takenas a rejectionofthedestinywhichGod hasfixed andwhichoperatesthroughthecelestialconstellations.In thisview,thetradi- tionalChristianview,bynotacceptingJuliet'sdeathas thewillofGod and bydeterminingtocommitself-slaughter,he is damned.It couldalsobe taken, however,as theexpressionofsuperiorityoverearthlymutabilityofonewho,

31 Kittredge,p. 746.

CHRISTIANITY AND THE RELIGION OF LOVE

389

liketheChristiansaints,is renouncingtheworld.In thisview,theviewofthe religionoflove,bygoingtojoinJuliet,heis achievingmartyrdomandgaining

theparadiseoftruelovers. ThefirstwayofregardingRomeoissuggestedbyBalthasar'sentreaty"Have patience"(1.27), whichechoesFriarLaurence'sadjuration"Be patient"(III.

iii. I5).

"Patience"connotestheChristianfortitudein acceptingtheevilofthis

worldas servingGod'spurposesthatis bestexemplifiedbytheconductof

Christandthesaints.ButRomeo'scalmness,as Balthasarrealizes,is in reality

a controlledfrenzyofdespairthatis revealedinhiswildlooksandthatimpels himtocommitviolenceuponhimself.Justas in Skelton'smoralityplayMag- nificence,Mischief,comingafterDespair,proclaimsto thetitularhero,"And

I, Myschefe,amcomynatnede/Outofthylyfethefortolede",32so"mischief"

is "swift/ To enterinthethoughts"ofthedesperateRomeo.

ThesecondwayofregardingRomeoissuggestedbyhiswordstotheapothe-

cary:

Thereisthygold,worsepoisontomen'ssouls, Doingmoremurdersinthisloathsomeworld, Thanthesepoorcompoundsthatthoumaystnotsell. I selltheepoison;thouhastsoldmenone.

Farewell:buyfood,andgetthyselfinflesh.(11.80-84)

The "loathsomeworld"is herecontemnedin orthodoxde contemptumundi terms.The haggardapothecaryrepresentsthatwretchedpovertydriventosin- fulenvyandrepiningagainstitslotattackedbyChaucer'sManofLaw inthe prologueto histaleand personifiedin ImpatientPoverty."The worldis not thyfriendnortheworld'slaw" (1. 7z), Romeotellshim.Butthedesperate apothecary,unlikethedesperateRomeo,comesto termswiththeworld.He acceptsgold,whichis so frequentlyassociatedin themoralityplayswiththe thingsofthisworldand opposedto thethingsofthespirit."Getthyselfin flesh",Romeotellshimwithcontemptuouspity,as hehimselfrejectstheworld and theflesh.The apothecaryhastakenwhatprovedto thethreerevelersof "ThePardoner'sTale"tobejustwhatRomeocallsgold:poison.Romeoacquires fromhim"notpoison"but"cordial"(1.85),a restorativethatwillgivehimnot deathbuteverlastinglife. We haveheresomethingofthesameparadoxthatunderliesDonne's"The Canonization",inwhichDonne,followinghiscustomofgivingoldideasnew twists,presentshimselfand hismistressas "unworldlylovers,love'ssaints", who,"liketheholyanchorite","havegivenup theworld"and "wina better worldbygivingup thisone".33Thisparadoxwaspreparedforin thefirstact. In theirplayfulexchangeattheirfirstmeeting,RomeohadaddressedJulietas "saint"and Juliethad addressedRomeoas "pilgrim",34andRomeohad con- tinuedtocallJuliet"saint"throughoutthebalconyscene.Lookingup at her frombelowthewindow,hehadimaginedhera brightangel.Shewas,indeed, markedtobe oneofCupid'ssaints,a martyroflove,andRomeo,a pilgrimof love,infindingherhadbeeninitiatedintolove'smystery.

32 JohnSkelton,Magnificence,EETS (London,1908), 11. 2309-2310.

33 CleanthBrooks,The WellWroughtUrn (New York, 1947), p. I2.

34 Cf. Kittredge,p. 1085: "That loversare pilgrimsand theirlady-lovesare saintswas a com-

monmetaphor."Probably,as Halliwell(FurnessVariorumeditionofRomeoand Juliet,pp. 8o-8i) and Campbell(p. 326) believe,Romeois dressedin themasqueradecostumeof a pilgrim.

390

SHAKESPEARE QUARTERLY

WhenRomeo,however,warnsParisnottopreventhimfromdoingwhat hehasto do,hislanguageoncemoresuggeststheviewthathe is a Christian sinnerratherthanCupid'ssaint:

Goodgentleyouth,temptnota desperateman

I beseech thee,youth, Putnotanothersinuponmyhead, Byurgingmetofury:0, begone! Byheaven,I lovetheebetterthanmyself; Staynot,begone;live,andhereaftersay, A madman'smercybadetheerunaway.(V.iii.59-68)

Romeoindeedspeaksin themannerofa madmanproceedinguponhispur- posesinthegripofa fixedideabutableatthesametimetolookuponhimself fromtheoutsideandto observehisirrationalbehavior.He realizesthathe is abouttocommita sinandbegsnottobe compelledtoadd thesinofmurder tothatofsuicide.He hascomearmedagainsthimself,readyto do "damned hate"againsthimself,butinthemidstofhis"madness"hehasthecompassion forParistowarnhimnottointerfere.Again,as intheTybaltscene,hespeaks to hisantagonistofhisloveforhim-andagain,on beingprovokedbyhim, giveswaytofury. Buton hearingParis'dyingwords,"Ifthoube merciful,/Openthetomb, laymewithJuliet"(11.72-73),Romeowakesas froma feverishdream:

Whatsaidmyman,whenmybetossedsoul Did notattendhimas werode?I think He toldmeParisshouldhavemarriedJuliet:

Saidhenotso?ordidI dreamso?(11.76-79)

AlthoughRomeoremainssteadfastin hispurpose,he no longerproceedsin a frenzybutwithmeditativedeliberation.He claspsParis'handinfriendshipand compassionatelygrantshimhisrequest.Lover,beloved,andrejectedrivalare tobeunitedinthegraveina generalreconciliation.Tybalt,whomRomeoper-

ceivesinthetomb,sharesinthereconciliation:"Forgiveme,cousin!"(1.ioi).

Lovefinallyconquersinthissceneinmorethanonesense. For Romeo'ssuicideis a triumphoverdeathandfateas wellas a defeat. Throughouttheplaytherehadbeenintimationsoftheconclusionintheimages ofdeathas a bridegroomtakingJuliet.ButnowRomeo,thinkingJulietdead, says:

Ah,dearJuliet, Whyarethouyetsofair?shallI believe Thatunsubstantialdeathisamorous, Andthattheleanabhorredmonsterkeeps Theehereindarktobehisparamour? Forfearofthat,I stillwillstaywiththee; Andneverfromthispalaceofdimnight,

Departagain.(11.ioi-io8)

Deaththeconquerorhas"notconquered"Juliet(1.94),forherbeautyremains

intact.Now,unitedwithhiswifein the"bedofdeath"(1.28), Romeowill deprivethegrimskeletonwhowouldbe herloverofhisprize.He andJuliet are,asitwere,weddedagainintheirmutualrenunciationoflife,withthe"bed

CHRISTIANITY AND THE RELIGION OF LOVE

391

of death"theirmaritalbed.Justso doesSidney'sEronaspeakof herdesire tobe mariedintheeternallchurchwithhim"(p. 233),

whenshecontemplateskillingherselftojoinhersupposedlydeadlover. Romeo'swordsconcerninghisandJuliet'sreunionandeverlastingtriumph overdeathmusthavesuggestedto theElizabethanaudiencetheparadiseof loversofthereligionoflove,the"placeofendlesselightandblisse"towhich Brooke,Shakespeare'ssource,and otheradaptersof novellereferred.Othello, havingbetrayedloveindedicatinghimselftovengeance,saysthatheis parted fromDesdemonaforever(V. ii. 273-275): "Whenwe shallmeetat compt,/ Thislookofthinewillhurlmysoulfromheaven,/Andfiendswillsnatchat

it."Romeo,faithfulin

useofthetraditionalimageryofhellin hisfinalspeech.Romeomakesuseof

theimageoftheprincelycourtwhichrecursin descriptionsoftheparadiseof love35:thevaultis "a feastingpresencefulloflight"(1.86); thebrilliantlylit presencechamberusedbykingsforstateoccasions.In the"palaceofdimnight" of theCapuletvault,it is intimated,Romeois to be an emperor,as he had dreamed,withJuliethisever-radiantbride.Thereis a similareffectinAntony and Cleopatra,in whichShakespearemakesuseofthetraditionofthetwoas martyrsoflove(cf.Pettie,I, I79) as wellas ofthetraditionoftheinfatuated AntonyruinedbytheseductiveCleopatra(cf.Dickey,pp.I56-i60). As Romeo

said,"I

(V ii.76-78), "I dream'dtherewas an EmperorAntony./0, suchanother sleep,thatI mightsee/Butsuchanotherman."At theconclusionshedoes indeedgotomeetAntonyina deathinwhichshe"lookslikesleep"(V. ii.394). So tooJuliet,awakenedfroma sleepthatseemsto be death,goesto a death thatsheregardsas life:shekissesRomeo'slips,sayingthatthepoisononthem maymakeher"diewitha restorative"(1.i66). In thesuicidespeechofAntony, heandCleopatra,ina descriptionreminiscentofthoseoftheKingandQueen ofLovein theparadiseoftruelovers,36arepicturedas emperorand empress in an after-life.The intimationthatRomeoandJulietarean emperorandhis bridein deathwouldseem,then,to havebeenlikewisesuggestedbythede- scriptionsoftheKingandQueenofLove. Thus Shakespeareexploitedimaginativelytheconceptofthelovers'para- disetofurthera feelingofreconciliation.Thisfeelingofreconciliation,as we haveseen,is alsoministeredtobya senseoftherichnessofthelivesofRomeo andJuliet,briefas theywere,bya senseoftheinevitabilityofthecatastrophe,

giventherecklessabandonoftheloversin theirsituation,and bythelarger perceptionthattheirdisastrousfateservestheendofprovidence.The feelingof

love,says,"I stillwillstaywiththee".Othellomakes

thatI revived,and was an emperor",so Cleopatrasays

35 Cf. AndreasCapellanus,The Art of CourtlyLove, ed. JohnParry(Columbia Univ. Press,

1941), pp. 78-80; The EnglishWorksof JohnGower,G. C. Macaulay,EarlyEnglishText Society ed. (London, 1901), II, 451-453; The Worksof GeoffreyChaucer,ed. F. N. Robinson(Boston, 1957), p. 489. Spenser's"thousandpayresof louers"in thegardenof theTempleof Venus,which is said to be a "secondparadise"(IV. x. 23), do not assembleas a courtattendingupon theKing and Queen of Love, forSpenseris primarilyconcernedwith the aspectof Venus as a goddess ratherthanwithher aspectas a queen. Cupid is, however,laterspokenof as commanding"the wide kingdomeof loue withLordlysway"and Venusis spokenof as "Queeneof beautieand of grace"(st. 42, 44). 36 Cupidand Venusare ordinarilytheKing and Queen of Love. In Chaucer's"The Legendof Good Women",however,Cupid'squeen is Alcest,one of thefamousloversof history.The mem. bersofhercourtareotherfamouslovers,and theysingthatshesurpassesall in beautyand trueness.

392

SHAKESPEARE QUARTERLY

reconciliationand indeedof exaltationat thecloseof the play does not,how- ever,causeus toforgetthetragicfactofthedeathofthetwoyoungpeoplewho have so deeplyengagedour sympathies.For the glorificationof the love of Romeo and Julietinvolvesa basic acceptanceof this world,thatacceptance whichis necessaryif sufferingand deathare to be tragicallymeaningful.

Long IslandUniversity