Sie sind auf Seite 1von 263

AUSGEWÄHLTE KAPITEL DER ENGLISCHEN GRAMMATIK

7KH7RSRI(QJOLVK*UDPPDU

© JÜRGEN BRAATZ, 2000


EIN ÜBUNGSBUCH

VON

-UJHQ%UDDW]

Layout:
6YHQ*ULWWR
Zeichnungen:
%LDQND*HPXWK
&RQWHQWV

page 3 Introduction
+RZWRXVHWKHJUDPPDUH[HUFLVHERRN
Wie man sinnvoll mit diesem Buch arbeiten kann

page 9 Chapter 1:
7KH'HILQLWH$UWLFOH
Der Bestimmte Artikel

page 19 Chapter 2:
6RPH²DQ\HDFK²HYHU\
Indefinite Pronomen 

page 31 Chapter 3:


7KH$GYHUE
Das Adverb 

page 41 Chapter 4:


$YHUERU$GMHFWLYH"
Adverb oder Adjektiv? 

page 51 Chapter 5:


7KH3DVVLYH9RLFH
Das Passiv 

page 65 Chapter 6:


7KH'HIHFWLYH$X[LOLDULHV
Die Hilfsverben 

page 79 Chapter 7:


7KH&RQGLWLRQDO,DQG&RQGLWLRQDO,,RIWKH$X[LOLDULHV
Das Conditional I und II der Hilfsverben 

page 91 Chapter 8a:


7KH3DVWDQGWKH3DVW3HUIHFW
Das Past und das Past Perfect 

page 101 Chapter 8b:


7KH3DVWDQGWKH3UHVHQW3HUIHFW
Das Past und das Present Perfect 

page 113 Chapter 9:


&RQWLQXRXVRU6LPSOH)RUP
Verlaufsform oder einfache Form des Verbs
Chapter 10: page 125
7KH&RQWLQXRXVDQGWKH6LPSOH)RUPRIWKH3HUIHFW
Verlaufsform oder einfache Form des Hilfsverbes

Chapter 11: page 133


7KH*HUXQG
Das Gerundium 

Chapter 12: page 145


7KH3UHVHQW3DUWLFLSOH
Das Partizip Präsens

Chapter 13: page 157


7KH,QILQLWLYHZLWKRUZLWKRXW¶WR·DV3DUWRIWKH2EMHFW $F, 
Der Infinitiv mit oder ohne ‘to’ als Teil des Objektes (A. c. I.) 

Chapter 14: page 167


5HIOH[LYH9HUEV
Reflexive Verben

Chapter 15: page 179


9HUEVZLWKDGLUHFWDQGDSUHSRVLWLRQDOREMHFW
Das Verb mit direktem und präpositionalem Objekt

Chapter 16: page 191


7KH6HTXHQFHRI7HQVHVLQ&RQGLWLRQDO&ODXVHV
Die Zeitenfolge in den Bedingungssätzen (if-Sätzen)

Chapter 17: page 201


7KH7HQVHVRI5HSRUWHG6SHHFK
Die Zeiten bei der Umwandlung direkter in indirekte Rede

Chapter 18: page 209


+RZWR&KDQJH¶0XVW·DQGWKH,PSHUDWLYHLQWR5HSRUWHG6SHHFK
'Must' und der Imperativ bei der Umwandlung in die indirekte Rede

Chapter 19: page 217


5HODWLYH&ODXVHV
Relativsätze

Chapter 20: page 229


3UHSRVLWLRQV
Präpositionen

Appendix: page 249


.H\ &KDSWHU² 
Lösungen
6\PEROVXVHGLQWKLVERRN

 Read the text

 Carry out the exercises as directed

 Read and remember the grammar

I‘m Little
Ben,
and I‘ll
accompany
You
+RZWRXVHWKHJUDPPDUH[HUFLVHERRN
:LHPDQVLQQYROOPLWGLHVHP%XFKDUEHLWHQNDQQ

Each chapter should be studied in the following way:


-HGHV.DSLWHOVROOWHDXIIROJHQGH$UWXQG:HLVHEHDUEHLWHWZHUGHQ


1. Read the first text of the chapter.
/HVHQ6LH]XQlFKVWHLQIDFKQXUGHQHUVWHQ7H[WGHV.DSLWHOV
2. Carry out the exercises as directed.
)KUHQ6LHGLHhEXQJHQZLHDQJHJHEHQDXV
3. Read the text about the respective grammatical chapter.
$UEHLWHQ6LHGHQ*UDPPDWLNWHLOGHVMHZHLOLJHQ.DSLWHOVGXUFK
4. Do the additional exercises (drills).
%HDUEHLWHQ6LHGLH]XVlW]OLFKHQhEXQJHQ GULOOV(LQVFKOHLIEXQJHQ 
5. If you can’t do the third text, the key at the back of the book will help you.
)DOOV6LHPLWGHPGULWWHQ7H[W6FKZLHULJNHLWHQKDEHQVROOWHQEHILQGHWVLFKGLH/|VXQJLP$QKDQJ .H\ 

If you follow these directions,


you will improve or brush up your English in 6 steps:
:LH6LH,KU(QJOLVFKLQVHFKV6FKULWWHQYHUEHVVHUQN|QQHQ

1. Acquisition and comprehension by reading the text


/HVHQXQG(UIDVVHQGHVHUVWHQ7H[WHV
2. Reinforcement by answering the questions
%HDQWZRUWXQJYRQ9HUVWlQGQLVIUDJHQ
3. Repetition by inserting the words or by transforming the text
:LHGHUKROXQJGHUMHZHLOLJHQ*UDPPDWLNGXUFK(LQVHW]HQGHU:|UWHURGHU8PIRUPXQJGHV]ZHLWHQ7H[WHV
4. Application by inserting the words or by transforming the new text
$QZHQGXQJGHU*UDPPDWLNGXUFK(LQVHW]XQJYRQ:|UWHUQRGHUGXUFK8PZDQGOXQJGHVGULWWHQ7H[WHV
5. Drill by forming similar phrases
'ULOOV]XU6WlUNXQJGHV6SUDFKJHIKOV
6. Grammar: Repetition of the grammar by reading the examples and the rules
(UNOlUXQJGHU*UDPPDWLNGXUFK%HLVSLHOXQG5HJHOVlW]H

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 7


Chapter 1

7+('(),1,7($57,&/(
Der bestimmte Artikel
Chapter 1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

7+('(),1,7($57,&/(
Der bestimmte Artikel

 Text 1
Summer is the time of year when people make long journeys1. It was the
summer of 1971, when George and Martin decided2 to make a trip to London.
In fact, Aunt Jill had invited them the year before3 to stay with her in London.
They went by taxi to the station. With the help of the porter4 they managed to
5 carry their luggage5 to the platform6. On the platform they found that the taxi-
driver charged7 them twice8 the normal fare9. But they enjoyed their train
journey from the beginning. The train went through Germany and the
Netherlands until it reached Ostend in Belgium. At Ostend they went aboard
the Dover ferry10. The day before George had told Marin that he rather liked
10 windy weather. The wind which was blowing in the Channel11, however, was a
little bit too much for him. He had never been at sea before and soon he was
seasick12. So he went to the bar for a drink. He liked whisky, but the whisky he
got there was not the best, or so he thought. Anyway, he was happy when the
boat journey was over. In Dover they had to walk a long way to get through the
15 Customs13. At last they were on their way to London. They were ever so glad to
see Aunt Jill who was waiting to meet them at Victoria Station. They shook
hands with her and said a few words of greeting14 which they had learned by
heart, since their English was rather shaky15. Aunt Jill laughed and told them in
German to come with her to her car. So they went by car16 to their hotel near
20 Lancaster Gate.

1
journey : Reise
2
to decide: sich entscheiden
3
the year before: Vorjahr
4
porter: Gepäckträger
5
luggage: Gepäck
6
platform: Bahnsteig
7
to charge: berechnen,abverlangen
8
twice: doppelt, zweimal
9
fare: Fahrpreis
10
Dover ferry: Fähre nach Dover
11
the Channel: Ärmelkanal
12
seasick: seekrank
13
the Customs: Zoll
14
words of greeting: Worte der Begrüßung
15
rather shaky: ziemlich unsicher
16
to go by car: mit dem Auto fahren

10 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

 1.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions:
(1) When exactly did George and Martin decide to make a trip to London?

(2) Who had invited them the year before?

(3) How did they manage to carry their luggage to the platform?

(4) What did they notice on the platform?

(5) Which countries did they go through?

(6) Where was a strong wind blowing?

(7) Who was happy when the boat journey was over?

(8) How did they travel to London?

(9) What did the boys do when they met Aunt Jill?

(10) How did they reach their hotel?

2nd exercise:
Work out where in the second and third text the definite article is
necessary.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 11


Chapter 1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 2
Summer is ____ time of year when ____ people make long journeys. It was
____ summer of 1971, when George and Martin decided to make a trip to
London. In fact, ____ Aunt Jill had invited them ____ year before to stay with
her in London. They went by taxi to the station. With ____ help of the porter
5 they managed to carry their luggage to the platform. On ____ platform they
found that the taxi-driver charged them twice ____ normal fare. But they
enjoyed their train journey from ____ beginning. The train went through ____
Germany and ____ Netherlands until it reached Ostend in ____. Belgium. At
Ostend they went aboard the Dover ferry. ____ day before George had told
10 Marin that he rather liked windy weather. ____ wind which was blowing in
____ Channel, however, was a little bit too much for him. He had never been at
____ sea before and soon he was seasick. So he went to the bar for a drink. He
liked whisky, but ____ whisky he got there was not the best, or so he thought.
Anyway, he was happy when the boat journey was over. In Dover they had to
15 walk a long way to get through the Customs. At last they were on their way to
London. They were ever so glad to see ____ Aunt Jill who was waiting to meet
them at ____ Victoria Station. They shook ____ hands with her and said a few
words of greeting which they had learned by ____ heart, since their English was
rather shaky. ____ Aunt Jill laughed and told them in German to come with her
20 to her car. So they went by ____ car to their hotel near ____ Lancaster Gate.

12 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

 Text 3
The next mornig at the breakfast table:
Aunt Jill: Come on, boys, have a cup of ____ English tea and help yourselves to
the toast with ____ English jam. By the way, what do you think of ____ English
tea?
5 George: Well, ____ English tea tastes different from ____ German variety1, but
I like ____ English tea very much.
Aunt Jill: What are you boys going to do today?
Martin: I want to see ____ Tower, but George wants to see ____ Buckingham
Palace.
10 Aunt Jill: You can see both, if you go by ____ underground2 (Tube) from one
place to the other. You can even see ____ Houses of Parliament with ____ Big
Ben and ____ Westminster Abbey where all ____ kings and queens since ____
William the Conqueror3 have been crowned4. If you feel hungry you can sit
down in ____ St. James’s Park and eat your sandwiches as you probably5 won’t
15 want to come here for ____ lunch. Don’t forget that if the Royal Standard6 is
flying on ____ Buckingham Palace ____ Queen is staying in London. If you like
you can have a look at ____ Whitehall. ____ Changing of the Guard7 is at
11 o’clock. On your way to Whitehall you pass ____ Downing Street where our
Prime Minister8 lives. You can walk from ____ Westminster Abbey to ____
20 Trafalgar Square, another famous sight9 in London. Have a look at ____ map10

1
variety: Auswahl
2
underground (Tube): U-Bahn
3
William the Conqueror: Wilhelm der Eroberer
4
to be crowned: gekrönt werden
5
probably: möglicherweise
6
Royal Standard: Königliche Standarte
7
Changing of the Guard: Wachablösung
8
Prime Minister: Premierminister
9
sight: Sehenswürdigkeit
10
map: Karte / Stadtplan

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 13


Chapter 1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

of London on the wall. At ____ Trafalgar Square you have to catch ____ Tube
to ____ Tower. But I think that is enough for the first day. I’ll give you another
map of London and in ____ case you get lost11, phone me. I’ll pick you up12 in
my car.

11
to get lost: sich verirren
12
to pick s.o. up: jmdn. mitnehmen, abholen

14 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

 1.2 Grammar: The Definite Article


$ $VDUXOHWKHGHILQLWHDUWLFOHLVXVHGWRVLQJOHRXWDWKLQJRUDSHUVRQRUD
JURXSIURPWKHVHWKLQJVRUWKHVHSHRSOHLQJHQHUDO7KHUHIRUHWKHGHILQLWH
DUWLFOH LV ZLWK RQH RU WZR H[FHSWLRQV  QHYHU XVHG ZLWK QRXQV ZKLFK
GHQRWHWKLQJVLQJHQHUDO&RPSDUHWKHIROORZLQJH[DPSOH
D  /LIHFDQEHVRERULQJ /LIHLQWKHJHQHUDOVHQVH 
E  7KHOLIHRI6KDNHVSHDUH $SDUWLFXODUOLIH 
F  7KHOLIHRIWKHDYHUDJHKRXVHZLIH $SDUWLFXODUOLIH 
D  *HUPDQWHDGRHVQRWWDVWHTXLWHOLNH(QJOLVKWHD *HUPDQRU(QJOLVKWHDLQJHQHUDO 
E  7KHWHDZKLFKP\PRWKHUEX\V µZKLFKP\PRWKHUEX\V¶UHDOO\PHDQV\RXDUHWKLQNLQJRID
 SDUWLFXODUW\SHRIWHD 
D  6ROGLHUVRIWHQKDYHWRULVNWKHLUOLYHV $OOVROGLHUVLQJHQHUDO 
E  7KHVROGLHUVZHUHDSSURDFKLQJWKHEXLOGLQJ $SDUWLFXODUJURXS 
D  0DQGRHVQRWOLYHWRHDWEXWHDWVWROLYH $JHQHUDOUXOH 
E  7KHPDQZDONHGDORQJWKHVWUHHW 2QHVSHFLILFPDQ 

% 3HRSOH·VQDPHVDQGQDPHVRIPRVWFRXQWULHVKDYHQR DUWLFOH([FHSWLRQV
DUHQDPHVLQZKLFK¶VWDWHV··UHSXEOLF V ·DQG¶/DQGV·DQGVLPLODUZRUGVDUH
HLWKHUSDUWRIWKHQDPHRUDQXQGHUVWRRGSDUW
3HUVRQDOQDPHVFRXQWULHVZLWKRXW¶WKH· &RXQWULHVZLWK¶WKH·
<RXQJ0LFKDHOYLVLWHGPH 7KH8QLWHG6WDWHV
2OG)UHGOLYHGLQ5DOOKLVOLIH 7KH1HWKHUODQGV
-DPHVLVROGHUWKDQ6DQGUD 7KH'RPLQLFDQ5HSXEOLF
)RXUODQJXDJHVDUHVSRNHQLQ6ZLW]HUODQG 7KH8665

& %XLOGLQJV VWUHHWV DQG WRZQV WDNH QR DUWLFOH H[FHSW ZKHQ WKH\ DUH XVHG
ZLWKUHIHUHQFHWRDSDUWLFXODUSHULRG
:LWKRXW :LWK
/RQGRQLVWKHFDSLWDORI(QJODQG
7KH/RQGRQRIZDVDYHU\GLIIHUHQWSODFH
7KH\OLYHGLQ)LVK6WUHHW
7KH9LHQQDZKLFK0R]DUWNQHZZDVOHVVWRXULVW
%XFNLQJKDP3DODFHLVWKHKRPHRIWKH4XHHQLQ
FRQVFLRXV
/RQGRQ

1
the definite article: der bestimmte Artikel
2
to single out: hervorheben
3
noun: Substantiv, Hauptwort
4
to denote: bedeuten

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 15


Chapter 1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

' 6HDV RFHDQV FDQDOV ULYHUV DOZD\V KDYH WKH DUWLFOH /DNH KDV QR DULFOH
DOVRORFKORXJK ZKHQXVHGDVSDUWRIDQDPH
:LWKRXW :LWK
/DNH*HQHYD 7KH%ODFN6HD
/RFK/HYHQ 6FRWWLVKZRUGIRUODNH  7KH.LHO&DQDOMRLQVWKH1RUWK6HDDQGWKH%DOWLF6HD
/RXJK(UQH XVHGLQ,UHODQGDQG1RUWKHUQ 7KH$WODQWLF2FHDQLVZDUPHGE\WKH*XOI6WUHDP
(QJODQG  +DPEXUJOLHVRQWKH(OEH
%XW7KH1RUWKXPEULDQ/DNHVDUHOHVVZHOONQRZQWKDQWKRVHLQWKH/DNH'LVWULFW

( 6RPHVSHFLDOLGLRPVXVLQJ¶WKH·
D  1DPHV
7KH%URZQVOLYHLQ&ROFKHVWHU
7KH7RZHU RI/RQGRQ LVIDPRXV
E  ,GLRPV
 ZLWKWKHKHOSRIZLWKWKHH[FHSWLRQRIDWWKHEHJLQQLQJRIDWWKHHQGRILQWKHHQGDWWKHDJH
RIRQWKHZKROHLWLVWKHFXVWRP
F  $IWHUµKDOI¶µGRXEOH¶µDOO¶DQGµWZLFH¶
GRXEOHWKHSULFHWZLFHWKHQXPEHUKDOIWKHWRWDO

%XW$OOWKHZRPHQ SDUWLFXODUZRPHQ 
 $OOZRPHQ LQJHQHUDO 

) 3KUDVHVZLWKRXW¶WKH·
DWZRUN 
DWVHD
RQ WKH ODQG
DW WKH WDEOH
WRFKDQJHFRORXU
WRJRE\WUDLQ FDUHWF 
WRJRWRVHD
WRJRWRWRZQ
WRVKDNHKDQGVZLWK
WROHDUQE\KHDUW
1RWH $QLFHFUHDPZLWKFKRFRODWHRQWRS REHQGUDXI 
  $WWKHWRSRIWKHEXLOGLQJ LPK|FKVWHQ6WRFN 
  2QWKHWRSRIWKHEXLOGLQJ DXIGHP'DFK 

16 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

 1.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Plural Nouns (Distinguish between the general and the particular)
Example: ‘Do you like horses?’ – ‘Yes, in particular the horses we saw in the circus.’
(a) cars – in England

(b) books – at Foyle’s

(c) dogs – at the competition

(d) flowers – at the exhibition

(e) paintings – at the exhibition

(f) old coins – some weeks ago

2nd exercise:
General and particular use of each word
Example: ‘I’m very interested in European history, but my friend is even more interested in
the history of the United States.’
(a) modern art – of the ancient world

(b) modern philosophy – of the Middle Ages

(c) Greek drama – of the 20th century

(d) modern architecture – of the Romans

(e) old coins – of the last 20 years

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 17


Chapter 1 THE DEFINITE ARTICLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

3rd exercise:
Phrases with special meanings
Example: ‘Where are the children?’ – ‘They are at school. The school is a modern building.’
(a) students – in college – a huge building

(b) sick people – in hospital – a modern building

(c) criminals – in prison – a grey building

(d) boys – at school – an old building

(e) my parents – at church – a new building

Note: The phrases underlined (without ‘the’) indicate that the people are taking part in the
activities of the organisation. Each of the phrases with ‘in’ and ‘the’ simply mean inside the
building e. g. in the church.

18 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 2

620(²$1<($&+²(9(5<
Indefinite Pronomen
Chapter 2 SOME – ANY, EACH – EVERY THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

620(²$1<($&+²(9(5<
Indefinite Pronomen

 Text 1
George: Well, each boy in our form wants to go to Scotland with Mr Morris.
But have you any idea how we could earn some money for the tour?
Martin: Everything seems quite straight forward1 for me. I intend2 to borrow
some money from my father which I can pay back in instalments3. I’m not sure
5 how, but I will somehow4 .
George: That sounds quite good, but remember every single penny borrowed
must be paid back. Anybody can see that it will take a long time before you can
repay all the money. I’m sure neither Father nor anyone else will lend5 you it. I
think we should apply6 for some well-paid temporary7 job. Jack suggested
10 helping his uncle with the harvest8. He told me that his uncle could do with
some strong boys.
Martin: I don’t like farm work, in fact to be honest I hate it from every point of
view9. We wouldn’t have any spare time10 and we would have to work every
Saturday as well. Anyhow, how much do you think you would earn?
15 George: Well, besides board and lodging11 about 25 pounds per month.
Martin: That would be approximately12 6 pounds per week. That is by no
means13 enough. What about working in a factory14? Somebody at school told
me that there are some vacancies15 in this area. If there is any chance of getting a
job like that, we can earn some ten pounds every week and every 5 days we get
20 a long week-end. Can you think of any better way to earn some money?
George: I like your suggestion16. We would have to work 8 hours every day. We
could have warm meals in the canteen17 and we should even have some spare
time in the evenings. Have you any objection18 to my plan?
1
straight forward: ganz klar
2
to intend: beabsichtigen
3
in instalments: auf Raten
4
somehow: irgendwie
5
to lend: leihen
6
to apply for a job: sich um einen Job bewerben
7
temporary: zeitlich begrenzt
8
harvest: Ernte
9
from every point of view: in jeder Hinsicht
10
spare time: Freizeit
11
board and lodging: Essen und Unterkunft
12
approximately: etwa
13
by no means: keineswegs
14
factory: Fabrik
15
vacancy: freie Stelle
16
suggestion: Vorschlag
17
canteen: Kantine
18
objection: Einwand

20 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 2 SOME – ANY, EACH – EVERY

Martin: I can’t see any except that we don’t yet know of any factory where we
could work. We can ask some of the boys at school tomorrow whether they can
tell us the names of some factories where jobs are likely19.

19
likely: wahrscheinlich

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 21


Chapter 2 SOME – ANY, EACH – EVERY THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 2.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions, using ‘each’,’every’, ‘some’, and ‘any’!
(1) Who wanted to go with Mr Morris to Scotland?

(2) What did they want to do before going on the tour?

(3) What did Martin intend to borrow from his father?

(4) How much would have to be paid back?

(5) Who could not lend him the money?

(6) What was Jack’s uncle in need of?

(7) What couldn’t they have if they worked on a farm?

(8) How much money would they earn besides being given board and lodging?

(9) How much would they earn in a factory every week?

2nd exercise:
Put into the second and third text ‘each’, ‘every’, ‘some’, and ‘any’.

22 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 2 SOME – ANY, EACH – EVERY

 Text 2
George: Well, ____ boy in our form wants to go to Scotland with Mr Morris.
But have you ____ idea how we could earn ____ money for the tour?
Martin: Everything seems quite straight forward for me. I intend to borrow ____
money from my father which I can pay back in instalments. I’m not sure how,
5 but I will ____.
George: That sounds quite good, but remember ____ single penny borrowed
must be paid back. ____ can see that it will take a long time before you can
repay all the money. I’m sure neither Father nor ____ else will lend you it. I
think we should apply for ____ well-paid temporary job. Jack suggested helping
10 his uncle with the harvest. He told me that his uncle could do with ____ strong
boys.
Martin: I don’t like farm work, in fact to be honest I hate it from ____ point of
view. We wouldn’t have ____ spare time and we would have to work ____
Saturday as well. Anyhow, how much do you think you would earn?
15 George: Well, besides board and lodging about 25 pounds per month.
Martin: That would be approximately 6 pounds per week. That is by no means
enough. What about working in a factory? ____ at school told me that there are
____ vacancies in this area. If there is ____ chance of getting a job like that, we
can earn ____ ten pounds every week and every 5 days we get a long week-end.
20 Can you think of ____ better way to earn ____ money?
George: I like your suggestion. We would have to work 8 hours ____ day. We
could have warm meals in the canteen and we should even have ____ spare time
in the evenings. Have you any objection to my plan?
Martin: I can’t see ____ except that we don’t yet know of ____ factory where
25 we could work. We can ask ____ of the boys at school tomorrow whether they
can tell us the names of ____ factories where jobs are likely.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 23


Chapter 2 SOME – ANY, EACH – EVERY THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 3
It is always a bit of experience1 to travel by air. There were about 80 girls and
boys and ____ of us looked rather nervous. ____ of us had heard that there had
been trouble with chartered2 planes. We had to wait ____ 2 hours before our
flight was announced3. After the announcement ____ went to the buses which
were to take us to the plane. As soon as we saw the plane we all had something
of a shock. The plane was at least4 15 years old. When we got off the bus5 one
girl did not want to get on the plane. An elderly6 stewardess came to her,
asking,’ Is there ____ I can do for you? You needn’t be afraid of the plane. It is
in perfect condition and there won’t be ____ trouble with it.’ ‘Come on,
Margaret’, said a boy who was obviously her brother, you needn’t worry7. The
plane will get there all right.’ ____ timidly8 he added,‘ ____ ‘ (= irgendwie).
When we were on board we felt much happier. ____ of us had a comfortable
seat. ____ of the boys were even in the mood9 to crack jokes10. I heard ____ say
that the plane looked just as old as one of
the stewardesses. I thought the joke
rather nasty11 and remarked, ‘Well, you
needn’t waste ____ energy worrying
about the plane then, because the
stewardess looks quite all right.’ When the

1
a bit of experience: Ein Stück Erfahrung
2
chartered: gechartert
3
to announce: ankündigen
4
at least: wenigstens
5
to get off the bus: aus dem Bus steigen
6
elderly: ältere
7
to worry: sich sorgen
8
timidly: schüchtern
9
to be in the mood: in der Stimmung sein
10
to crack a joke: einen Witz machen
11
nasty: ungezogen

24 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 2 SOME – ANY, EACH – EVERY

plane was air-borne12, the stewardess brought ____ of us a cup of tea and ____
biscuits. When one of the boys complained13 that his tea was too hot, the
stewardess shrugged her shoulders14 and said,’Sorry, Sir, but ____ like it hot’.

12
air-borne: in der Luft
13
to complain (of): sich beklagen (über)
14
to shrug one’s shoulders: die Achseln zucken

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 25


Chapter 2 SOME – ANY, EACH – EVERY THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 2.2 Grammar: Some – any, each – every


Some – any
$ 6RPHDQGDQ\²XVHGDWWULEXWLYHO\²DUHLQGHILQLWHSURQRXQVDQGFDQEH
XVHGLQWKHVLQJXODUDQGLQWKHSOXUDO

% 6RPHLVXVHGLQRUGLQDU\VWDWHPHQWV DIILUPDWLYHVHQWHQFHV DQGGHQRWHV


D LQWKHVLQJXODUDQXQVSHFLILFTXDQWLW\ HWZDV RUDQXQVSHFLILFWKLQJRU
SHUVRQ LUJHQGHLQ DQG
E LQWKHSOXUDODQXQVSHFLILFQXPEHU *HUPDQ¶HWZD· 
D LQWKHVLQJXODU E LQWKHSOXUDO
7KHUHZDVVRPHZDWHULQWKHSRW
+HHDUQHGVRPHSRXQGVLQWKDW\HDU
6RPHZRPDQRSHQHGWKHGRRU

+HZDQWHGVRPHSHWUROIRUKLVFDU

6RPHSHRSOHOLNHYHU\KRWWHD

& $Q\LVXVHGLQ
D  QHJDWLYHVHQWHQFHV
E  TXHVWLRQV WKHZRUG¶SRVVLEOH·RU¶SRVVLEO\·LVDOZD\VDQXQGHUVWRRG
SDUWRIWKHSKUDVH 
F  FRQGLWLRQDOFODXVHV
D +HGLGQRWILQGDQ\PRQH\LQKLVSRFNHW
E  +DYH\RXDQ\LGHDZKHUHKHLV" DQ\SRVVLEOHLGHD 
F  ,I,KDGDQ\WLPH,VKRXOGOLNHWRVHH\RX SRVVLEO\KDGDQ\WLPH 

' $GGLWLRQDOQRWHV
  ,I µVRPH¶ LV XVHG LQ D TXHVWLRQ D SRVLWLYH &RXOG\RXJLYHPHVRPHPRQH\"<HV,
DQVZHULVH[SHFWHG FRXOG
  6RPH LQ QHJDWLYH VHQWHQFHV UHIHUV WR WKLQJV +H GLG QRW OHDYH WKH VKRS ZLWKRXW EX\LQJ
UHDOO\H[LVWLQJ VRPHEUHDG

1
attributively: als Beifügung, attributiv
2
indefinite pronoun: indefinites Pronomen
3
affirmative sentence: positiver Satz
4
unspecific quantity: unbestimmte Menge
5
conditional clause: Bedingungssatz

26 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 2 SOME – ANY, EACH – EVERY

  $Q\LQDIILUPDWLYHVHQWHQFHVPHDQVµQRPDWWHU :KLFKDSSOHGR\RXZDQW"$Q\RQHZLOO
ZKLFKZKRRUZKDW¶ GR
  6RPH FDQ DOVR EH XVHG VXEVWDQWLYHO\  DQG 6RPHOLNHKRWWHD 3HRSOH 
GHQRWHV D QXPEHU RI SHUVRQV RU WKLQJV WKH 6RPHKDGDOUHDG\EHHQSROLVKHG DSSOHV 
ZRUGµSHRSOH¶RUWKHWKLQJVDOUHDG\UHIHUUHGWR 
EHLQJXQGHUVWRRG 
  VRPHERG\VRPHWKLQJVRPHZKHUH
7KHFRPSRXQGV RIVRPHDQGDQ\ ZKLFKDUH
VRPHWLPHVVRPHKRZVRPHZKDW


XVHGLQWKHVDPHZD\DVVRPHDQGDQ\ DUH
DQ\ERG\DQ\WKLQJDQ\ZKHUH

Each – every
( (YHU\FDQEHXVHGDWWULEXWLYHO\DQGUHIHUVWRPRUHWKDQWZR
(YHU\XVHGLQWKLVVHQVHPHDQV¶DOOSRVVLEOHZLWKRXWH[FHSWLRQ¶
(YHU\PDQPXVWGLH

) (DFK FDQ EH XVHG DWWULEXWLYHO\ DQG VXEVWDQWLYHO\ DQG PHDQV HYHU\RQH RU
HYHU\WKLQJ RI D FHUWDLQ JURXS RU WRWDO (DFK LV RIWHQ IROORZHG E\ DQ RI
JHQLWLYH
(DFKER\LQWKHIRUPPXVWGRKLVKRPHZRUN
(DFKRI\RXJHWVDQDSSOH
(DFKGD\RIWKHZHHN
(DFKVWHSRIWKHZD\
  
*6RPHSKUDVHVZLWK¶HDFK·DQG¶HYHU\·
HYHU\WZRZHHNV HYHU\VHFRQG\HDU
HYHU\WHQPLOHV RQHDSSOHIRUHYHU\WZRJLUOV
HYHU\QRZDQGWKHQ LQHYHU\GD\ODQJXDJH
&RPSRXQGV(YHU\WKLQJHYHU\ERG\HYHU\RQHHYHU\ZKHUH

1RWH ¶+RZPXFKDUHWKHEDOOV"·²¶SHDFK·

 

6
substantively: substantivisch, als Hauptwort
7
compound: Zusammensetzung

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 27


Chapter 2 SOME – ANY, EACH – EVERY THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 2.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Some and any
Example: ‘Did you buy any meat?’ ‘I’m sorry, but I bought some bread instead.’
(a) sweets – sugar

(b) beer – lemonade

(c) soap – soap-powder

(d) tea – coffee

(e) pears – apples

(f) cigarettes – tobacco

2nd exercise:
Some and any
Example: ‘Couldn’t you give me any meat?’ ‘ I’m sorry. If I had I should give you some. But
I could give you some bread.’
(a) sweets – sugar

(b) soap – soap-powder

(c) beer – lemonade

(d) tea – coffee

(e) pears – apples

(f) cigarettes – tobacco

28 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 2 SOME – ANY, EACH – EVERY

3rd exercise:
Each and every
Example: ‘You told me that everybody ought to listen to him. But I am not sure that each of
your friends followed your advice.’
(a) to help old people

(b) to protect animals

(c) to behave decently

(d) to read that book

(e) to respect the laws

(f) to respect other people’s opinions

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 29






See
You
in
Brita
in!
Chapter 3

7+($'9(5%
Das Adverb
Chapter 3 THE ADVERB THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

7+($'9(5%
Das Adverb 
 Text 1
Dear Peter,
I think you have already been waiting for a letter from me for some time. I
should like to describe to you my journey to England. As you know, it was
terribly hot on that day when I started from Hamburg. In addition1 to that a large
5 crowd2 was waiting for the train impatiently3 so that everyone was anxiously4
trying to get a seat in one of the compartments5. I was extremely lucky. I soon
found a friend who rushed6 onto the train and kept a seat for me while I
hurriedly7 handed the suitcases through the window. In the compartment it was
unbearably8 hot. Unfortunately I had forgotten my flask9 of tea. So in addition to
10 the heat I was very thirsty. Instead of10 some tea I carried two big suitcases and a
brief-case11 filled with mostly12 useless things. It was my mother who had
carefully provided13 me with a list of these things; presumably14 she imagined15 I
was going to a place where civilisation16 had not yet arrived. Nevertheless17 I
managed pretty well. Our journey only became interesting when we entered
15 Belgium. To my regret18 my passport, which the official only examined19
briefly20, was not stamped21 at the border22. The Belgian houses near the
railway-line looked beautifully clean and tidy but I was unaccustomed23 to such
narrow houses. Logically enough they made up for their narrowness by having
two or even three floors. Indeed, they looked quite funny to my eyes.
1
in addition: zusätzlich
2
large crowd: große Menschenmenge
3
impatiently: ungeduldig
4
anxiously: ängstlich
5
compartment: Abteil
6
to rush: stürmen
7
hurriedly: eilig
8
unbearably: unerträglich
9
flask: Trinkflasche
10
instead of: anstatt
11
brief-case: Aktentasche
12
mostly: größtenteils
13
to provide s.o. with: jem. mit etwas versorgen
14
presumably: vermutlich
15
to imagine: sich (etwas) vorstellen
16
civilisation: Zivilisation
17
nevertheless: dennoch
18
to my regret: zu meinem Bedauern
19
to examine: kontrollieren
20
briefly: flüchtig
21
to stamp: stempeln
22
at the border: an der Grenze
23
to be unaccustomed to: ungewöhnt sein an

32 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 3 THE ADVERB

 3.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions:
(1) For how long has Peter been waiting for a letter?

(2) How was the crowd waiting for the train?

(3) How was everyone trying to get a seat in one of the compartments?

(4) How did Martin hand the suitcases through the window?

(5) How had his mother provided him with a list of things?

(6) How was Martin’s passport examined by the official?

2nd exercise:
Find out where to place the adverbs in the second and third text.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 33


Chapter 3 THE ADVERB THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 2
Dear Peter,
(1) I think you have been waiting for a letter from me (already, for some time). I
should like to describe to you my journey to England. (2) As you may know, it
was hot on that day (terribly) when I started from Hamburg. (3) In addtion to that a
large crowd was waiting for the train (impatiently) so that everyone was trying to
get a seat in one of the compartments (anxiously). (4) I was lucky (extremely). (5) I
found a friend (soon) who rushed onto the train and kept a seat for me while I
handed the suitcases through the window (hurriedly). (6) In the compartment it was
hot (unbearably). (7) I had forgotten my flask of tea (unfortunately). (8) So in addition
to the heat I was thirsty (very). (9) Instead of some tea I carried two big suitcases
and a brief-case filled with useless things (mostly). (10) It was my mother who had
provided me with a list of these things (carefully); (11) she
imagined (presumably) I was going to a place where
civilisation had not yet arrived. (12) I
managed (nevertheless, pretty well). (13)
Our journey became interesting
(only) when we entered Belgium.
(14) To my regret my passport,
which the official only examined
(briefly), was not stamped at the
border. (15) The Belgian houses
near the railway-line looked
clean and tidy (beautifully) but I
was unaccustomed to such
narrow houses. (16) They made
up for their narrowness (logically
enough) by having two or even
three floors. (17) They looked
funny to my eyes (indeed, quite).

34 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 3 THE ADVERB

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 35


Chapter 3 THE ADVERB THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 3
(1) Our embarkation1 in Ostend went without any trouble2 (quickly). (2) When
leaving the port3 (after half an hour), a slight suspicion4 of a breeze5 arose (soon) so
that the journey became a little bit more interesting. (3) I felt a slight stir6 in my
stomach7 (after an hour’s sailing), but I didn’t recognize it as seasickness8 (really).
9 10
(4) When I was going below (stumblingly), this feeling increased (incessantly11).
12 13
(5) Sweat appeared on my forehead and the world looked dark (really, quite). (6) I
don’t know if you have had such a felling (ever) and whether you can imagine
what it is like (at all). Well, now I know! (7) When entering the saloon bar
(fortunately), I was told that a whisky would do me good (really), if it was
seasickness coming on14. (8) So I drank a whisky (gratefully15) and it did me a lot of
good16 (actually). A tablet from a nice boy did the rest. (9) We arrived in Dover
(safely17). (10) Imagine, I did not have to open my suitcases (even)! (11) The drive to
London passed (very quickly), and then the great adventure began. I had to go from
Victoria (Station) to Waterloo (Station) by underground railway18. (12) I’d tell
you (willingly) how the journey proceeded19 but I have to stop (for the moment).

Your friend Martin

1
embarkation: Einschiffung
2
without any trouble: ohne Mühe
3
port: Hafen
4
a slight suspicion: ein leichter Anflug
5
breeze: Brise
6
a slight stir: eine leichte Regung
7
stomach: Magen
8
seasickness: Seekrankheit
9
below: unter Deck
10
to increase: zunehmen
11
incessantly:beständig
12
sweat: Schweiß
13
forehead: Stirn
14
to come on: herannahen
15
gratefully: dankbar
16
to do a lot of good: sehr gut tun
17
safe: sicher
18
underground railway: U-Bahn
19
to proceed: ablaufen

36 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 3 THE ADVERB

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 37


Chapter 3 THE ADVERB THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 3.2 Grammar: The Adverb


$ $GYHUEV DUH IRUPHG IURP DGMHFWLYHV DQG SDUWLFLSOHV E\ DGGLQJ ¶O\· $Q\
ZRUGLQ(QJOLVKHQGLQJLQ
O\·LVDQDGYHUEDSDUWIURPWKHH[FHSWLRQVQRWHG
LQVHFWLRQ)
TXLFN±TXLFNO\
REYLRXV±REYLRXVO\
H[FLWHG±H[FLWHGO\
VXUSULVLQJ±VXUSULVLQJO\

% %HVLGHVWKHDGYHUEVGHULYHGIURPDGMHFWLYHVDQGSDUWLFLSOHVWKHUHDUHWZR
IXUWKHUJURXSVRIDGYHUEV
DGYHUEVGHULYHGIURPQRXQV DGYHUEVRIRQHV\OODEOH 
DOZD\VWRPRUURZWRGD\HWF KHUHTXLWHMXVWHWF

& $OORWKHUDGYHUEVHQGLQJLQ¶O\·DQGDOOZLWKRUPRUHV\OODEOHVIRUPWKHLU
FRPSDUDWLYHVDQGVXSHUODWLYHVZLWK¶PRUH·DQG¶PRVW·
TXLFNO\±PRUHTXLFNO\±PRVWTXLFNO\
REYLRXVO\±PRUHREYLRXVO\±PRVWREYLRXVO\
1RWH ,UUHJXODUFRPSDUDWLYHVVXSHUODWLYHV
WKHVHDUHDVLQ*HUPDQYHU\FRPPRQO\XVHGZRUGV 

ZHOO±EHWWHU±EHVW EDGO\±ZRUVH²ZRUVW PXFK±PRUH±PRVW
IDU±IDUWKHU±IDUWKHVW OLWWOH±OHVV±OHDVW IDU±IXUWKHU±IXUWKHVW

' $QDGYHUETXDOLILHV
D   DYHUE +HTXLFNO\UDQWRWKHKDUERXU KRZ 
E   DQDGMHFWLYH +HZDVVHULRXVO\LOO KRZ 
F   DQDGYHUE +HZDVYHU\PXFKLQWHUHVWHGLQKLVWRU\ KRZ 
G   DQRXQ +HZDVRQO\DER\ LQZKDWZD\WRZKDWH[WHQWKRZ 
H   DZKROHVHQWHQFH )RUWXQDWHO\KHSDVVHGKLVH[DPLQDWLRQ LQZKLFKFRQQHFWLRQ 
1RWH ,WVLPSO\DQVZHUVRQHRUPRUHRIWKHTXHVWLRQV¶KRZ·¶ZK\·¶ZKHQ·RU¶ZKHUH·

1
to derive from: ableiten von
2
syllable: Silbe
3
comparative: Steigerung
4
to qualify: näher bestimmen

38 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 3 THE ADVERB

( 7KHSRVLWLRQRIWKHDGYHUE
D   $GYHUEVRIGHJUHH  LHKRZ FRPHEHIRUHWKHZRUGZKLFKWKH\TXDOLI\
+HZDVWHUULEO\WLUHG+HGLGKLVZRUNH[WUHPHO\ZHOO
([DPSOHVRIDGYHUEVRIGHJUHHDUH DOVRDOWRJHWKHUDWOHDVWHQWLUHO\HVSHFLDOO\HYHQH[DFWO\H[WUHPHO\
IDLUO\KDUGO\PHUHO\HDUO\RQO\UDWKHUYHU\HWF
E   $GYHUEVRIGHILQLWHWLPHDQGGHILQLWHSODFHDUHQRUPDOO\WREHIRXQGDWWKHEHJLQQLQJRU
DWWKHHQGRIDVHQWHQFH
7RPRUURZKHZLOOILQLVKKLVZRUN:HPHWKLPWKHUH
F   $GYHUEVRILQGHILQLWHWLPHDQGPDQQHU VWDQGEHIRUHWKHYHUE LIWKHUHLVQRDX[LOLDU\ RU



DIWHUWKHILUVWDX[LOLDU\
+HTXLFNO\RSHQHGWKHGRRU+HKDGTXLFNO\RSHQHGWKHGRRU
+HVHOGRPPLVVHGWKHWUDLQ+HKDGVHOGRPPLVVHGWKHWUDLQ
$YHUEV RI LQGHILQLWH WLPH DUH DOUHDG\ DOZD\V DW ILUVW DW RQFH HYHU ILQDOO\ LPPHGLDWHO\ MXVW QHYHU
QRUPDOO\QRZRIWHQUDUHO\VHOGRPVRPHWLPHVVRRQVWLOOWKHQXVXDOO\HWF
$GYHUEVRIPDQQHUDUH SRVVLEO\SUREDEO\UHDOO\ULJKWO\VLPSO\VXUHO\XQGRXEWHGO\ZLVHO\HWF
G   $GYHUEVZKLFKDUHSDUWLFXODUO\HPSKDVL]HG DUHWREHIRXQGDWWKHEHJLQQLQJRUDWWKH


HQGRIWKHVHQWHQFH
6XGGHQO\KHVDZDPDQEHKLQGKLP
H   :KHQDGYHUEVRISODFHDQGWLPHDUHXVHGLQRQHVHQWHQFHWKHDGYHUERISODFHFRPHV
EHIRUHWKHDGYHUERIWLPH
,PHWKLPLQWKHFLQHPDODVWQLJKW

) 6RPH DGMHFWLYHV HQG LQ ¶O\· ,I ZH ZDQW WR IRUP WKH DGYHUE WKLV PXVW EH
H[SUHVVHGE\DSKUDVH
IULHQGO\±LQDIULHQGO\ZD\ +HVPLOHGLQDIULHQGO\ZD\
WLPHO\±LQWLPH 6KHUHDFKHGWKHVWDWLRQLQWLPH
&RZDUGO\±OLNHDFRZDUG +HDFWHGOLNHDFRZDUG
1RWH $GMHFWLYHV HQGLQJ LQ ¶\· HJ JUHHG\ PRRG\ VKRGG\ KDUG\ VXON\  IRUP WKH
DGYHUEE\FKDQJLQJ¶\·WR¶LO\· JUHHGLO\ $QH[FHSWLRQLV¶VK\· VK\O\ 

*6RPHDGYHUEVDQGDGMHFWLYHVDUHLGHQWLFDOLQIRUP
GDLO\ZHHNO\HDUO\PRQWKO\HQRXJKOLWWOHIDVWKDUGORQJEHWWHUEHVWODVWZRUVHZRUVW
+LVZHHNO\UHQWZDVSRXQGV DGMHFWLYH  +HSDLGKLVUHQWZHHNO\ DGYHUE 

1RWH 7KHDGYHUERI¶KDUG·LV¶LQDKDUGZD\·RU¶KDUG·
+HZRUNHG LQD KDUG ZD\ 

5
adverb of degree: Adverb der Abstufung
6
adverb of manner: Adverb der Art und Weise
7
auxiliary: Hilfsverb
8
to emphasize: betonen

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 39


Chapter 3 THE ADVERB THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 3.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Form the adverbs.
Example: ‘John is very tactful, isn’t he?’ ‘Yes, he behaved really tactfully.’
(a) Jane – careful – to act

(b) Peter – calm – to answer

(c) David – generous – to act

(d) Isabel – stupid – to behave

(e) Toby – polite – to answer

(f) Jill – greedy – to act

2nd exercise:
Form the adverbs.
Example: ‘The weather is very nice.’ – ‘Yes, the weather is exremely nice.’
(a) the car – fast – extremely

(b) to tower – high – exceedingly

(c) the water – cold – unbearably

(d) the train – silent – extremely

(e) the ring – expensive – awfully

(f) the bicycle – well-maintained – extremely

(g) the weather – hot – scorchingly

40 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 4

$'9(5%25$'-(&7,9("
Adverb oder Adjektiv?
Chapter 4 ADVERB OR ADJECTIVE? THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

$'9(5%25$'-(&7,9("
Adverb oder Adjektiv?

 Text 1
Dear Peter,
since you seem to be rather1 interested in hearing my story I’ll tell you what
happened to me in London. Well, I was fairly2 packed up with things: In my
right hand a suitcase3 and my brief-case, in the other a suitcase and my
5 umbrella4. My father had warmly recommended5 the umbrella to me because he
felt certain that I could hardly manage without an umbrella in England. Well, it
really sounds funny, but my family had my welfare6 at heart, and had loaded me
up like an ox. I could scarcely move, but I had to catch the train to Waterloo.
The station and the escalator7 were unbelievably thronged8 with people. Again
10 and again I knocked people with my suitcase or poked9 them with my umbrella.
To cut it short, I was continally having to apologize10 with a muttered11 ‘sorry’.
When I had paved12 my way, having reached the escalator to the tune of six or
seven ‘sorries’, and suddenly finding the same excuse necessary once again, an
Englishman looked straight into my face and said, fairly loudly, ‘Oh no, young
15 man, you’ve just hit me for the second time; once is fair enough, but twice is
unforgivable13!’ I remained dumbfounded14, I really did not know what to
answer because he was right. But he had obviously seen how miserable I looked,
for he smiled at me in a friendly way and obligingly15 helped me carry my
luggage16. That was how I managed to catch my connection17. I was happy that
20 nothing had gone seriously wrong18 in London.

1
rather: ziemlich
2
fairly: ziemlich
3
suitcase: Koffer
4
umbrella: Regenschirm
5
to recommend: empfehlen
6
welfare: Wohlergehen
7
escalator: Rolltreppe
8
to be thronged with: besetzt sein mit
9
to poke: pieksen
10
to apologize: s. entschuldigen
11
muttered: gemurmelt
12
to pave: pflastern
13
unforgivable: unverzeihlich
14
dumbfounded: sprachlos
15
obligingly: höflich
16
luggage: Gepäck
17
connection: Anschlußzug
18
to go wrong: schiefgehen

42 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 4 ADVERB OR ADJECTIVE?

 4.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by forming full sentences as answers:
(1) Who seems to be rather interested in hearing Martin’s story?

(2) Who was fairly packed up with things?

(3) Who had warmly recommended the umbrella to Martin?

(4) What sounds really funny?

(5) What can be said about the station and the escalator?

(6) What did the Englishman say fairly loudly?

(7) What did Martin have to say incessantly?

(8) Who remained dumbfounded?

(9) Who had obviously seen how miserable Martin looked?

(10) Who helped him obligingly to carry his luggage?

2nd exercise:
Find out whether to use adverbs or adjectives in the second and the third
text.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 43


Chapter 4 ADVERB OR ADJECTIVE? THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 2
Dear Peter,
since you seem to be rather ______________ (interested) in hearing my story
I’ll tell you what happened to me in London. Well, I was ______________ (fair)
packed up with things: In my right hand a suitcase and my brief-case, in the
5 other a suitcase and my umbrella. My father had ______________ (warm)
recommended the umbrella to me because he felt ______________ (certain) that
I could ______________ (hard) manage without an umbrella in England. Well,
it really sounds ______________ (funny) , but my family had my welfare at
heart, and had loaded me up like an ox. I could ______________ (scarce) move,
10 but I had to catch the train to Waterloo. The station and the escalator were
______________ (unbelievable) thronged with people. Again and again I
knocked people with my suitcase or poked them with my umbrella. To cut it
______________ (short) , I was ______________ (continual) having to
apologize with a muttered ‘sorry’. When I had paved my way, having reached
15 the escalator to the tune of six or seven ‘sorries’, and ______________ (sudden)
finding the same excuse necessary once again, an Englishman looked straight
into my face and said, ______________ ______________ (fair, loud) , ‘Oh no,
young man, you’ve just hit me for the second time; once is fair enough, but
twice is ______________ (unforgivable)!’ I remained ______________
20 (dumbfounded), I ______________ (real) did not know what to answer because
he was ______________ (right). But he had ______________ (obvious) seen
how ______________ (miserable) I looked, for he smiled at me
______________ (friendly) and ______________ (obliging) helped me carry
my luggage. That was how I managed to catch my connection. I was happy that
25 nothing had gone ______________ ______________ (serious, wrong) in
London.

44 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


 Text 3
Well, there I was in the Bournemouth train. I felt rather ______________ (tired)
and ______________ (hungry) . So I started unpacking my sandwiches1. I
suppose they were rather ______________ (dry), but nevertheless they smelt
and tasted ______________ (good) and reminded2 me of my home during the
5 journey through England. After this meal which to me seemed positively
______________ (luscious3) my old optimism ______________ (soon) came
back again. I felt ______________ (happy) because an old dream of mine had
come ______________ (true4): I was to stay in England for a long holiday. I
suppose this feeling and the long journey had caused me to fall
10 ______________ (asleep5) for I was rather rudely6 awakened by the ticket
collector7. It took quite a long time before I understood that he only wanted to
see my ticket. I felt ______________ (satisfied) that two other boys in the train,
______________ (obvious) foreigners8 like me, had just the same difficulties9 in
understanding him. I arrived in Bournemouth ______________, ____________
15 and __________ (unshaven10, dirty and tired) after 35 hours of travelling. I
hailed a taxi11 to take me to me lodgings12 and noticed that I was running
______________ (short) of loose change13 because I had my other money in
traveller’s cheques14. The taxi ______________ (soon) stopped in front of my
hostess’s15 house and two frightened eyes peeped out16 of the car. But there was

1
sandwiches: Butterbrote
2
to remind: erinnern
3
luscious: feudal
4
to come true: wahr werden
5
to fall asleep: einschlafen
6
rudely: unsanft
7
ticket collector: Fahrkartenkontrolleur
8
foreigner: Ausländer
9
difficulty: Schwierigkeit
10
unshaven: unrasiert
11
to hail a taxi: ein Taxi rufen
12
lodgings: Unterkunft
13
loose change: Kleingeld
14
traveller’s cheque: Reisescheck
15
hostess: Gastgeberin
16
to peep out: hinausblicken
Chapter 4 ADVERB OR ADJECTIVE? THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

no need for anxiety17 because my hostess, my host and their son made me
______________ (hearty18) welcome19. In my next letter you will hear about my
adventures20 in England.

Your friend Martin

17
anxiety: Ängstlichkeit
18
hearty: herzlich
19
to make s.o. welcome: jem. willkommen heißen
20
adventure: Abenteuer

46 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 4 ADVERB OR ADJECTIVE?

 4.2 Grammar: Adverb or adjective


$ 6RPH DGYHUEV GRQ·W HQG LQ ¶O\· DQG DUH LGHQWLFDO LQ WKHLU IRUPV ZLWK WKH
FRUUHVSRQGLQJDGMHFWLYHV,I\RXDGG¶O\·WRWKRVHDGMHFWLYHVWKHIRUPVKDYH
DGLIIHUHQWPHDQLQJ
$GMHFWLYHDQGDGYHUE 1HZDGYHUE
FORVH GLFKW FORVHO\ JHQDXVFKDUI
IDLU HKUOLFK IDLUO\ UHFKW]LHPOLFK
KDUG DQJHVWUHQJW KDUGO\ NDXP
ODWH VSlW ODWHO\ NU]OLFK
ORXG ODXW ORXGO\ DXIIDOOHQGSUDKOHULVFK
QHDU QDKH QHDUO\ EHLQDKH
VKRUW NXU] VKRUWO\ LQ.U]HEDOG
7KLVLVDYHU\VKRUWVWRU\ DGMHFWLYH
7RFXWWKHPDWWHUVKRUWKHGLGLWLPPHGLDWHO\ DGYHUE
,VDZKLPVKRUWO\DIWHUZDUGV QHZDGYHUE

% 6RPHYHUEVDUHIROORZHGE\DSUHGLFDWLYHFRPSOHPHQW DGMHFWLYH 
WREH HJZURQJ WRORRN HJROG WREHFRPH HJKXQJU\
WRVHHP HJJRRG WRNHHS HJFDOP WRWXUQ HJVRXU
WRUHPDLQ HJKXQJU\ WRSURYH HJZURQJ WRWDVWH HJJRRG
WRDSSHDU HJZRQGHUIXO WRVPHOO HJJRRG WROLH HJPRWLRQOHVV
WRIHHO HJWLUHG WRVRXQG HJJRRG WRUHWXUQ HJKDSS\
WRJHW HJGDUN WRJURZ HJROG

& 6RPHSKUDVHV
WRFRPHWUXH WRJHWPDG ]RUQLJZHUGHQ 
WRNHHSTXLHW WRJRZURQJ
WRIDOOLOO WRUXQVKRUW
WRJRPDG YHUUFNWZHUGHQ  WRIDOODVOHHS
0\IDWKHUIHOOLOO2XUVXSSOLHVUDQVKRUW

1
predicative complement: prädikative Ergänzung

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 47


Chapter 4 ADVERB OR ADJECTIVE? THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 4.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Form sentences.
Example: ‘Mrs Brown told me that the milk turned sour.’
– ‘Yes, that’s right. The milk turned sour.’
(a) the information – to be – right

(b) the boys – to remain – quiet

(c) the parents – to feel – tired

(d) the dog – to grow – old

(e) the cat – to become – hungry

(f) the coin – to prove – wrong

(g) the car – to look – old

(h) the pudding – to taste – good

(i) the rose – to smell – good

(j) the boy – to lie – motionless

48 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 4 ADVERB OR ADJECTIVE?

2nd exercise:
Form sentences.
Example: ‘Do you think that the story will come true?’
– ‘Yes, I think so. Everything suggests that the story will come true.’
(a) the children – to fall ill

(b) the experiment – to go wrong

(c) the supplies(Vorräte) – to run short (knapp werden)

(d) the witness(Zeuge) – to keep quiet

(e) the girls – to fall asleep

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 49


Chapter 5

7+(3$66,9(92,&(
Das Passiv
Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

7+(3$66,9(92,&(
Das Passiv

 Text 1
The Passive Voice (umgewandelter Text)
The wall of the prison had just been negotiated1 by Brown, when the
headlights2 of a car coming towards him were seen by him. He pressed his
body into a niche3 of the wall that he could not be seen by the driver. As soon
as the car had passed him the street was crossed by him and then he ran down a
country-road4. After half an hour a little hut5 was reached by him which
obviously6 belonged to the adjacent7 piece of land. Carefully he looked into the
window and the padlock8 on the door was examined9 by him. Since he needed
new clothes the padlock was broken open by him and the door was opened by
him. His whole flight depended on new clothes. The hut was entered by him on
tiptoes10 and then he lit a match11. In the corner he found what he was looking
for: An old jacket, a pair of baggy12 trousers and a shabby13 trenchcoat. Quickly
his clothes were changed and his wallet and few
belongings14 were tranferred15 into the pocket. He
thought of the incidents16 of the last half an hour.
Working in the kitchen he had had the
opportunity17 of escaping through the window and
by creeping18 over a roof and sliding down19 a pipe
the wall was reached. Leaning a long pole against
the wall, it had been negotiated by him.– When he

1
to negotiate: überwinden
2
headlights: Scheinwerfer
3
niche: Nische
4
country-road: Landstraße
5
hut: Hütte
6
obviously: offenbar
7
adjacent: anschließend
8
padlock: Vorhängeschloß
9
to examine: untersuchen
10
on tiptoes: auf Zehenspitzen
11
to light a match: einen Streichholz anzünden
12
baggy: ausgebeult
13
shabby: schäbig
14
belongings: Habseligkeiten
15
to transfer: umstecken
16
incident: Ereignis
17
opportunity: günstige Gelegenheit
18
to creep, crept, crept: kriechen
19
to slide down: runterrutschen

52 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE

was about to button20 the jacket a rustle21 was heard in the hut by him. He hid
himself in the corner. The noise was listened to intently22 and two glowing
dots23 were seen approaching him. In a fierce attempt24 he jumped to his feet to
fight with the intruder25.

20
to button: zuknöpfen
21
rustle: Rascheln
22
intently: angespannt
23
two glowing dots: zwei glühende Punkte
24
in a fierce attempt: in heftiger Weise
25
intruder: Eindringling

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 53


Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 5.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions:
Example: What could be seen by him? – The hut could be seen by him.
(1) What had just been negotiated by Brown?

(2) What had been crossed by Brown?

(3) What was reached by him after half an hour?

(4) What was examined by him?

(5) What was opened by him?

(6) What was broken open by him?

(7) What was entered by him on tiptoes?

(8) What was changed by him quickly?

(9) What was transferred into his pocket?

(10) What had been reached by him?

(11) What was heard by him in the hut?

(12) What was seen approaching him?

2nd exercise:
Put the forms underlined of the first and the second text into the passive.

3rd exercise:
Change the sentences into the passive.

54 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE

 Text 2
Brown had just negotiated (1) the wall of the prison, when he saw (2) the
headlights of a car coming towards him. He pressed his body into a niche of the
wall that the driver could not see (3) him. As soon as the car had passed him, he
crossed (4) the street and ran down a country-road. After half an hour he
5 reached (5) a little hut which obviously belonged to the adjacent piece of land.
Carefully he looked into the window and examined (6) the padlock on the door.
Since he needed new clothes, he broke open (7) the padlock and opened (8) the
door. His whole flight depended on new clothes. On tiptoes he entered (9) the
hut and lit a match. In the corner he found what he was looking for: An old
10 jacket, a pair of baggy trousers and a shabby trenchcoat. Quickly he changed (10)
clothes and transferred (11) his purse and a few belongings into his pocket. He
thought of the incidents of the last half an hour. Working in the kitchen he had
the opportunity of escaping through the window and by creeping over a roof and
sliding down a pipe he had reached (12) the wall. Leaning a long pole against
15 the wall, he had negotiated (13) it. – When he was about to button the jacket, he
heard (14) a rustle in the hut. He hid himself in the corner. He listened (15)
intently to the noise and then saw (16) two glowing dots approaching him. In a
fierce attempt he jumped to his feet to fight with the intruder.

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 55


Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 3
Suddenly he heard (1) a faint miaw1. With his hand he wiped the sweat from his
forehead and laughed at his fright2. Quickly he opened (2) the door and went
down the country-road. His situation was such that it did not allow (3) him to
waste3 any time. He had got to reach (4) the next village and catch (5) the next
5 train before the guards noticed (6) his escape. After 20 minutes he entered (7) the
next village. He passed (8) the lighted windows and wished he could sit
comfortably in one of the rooms without any fear. When he reached (9) the little
station, he went round the building twice4 (10) to make sure whether he could
enter (11) the station without any danger. Finally5 he entered (12) the little room.
10 He saw (13) the railway-man in the ticket-office writing at his desk6. His nerves
strained to the utmost7 he went up to the man and ordered his ticket. As the clerk
did not look (14) at him, everything was all right. When he reached into his
pocket for the money, his fingers touched the photo of his wife. For a moment
he clearly heard (15) his wife’s voice: ’Arthur, you killed (16) a person in a car-
15 accident because you were drunk. Stay in prison until your penalty8 is paid and
don’t make things worse9 than they are by any rash act10. I’ll wait for (17) you
and we can start (18) a new life afterwards.’ He stood motionless11 for a moment
when he heard the clerk say,’Here is your ticket, sir’. ‘ I’ve changed my mind12.
I guess I’d better stay here’. He turned and left (19) the station trotting back along
20 the same road he had come a few minutes before.

1
miaw: Miau
2
fright: Angst
3
to waste: verschwenden
4
twice: zweimal
5
finally: am Ende
6
desk: Schreibtisch
7
to the utmost: aufs äußerste
8
penalty: Strafe
9
to make things worse: Dinge verschlimmern
10
rash act: unüberlegte Tat
11
motionless: regungslos
12
to change one’s mind: seine Meinung ändern

56 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

(19)

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 57


Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 5.2 Grammar: The Passive Voice


:KHQSXWWLQJYHUEVLQWRWKHSDVVLYHYRLFHRQHKDVWRGLIIHUHQWLDWHJURXSVRIYHUEV

$ 9HUEVZLWKDGLUHFWREMHFW
:KHQSXWWLQJVXFKDYHUELQWRWKHSDVVLYHWKHGLUHFWREMHFWEHFRPHVWKHVXEMHFWRIWKH
SDVVLYHVHQWHQFH

,VDZKLVEURWKHU 'LUHFWREMHFW +LVEURWKHUZDVVHHQE\PH


7KLVJURXSRIYHUEV ZLWKDGLUHFWREMHFW LVIDUJUHDWHULQ(QJOLVKWKDQLQ*HUPDQ7KDWLVZK\
RQH VKRXOG UHPHPEHU WKH IROORZLQJ OLVW RI YHUEV ZKLFK FDQ EH SXW LQWR WKH SDVVLYH ZKLFK LV
LPSRVVLEOHLQ*HUPDQ 
WRDGYLVHVR MHPUDWHQ  WRPHHWVR
WRDQVZHUVR WRREH\VR JHKRUFKHQ 
WRDSSURDFKVR VMHPQlKHUQ  WRRSSRVHVR VWK VLFKZLGHUVHW]HQ 
WREHOLHYHVR VWK  WRSOHDVHVR JHIDOOHQ 
WRFRQWUDGLFWVR VWK ZLGHUVSUHFKHQ WRSDUGRQVR YHU]HLKHQ 
WRIROORZVR WRUHVLVWVR VWK  VLFKZLGHUVHW]HQ 
WRIRUJLYHVR YHUJHEHQ  WRWKDQNVR
WRKHOSVRWRUHPHPEHUVR VWK  WRWUXVWVR YHUWUDXHQ 
WRMRLQVR VWK  IROJHQVDQVFKOLH‰HQ 
7KHWHDFKHUZDVFRQWUDGLFWHG

1RWH :KHQWUDQVODWLQJVXFKVHQWHQFHVLQWR*HUPDQDIUHHWUDQVODWLRQLVQHFHVVDU\

% 9HUEVZLWKWZRREMHFWV
6RPHYHUEVWDNHDGLUHFWDQGDQLQGLUHFWREMHFW,IWKHGLUHFWREMHFWLVZLWKRXW¶WR·LWFDQ
DOVREHFRPHWKHVXEMHFWRIDSDVVLYHVHQWHQFH,QWKLVFDVHWZRSDVVLYHFRQVWUXFWLRQV
DUHSRVVLEOH

$FWLYHVHQWHQFHZLWKWZRREMHFWV 0\IDWKHURIIHUHGKLPDSLHFHRIFDNH
 SDVVLYHVHQWHQFH GLUHFWREMHFW  $SLHFHRIFDNHZDVRIIHUHGWRKLPE\P\IDWKHU


 SDVVLYHVHQWHQFH LQGLUHFWREMHFW  +HZDVRIIHUHGDSLHFHRIFDNHE\P\IDWKHU




6XFKYHUEVDUH 
WRDOORZ EHZLOOLJHQJHZlKUHQ  WRSDVV UHLFKHQ 
WRDZDUG YHUOHLKHQ]XHUNHQQHQ  WRSD\
WREULQJ WRSURPLVH
WRGHQ\ YHUZHLJHUQDEVFKODJHQ  WRUHIXVH
WRJLYH JHEHQVFKHQNHQ  YHUZHLJHUQYHUVDJHQ  WRVHOO
WRKDQG EHUJHEHQUHLFKHQ  WRVHQG
WROHDYH KLQWHUODVVHQ  WRVKRZ
WRRIIHU DQELHWHQ  WRWHDFK
1RWH ,IWKHLQGLUHFWREMHFWLVZLWK¶WR·LWFDQQRWEHFRPHVXEMHFWRIWKHSDVVLYHVHQWHQFH

58 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE

& 9HUEV DQGYHUEDOH[SUHVVLRQV ZLWKSUHSRVLWLRQV


6RPHYHUEV DQGYHUEDOH[SUHVVLRQV DUHVRFORVHO\FRQQHFWHGZLWKDSUHSRVLWLRQWKDW
WKHSUHSRVLWLRQDOREMHFWLVFRQVLGHUHGDVDGLUHFWREMHFW DQGFDQEHFRPHWKHVXEMHFWRI
DSDVVLYHVHQWHQFH 7KHSUHSRVLWLRQUHPDLQVZLWKWKHYHUE

([:HZDLWHGIRUWKHGRFWRU7KHGRFWRUZDVZDLWHGIRU

6XFKYHUEV DQGYHUEDOH[SUHVVLRQV DUH 


WRDUULYHDW WRREMHFWWR HLQZHQGHQ 
WRFRPSODLQRIDERXW VEHNODJHQEHU  WRUHIHUWRVR VWK  VEH]LHKHQDXI 
WRDVNIRU ELWWHQXP  WRSD\IRU
WRGHDOZLWK KDQGHOQYRQ  WRUHO\RQ VYHUODVVHQDXI 
WRGHSHQGRQ DEKlQJLJVHLQYRQ  WRVHQGIRU
WRGUHDPRI WRVSHDNRIDERXWWR
WRKHDURI WRWKLQNRIDERXW
WRODXJKDW WRPDNHIXQRI
WROLVWHQWR WRPDNHXVHRI
WRORRNDIWHU VRUJHQIU  WRSXWDQHQGWR
WRORRNDW VFKDXHQDXI  WRWDNHFDUHRI VRUJHQIU 
WRORRNGRZQRQ KHUDEVHKHQDXI  WRWDNHQRWLFHRI EHDFKWHQ 
WRORRNXSRQVR VWK  DQVHKHQDOV  WRWDNHSRVVHVVLRQRI LQ%HVLW]QHKPHQ 
WRILQGIDXOWZLWK WDGHOQ  WRWDNHSLW\RQ 0LWOHLGKDEHQ 

' )RUPVRIWKHSDVVLYH
3UHVHQW ,DPVHHQ ,FKZHUGHJHVHKHQ
3DVW ,ZDVVHHQ ,FKZXUGHJHVHKHQ
)XWXUH, ,VKDOO ZLOO EHVHHQ ,FKZHUGHJHVHKHQZHUGHQ
&RQGLWLRQDO, ,VKRXOG ZRXOG EHVHHQ ,FKZUGHJHVHKHQZHUGHQ
3UHVHQW3HUIHFW ,KDYHEHHQVHHQ ,FKELQJHVHKHQZRUGHQ
3DVW3HUIHFW ,KDGEHHQVHHQ ,FKZDUJHVHKHQZRUGHQ
)XWXUH,, ,VKDOO ZLOO KDYHEHHQVHHQ ,FKZHUGHJHVHKHQZRUGHQVHLQ
&RQGLWLRQDO,, ,VKRXOG ZRXOG KDYHEHHQVHHQ ,FKZUGHJHVHKHQZRUGHQVHLQ

( +RZWRSXWDVHQWHQFHLQWRWKHSDVVLYHYRLFH
 $FWLYH 3DVVLYH
3UHVHQW7HQVH ,VHHWKHFDU 7KHFDULVVHHQE\PH
3DVW7HQVH ,VDZWKHFDU 7KHFDUZDVVHHQE\PH
)XWXUH, ,ZLOOVHHWKHFDU 7KHFDUZLOOEHVHHQE\PH
&RQGLWLRQDO, ,ZRXOGVHHWKHFDU 7KHFDUZRXOGEHVHHQE\PH
3UHVHQW3HUIHFW ,KDYHVHHQWKHFDU 7KHFDUKDVEHHQVHHQE\PH
3DVW3HUIHFW ,KDGVHHQWKHFDU 7KHFDUKDGEHHQVHHQE\PH
)XWXUH,, ,ZLOOKDYHVHHQWKHFDU 7KHFDUZRXOGKDYHEHHQVHHQE\PH
&RQGLWLRQDO,, ,ZRXOGKDYHVHHQWKHFDU 7KHFDUZLOOKDYHEHHQVHHQE\PH
1
verbal expression: hier: eine Verbindung von Verb und Object

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 59


Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 5.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Present tense – present perfect – future I Plural
Example: ‘I have been told that the shop window is dressed twice a month in the shop.’ –
‘That’s right. The shop window has always been dressed twice a month and will be
dressed twice a month in future.’
(a) the shop assistants – to in form about new articles – every month

(b) the shop – to close from 1 to 3 every day

(c) the carpet – to replace every year

(d) the wages – to pay every week

(e) the lift – to check every month

(f) the quality of the goods – to test constantly

(g) the window – to clean every fortnight

60 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE

2nd exercise:
Past Perfect
Example: When I came home from my holidays in Spain, I was thankful that my letters had
been answered by my father. What would I have done, if they had not been
answered by him?
(a) the grass – to cut – John

(b) my friends – to inform about my return – my mother

(c) my room – to clean thoroughly – my sister

(d) my bird – to look after properly – Betty

(e) my car – to wash properly – Arthur

(f) my dog – to take out – Jenny

(g) the flowers and plants – to water every day – my mother

3rd exercise:
Conditional II
Example: ‘What would have been done, if the weather had been fine?’
– ‘If the weather had been fine, the grass would have been cut’.
(a) the roses – to prune

(b) the apples – to pick

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 61


Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

(c) the walls – to paint

(d) the car – to wash

(e) the window – to clean

(f) the roof – to repair

4th exercise:
Verbs with two objects (Both objects can become the subject of a passive sentence!)
Example: The guards allowed Brown a short daily walk.
i) Brown was allowed a short daily walk by the guards.
ii) A short daily walk was allowed to Brown by the guards.
(a) When working in the kitchen, Brown passed a guard a bowl.

(b) Brown had told nobody his plan.

(c) Before breaking out he had sent his wife a letter.

(d) The guards had offered Brown work in the kitchen.

(e) Brown will promise the guards a more reasonable behaviour in the future.

(f) Brown will send his wife a second letter to tell her that he changed his mind.

(g) The guards will refuse Brown the right to work in the kitchen.

(h) Brown will show the guards the photo which made him change his mind.

(i) Brown will promise the owner of the hut amendment for the damage. (=Wiedergutmachung für den Schaden)

62 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 5 THE PASSIVE VOICE

5th exercise:
Verb in the passive voice + preposition
Example: Brown dreamt of a life in freedom. A life in freedom was dreamt of by Brown.
(a) Brown looked upon his flight as something extremely certain.

(b) The guards did not find fault with his work.

(c) Brown had to pay for the damage he had done to the hut on his flight.

(d) Again and again Brown had thought of his wife and his children.

(e) When he spoke of his children his eyes shone brightly.

(f) After Brown had come back, the guards sent for the doctor, since the prisoner had hurt his arm.

(g) The guards took pity on him and did not send him into another cell.

6th exercise:
Passive infinitive of a verb + preposition
Example: ‘I don’t know why Jane is so upset.’ – ‘Well, she just doesn’t like to be laughed at.’
(a) John – to make fun of

(b) David – to talk about

(c) Jill – to stare at

(d) Peter – to find fault with

(e) Jenny – to look down on

(f) Ernest – to send for

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 63


Chapter 6

7+('()(&7,9($8;,/,$5,(6
Die Hilfsverben
Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

7+('()(&7,9($8;,/,$5,(6 

Die Hilfsverben

 Text 1
I am sure you can’t imagine how harmlessly2 it all began. Jill went home by
bus after a shopping-trip3. In the bus she met her friend Barbara and wanted to
show her the new ball pen4 she had been able to buy with her pocket-money.
Jill, however, found that she had lost the ball pen. ‘Oh, dear,’ she said,’ I shan’t
5 be able to buy another one before next month, because I haven’t any pocket
money left’. Barbara smiled,’ Nothing could be easier. We could perhaps try to
get a new one’. ‘ But how can I get a new one without any money?’ ‘ Well, the
stores5 are always short of staff6. So we can just take a new one’. ‘But we
shouldn’t do that’. ‘Pah, you needn’t be so particular7. They will be able to earn
10 enough money even without those little things we want to pinch8 because that’s
part of their calculated risk9. The only thing you have to remember is to be
very careful’. The next day Jill met Barbara in town again. They had a look at
the shop-windows and at last they wanted to have a cup of tea in one of the
cafeterias10. While they were having their tea Barbara started,’ Well, what
15 about your new ball pen?’ ‘I can’t get myself to do what you advised11 me. And
besides I wouldn’t be able to do it’. ‘Well, shall we have a try? I can show
you’. They finished their tea and left the cafeteria. ‘Will you please follow me.
If you want to get through life, you must risk something’. In the store Jill felt as
if everybody could see what they were up to. She was frightened that she could
20 hardly follow her friend, who was gliding12 through between the stands13
having a look at this and that.

1
defective auxiliary: Hilfsverb
2
harmless: harmlos
3
shopping-trip: Einkaufsbummel
4
ball pen: Kugelschreiber
5
store: Warenhaus
6
staff: Personal
7
particular: kleinlich
8
to pinch: mobsen, stehlen
9
calculated risk: kalkuliertes Risiko
10
cafeteria: Cafe´
11
to advise s.o.: jemandem raten
12
to glide: gleiten
13
stand: Verkaufsstand

66 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES

 6.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by repeating the forms of the auxiliaries in
the answers:
(1) What can’t you imagine?

(2) What had Jill been able to buy with her pocket-money?

(3) What wouldn’t Jill have been able to buy before the following month?

(4) What should Jill have done when she lost the ball-pen?

(5) What shouldn’t they try?

(6) Who was at first not able to steal things?

(7) Who could show Jill how to do the evil deed?

(8) Who could hardly follow Barbara in the store?

(9) What should Jill have done when Barbara suggested to steal things?

(10) Why should Jill have stopped her friend?

2nd exercise:
Put the right form into the second and the third text.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 67


Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 2
I am sure you ______________ (can’t/mustn’t) imagine how harmlessly it all
began. Jill went home by bus after a shopping-trip. In the bus she met her friend
Barbara and ______________ (wanted/had to) to show her the new ball pen she
______________ (had been able/had had) to buy with her pocket-money. Jill,
however, found that she had lost the ball pen. ‘Oh, dear’, she said, ’I
______________ (shan’t be able to/shan’t have to) buy another one before next month,
because I haven’t any pocket money left.’ Barbara smiled, ’Nothing
______________ (had to/could) be easier. We ______________ (could/wanted)

perhaps try to get a new one.’


‘But how ______________
(must/can) I get a new one without
any money?’ ‘Well, the stores are
always short of staff. So we
______________ (must/can) just take a new
one.’ ‘But we ______________ (shouldn’t/won’t)

do that.’ ‘Pah, you ______________ (can/needn’t) be


so particular. They ______________ (will be

alowwed/will be able) to earn enough money even


without those little things we ______________
(must/want) to pinch because that’s part of their
calculated risk. The only thing you
______________ (may/have to)

remember is to be very careful’.


The next day Jill met Barbara in town
again. They had a look at the shop-windows and at
last they ______________ (were allowed/ wanted) to have a cup of tea in one of the

68 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES

cafeterias. While they were having their tea Barbara started,’ Well, what about
your new ball pen?’ ‘I ______________ (may/can’t) get myself to do what you
advised me. And besides I ______________ (wouldn’t be able/wouldn’t have had) to do
it.’ ‘Well, ______________ (shall/want) we have a try? I ______________
(must/can) show you.’ They finished their tea and left the cafeteria.
‘______________ (Will/May) you please follow me. If you ______________
(want/are allowed) to get through life, you ______________ (needn’t/must) risk
something’. In the store Jill felt as if everybody ______________ (could/had to) see
what they were up to. She was frightened that she ______________ (could/was

allowed to) hardly follow her friend, who was gliding through between the stands
having a look at this and that.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 69


Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 3
Then they came to the stall with the stationary1. Jill’s heart was beating
violently2, and she ______________ (would/ought to) have stopped Barbara who
was slipping a pen into her sleeve3. Quickly the left the shop, and Jill had the
feeling that someone ______________ (might/was allowed to) stop them at any
5 moment. ‘ Hah, there you are’, said Barbara as she handed her the pen. ‘You
______________ (should/would) try yourself. Nothing ______________ (could/had to)
be easier than that!’ On that same day they stole a pair of sunglasses, a lighter,
and a purse4. They neither really needed nor ______________ (could/wanted) all
the things they stole, but Barbara said it was all for the sake of practising5. Later
10 when Jill was alone in her room, she did not quite know whether she
______________ (should/was allowed to) listen to her inner voice and be ashamed or
to be happy about their success. She ______________ (could not/was not allowed to)

help being happy about their ‘triumph’. In the following weeks a terrible mania6
took hold of her. She went into the stores on her own and pinched a number of
15 things, things which were quite worthless to her because she ______________
(was not allowed to/could not) make any use of them, but she carried on stealing
because she wanted to show off7 in front of Barbara. Then one day she was
stopped by a detective and she ______________ (might/had to) follow him to the
manager of the store. The manager told her that he ______________ (had to/could

20 not) tell her parents and the headmaster of her school to try8 and stop her. The
following week she ______________ (was allowed/ had to) leave her grammar

1
stationary: Schreibartikel
2
violently: heftig
3
sleeve: Ärmel
4
purse: Geldbörse
5
for the sake of practising: um zu üben
6
mania: Besessenheit
7
to show off: angeben
8
to try: hier: den Fall untersuchen

70 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES

school9. Her parents tried to find a post10 for her as an apprentice11in a bank but
after the manager had made enquiries12 about her, he told her that he
______________ (could not/needn’t) take her that year, because unfortunately all the
25 posts for apprentices had been filled. She applied for13 several jobs, but again
and again she received negative answers. At last one of her father’s friends gave
her a job as an assistant14 in his grocery shop. Jill’s promising15 career at school
had come to a disgraceful16 end. A month later she met her friend and told her
so. Barbara only shrugged her shoulders and answered curtly17: ’You stupid
30 little thing! How ______________ (could/should) you take everything so seriously!
You ______________ (should/would) have known that I was only joking.’

9
grammar school: Oberschule
10
post: Stelle
11
apprentice: Lehrling
12
enquiries: Nachforschungen
13
to apply for: sich bewerben um
14
assistant: Verkäufer, Verkäuferin
15
promising: vielversprechend
16
disgraceful: beschämend
17
curtly: schnippisch

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 71


Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 6.2 Grammar: The Defective Auxiliaries


$ :KHQWDONLQJDERXWWKHGHIHFWLYHDX[LOLDULHVRQHVKRXOGGLIIHUHQWLDWHWZR
PDLQJURXSV
VWJURXS
 3UHVHQW7HQVH1HJDWLYH)RUP3DVW7HQVH6XEVWLWXWHV
,FDQ,FDQQRW,FDQ¶W,FRXOGWREHDEOHWR
,PD\,PXVWQRW,PXVWQ¶W±±±±±±±WREHDOORZHGWR

,PD\QRW
,PXVW,QHHGQ¶W±±±±±±±WRKDYHWR
7KHGHIHFWLYHDX[LOLDULHVµPXVW¶DQGµPD\¶KDYHRQO\DSUHVHQWWHQVHµFDQ¶KDVDSUHVHQWDQGD
 SDVWWHQVH,QDOOWKHRWKHUWHQVHVWKH\KDYHWREHUHSODFHG E\VXEVWLWXWHV 7RILQGRXWKRZ


WKHWHQVHVDUHIRUPHGDFRPSOHWHWDEOHLVWREHIRXQGEHORZDQGRQWKHQH[WSDJH

 1RWHV
 ¶,PLJKW·LVQRWWKHSDVWWHQVHRI¶PD\·EXWH[SUHVVHVSRVVLELOLW\RUSROLWHVXJJHVWLRQ 


 +HPLJKWKDYHORVWKLVPRQH\,PLJKWKHOS\RXWRPRUURZ
$WUDQVODWLRQRIµ,PLJKW¶LQWR*HUPDQLVµ,FKN|QQWH¶ 
  ,QVRPHFDVHV¶PLJKW·LQLQWHUFKDQJHDEOH ZLWK¶PD\·


 7KHSHRSOHDUHDIUDLGWKDWWKHGLVHDVHPD\ PLJKW VSUHDG VLFKDXVEUHLWHQ 


  ¶,FRXOG·FDQEHWKHSDVWRI¶,FDQ·RUH[SUHVVHVSRVVLELOLW\OLNH¶PLJKW·
 *HUPDQµ,FKNRQQWH¶RUµ,FKN|QQWH¶ 
  ¶0XVW· ,Q LQGLUHFW VSHHFK ¶PXVW· LV DOVR XVHG DV D SDVW WHQVH LI WKH WHQVH LV DOUHDG\
 H[SUHVVHGLQWKHPDLQFODXVH
 +HVDLGWKDWKHPXVWGRKLVKRPHZRUN

7KH'HIHFWLYH$X[LOLDULHV , 
7HQVH FDQWREHDEOHWR N|QQHQ  PXVWWRKDYHWR PVVHQ 
3UHVHQW7HQVH ,FDQJR,DPDEOHWRJR ,PXVWJR,KDYHWRJR
3DVW7HQVH ,FRXOGJR,ZDVDEOHWRJR ,KDGWRJR
)XWXUH, ,VKDOOEHDEOHWRJR ,VKDOOKDYHWRJR
&RQGLWLRQDO, ,VKRXOGEHDEOHWRJR ,VKRXOGKDYHWRJR
3UHVHQW3HUIHFW ,KDYHEHHQDEOHWRJR ,KDYHKDGWRJR
3DVW3HUIHFW ,KDGEHHQDEOHWRJR ,KDGKDGWRJR
)XWXUH,, ,VKDOOKDYHEHHQDEOHWRJR ,VKDOOKDYHKDGWRJR
&RQGLWLRQDO,, ,VKRXOGKDYHEHHQDEOHWRJR ,VKRXOGKDYHKDGWRJR

1
to replace: ersetzen
2
substitutes: Ersatzformen
3
polite suggestion: höflicher Vorschlag
4
interchangeable: austauschbar

72 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES

7KH'HIHFWLYH$X[LOLDULHV ,, 
7HQVH PD\WREHDOORZHGWR GUIHQ  WRZDQWWRWRZLVKWR ZROOHQ 
3UHVHQW7HQVH ,PD\JR,DPDOORZHGWRJR ,ZDQWWRJR,ZLVKWRJR
3DVW7HQVH ,ZDVDOORZHGWRJR ,ZDQWHG ZLVKHG WRJR
)XWXUH, ,VKDOOEHDOORZHGWRJR ,VKDOOZDQW ZLVK WRJR
&RQGLWLRQDO, ,VKRXOGEHDOORZHGWRJR ,VKRXOGZDQW ZLVK WRJR
3UHVHQW3HUIHFW ,KDYHEHHQDOORZHGWRJR ,KDYHZDQWHGWRJR
3DVW3HUIHFW ,KDGEHHQDOORZHGWRJR ,KDGZDQWHGWRJR
)XWXUH,, ,VKDOOKDYHEHHQDOORZHGWRJR ,VKDOOKDYHZDQWHGWRJR
&RQGLWLRQDO,, ,VKRXOGKDYHEHHQDOORZHGWRJR ,VKRXOGKDYHZDQWHGWRJR

% QGJURXS
,QHHGQ·W ,VKDOO +HZLOO +HRXJKWWR
 ,VKRXOG +HZRXOG 

  1HHGQ·W
 7KHGHIHFWLYHDX[LOLDU\¶QHHG¶LVRQO\XVHGQHJDWLYHO\LQWKHSUHVHQWWHQVH
 7KHSDVWWHQVHLVH[SUHVVHGE\¶WKHUHZDVQRQHHGWR·
 ,QHHGQ¶WJLYH\RXWKHERRN7KHUHZDVQRQHHGWRJLYH\RXWKHERRN
 1RWH5HPHPEHUWKDW¶QHHG·FDQDOVREHDIXOOYHUE
 ,GLGQRWQHHGWRFRPH
  6KDOO
 µ6KDOO¶ LV QRUPDOO\ RQO\ XVHG EHVLGHV LQ WKH IXWXUH WHQVH  LQ D SROLWH TXHVWLRQ H[SUHVVLQJ D
 VXJJHVWLRQ
 6KDOO,KHOS\RX"
  6KRXOGDQGRXJKWWR
 ,VKRXOGJR,RXJKWWRJR
 %RWK SRVVLELOLWLHV KDYH WKH VDPH PHDQLQJ DQG H[SUHVV GHVLUDELOLW\ (UZQVFKWKHLW  RU
 GXW\ 3IOLFKW 
 +HVKRXOG RXJKWWR KHOSKLVPRWKHU
  :LOODQGZRXOG
 µ:LOO¶DQGµZRXOGFDQRQO\EHXVHG LQWKHVHQVHRI*HUPDQµZROOHQ¶ LQ
 D SROLWHTXHVWLRQVDQGDQVZHUVWRWKHP
 E WRH[SUHVVXWWHUXQZLOOLQJQHVV lX‰HUVWHQ8QZLOOHQ 
 ([DPSOHD *LYHPHWKHERRNZLOO\RX":LOO\RXSOHDVHRSHQWKHGRRU"<HV,ZLOO
 E +HZRQ¶WOLVWHQWRPH,DVNHGKLPWZLFHEXWKHZRXOGQ¶WDQVZHU
 1RWH,QDOOWKHRWKHUFDVHVWKH*HUPDQ¶ZROOHQ·LVWREHWUDQVODWHGZLWK¶WRZDQWWR
 WRZLVKWRWRLQWHQGWRWREHJRLQJWR·

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 73


Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 6.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Can – to be able to
Example: ‘I was told that John was not able to (could not) swim, but I think he can learn very
quickly.’ ‘Well, I’m sure that he will be able to learn in a very short time. He has
been able to learn many things in a short time.’
(a) Peter – to drive a car

(b) James – to ride a bicycle

(c) Kevin – to ride a horse

(d) Ernest – to feed cows

(e) David – to play chess

(f) Ralph – to repair his car

(g) Walter – to write an essay properly

74 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES

2nd exercise:
May – not to be allowed to
Example: ‘May I (Am I allowed to) go to Scotland during my holidays?’ – ‘Well, you may go
to Ireland with us, but you may not go to Scotland, because John was not allowed
to go Scotland either.’
(a) to go to the show – to go to the cinema – Kevin

(b) to go swimming – to go to the exhibition – Charles

(c) to go to the party – to go to the concert – Jane

(d) to have any sweets – to have an apple – Jim

(e) to go on a cycling tour – to go with us to Oxford – Jenny

(f) to watch the football-match – to watch the cricket-match – Ian

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 75


Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

3rd exercise:
Must not
Example: Things you must not forget: You must not forget to brush your teeth.
(a) to help your parents in the garden

(b) to clean the shoes

(c) to write a letter to your pen-friend

(d) to learn the vocabulary of the lesson

(e) to buy a note book

(f) to go to the doctor’s with your bad foot

4th exercise:
Must – needn’t
Example: ‘Must I clean my shoes?’ ‘Yes, you must clean your shoes, but you needn’t
clean them at once.’
(a) to learn the vocabulary of the lesson

(b) to help father in the garden

(c) to write a letter to Aunt Jill

(d) to wash the new car

(e) to buy a new note-book

(f) to tidy my room

(g) to inform my teacher about my illness

76 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 6 THE DEFECTIVE AUXILIARIES

5th exercise:
Must – to have to – mustn’t
Example: ‘I must go now, or I shall have to run all the way to the bus-stop.’
– ‘That’s right. You mustn’t be late.’
(a) to do one’s homework – to tell one’s teacher tomorrow – lazy

(b) to clean the window – to rush afterwards – lazy

(c) to cut the grass – to do it tomorrow – lazy

(d) to keep an eye on the pen – to buy a new one – careless

(e) to go to the doctor’s – to lie in bed – careless

(f) to drive carefully – to buy a new car – reckless

6th exercise:
Shall – should (ought to)
Example: ‘Shall I help you to wash the car?’ ‘Well, you should (ought to) help me really.’
(a) to tidy the room

(b) to do the washing-up

(c) to sweep the floor

(d) to clean the windows

(e) to polish the shoes

(f) to do the ironing

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 77


Chapter 7

7+(&21',7,21$/,$1'
&21',7,21$/,,
2)7+($8;,/,$5,(6
Das Conditional I und II der Hilfsverben
Chapter 7 THE CONDITIONAL I AND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
CONDITIONAL II OF THE AUXILIARIES

7+(&21',7,21$/,$1'
&21',7,21$/,,
2)7+($8;,/,$5,(6
Das Conditional I und II der Hilfsverben 

 Text 1
George: Have a look at this newspaper article. It is interesting to see how much
people spend on their holiday per year. Just think what could be done with the
money, if people were willing to stay at home and what could have been built
with that amount of money quoted1 in this article.
5 Martin: Your argument might be right, if human beings2 were machines and
could do without3 holidays. I heard someone say that the human memory4 could
be compared with a battery. From time to time it should be recharged5. By the
way, you should try what life would be like without a holiday. How miserable
would we have carried on at school in the past after our bad reports6, if there had
10 not been a break. I think your question should be changed into how much money
would be saved, if people didn’t drink or smoke.
George: You’ve convinced7 me that a holiday is necessary, but a glass of beer
and a cigarette is just as necessary. Would you like life without any kind of
relaxation8? Couldn’t we think of something we could really do without?
15 Martin: Well, what about wars? Wouldn’t it be a blessing9 for mankind, if wars
could be stopped? Think of all the distress10 that could have been avoided11.
Think of all the soldiers shot dead and what they might have done for their
country and their families. And lastly think of all the money that could have
been used to build houses, schools, hospitals and roads. I think everybody in
20 Europe could have had a house of his own and a car and there might have been a
lot of money left for schools and hospitals.
George: Yes, what would have happened, if there had been peace in Europe in
the past?
1
to quote: nennen
2
human being: Mensch
3
to do without: ohne auskommem
4
human memory: menschliche Erinnerung
5
to recharge: wieder aufladen
6
bad report: schlechtes Zeugnis
7
to convince s.o.: jem. überzeugen
8
relaxation: Entspannung
9
blessing: Segen
10
distress: Not, Elend
11
to avoid: vermeiden

80 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 7 THE CONDITIONAL I AND
CONDITIONAL II OF THE AUXILIARIES

 7.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by repeating the forms of the conditional in
the answers:
Example: What would you do to help your uncle? I would help him in the garden.
(1) What could be done with all the money?

(2) What could be compared with a battery?

(3) What would life be like without a holiday?

(4) What could have been avoided?

(5) What might have been done for our country, if wars had been avoided?

(6) What could the money have been used for?

(7) What could everybody have had?

(8) What might have been left for schools and hospitals?

(9) What would have happened, if there had been peace in Europe in the past?

(10) What would you suggest to stop wars in future?

2nd exercise:
Put the right forms into the second and the third text.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 81


Chapter 7 THE CONDITIONAL I AND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
CONDITIONAL II OF THE AUXILIARIES

 Text 2
George: Have a look at this newspaper article. It is interesting to see how much
people spend on their holiday per year. Just think what ___________________
(can Cond.I, to do, passive) with the money, if people were willing to stay at home and
what ___________________ (can Cond.II, to build,passive) with that amount of money
5 quoted in this article.
Martin: Your argument ___________________ (may Cond.I, to be right), if human
beings were machines and ___________________ (can Cond.I, to do) without
holidays. I heard someone say that the human memory ___________________
(can Cond.I, to compare,passive) with a battery. From time to time it
10 ___________________ (shall Cond.I, to recharge, passive). By the way, you
___________________ (shall Cond.I,to try) what life ___________________ (will

Cond.I, to be) like without a holiday. How miserably ___________________


(will Cond.II, to carry on, question) we on at school in the past after our bad reports, if
there had not been a break. I think your question ___________________
15 (shall Cond.I, to change, passive) into how much money ___________________
(will Cond.I, to save, passive), if people didn’t drink or smoke.
George: You’ve convinced me that a holiday is necessary, but a glass of beer
and a cigarette is just as necessary. ___________________ (will Cond.I, to like,

question) life without any kind of relaxation? ___________________ (Can Cond.I,

20 not, to think, question) of something we ___________________ (can Cond.I, to do) really


without?
Martin: Well, what about wars? ___________________ (Will Cond.I, not, to be,

question) a blessing for mankind, if wars ___________________ (can Cond.I, to stop,

passive)? Think of all the distress that ___________________ (can Cond.II, to avoid,

25 passive). Think of all the soldiers shot dead and what they ___________________
(may Cond.II, to do) for their country and their families. And lastly think of all the

82 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 7 THE CONDITIONAL I AND
CONDITIONAL II OF THE AUXILIARIES

money that ___________________ (can Cond.II, to use, passive) to build houses,


schools, hospitals and roads. I think everybody in Europe
___________________ (can Cond.II, to have) a house of his own and a car and there
___________________ (may Cond.II, to be) a lot of money left for schools and
5 hospitals.
George: Yes, what ___________________ (will Cond.II, to happen) if there had been
peace in Europe in the past?

1RWH 7R ILQG RXW KRZ WKH WHQVHV DUH IRUPHG D FRPSOHWH WDEOH LV WR EH IRXQG LQ WKH
JUDPPDUSDUW

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 83


Chapter 7 THE CONDITIONAL I AND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
CONDITIONAL II OF THE AUXILIARIES

 Text 3
George: I don’t like sitting in the garden. What ___________________ (can

Cond.I, to do, question) we or where ___________________ (can Cond.I, to go, question)

we?
Martin: We ___________________ (may Cond.I, to go) and see the old man in Fish
5 Street whom we used to help before our holidays started. I think he
___________________ (shall Cond.I, to be) back from a visit to his daughter by
now.
George: Yes, we ___________________ (shall Cond.II, already, to see) him last week
and today in Tuesday. We ___________________ (ought to, Cond.II, to ask) him
10 whether he needed our help. ___________________ (Will Cond.I, to tell, question)

please Mother where we are going while I put my bike into the garage?
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Martin: Good afternoon, Mr Brown.We’d like to ask you if we
___________________ (can Cond.I, to help) you. We ___________________
15 (shall Cond.II, to come) to you earlier but we forgot.
Mr Brown: Well, it’s nice to see you again. I arrived from my daughter’s1
yesterday. I ___________________ (shall Cond. II, to send) you a message or given
you a ring2. Well, if you want to help me there is a lot of work to do. If you,
Martin, ___________________ (can Cond.I, to help) me in the garden –– the lawn3
20 needs cutting4 badly –– you George, ___________________ (can Cond.I, to do) the
shopping for me. I ___________________ (can Cond.II, to ask) the girl next door to

1
from my daughter’s:from my daughter’s house
2
to give s.o. a ring: jem. anrufen
3
lawn: Rasen
4
it needs cutting: er muß gemäht werden

84 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 7 THE CONDITIONAL I AND
CONDITIONAL II OF THE AUXILIARIES

go shopping for me but I knew you ___________________ (will Cond.I, to come) to


help me.
Martin: Well, the garden needs doing badly.
Mr Brown: Normally my neighbour ___________________ (will Cond.II, to see) to
5 the garden5, but he has had trouble with his left leg. ___________________
(Will Cond.II; to come, question) you if I had given you a ring?
Martin: That ___________________ (may Cond.II, to be) a good idea. We
6
___________________ (may Cond.II, to water) the lawn as well. Look, there are
some patches7 of yellow grass. ___________________ (Can Cond.I, to show, question)
10 you me how to prune8 the roses because I ___________________ (shall Cond.I, to

be able) to do that job as well.


Mr Brown: I ___________________ (can Cond.I, to make) you a perfect gardener if
you like me teaching you.

5
to see to the garden: nach dem Garten schauen
6
to water: begießen
7
patches: Flecken
8
to prune the roses: die Rosen beschneiden

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 85


Chapter 7 THE CONDITIONAL I AND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
CONDITIONAL II OF THE AUXILIARIES

 7.2 Grammar: The Conditional I and Conditional II


of the Auxiliaries

$ ,IZHKDYHWRWUDQVODWHWKHFRQGLWLRQDO,DQG,,RIWKHDX[LOLDULHVLQWR*HUPDQ
ZHPXVWWUDQVODWHWKHPZLWKWKHVXEMXQFWLYH FRQIHUWDEOH %RWKIRUPV
H[SUHVVSRVVLELOLW\RUUHTXHVW7KHFRQGLWLRQDO,UHIHUVWRWKHSUHVHQWWKH
FRQGLWLRQDO,,WRWKHSDVW
 &RQGLWLRQDO, &RQGLWLRQDO,,
PD\ <RXPLJKWJR <RXPLJKWKDYHJRQH
  'XN|QQWHVWJHKHQ   'XKlWWHVWJHKHQN|QQHQ 
PXVW <RXZRXOGKDYHWRJR <RXZRXOGKDYHKDGWRJR
  'XP‰WHVWJHKHQ   'XKlWWHVWJHKHQPVVHQ 
FDQ <RXFRXOGJR <RXFRXOGKDYHJRQH
  'XN|QQWHVWJHKHQ   'XKlWWHVWJHKHQN|QQHQ 
VKDOO <RXVKRXOGJR <RXVKRXOGKDYHJRQH
 <RXRXJKWWRJR <RXRXJKWWRKDYHJRQH
  'XVROOWHVWJHKHQ   'XKlWWHVWJHKHQVROOHQ 

ZLOO :RXOG\RXJR" :RXOG\RXKDYHJRQH"


  :UGHVWGXJHKHQ"   :UGHVWGXJHJDQJHQVHLQ":lUVWGXJHJDQJHQ" 

1
subjunctive: Konjunktiv

86 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 7 THE CONDITIONAL I AND
CONDITIONAL II OF THE AUXILIARIES

 7.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
We might go – we might have gone
Example: ‘Well, what could we do today? The weather doesn’t look so very promising.’ –
‘We might go to the pictures. We might have gone to the pictures yesterday as well,
if we had had enough money.’
(a) to read a good book – to have other plans, not

(b) to go to the museum – my aunt, to visit us

(c) to go to the youth club – to miss the bus

(d) to play tennis – to have any spare time

(e) to go over to John – to be ill

(f) to phone Peter – the telephone, out of order

(g) to play football – to find one’s football boots

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 87


Chapter 7 THE CONDITIONAL I AND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
CONDITIONAL II OF THE AUXILIARIES

2nd exercise:
You could buy – you could have bought
Example: ‘Now that you have enough money you could buy a new bicycle.’ –
‘Well, it is not a matter of money. I could have bought a bicycle long ago, but I
don’t want to have a new one.’
(a) to have spare time – to read a good book – don’t want to read

(b) to be on a holiday – to go fishing – don’t want to go fishing

(c) to be old enough – to buy a pocket-knife – don’t want to buy a pocket-knife

(d) to have room enough – to buy a cupboard – don’t want to buy

(e) to have a car – to go to the seaside – don’t want to go

(f) to have a good certificate – to study at a university – don’t want to study

(g) to have the driving-licence – to buy a car – don’t want to buy

88 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 7 THE CONDITIONAL I AND
CONDITIONAL II OF THE AUXILIARIES

3rd exercise:
You should go (ought to) – you should have gone (ought to have)
Example: ‘I think you should show your bad foot to the doctor.’ (You ought to show) – ‘That’s
right. I should have shown it to the doctor long ago.’ (I ought to have shown)
(a) to take the car to the garage

(b) to have the shoes repaired

(c) to phone John

(d) to see Mr Brown about the tour to Scotland

(e) to read the essay about ancient history (ancient=old)

(f) to make arrangements about private lessons

4th exercise:
Would you go?
Example: ‘Would you help me, if I asked you for help?’ – ‘Nobody knows better than you
that I would have helped you if you had asked me.’
(a) to lend the book to me – to ask for it

(b) to post the letter for me – to ask for it

(c) to go shopping for me – to ask for it

(d) to help me with the garden – to ask for it

(e) to wash my car for me – to ask for it

(f) to give me your newspaper – to ask for it

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 89


Chapter 8a

7+(3$67$1'
7+(3$673(5)(&7
Das Past und das Past Perfect
Chapter 8a THE PAST AND THE PAST PERFECT THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

7+(3$67$1'
7+(3$673(5)(&7
Das Past und das Past Perfect

 Text 1
It was 3 o’clock in the morning when Peter heard the peculiar1 sound for the
first time. He was lying motionless2 in his bed and thought what he could do
next. Yes, the sound had wakened him. He was alone in the house. His parents
had left the day before and his father had told him twice3 to watch the house
5 carefully because there had been some cases of burglary4 in the neighbourhood.
Almost noiselessly5 he put on his slippers and reached for his grandfather’s
walking-stick. What should he do if the burglar had a pistol? He had heard one
of their neighbours say that a burglar with a pistol in his hand had stolen 1200
pounds. Carefully he opened the door leading to the landing6. When he reached
10 the staircase7 the floor made a squeaking noise. For a few seconds he stood on
the staircase as if petrified8. He asked himself whether the burglar had heard
him. Suddenly he heard the sound again. It came from the dining-room. Like a
cat he slid9 down the stairs. When he reached the last few stairs he remembered
that his father had given him the telephone-number of their friends. It was,
15 however, too late to phone them. Besides10 the burglar would stop him. He went
down on his knees and crept to the door leading into the dining-room. Again he
heard the sound. All of a sudden he jumped to his feet and burst11 into the room.
The room, however, was empty. The top-window which he had forgotten to shut
was banging against12 the frame13.

1
peculiar: eigenartig
2
motionless: regungslos
3
twice: zweimal
4
burglary: Einbruch
5
noiseless: geräuschlos
6
landing: Treppenabsatz
7
staircase: Treppe
8
petrified: versteinert
9
to slide, slid, slid: gleiten
10
besides: außerdem
11
to burst, burst, burst: stürzen
12
to bang against: schlagen gegen
13
frame: Rahmen

92 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 8a THE PAST AND THE PAST PERFECT

 8a.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by repeating the tenses of the questions in
the answers:
Example: Who was alone in the house? Peter was alone in the house.
(1) How late was it?

(2) What did Peter hear?

(3) Who was lying motionless in his bed?

(4) What did Peter think when he was lying in his bed?

(5) What had wakened Peter?

(6) Who had left the day before?

(7) What had his father told him?

(8) What had there been in the neighbourhood?

(9) What did Peter put on noiselessly?

(10) What had Peter heard some days before?

(11) What did Peter open carefully?

(12) How did Peter stand on the staircase?

2nd exercise:
Put the right tenses into the second and third text.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 93


Chapter 8a THE PAST AND THE PAST PERFECT THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 2
It ______________ (to be) 3 o’clock in the morning when Peter ______________
(to hear) the peculiar sound for the first time. He ______________ (to be lying)

motionless in his bed and ______________ (to think) what he ______________


(can) do next. Yes, the sound ______________ (to waken) him. He
______________ (to be) alone in the house. His parents ______________ (to leave)
the day before and his father ______________ (to tell) him twice to watch the
house carefully because there ______________ (to be) some cases of burglary in
the neighbourhood. Almost noiselessly he ______________ (to put) on his
slippers and ______________ (to reach) for his grandfather’s walking-stick. What
should he do if the burglar ______________ (to have) a pistol? He
______________ (to hear) one of their neighbours say that a burglar with a pistol
in his hand ______________ (to steal) 1200 pounds. Carefully he
______________ (to open) the door leading to the landing. When he
______________ (to reach) the
staircase the floor
______________ (to make) a
squeaking noise. For a few
seconds he ______________ (to
stand) on the staircase as if
petrified. He ______________
(to ask) himself whether the
burglar ______________ (to

hear) him. Suddenly he


______________ (to hear) the
sound again.

94 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 8a THE PAST AND THE PAST PERFECT

It ______________ (to come) from the dining-room. Like a cat he


______________ (to slide) down the stairs. When he ______________ (to reach) the
last few stairs he ______________ (to remember) that his father ______________
(to give) him the telephone-number of their friends. It ______________ (to be),

however, too late to phone them. Besides the burglar would stop him. He
______________ (to go) down on his knees and
______________ (to creep) to the door leading into the
dining-room. Again he ______________ (to hear) the
sound. All of a sudden he
______________ (to jump) to his feet
and ______________ (to burst) into the
room. The room, however,
______________ (to be) empty. The
top-window which he
______________ (to forget) to shut
______________ (to be banging) against
the frame.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 95


Chapter 8a THE PAST AND THE PAST PERFECT THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 3
When Peter ______________ (to leave) school at twenty his first thought
______________ (to be) that he ______________ (to attain1) everything in life,
because he ______________ (to pass) his examination2 quite well. Maybe he
______________ (to think) he ______________ (to win) life itself. But this
5 calculation ______________ (to be) wrong. He soon ______________ (to find) out
that he ______________ (to win) only the foundation3 for a better education4.
Therefore there ______________ (to exist) only one thing for him. He
______________ (to long) to go to university. Something like a spell5
______________ (to come) over him when he ______________ (to think) about it,
10 and perhaps it ______________ (to be) the worst6 thing that could possibly have
happened. When at school he ______________ (not, to think) of all the
consequences7 and implications8 of going to university. So before he
______________ (can) start his studies9 he ______________ (to have to) earn some
money to pay the fees10. He ______________ (to want) to do this because he
15 ______________ (to intend) to relieve11 his parents of this expense12. So he
______________ (to decide) to work in a dock-yard13. His first day there
______________ (to be) the most difficult he ______________ (ever, to spend) in his
life. He ______________ (to pass) through the gates14 and ______________ (only,

1
to attain: erlangen
2
examination: Prüfung
3
foundation: Grundlage
4
education: Ausbildung, Bildung
5
spell: Zauber
6
the worst thing: die schlimmste Sache
7
consequence: Folge
8
implication: Konsequenz
9
studies: Studien
10
fees: Studiengebühren
11
to relieve: entlasten
12
expense: Ausgabe
13
dock-yard: Schiffswerft
14
gates: Tore

96 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 8a THE PAST AND THE PAST PERFECT

to be given) a number, but ______________ (not even, to be asked) his name. He didn’t
20 think he would ever forget that number. It ______________ (to be) 289.
It ______________ (to be) this which ______________ (to force15) him to think over
his existence16. ______________ (to be) life only a number? He ______________
(to feel) like a prisoner and yet ______________ (not, to feel) guilty17 about his
plight18. He (to keep) telling himself that the reason for his feeling depressed19
25 ______________ (to be) that he ______________ (not, to think) over his own life
carefully enough.

15
to force: zwingen
16
existence: hier: Leben
17
guilty: schuldig
18
plight: Los, Schicksal
19
to feel depressed: sich niedergeschlagen fühlen

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 97


Chapter 8a THE PAST AND THE PAST PERFECT THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 8a.2 Grammar: The Past and the Past Perfect



µ,KHDUG¶DQGµ,KDGKHDUG¶

$ 7KH SDVW LV QRUPDOO\ XVHG WR UHWHOO D VWRU\ 7KH SDVW SHUIHFW LV XVHG WR
H[SUHVVWKDWDFHUWDLQDFWLRQKDSSHQHGEHIRUHDQRWKHUSDVWDFWLRQRUEHIRUH
DFHUWDLQWLPHLQWKHSDVW7KHSDVWSHUIHFWLVDVRUWRI¶GRXEOHSDVW·RU¶SDVW
EHIRUHSDVW·
 :KHQ,JRWKRPH P\)DWKHUKDGJRQHRXW
:KHQ,JRWKRPH
P\)DWKHUKDGJRQHRXW


)DWKHU¶VJRLQJRXWWRRNSODFHEHIRUH,JRWKRPH

7KH¶SDVWSHUIHFW·VWDQGVFKURQRORJLFDOO\ RQDORZHUVWHSWKDQWKH¶SDVW·

1
chronological: in der Reihenfolge

98 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 8a THE PAST AND THE PAST PERFECT THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 8a.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Past
Example: ‘When I got home, my Father had gone out’.
(a) to see the car – it, to be sold, already

(b) to phone John – he, to leave the house,already

(c) to want to get off the bus – to doors, to be closed, already

(d) to want to do the washing-up – Mother, to do the washing-up, already

(e) to want to cut the grass – Father, to cut the grass, already

(f) to reach the station – the train, to leave, already

(g) to get to town – the shops, to close, already

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 99


Chapter 8a THE PAST AND THE PAST PERFECT THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

2nd exercise:
Past Perfect
Example: John emigrated to Canada. But before he emigrated to Canada, he had sold all his
belongings.
(a) to buy a new car – to save a lot of money

(b) to go on a trip round the world – to inform all his friends

(c) to study at a college – to work hard for the entrance examination1

(d) to become a teacher – to pass an examination in teaching

(e) to build a new house – to work out the plan

(f) to construct a new machine – to carry out tests

(g) to write a book about philosophy – to read many books on that subject

1
entrance examination: Aufnahmeprüfung

100 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 8b

7+(3$67$1'
7+(35(6(173(5)(&7
Das Past und das Present Perfect
Chapter 8b THE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

7+(3$67$1'
7+(35(6(173(5)(&7
Das Past und das Present Perfect

 Text 1
Last summer we decided to go to England to see our English friends again, who
we have known since our first trip to Bexhill. Our German friends advised1 us to
take the boat from Hamburg to Harwich.
‘It is so convenient2 and enjoyable3 to cross the North Sea at night, and when
5 you wake up the following day, you can already see the English coast. We have
had such a nice crossing this spring. Indeed, we have really had so much fun on
this trip to England this year!’
Martin and I agreed to see the manager of our local travel agency4 the following
day. When we entered the office a nice blond girl smiled at us and said, ‘Can I
10 help you?’
Martin seemed less impressed5 by the blond girl than me and answered, ‘Well,
we haven't seen our English friends for several years and as they have invited us
so many times up to now, we want to make a one-week trip to England.’
The attractive girl showed us a coloured brochure6 and said, ‘Well, you are
15 extremely lucky because a special offer for the boat to Harwich has just come in.
The price for the return ticket7 will be 30% off8 and will include a breakfast.’
The price was really a fair offer9, and we booked for two return tickets. The
voyage10 started late in the afternoon on the following Sunday. Since it was a
nice day, we stood on deck for quite a while and saw the many villas on the
20 bank11 of the Elbe – as it seemed – glide along. When we were later out at sea
and the sun went down Martin was so deeply moved by the romantic scenery12
that he felt compelled13 to exclaim14, ‘Look at those beautiful colours. Have you
ever seen such a peaceful sunset?’

1
to advise: raten
2
convenient: bequem
3
enjoyable: vergnüglich
4
travel agency: Reisebüro
5
to be impressed: beeindruckt sein
6
coloured brochure: Farbprospekt
7
return ticket: Rückfahrkarte
8
30% off: 30 Prozent billiger
9
fair offer: faires Angebot
10
voyage: Seereise
11
the bank: das Ufer
12
scenery: Szene
13
to feel compelled: sich genötigt fühlen
14
to exclaim: ausrufen

102 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 8b THE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT

Martin was right to use the word ‘peaceful’ because the sea was calm and quiet.
25 I was in a less romantic mood15 and answered, ‘Well, the colours are quite nice,
but I think the beer they are serving in the bar is much nicer. I bet you haven't
seen such a nice pint16 in your life.’
In the saloon bar a sort of variety show was going on and we had quite an
enjoyable evening.
30 The next morning – after a sound17 sleep in our cabin – we had a luscious18
breakfast and in due time19 the boat reached Harwich.

15
mood: Stimmung
16
a pint: engl. Maßeinheit (ca. ½ Liter)
17
sound: fest (i.Sinne von 'tief')
18
luscious: feudal, lecker
19
in due time: (fahr-)planmäßig

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 103


Chapter 8b THE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 8b.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions questions by repeating the tenses of the
questions in the answers:
Example: ‘How long have they known their English friends?’ –
‘They have known their English friends since their first trip to Bexhill.‘
(1) Who advised them to take the boat from Hamburg?

(2) Who has had such a nice crossing this spring?

(3) When did they go to their local travel agency?

(4) Who hasn’t seen his English friends for several years?

(5) What has just come in?

(6) What did they see when they stood on deck?

(7) What did they watch when they were out at see?

(8) What did Martin exclaim when he watched the sun go down?

(9) When did the boat reach Harwich?

2nd exercise:
Put the right tenses into the second and the third text.

104 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 8b THE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT

 Text 2
Last summer we ______________ (to decide) to go to England to see our English
friends again , who we ______________ (to know) since our first trip to Bexhill.
Our German friends ______________ (to advise) us to take the boat from
Hamburg to Harwich.
5 ‘It is so convenient and enjoyable to cross the North Sea at night, and when you
wake up the following day, you can already see the English coast. We
______________ (to have) such a nice crossing this spring. Indeed, we
______________ (to have, really) so much fun on this trip to England this year!’
Martin and I ______________ (to agree) to see the manager of our local travel
10 agency the following day. When we ______________ (to enter) the office a nice
blond girl ______________ (to smile) at us and ______________ (to say), ‘Can I
help you?’
Martin ______________ (to seem) less impressed by the blond girl than me and
______________ (to answer), ‘Well, we ______________ (not, to see) our English
15 friends for several years and as they ______________ (to invite) us so many times
up to now, we want to make a one-week trip to England.’
The attractive girl ______________ (to show) us a coloured brochure and
______________ (to say), ‘Well, you are extremely lucky because a special offer
for the boat to Harwich ______________ (to come, just) in. The price for the return
20 ticket will be 30% off and will include a breakfast.’
The price ______________ (to be) really a fair offer, and we ______________
(to book) for two return tickets. The voyage ______________ (to start) late in the
afternoon on the following Sunday. Since it ______________ (to be) a nice day,
we ______________ (to stand) on deck for quite a while and ______________
25 (to see) the many villas on the bank of the Elbe – as it ______________ (to seem) –
glide along. When we ______________ (to be) later out at sea and the sun

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 105


Chapter 8b THE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

______________ (to go) down Martin ______________ (to be moved, so deeply) by


the romantic scenery that he ______________ (to feel) compelled to exclaim,
‘Look at those beautiful colours. ______________ you ______________ (to see,

30 ever, question) such a peaceful sunset?’


Martin ______________ (to be) right to use the word ‘peaceful’ because the sea
______________ (to be) calm and quiet.
I ______________ (to be) in a less romantic mood and ______________
(to answer), ‘Well, the colours are quite nice, but I think the beer they are serving
35 in the bar is much nicer. I bet you ______________ (not, to see) such a nice pint in
your life.’
In the saloon bar a sort of variety show ______________ (to be going) on and we
______________ (to have) quite an enjoyable evening.
The next morning – after a sound sleep in our cabin – we had a luscious
40 breakfast and in due time the boat ______________ (to reach) Harwich.

106 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 8b THE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT

 Text 3
Our English friends had come to meet us at the customs clearance1 and
______________ (to welcome) us heartily. Martin ______________ (to give) John a
bottle of whiskey and Jill a box of chocolates. John’s face ______________
(to brighten up) and Jill ______________ (to exclaim), ‘How thoughtful2 of you. I
5 ______________ (not, to receive) such a nice present for quite a long time’, and she
______________ (to look) at John accusingly3. John ______________ (to take) us
home in his car and we really ______________ (to have) a nice time. In the
mornings John ______________ (to go) with us to town to have a look at the
shops and the famous sights and almost every afternoon he ______________
10 (to invite) us for a trip into the country. Jill on her part4 ______________ (to prepare)
the most luxurious meals for us and ______________ (to spoil) our figures with
most delicious sweets5. Martin ______________ (to look) down at his stomach6
and ______________ (to observe), ‘I ______________ (to put, never) so much weight
on7 as during this week in England.’
15 I ______________ (to agree) with him, adding, ‘And you ______________ (to eat,

never) so much in your life as in John's and Jill's house.’


Well, those nice days in England ______________ (to go) by far too soon. As a
kind of preparation for our voyage back we ______________ (to watch) the
weather forecasts8 on television in the evenings.
20 On our last evening Martin ______________ (to exclaim), ‘You ______________
(to see, question) the weather chart9 just now? Some bad weather is coming down

1
customs clearance: Zollabfertigung
2
thoughtful: aufmerksam
3
accusingly: anklagend
4
on her part: ihrerseits
5
delicious sweet: köstlicher Nachtisch
6
stomach: Bauch
7
to put weight on: an Gewicht zunehmen
8
weather forecast: Wetterbericht
9
weather chart: Wetterkarte

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 107


Chapter 8b THE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

from Scotland and going to cross the North Sea.’ I ______________ (not, to pay)

any attention to that because I ______________ (to think) that our boat to
Hamburg ______________ (to be) quite a big ship. So what ______________
25 (can) happen to us? On our last day John and Jill ______________ (to take) us in
their car to Harwich, and we ______________ (to thank) them heartily for their
hospitality10 and ______________ (to invite) them to come to stay with us in
Germany as soon as possible. When we ______________ (to go) up the gangway,
one of the passengers ______________ (to put) on an ominous11 face, saying, ‘I
30 ______________ (to hear,just) one of the crew say that we are going to have a
rough crossing12.’ I ______________ (to see) Martin's face turn pale when we
______________ (to take) our luggage13 into our cabin to stow 14
it away. I
______________ (to look) at Martin and ______________ (to say), ‘Well, no matter
what the auspices15 are, let's go into the bar to have a whiskey against
35 seasickness. I ______________ (to be told) so far that this is the best medicine
against seasickness.’ The boat ______________ (to be) then out at sea16 and we
______________ (to see) that the people in the bar ______________ (to be)

carefully choosing where to put their feet because the ground under their feet
______________ (to be swaying)17.
40 When we had finished our whiskey, we ______________ (to notice) that almost all
the people had left the bar. Martin's face ______________ (to have) a greenish
colour by then and he said, rather meekly18, ‘I ______________ (to feel, never) so
bad in my life.’ Very quickly we ______________ (to go) into our cabin to lie
down in our bunks19. The night that ______________ (to follow) ______________

10
hospitality: Gastfreundschaft
11
ominous: vielsagend
12
rough crossing: rauhe Überfahrt
13
luggage: Gepäck
14
to stow away: verstauen
15
auspices: Vorzeichen
16
out at sea: auf See
17
to be swaying: schwanken
18
meek: kleinlaut
19
bunk: Koje

108 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 8b THE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT

45 (to be) really horrible. The boat ______________ (to be dancing) on the waves and
______________ (to be swaying) all the time. We ______________ (to feel, never) so
miserable in all our life. When we ______________ (to leave) the boat after a
20-hour voyage we ______________ (to be) happy to have solid ground under
our feet again. As we ______________ (to go) from board Martin
50 ______________ (can, not) help saying, ‘I say, the owner of the ferry
______________ (to save) quite a sum of money on this trip because only very
few passengers ______________ (to be inclined)20 to have their breakfast.’

20
to be inclined: geneigt sein

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 109


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 8b THE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT

 8b.2 Grammar: The Past and the Present Perfect


$ 7KHSDVWWHQVHLVXVHGWRGHQRWHDFWLRQV
D ZKLFKHQGHGLQWKHSDVWRU
E ZKLFKIROORZHGRQHDIWHUWKHRWKHU

7KHSDVWWHQVHLVRIWHQDFFRPSDQLHGE\WKHIROORZLQJDGYHUELDOVRIWLPH
 7KHQDWWKDWWLPHODVWQLJKWDWWKDWPRPHQW\HVWHUGD\ODVWZHHNODVWPRQWKODVW\HDU
ODVWVXPPHUORQJDJRLQIRUPHUO\ZKHQ,ZDV\RXQJZKHQZHZHUHLQ/RQGRQ

+HZDVTXLWHDIDPRXVPDQDWWKDWWLPH
,PHHWKLPDWWKHSRVWRIILFHWKHRWKHUGD\
 
3HWHUILQLVKHGWKHOHWWHU+HRSHQHGWKHHQYHORSHDQGKHSXWWKHOHWWHUWRJHWKHUZLWKWKHPRQH\
LQWRWKHHQYHORSH

% 7KHSUHVHQWSHUIHFWLVXVHGWRGHQRWHDFWLRQVZKLFKDUHQRW\HWILQLVKHGRU
ZKRVHUHVXOWFRQWLQXHVXSWRWKHSUHVHQW
7KHSUHVHQWSHUIHFWLVRIWHQDFFRPSDQLHGE\WKHIROORZLQJDGYHUELDOVRIWLPH
 )RUVLQFHVRIDUXSWR QRZXSWRWKHSUHVHQW QRW\HW\HWLQP\OLIHWKLV\HDUWKLV
ZHHNWRGD\MXVWDQGRQO\MXVWHYHUQHYHU
7KLVIDFWRU\KDVSURGXFHGFDUVVLQFH
 ,KDYHQ
WVHHQKLPWKLVZHHN
0\EURWKHUKDVRQO\MXVWILQLVKHGKLVOHWWHU

1
to denote: bezeichnen

110 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 8b THE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT

 8b.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Present Perfect
Example: John hasn’t been here for quite a long time. –
Well, I haven't seen him since October.
(a) Peter–not, to do his homework – for two weeks – since the beginning of the term

(b) James – not, to go to his friend – for 3 days – since the end of this week

(c) Jill – not, to drive a car – for 3 months – since the end of September

(d) Dave – not, to write to us – for a long time – since the end of his holiday

(e) Kay – not, to phone me – for several weeks – since her party

2nd exercise:
Present Perfect and Past Tense
Example: I haven’t seen such a car in my life. – Well, I saw such a car yesterday.
(a) Tom – not, to do his job – up to now I – to do – last night

(b) Peter – not yet, to wash the car – this week I – to wash the car – last week

(c) Jim – not, to inform his friends – so far I – to inform my friends – long ago

(d) Julia – to write a letter – just now I – to write a letter – when I was in London

(e) Jane – not, to answer the letter – up to now I – to answer the letter – long ago

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 111


Chapter 9

&217,1828625
Verlaufsform oder6,03/()250
einfache Form des Verbs
Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

&217,1828625
Verlaufsform oder6,03/()250
einfache Form des Verbs

 Text 1
Tom’s mother was ironing1 in the kitchen, when Tom burst into the room. He
was panting2 and his face was bruised3. The sleeve of his shirt was torn4. Tom
looked his mother straight5 in the face and asked her, ‘Why didn’t you tell me?’
While his mother was racking6 her brains for an answer, Tom left the kitchen.
5 For years she had been waiting for this moment and been hoping it would not
come. She finished her ironing and looked at the clock. Her husband was due7 to
be back from his office in half an hour. She was still sitting on her chair when
her husband came in. He looked at her and asked, ‘What has happened, my
dear? You look terribly upset8.’ ‘Someone has told Tom. Oh, why didn’t we tell
10 him and prepare him? It must have been quite a shock for him.’ ‘Well, there is
no time for arguing9. I suppose he is in his room.’
Tom was packing together a little bundle10 of clothes when his father entered the
room and said, ‘Hallo, my boy.’ Tom turned round and hissed, ‘I’m not your
boy.’ ‘Who told you?’
15 ‘I was fighting with Jack when he called me a bastard11.’ ‘Well, that doesn’t
make any difference. You are our son.’ ‘Don’t call me son. Who and where are
my parents?’ ‘Your mother was a friend of your present mother. She was
expecting12 you when she realized that you would stand in the way of her
career13. Before you were given to a children’s home14 we adopted you as a
20 baby, because we couldn’t have any children. Your mother died in a car
accident15 two years later.’

1
to iron: bügeln
2
to pant: keuchen
3
to be bruised: zerkratzt sein
4
torn: zerrissen (von: to tear, tore, torn: zerreißen)
5
straight: offen, gerade
6
to rack one’s brains: s. den Kopf zerbrechen
7
to be due: fällig sein
8
to be upset: beunruhigt sein
9
to argue: argumentieren
10
bundle: Bündel
11
bastard: uneheliches Kind
12
to expect a baby: ein Baby erwarten
13
career: Karriere
14
children’s home: Kinderheim
15
car accident: Autounfall

114 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM

 9.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by repeating the forms used in the
questions:
(1) What was Tom’s mother doing, when he burst into the room?

(2) What did the sleeve of his shirt look like?

(3) How did Tom look his mother in the face?

(4) What did he ask her?

(5) What did Tom’s mother do, when she finished ironing?

(6) What was Tom doing, when his father entered the room?

(7) When was Tom called a bastard?

(8) What did Tom’s mother realize,when she was expecting him?

(9) What did Tom’s foster parents do, before he was given to a children’s home?

(10) What did happen to Tom’s real mother?

2nd exercise:
Put the right forms into the second and third text.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 115


Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 2
Tom’s mother ______________ (to iron) in the kitchen, when Tom
______________ (to burst) into the room. He ______________ (to pant) and his
face ______________ (to be bruised). The sleeve of his shirt ______________
(to be torn). Tom ______________ (to look) his mother straightin the face and
5 ______________ (to ask) her, ’Why didn’t you tell me?’ While his mother
______________ (to rack) her brains for an answer, Tom ______________
(to leave) the kitchen. For years she ______________ (to wait) for this moment and
______________ (to hope) it would not come. She ______________ (to finish) her
ironing and ______________ (to look) at the clock. Her husband
10 ______________ (to be) due to be back from his office in half an hour. She (to sit)
still on her chair when her husband ______________ (to come) in. He
______________ (to look) at her and ______________ (to ask), ‘What has
happened, my dear? You look terribly upset.’ ‘Someone has told Tom. Oh, why
______________ (to tell,not) we tell him and prepare him? It must have been quite
15 a shock for him.’ ‘Well, there is no time for arguing. I suppose he is in his
room.’

Tom ______________ (to pack) together a little bundle of clothes when his father
______________ (to enter) the room and ______________ (to say), ‘Hallo, my
boy.’ Tom ______________ (to turn) round and ______________ (to hiss), ‘I’m not
20 your boy.’ ‘Who ______________ (to tell) you?’ ‘I ______________ (to fight) with

116 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM

Jack when he ______________ (to call) me a bastard.’ ‘Well, that doesn’t make
any difference. You are our son.’ ‘Don’t call me son. Who and where are my
parents?’ ‘Your mother ______________ (to be) a friend of your present mother.
She ______________ (to expect) you when she ______________ (to realize) that you
25 would stand in the way of her career. Before you ______________ (to be given) to
a children’s home we ______________ (to adopt) you as a baby, because we
couldn’t have any children. Your mother ______________ (to die) in a car
accident two years later.’

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 117


Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 3
‘But I must have a father?’ ‘Well, he ______________ (to live) on a farm not so
very far from here. He ______________ (to pay) for you all right but he
______________ (to let) us know that he ______________ (to want, not) any contact
with you. He is quite well off1, but he has a family of his own now.’ ‘I want to
5 see him. Tell me where he ______________ (to live).‘ Tom’s parents
______________ (to know) they could not stop him. The next day his mother
______________ (to prepare) sandwiches for her son, while his father
______________ (to help) him to pack up a bundle of things Tom would need on
the trip. It was a sunny morning when Tom ______________ (to start) out on his
10 bicycle. His mother ______________ (to wave) him good-bye2, while tears
______________ (to roll) down her cheeks3. On his outing4 Tom
______________ (to have) all kinds of visions of what his father might look like.
He ______________ (to have) no doubts5 that he would allow him to live on his
farm. At noon6 he ______________ (to reach) the little village. His father’s farm
15 house ______________ (to stand) at the entrance of the village. Tom
______________ (to feel) hungry and thirsty. He ______________ (to knock) at the
door of the house. He ______________ (to think) still about what he
______________ (to be going) to say, when a boy, a little younger than he,
______________ (to open) the door. Tom ______________ (to be able, only) to
20 stammer7, ‘I’m thirsty8. Could you bring me a glass of water, please?’ The boy

1
to be well off: reich sein
2
to wave good-bye: winken
3
cheeks: Wangen
4
outing: Ausflug
5
doubt: Zweifel
6
at noon: um die Mittagszeit
7
to stammer: stottern
8
thirsty:durstig

118 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM

______________ (to go) away and Tom ______________ (to hear) some arguing9
in the hall. After some time the boy ______________ (to bring) him a glass of
water. A harsh10 man’s voice in the background ______________ (to shout), ’Tell
him, we don’t want any beggars11 here.’ While Tom ______________ (to drink)

25 the water, he ______________ (to look) into a pair of cold, green eyes.
He ______________ (to thank) the boy, ______________ (to give) him back the
glass, and ______________ (to go) back to his bicycle. Tears ______________
(to roll) down his cheeks when he ______________ (to pedal12) back along the same
road, the way back home.

9
arguing: hier: Diskussion
10
harsh: barsch
11
beggar: Bettler
12
to pedal: radeln

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 119


Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 9.2 Grammar: Continuous or Simple Form


$ *HQHUDOQRWH7KHFRQWLQXRXVIRUPH[SUHVVHVWKDWDQDFWLRQLVJRLQJRQWKH
VLPSOHIRUPWKDWWKHDFWLRQKDVFRPHWRDQHQG
,DPUHDGLQJDERRN

<HVWHUGD\,UHDGDERRNDERXWJDUGHQLQJ

 $FWLYH 
  0\EURWKHULVUHDGLQJDERRN
%LJ%HQVWDQGVQHDUWKH+RXVHVRI3DUOLDPHQW
 7KHDFWLRQEHJDQLQWKHSDVWDQGLVVWLOO
$ JHQHUDO WUXWK D IDFW 7KH UHVXOW ZLOO DOZD\V
 JRLQJRQ 
EHWKHVDPH 
 
  +H ZDV UHDGLQJ D ERRN ZKLOH VKH ZDV
)LUVWKHUHDGDERRNDQGWKHQKHZURWHDOHWWHU
 ZDWFKLQJ79
7ZRDFWLRQVKDSSHQRQHDIWHUDQRWKHU 
 7ZRDFWLRQVKDSSHQDWWKHVDPHWLPH 
  +H ZDV UHDGLQJ D ERRN ZKHQ VXGGHQO\ +HVZLWFKHGRQWKHOLJKWV
 WKHEHOOUDQJ $FWLRQZKLFKODVWVRQO\DVKRUWWLPH 
 2QH DFWLRQ LV JRLQJ RQ ZKHQ DQRWKHU 
 LQWHUUXSWVLW  
 3DVVLYH 
  7KHKRXVHLVEHLQJEXLOW 7KHKRXVHLVEXLOW
 7KHDFWLRQLVJRLQJRQH  7KHDFWLRQLVILQLVKHG 

 5XOHV 

 7KHFRQWLQXRXVIRUPLVXVHGWRH[SUHVV 7KHVLPSOHIRUPLVXVHG
  WKDWDQDFWLRQLVJRLQJRQ WKDWDQDFWLRQRUWKHUHVXOWZLOODOZD\VEHWKH
  VDPH
  WKDWWZRDFWLRQVKDSSHQDWWKHVDPHWLPH WKDWWZRDFWLRQVKDSSHQRQHDIWHUDQRWKHU
  WKDWRQHDFWLRQLVJRLQJRQHZKLOHDQRWKHU WKDWDQDFWLRQODVWVRQO\DVKRUWPRPHQW
 LQWHUXSWVLW 
  WKDWDQDFWLRQLVQRW\HWILQLVKHG WKDWDQDFWLRQLVILQLVKHG:HKDYHWKHUHVXOW






120 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM

% 6RPH YHUEV DUH UDUHO\ XVHG LQ WKH FRQWLQXRXV IRUP 7KRVH YHUEV H[SUHVV
DOUHDG\ D GXUDWLRQ 'DXHU  DQG DUH YHUEV RI SHUFHSWLRQ VLQQOLFKH
:DKUQHKPXQJ  RI OLNLQJ =XQHLJXQJ  DQG GLVOLNH $EQHLJXQJ  YHUEV
H[SUHVVLQJ D ZLVK D EHOLHI *ODXEHQ  DQ RSLQLRQ 0HLQXQJ  RU D VWDWH
=XVWDQG 
WRFRQVLVWRI EHVWHKHQDXV  WRFRQWDLQ HQWKDOWHQ  WREHOLHYH
WREHORQJWR WRIHHO WREHRIWKHRSLQLRQ  WRVHHP
WRKDWH WRKHDU WRKRSH
WRNQRZ WROLNH WRGLVOLNH
WRORYH WRPLQG WRQRWLFH
WRRZQ WRSDUGRQ WRSRVVHVV
WRUHDOL]H WRUHPHPEHU WRVHH
WRXQGHUVWDQG WRVKXW WRVPHOO
WRVXSSRVHWRWKLQN WRWDVWHWRZDQW WRZLVKHWF

& ¶7REHJRLQJWR·GHQRWHV DQ]HLJHQ WKDWDQDFWLRQLVSODQQHGIRUWKHIXWXUH


 ,DPJRLQJWRVHH\RXWRPRUURZ+HLVJRLQJWROHDYHVFKRROQH[W\HDU

' ,IWKHIXWXUHLVH[SUHVVHGE\DQDGYHUERIWLPHWKHSUHVHQWFRQWLQXRXVFDQ
EHXVHGLQVWHDGRIWKHIXWXUHFRQWLQXRXV
 ,DPEX\LQJDFDUQH[W\HDU ,¶OOEHEX\LQJDFDUQH[W\HDU

( 7RILQGRXWKRZWKHWHQVHVRIWKHFRQWLQXRXVDUHIRUPHGDFRPSOHWHWDEOH
LVDGGHG
 6LPSOH)RUP &RQWLQXRXV)RUP
 WRZULWH WRWRODXJK
3UHVHQW7HQVH ,ZULWH ,DPODXJKLQJ ,FKODFKHJHUDGH 
3DVW7HQVH ,ZURWH ,ZDVODXJKLQJ ,FKODFKWHJHUDGH 
)XWXUH, ,VKDOOZULWH ,VKDOOEHODXJKLQJ ,FKZHUGHJHUDGHODFKHQ 
&RQGLWLRQDO, ,VKRXOGZULWH ,VKRXOGEHODXJKLQJ ,FKZUGHJHUDGHODFKHQ 
3UHVHQW3HUIHFW ,KDYHZULWWHQ ,KDYHEHHQODXJKLQJ ,FKKDEHJHODFKW 
3DVW3HUIHFW ,KDGZULWWHQ ,KDGEHHQODXJKLQJ ,FKKDWWHJHODFKW 
)XWXUH,, ,VKDOOKDYHZULWWHQ ,VKDOOKDYHEHHQODXJKLQJ ,FKZHUGHJHODFKWKDEHQ 
&RQGLWLRQDO,, ,VKRXOGKDYHZULWWHQ ,VKRXOGKDYHEHHQODXJKLQJ ,FKZUGHJHODFKWKDEHQ 

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 121


Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 9.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Continuous Form: Two actions happen at the same time
Example: ‘What did you see when you entered the room?’ – ‘Well, Ted was reading, while
Jane was combing her hair’.
(a) John, to write a letter – Jim, to watch television

(b) Jane, to read the newspaper – Peter, to look out of the window

(c) Jeremy, to do his homework – Isabel, to look at her stamps

(d) George, to pack his suitcase – Hilda, to write a note

(e) Harold, to water the flowers – Henry, to listen to the radio

(f) Harriet, to mend the socks – Grace, to iron the coat

(g) Harry, to wipe the floor – Gillian, to dust the furnitur

2nd exercise:
Continuous Form: One action is going one, and another action interrupts it
Example: ‘Tell me, what really happened.’ – ‘Well, Brenda was reading a book, when
suddenly the bell rang.’
(a) James, to drive the car – the engine, to break down

(b) Michael, to write a letter – the lights, to go out

(c) Derek, to have his breakfast – th telephone, to ring

122 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM

(d) Carol, to iron her dress – the electricity, to go off

(e) Lucy, to wash her stockings – her brother, to call her

(f) Jeremy, to teach the pupils – a car, to pass the school

(g) Mabel,to write a new detective story – her sister, to interrupt her

3rd exercise:
Continuous Form: I’m going to write = I shall write (Future)
Example: ‘What are you going to do tomorrow?’ – ‘I’m going to phone my uncle in London.’
(a) to write a letter to my aunt

(b) to do my shopping in the afternoon

(c) to knit a pair of socks for John

(d) to write an essay about Charles Dickens

(e) to meet some friends on the beach

(f) to invite all my friends to my birthday-party

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 123


Chapter 9 CONTINUOUS OR SIMPLE FORM THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

4th exercise:
Simple Form: An action will always be the same or happen in the same way
Example: ‘What do you think farmers do during the year?’ – ‘Well, every year in spring
farmers cultivate their fields.’
(a) in autumn – to reap the fields (die Felder abernten)

(b) in winter – to repair the tools (das Werkzeug reparieren)

(c) in summer – to make hay (Heu machen)

(d) in winter – to thresh the corn (das Getreide dreschen)

(e) in autumn and winter – to plough the fields (die Felder pflügen)

(f) all through the year – to milk the cows (die Kühe melken)

5th exercise:
Simple Form: Two actions happen one after another
Example: ‘What did you do in the afternoon?’ – ‘First I read a book and then I helped my
Father.’
(a) to wash the car – to repair the engine

(b) to play football – to see a friend

(c) to go to the cinema – to buy stamps at the post-office

(d) to write a letter – to watch television

(e) to do my homework – to go for a swim

(f) to go to town – to have a look at the shop-windows

124 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 10

7+(&217,18286
$1'7+(6,03/()250
2)7+(3(5)(&7
Verlaufsform oder einfache Form des Hilfsverbes
Chapter 10 THE CONTINUOUS AND THE SIMPLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT

7+(&217,18286
$1'7+(6,03/()250
2)7+(3(5)(&7
Verlaufsform oder einfache Form des Hilfsverbes

 Text 1
Martin: Ah, there you are. I have been looking for you all over the place.
George: I have been washing father’s car for the last half hour. You see, I have
been promised1 50 pence for cleanig the car.
Martin: You must be in terrible need of money2!
5 George: I have been in urgent3 need since I borrowed 30 pence from you last
week.
Martin: All right, let me help you. I want you to get the money and my money
back. Have you already cleaned the inside4 of the car?
George: No, I have only been washing and drying it so far. This has been my
10 occupation5 since 2 o’clock.
Martin: Well, I’ll clean the inside then. Have you thought about your homework
yet?
George: I have done the French grammar exercise, but I have not yet done the
composition6. In fact, I have forgotten the exact title.
15 Martin: I have written the composition already. It has been hard work really. I
have been working at it for an hour. By the way, have you heard about Jack?
They say he has applied7 to study English and French at university.
George: I know that that has been his aim for many years. He has been learning
languages thoroughly8 for 4 years and he has been very good at it. Well, I think
20 the car is clean now. Thank you for helping me. Let’s go into the house for a
nice cup of tea.

1
to promise: versprechen
2
to be in need of money: in Geldnot sein
3
urgent: dringend
4
inside: Innenraum
5
occupation: Beschäftigung
6
composition: Aufsatz
7
to apply: sich bewerben
8
thoroughly: gründlich

126 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 10 THE CONTINUOUS AND THE SIMPLE
FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT

 10.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by repeating the forms used in the
questions:
(1) For whom has Martin been looking for the last half hour?

(2) What has George been washing for the last hour?

(3) Who has been promised 50 pence for cleaning the car?

(4) Who has been in urgent need of money?

(5) Who has not yet cleaned the inside of the car?

(6) What has George been doing since 2 o’clock?

(7) Who has done his exercise in French?

(8) Who has been working at his composition for one hour?

(9) What has been Jack’s aim for many years?

(10) Who has been learning languages for 4 years?

2nd exercise:
Put the right forms into the second and third rext.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 127


Chapter 10 THE CONTINUOUS AND THE SIMPLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT

 Text 2
Martin: Ah, there you are. I ______________ (to look) for you all over the place.
George: I ______________ (to wash) father’s car for the last half hour. You see, I
______________ (to be promised) 50 pence for cleanig the car.
Martin: You must be in terrible need of money!
5 George: I ______________ (to be) in urgent need since I borrowed 30 pence from
you last week.
Martin: All right, let me help you. I want you to get the money and my money
back. ______________ (to clean, you, already,question) the inside of the car?
George: No, I ______________ (to wash, only) and ______________ (to dry) it so
10 far. This ______________ (to be) my occupation since 2 o’clock.
Martin: Well, I’ll clean the inside then. ______________ (to think, question) about
your homework yet?
George: I ______________ (to do) the French grammar exercise, but I
______________ (to do, not yet) the composition. In fact, I ______________
15 (to forget) the exact title.
Martin: I ______________ (to write) the composition already. It ______________
(to be) hard work really. I ______________ (to work) at it for an hour. By the way,
______________ (to hear, question) you about Jack? They say he ______________
(to apply) to study English and French at university.
20 George: I know that that ______________ (to be) his aim for many years. He
______________ (to learn) languages thoroughly for 4 years and he
______________ (to be) very good at it. Well, I think the car is clean now. Thank
you for helping me. Let’s go into the house for a nice cup of tea.

128 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 10 THE CONTINUOUS AND THE SIMPLE
FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT

 Text 3
George: Where ______________ (to be, question) you? What ______________
(to do, question) you? I ______________ (to look) for you for half an hour.
Martin: I ______________ (to read) a book. It is a detective story1. It is such an
interesting book that I ______________ (to read) it for 3 hours, since 2 o’clock.
5 George: ______________ (to find out, question, already) you who the crime
committed2?
Martin: I ______________ (to get, only) to page 65, and a man with dark glasses
______________ (to come, just) into the bank. He ______________ (to wait) in front
of the bank for quite a long time to watch the traffic and a policeman sitting in
10 one of the cars parked in front of the building.
George: Ah, I remember that book. I ______________ (to read) it myself
recently3. That man has nothing to do with the crime itself. He ______________
(to wait) in front of the bank for a friend and not for a favourable4 moment to rob
the bank.
15 Martin: Oh, you mustn’t tell me. I ______________ (to read) the book for 3 hours
and should like to find out myself.
George: Well, I agree since I ______________ (to enjoy) the ending of the story
myself. But what about going to the cinema? I ______________ (to book5) tickets
for us. I ______________ (to try) for fifteen minutes to reach the office. I think
20 it’s a good film. It’s a western.
Martin: Ah, the western at the Odeon. It ______________ (to be) on
for three weeks now, so it must be good. All right, let’s go then.

1
detective story: Detektivgeschichte
2
to commit a crime: ein Verbrechen begehen
3
recently: kürzlich
4
favourable: günstig
5
to book: vorbestellen

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 129


Chapter 10 THE CONTINUOUS AND THE SIMPLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT

 10.2 Grammar: The Continuous and the Simple Form of


the Present Perfect

$ 7KHSUHVHQWSHUIHFWFRQWLQXRXVLVXVHGWRH[SUHVV
WKDWWKHDFWLRQVWDUWHGLQWKHSDVWDQGLVVWLOOJRLQJRQDWWKHPRPHQW
WKDWDQDFWLRQKDVEHHQWULHGDJDLQDQGDJDLQ
  ,KDYHEHHQUHDGLQJWKHERRNVLQFH2FWREHU
 ,¶PVWLOOUHDGLQJWKHERRN 
  ,KDYHEHHQWU\LQJWRSKRQHWKHRIILFHIRUPLQXWHV

% 7KHVLPSOHSUHVHQWSHUIHFWLVXVHGWRH[SUHVVWKDWDQDFWLRQLVILQLVKHGDQG
WKDWLWVUHVXOWFRQWLQXHVXSWRWKHSUHVHQW
 ,KDYHUHDGWKHERRN ,VWLOONQRZWKHFRQWHQWVRIWKHERRN 

& ¶)RU·DQG¶6LQFH·
µ)RU¶DQGµVLQFH¶RXJKWWREHPHQWLRQHGLQWKLVFRQWH[W ,IWUDQVODWHGLQWR*HUPDQERWKKDYHWKH
 PHDQLQJ µVHLW¶µ)RU¶GHQRWHVDVSDFHRIWLPH  H[IRUILYHPRQWKV ZKHUHDVµVLQFH¶GHQRWHVD
 

SRLQWRIWLPH H[VLQFH 


1RWH &HUWDLQ YHUEV DUH UDUHO\ XVHG LQ WKH FRQWLQXRXV IRUP 6HH OLVW LQ WKH SUHYLRXV


FKDSWHU 


1
context: Zusammenhang
2
meaning: Bedeutung
3
space of time: Zeitdauer
4
point of time: Zeitpunkt
5
previous: vorhergehend

130 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 10 THE CONTINUOUS AND THE SIMPLE

 10.3
FORM OF THE PRESENT PERFECT

Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Continuous or Simple Form of the Present Perfect
Example: ‘Where is John?’ ‘He has gone to see Peter. He has been trying to phone him
for 15 minutes.’
(a) James, to go to the music-lesson – to study music for 4 months

(b) Arthur, to go to write a test in English – to study English for 2 months

(c) Jeremy, to go to the garage – to try to have his car repaired for 2 weeks

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 131


Chapter 11

7+(*(581'
Das Gerundium
Chapter 11 THE GERUND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

7+(*(581'
Das Gerundium

 Text 1
The whole morning Martin and George have been busy studying English at
school. But today they do not mind1 working hard because they are looking
forward to2 going to the carnival3 in Weymouth. Going to the carnival consists
of4 two parts: Going to the fair and afterwards watching the procession5. The
5 festival6 depends7 very much on St. Peter’s sending nice weather. The boys soon
found out that the English are experts in raising money8 in aid of charity9, as the
whole carnival was arranged for collecting money for a children’s home10. The
boys were delighted in11 seeing the promenade on the seafront changed into a
fair12. So they could not avoid spending13 money on roundabouts14, on shooting
10 and on buying lottery tickets15. Matin was absorbed in16 opening the tickets
while George was thinking of winning a prize with a balloon to which he had
attached17 his address. When Martin had finished opening the tickets he found
that he had won a prize. Later he found out that he had only won a lolly. But he
did not mind having spent his money on a lolly since George’s money had flown
15 away in the shape of a balloon. He could not help smiling at his brother who was
watching in which direction his balloon was going. At last he was tired18 of
staring19 into the clouds and followed his brother who had moved on to the
Punch and Judy show20.

1
to mind: etwas dagegen haben
2
to look forward to: sich freuen auf
3
carnival: Karneval
4
to consist of: bestehen aus
5
procession: Umzug
6
festival: Fest
7
to depend on: abhängen von
8
to raise money: Geld sammeln
9
in aid of charity: wörtlich: zur Hilfe von Wohltätigkeit
10
children’s home: Kinderheim
11
to be delighted in: erfreut sein über
12
fair: Jahrmarkt
13
to avoid: vermeiden
14
roundabout: Karussell
15
lottery ticket: Lotterielos
16
to be absorbed in: beschäftigt sein mit
17
to attach: anheften
18
to be tired of: müde sein
19
to stare: starren
20
Punch and Judy show: Kasperletheater

134 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 11 THE GERUND

 11.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by repeating the gerunds in the answers:
(1) Who has been busy studying English?

(2) Who did not mind working hard?

(3) Who was looking forward to going to the carnival?

(4) Who was delighted in seeing the promenade of the seafront changed into a fair?

(5) Who could not avoid spending money on shooting?

(6) Who was thinking of winning a prize?

(7) What did Martin find out when he had finished opening the tickets?

(8) Who did not mind having spent his money on a lolly?

(9) Who could not help smiling at his brother?

(10) Who was tired of staring into the clouds?

2nd exercise:
Put the gerund into the second and third text.
Example: He (to enjoy – to collect) stamps. → He enjoys collecting stamps.
(to collect, ger.) stamps is my hobby. → Collecting stamps is my hobby.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 135


Chapter 11 THE GERUND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 2
The whole morning Martin and George ___________________ (to have been busy –
to study) English at school. But today they ___________________ (to mind, not –

to work) hard because they ___________________ (to look forward to – to go) to the
carnival in Weymouth. ___________________ (to go, ger.) to the carnival consists
5 of two parts: ___________________ (to go, ger.) to the fair and afterwards
___________________ (to watch, ger.) the procession. The festival depends very
much on St. Peter’s ___________________ (to send, ger.) nice weather. The boys
soon found out that the English are experts ___________________ (in, to raise, ger.)
money in aid of charity, as the whole carnival was arranged
10 ___________________ (for, to collect, ger.) money for a children’s home. The boys
___________________ (to be delighted in – to see) the promenade on the seafront
changed into a fair. So they could not ___________________ (to avoid –to spend)

money on roundabouts, ___________________ (on, to shoot, ger.) and


___________________ (on, to buy, ger.) lottery tickets. Martin
15 ___________________ (to be absorbed in – to open) the tickets while George
___________________ (to think of – to win) a prize with a balloon to which he had
attached his address. When Martin ___________________ (to have finished – to open)
the tickets he found that he had won a prize. Later he found out that he had only
won a lolly. But he did ___________________ (not mind – to have spent) his money
20 on a lolly since George’s money had flown away in the shape of a balloon. He
___________________ (cannot help – to smile) at his brother who was watching in
which direction his balloon was going. At last he ___________________ (to be

tired of – to stare) into the clouds and followed his brother who had moved on to the
Punch and Judy show.

136 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 11 THE GERUND

 Text 3
___________________ (on, to watch) the show intently1 to understand all of it,
they nearly forgot the procession. The ___________________ (to hoot, ger.) of
veteran steam rollers2 reminded them of it. Then the steam rollers, the
___________________ (to begin, ger.) of the procession, came into sight. The boys
___________________ (to admit — never, to have seen) such old vehicles3 before.
They (to start – to run) beside the steam rollers in order ___________________
(to have a chance of – to look) at them more closely. The oldest vehicle looked as if it
___________________ (to be on the point of4 – to fall) to pieces any minute. Martin,
who ___________________ (to have intended – to take) photos of the whole
procession, used a whole film on the steam rollers. After a while,
however, they ___________________ (to stop –

to run) beside the steam rollers and had a look


at the other floats5.
They ___________________ (to enjoy – to look)

at the people on the floats in fancy dress6.


There was one float with a rocket7 and
astronauts8 standing around it. The children and the
grown-ups9 at the side of the street
___________________ (to be busy – to throw)

coins at the astronauts, and the astronauts

1
intently: angespannt
2
veteran steam roller: alte Dampfwalze
3
vehicle: Fahrzeug
4
to be on the point of: drauf und dran sein
5
float: Umzugswagen
6
in fancy dress: in lustigem Kostüm
7
rocket: Rakete
8
astrnaut: Astronaut
9
grown-up: Erwachsener

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 137


Chapter 11 THE GERUND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

___________________ (to be absorbed – to put) the coins into their boxes. Other
floats followed, showing scenes of fairy-tales10. But all the people on the floats
had one thing in common11: They ___________________ (to take pleasure in – to

collect) money in aid of charity. The boys were fascinated12 to see how all the
members of the procession ___________________ (to be taking an interest in – to raise)
money for the children’s home.

10
fairy-tale: Märchen
11
to have in common with: gemein haben mit
12
to be fascinated: fasziniert sein

138 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 11 THE GERUND

 11.2 Grammar: The Gerund


$ 7KHJHUXQGLVSDUWO\YHUESDUWO\QRXQ 6XEVWDQWLY 
  ,WPD\KDYHYHUEDOIXQFWLRQVZLWKDQREMHFWRULWFDQEHTXDOLILHG E\DQDGYHUE
 &KDVLQJDEHDULVWLULQJ 2EMHFW 
 +HOLNHGGUHDPLQJKDSSLO\RIFDUVDQGPRQH\ $GYHUE 
  ,WPD\KDYHIXQFWLRQVRIDQRXQZLWKDQDGMHFWLYHDQGWKHGHILQLWHDUWLFOHLQIURQWDQGDQ
 ¶RI·JHQLWLYH
 7KHZLOGFKDVLQJRIWKHEHDUZHQWRQ
  7KHJHUXQGPD\EH D WKHVXEMHFW
 E WKHSUHGLFDWLYHFRPSOHPHQW SUlGLNDWLYH(UJlQ]XQJ 
 F WKHREMHFWRU
 G WKHSDUWRIDSUHSRVLWLRQDODGMXQFW RIDVHQWHQFH


D   7KHJHUXQGDVVXEMHFW
 6ZLPPLQJLVKHDOWK\
 1RWH7KHJHUXQGLVXVHGDVORJLFDOVXEMHFWDIWHU
 LWLVQRWPXFKXVH  LWLVQRXVH HVKDWNHLQHQ=ZHFN 
 LWLVXVHOHVV LWLVQRJRRG
 LWLVQRWPXFKJRRG LWLVZRUWKZKLOH HVORKQWVLFK 
 Example: It is no use crying about spilt milk. (spilt = verschüttet)
E   7KHJHUXQGDVSUHGLFDWLYHFRPSOHPHQW DIWHU¶WREH·¶WREHEXV\·¶WREHZRUWK· 
 0\KREE\LVULGLQJ+HLVEXV\ZULWLQJ
F   7KHJHUXQGDVGLUHFWREMHFWDIWHUYHUEV
 %R\VHQMR\SOD\LQJIRRWEDOO'R\RXPLQGP\VPRNLQJ",FRXOGQRWKHOSVPLOLQJ

 6XFKYHUEVDUH
 WRDGPLW ]XJHEHQ WRHQMR\ JHQLH‰HQ WRDYRLG YHUPHLGHQ 
 WRHVFDSH HQWNRPPHQ WRGHOD\ YHUVFKLHEHQ WRGLVOLNH QLFKWP|JHQ 
 WRILQLVK EHHQGHQ WRKDYHGRQH HWZDVEHHQGHWKDEHQ 
 WRH[FXVH HQWVFKXOGLJHQ ,FDQQRWKHOS ,FKNDQQQLFKWXPKLQ 
 WRPLQG HWZGDJHJHQKDEHQ WRSXWRII YHUVFKLHEHQ WRPLVV YHUIHKOHQ 
WRSUDFWLVH EHQ WRJRRQ IRUWIDKUHQ WRULVN ULVNLHUHQ 
 WRNHHSRQ IRUWIDKUHQ  WRVWRS DXIK|UHQ WROHDYHRII DXIK|UHQ 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
to qualify: hier:näher bestimmen
2
prepositional adjunct: präpositionale Beifügung

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 139


Chapter 11 THE GERUND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

1RWH$IWHUWKHIROORZLQJYHUEVERWKWKHJHUXQGRUWKHLQILQLWLYHLVWREHIRXQG
WREHJLQ  WROLNH
WRVWDUW WRORYH VHKUJHUQP|JHQ 
WRFRQWLQXH IRUWIDKUHQ  WRSUHIHU OLHEHUWXQ 
WRLQWHQG EHDEVLFKWLJHQ  WRKDWH QLFKWOHLGHQN|QQHQ 
([DPSOH,ORYHHDWLQJDSSOHV,ORYHWRHDWDSSOHV
2QO\WKHLQILQLWLYHLVSRVVLEOHDIWHU
,VKRXOGOLNH\RXZRXOGOLNH ORYHKDWHSUHIHU WRGRVRPHWKLQJ
([DPSOH,VKRXOGOLNHWRJRKRPH,VKRXOGSUHIHUWRWKLQNDERXWLW

G   7KHJHUXQGDIWHUSUHSRVLWLRQV

 L 9HUEVZLWKSUHSRVLWLRQV
 ,DPWKLQNLQJRIJRLQJKRPH&KLOGUHQGHOLJKWLQZDWFKLQJWHOHYLVLRQ
 6XFKYHUEVZLWKSUHSRVLWLRQVDUH
 WRDFFXVHRI DQNODJHQ WRGHVSDLURI YHU]ZHLIHOQDQ 
 WRGHSHQGRQ DEKlQJHQYRQ WRNHHSIURP IHUQKDOWHQYRQ 
 WRGHOLJKWLQ )UHXGHKDEHQDQ WRWKLQNRI GHQNHQDQ 
 WRTXDUUHODERXW VWUHLWHQEHU  WRORRNIRUZDUGWR VLFKIUHXHQDXI 
 WRZRUU\DERXW VVRUJHQXP WREHOLHYHLQ JODXEHQDQ 
 
 LL $GMHFWLYHVZLWKSUHSRVLWLRQV
 ,DPWLUHGRIVD\LQJLWDJDLQDQGDJDLQ
 6XFKDGMHFWLYHVZLWKSUHSRVLWLRQVDUH
 DEVRUEHGLQ YHUWLHIWLQ IUHHIURP IUHLYRQ 
 FDSDEOHRI IlKLJ]X  WLUHGRI EHUGUVVLJ 
 HQJDJHGLQ EHVFKlIWLJWPLW IRQGRI JHUQP|JHQ 
 IDUIURP IHUQOLHJHQ LQFDSDEOHRI XQIlKLJ]X 
 UHVSRQVLEOHIRU YHUDQWZRUWOLFKIU 
 
 LLL 1RXQVZLWKSUHSRVLWLRQV
 +HZDVRQWKHSRLQWRIOHDYLQJWKHKRXVH

 6XFKQRXQVZLWKSUHSRVLWLRQVDUH
 WREHLQGDQJHURI LQ*HIDKUVHLQ WREHLQWKHKDELWRI GLH*HZRKQKHLWKDEHQ 
 WREHRQWKHSRLQWRI GUDXIXQGGUDQVHLQ WREHWKHUHDVRQRI GHU*UXQGVHLQIU 
 WRKDYHUHDVRQIRU *UXQGKDEHQIU WRKDYHQRREMHFWLRQWR NHLQHQ(LQZDQG
 KDEHQ 
 WRKDYHWKHSOHDVXUHRI GDV9HUJQJHQKDEHQ]X 
 WRKDYHH[SHULHQFHLQ (UIDKUXQJKDEHQ WRWDNHDQLQWHUHVWLQ ,QWHUHVVHKDEHQDQ 
 WRWDNHSOHDVXUHLQ 9HUJQJHQKDEHQDQ 
 
LY 7KHJHUXQGLVWREHIRXQGDIWHUDOOSUHSRVLWLRQV HJRQE\DW 
 %\FDOOLQJKLPEDGQDPHVKHVKRFNHGKLP
 
 Y 7KHJHUXQGLVXVHGDIWHU¶OLNHQHDUSDVWZKDWDERXWKRZDERXW·
 ,GRQ¶WIHHOOLNHHDWLQJ:KDWDERXWJRLQJDZD\"

140 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 11 THE GERUND

 11.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
The gerund as subject and predicative complement
Example: ‘Do you think it is worth while playing football at weekends?’ –
‘Well, my doctor told me that playing football is good for my health.’
(a) to work in the garden

(b) to go for a swim

(c) to take long walks with the dog

(d) to make a tour on the bicycle

(e) to have a holiday in Scotland

(f) to lie in the sun

(g) to play badminton

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 141


Chapter 11 THE GERUND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

2nd exercise:
The Gerund as direct object
Example: ‘What did you say about him?’ – ‘Well, I said he disliked going to the pictures.’
(a) to admit – to have stolen the car

(b) to stop – to play football

(c) to risk – to lose all the money

(d) to miss – to catch the bus

(e) to enjoy – to ride a bicycle

(f) to practise – to play the trumpet

3rd exercise:
The gerund after prepositions (verb + preposition)
Example: ‘Why are you so upset about him?’ – ‘Well, he accused me of being a criminal.’
(a) to quarrel about – to go to France or Belgium

(b) to think of – to leave his parents

(c) to look forward to – to give up his job

(d) to despair of – to help John with his homework

(e) to look forward to – to spend a year in Paris

(f) to worry about – to send his son to a boarding-school

142 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 11 THE GERUND

4th exercise:
The gerund after prepositions (adjective or noun + preposition)
Example: ‘What did John tell you when he phoned you last week?’ – ‘He said that he was
fond of staying in Spain.’
(a) to be incapable of – to answer all the letters

(b) to be engaged in – to read all the newspapers

(c) to be tired of - to say it again and again

(d) to have no objection to - to go to America on business

(e) to take pleasure in – to go to the concert

(f) to be in danger of – to lose the job

(g) to have experience in – to teach children

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 143


Chapter 11 THE GERUND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

5th exercise:
The gerund as logical subject
Example: It is no use denying the fact that we have not enough money for a new car.’
(a) it is not much use – to carry on with that comedy

(b) it is useless – to teach him how to do it

(c) it is no good – to carry on that way of life

(d) it is worth while – to do one’s homework properly

(e) it is not much good – to try to tell him lies

144 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 12

7+(35(6(173$57,&,3/(
Das Partizip Präsens
Chapter 12 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

7+(35(6(173$57,&,3/(
Das Partizip Präsens

 Text 1
When staying in Portsmouth George and Martin decided to go by hovercraft1 to
the Isle of Wight. The hovercraft being a comparatively2 new English invention3
interested them very much. Having bought their tickets they stood behind a bar
watching the vehicle arrive. Seeing at first nothing else but a cloud4 of
5 pulverized5 water they wondered what this means of conveyance6 would look
like. The hovercraft quickly coming closer turned out to be very noisy. Having
a propeller on top it made a terrible noise. When reaching the bank7 it moved
without any difficulty8 from water on to land. George and Martin stood near the
booking-office9
10 gaping in awe10 at that technical wonder11. The propeller not only making an
awful noise, but also producing a terrible wind, blew off the ladies’ hats. The
husbands chasing12 after the hats came back after a wild chase, being red in their
faces and not willing to look at the hovercraft any more. George and Martin
being interested in the technical aspect13 of the hovercraft went round it taking a
15 close look at every bit. An engineer standing nearby explained to them that the
whole vehicle was hovering14 on a cushion of air15, while the propeller on top
was pushing it forward. Thanking the engineer hastily they hurried up the
staircase16 into the passengers’ room. A man in a blue uniform clad17 exactly
like a pilot of a plane came behind them. After having closed the cabin, the pilot
20 started the engines.

1
hovercraft: Luftkissenboot
2
comparatively: verhältnismäßig
3
invention: Erfindung
4
cloud: Wolke
5
pulverized: pulverisiert
6
means of conveyance: Beförderungsmittel
7
bank: Ufer
8
difficulty: Schwierigkeit
9
booking-office: Fahrkartenschalter
10
to gape in awe: mit Ehrfurcht starren
11
technical wonder: technisches Wunder
12
to chase: jagen
13
technical aspect: technische Seite
14
to hover: schweben
15
cushion of air: Luftkissen
16
staircase: Treppe
17
clad: gekleidet

146 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 12 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE

 12.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Change the sentences into participial constructions
(=Partizipialkonstruktionen):
Example: When he came home, he met his friend. When coming home he met his friend.
(1) When George and Martin stayed in Portsmouth, they decided to go by
hovercraft to the Isle of Wight.

(2) The hovercraft, which is a comparatively new English invention,


interested them very much.

(3) When they had bought their tickets, they stood behind a bar.

(4) When at first they saw nothing but a cloud of pulverized water, they
wondered what this means of conveyance would look like.

(5) When the hovercraft quickly came closer, it turned out to be very noisy.

(6) Since it had a propeller on top, it made a terrible noise.

(7) Since the propeller produced a terrible wind, it blew off the ladies’ hats.

(8) Since George and Martin were interested in the technical aspect of the
hovercraft, they went around it.

(9) When they had thanked the engineer hastily, they hurried up the staircase.

2nd exercise:
Put the participles into the second and third text.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 147


Chapter 12 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 2
When ______________ (to stay) in Portsmouth George and Martin decided to go
by hovercraft to the Isle of Wight. The hovercraft ______________ (to be) a
comparatively new English invention interested them very much.
______________ (to have) bought their tickets they stood behind a bar
5 ______________ (to watch) the vehicle arrive. ______________ (to see) at first
nothing else but a cloud of pulverized water they wondered what this means of
conveyance would look like. The hovercraft quickly ______________ (to come)

closer turned out to be very noisy. ______________ (to have) a propeller on top it
made a terrible noise. When ______________ (to reach) the bank it moved
10 without any difficulty from water on to land. George and Martin stood near the
booking-office ______________ (to gape) in awe at that technical wonder. The
propeller not only ______________ (to make) an awful noise, but also
______________ (to produce) a terrible wind, blew off the ladies’ hats. The
husbands ______________ (to chase) after the hats came back after a wild chase,
15 ______________ (to be) red in their faces and not ______________ (will) to look
at the hovercraft any more. George and Martin ______________ (to be) interested
in the technical aspect of the hovercraft went round it ______________ (to take) a
close look at every bit. An engineer ______________ (to stand) nearby explained
to them that the whole vehicle was hovering on a cushion of air, while the
20 propeller on top was pushing it forward. ______________ (to thank) the engineer
hastily they hurried up the staircase into the passengers’ room. A man in a blue
uniform clad exactly like a pilot of a plane came behind them. After
______________ (to have) closed the cabin, the pilot started the engines.

148 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 12 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE

 Text 3
______________ (to come) across to England as a guest and ______________
(to stay) with a family for several weeks you get acquainted with1 Bingo. Bingo
______________ (to be) the favourite pastime2 of English housewives and
pensioners3 is nowadys something like an institution4. ______________ (to start)

ten years ago it became very popular5 right at once. ______________ (to be) a
game for money it attracted in particular members of the lower and middle
classes. It is not a game of skill6. ______________ (to listen) to the numbers
______________ (to be) called out every player hopes to win an amount of
money7. ______________ (to bring) people together it can be considered as
______________ (to fulfil) a social function8, ______________ (to create) a friendly
atmosphere among the participants9. So people ______________ (to go) once or
twice a week to such a social club go there because it’s a bit of a giggle10.
Addicts11, however, ______________ (to go) for money they can get there, will
hardly ever giggle. The question ______________ (to remain) is why it became so
popular with the English. I heard people ______________ (to say) that the English
like to have a flutter12. Ten years ago you heard people ______________ (to hum),
‘Bingo! Bingo! I’m in love!’ ______________ (to hear) as a foreigner13 that some
English people are mad about Bingo you must follow the general stream14. So
one night you might find yourself in one of the Bingo clubs, ______________ (to
1
to get acquainted with: bekannt werden
2
the favourite pastime: der bevorzugte Zeitvertreib
3
pensioner: Rentner
4
institution: Einrichtung
5
popular: beliebt
6
game of skill: Geschicklichkeitsspiel
7
an amount of: Ein Betrag von
8
social function: soziale Funktion
9
participant: Teilnehmer
10
giggle: Lachen, Spaß
11
addict: Süchtiger
12
flutter: Kitzel
13
foreigner: Ausländer

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 149


Chapter 12 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

listen) to the numbers ______________ (to be) called out. And after a few minutes
you are just as mad about Bingo as the others ______________ (to wait) for the
scream ‘Bingo’ from one of the players or perhaps ______________ (to shout)

yourself.

14
general stream: allgemeiner Trend

150 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 12 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE

 12.2 Grammar: The Present Participle


$ *HQHUDOQRWHV

  7KHSUHVHQWSDUWLFLSOHFDQKDYH

 D YHUEDOFKDUDFWHU
 ,WFDQWDNHDQREMHFWRUFDQEHTXDOLILHGE\DQDGYHUE YHUEDO 
 ,VDZWKHER\FURVVLQJWKHURDG 2EMHFW 
5XQQLQJTXLFNO\,IHOOGRZQ DGYHUE 

 E DGMHFWLYDO FKDUDFWHU
 ,WFDQEHXVHGDWWULEXWLYHO\ RUSUHGLFDWLYHO\ 
 

 $QDPXVLQJROGPDQRSHQHGWKHGRRU DWWULEXWLYHO\ 
 +HLVPRVWDPXVLQJ SUHGLFDWLYHO\ 
  7KHSUHVHQWSDUWLFLSOHFDQVKRZWLPHUHODWLRQ  UXQQLQJKDYLQJUXQ 


 %HLQJSRRUKHFRXOGQRWEX\DQHZFDU
 +DYLQJVDYHGHQRXJKPRQH\KHFRXOGJRE\VKLSWR$PHULFD
  7KHUHDUHDOVRGLIIHUHQWIRUPVWRH[SUHVVDFWLYHDQGSDVVLYHYRLFH
 EHDWLQJEHLQJEHDWHQ 
 ,VDZWKHPDQEHDWLQJWKHER\
 ,VDZDER\EHLQJEHDWHQE\DPDQ

% 7KH3UHVHQW3DULFLSOH

  7KHSUHVHQWSDUWLFLSOHXVHGDWWULEXWLYHO\
 7KHVXUURXQGLQJFRXQWU\ZDVGXOO
  7KHSUHVHQWSDUWLFLSOHLVXVHGSUHGLFDWLYHO\DIWHUYHUEVRIUHVWDQGPRYHPHQW 


 6XFKYHUEVDUH WRVLW  WROLH WRJR WRUHPDLQ EOHLEHQ 


  WRZDON WRUXQ WRFRPHHWF
 6KHVWRRGOLVWHQLQJWRWKHUDGLR
 +HFDPHUXQQLQJLQWRWKHKRXVH
  7KHSUHVHQWSUHVHQWSDUWLFLSOHFDQEHXVHGLQVWHDGRIDUHODWLYHFODXVH 


 7KHPDQVSHDNLQJRQWKHUDGLRZDVP\IDWKHU ZKRZDVVSHDNLQJRQWKHUDGLR 

1
adjectival: adjektivisch
2
attributively: atributivisch
3
predicatively: prädikativ
4
time relation: Zeitbezug
5
verbs of rest and movement: Verben der Ruhe und Bewegung
6
relative clause: Relativsatz

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 151


Chapter 12 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

  7KHSUHVHQWSDUWLFLSOHFDQEHXVHGLQVWHDGRIDGYHUELDOFODXVHV 


 *RLQJWRVFKRROKHPHWKLVIULHQG 7LPH 
 +DYLQJQRPRQH\VKHVKRXOGEX\QRWKLQJ 5HDVRQ *UXQG 
 +HHQWHUHGWKHFODVVURRPODXJKLQJKHDUWLO\ 0DQQHU $UWXQG:HLVH 
 $OWKRXJKEHLQJVXFFHVVIXOKHZDVVWLOOQRWKDSS\ &RQFHVVLRQ (LQUlXPXQJ 
  ,Q VRPH FDVHV WKH SUHVHQW SDUWLFLSOH LV XVHG WRJHWKHU ZLWK FRQMXQFWLRQ  WR PDNH WKH


 FRQWH[WFOHDUHU
6XFKFRQMXQFWLRQVDUHZKHQDVLIXQWLOZKLOHXQOHVV ZHQQQLFKW WKRXJK REJOHLFK LI

 :KHQVHHLQJPHKHUDQDZD\
  7KH SUHVHQW SDUWLFLSOH LV XVHG DIWHU YHUEV RI SHUFHSWLRQ 9HUEHQ GHU
 6LQQHVZDKUQHKPXQJ 
 6XFKYHUEVDUHWRZDWFKWRVHHWRKHDUWRIHHOWRQRWLFH
 ,VDZKLPFURVVLQJWKHURDG

7
adverbial clause: adverbieller Satz
8
conjunction: Konjunktion.Eine Konjunktion leitet einen Nebensatz ein.

152 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 12 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE

 12.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
The present participle after verbs of rest and movement
Example: ‘What did he do when you told him the news?’ – ‘Well, he remained standing at
the window.’
(a) to sit on a chair – to smoke a cigar

(b) to walk out of the roomm – to slam the door behind him

(c) to run down the stairs – to shout all the time

(d) to come to me – to look at me sadly

(e) to stand near the window – to listen to the radio

(f) to lie down – to hum a tune

(g) to remain – to sit in the armchair

2nd exercise:
The present participle instead of a relative clause
Example: ‘Do you like that girl?’ – ‘Which girl?’ – ‘The girl standing at the bus stop.’
(a) the boy – to cross the road

(b) the woman – to carry two handbags

(c) the teacher – to walk in the school-yard

(d) the busdriver – to walk over to the bus station

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 153


Chapter 12 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

(e) the girl – to enter the shop

(f) the old lady – to talk to her dog

(g) the clerk – to stand behind the counter

3rd exercise:
The present participle instead of an adverbial clause
Example: ‘When walking down Main Street I met John.’ – ‘I remember him. You mentioned
him before.’
(a) to go to school – to meet Mr Brown

(b) to enter the shop – to see Peter

(c) to leave the bus station – to come across Jill

(d) to have no money – to ask James for some

(e) to stand at the bus stop – to happen to see George

(f) to sit on the bench in the park – to chat with Mary

(g) to come out of the cinema – to meet my old teacher

154 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 12 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE

4th exercise:
The present participle after verbs of perception
Example: ‘You told me you saw him crossing the road.’ – ‘That’s right. I saw him crossing
the road.’
(a) to watch – to repair his bicycle

(b) to hear – to come home at night

(c) to notice – to try to steal away

(d) to feel – to touch your shoulder

(e) to see – to wash his car

(f) to hear – to sing a song

(g) to watch – to open the box

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 155


Chapter 13

7+(,1),1,7,9(:,7+
25:,7+287¶72¶$63$57
2)7+(2%-(&7 $&, 
Der Infinitiv mit oder ohne „to“ als Teil des Objektes (A.c.I.)
Chapter 13 THE INFINITIVE WFITH OR WITHOUT ‘TO’ THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
AS PART OF THE OBJECT (A.C.I.)

7+(,1),1,7,9(:,7+
25:,7+287¶72·$63$57
2)7+(2%-(&7 $&, 
Der Infinitiv mit oder ohne „to“ als Teil des Objektes (A.c.I.)

 Text 1
Dear Peter,
this time you’ll hear me tell you something about an Englisch pub1. I was
induced2 to go by my host3 who invited me to have a drink in a pub in the
country. After a journey of half an hour I saw my host’s face brighten4. We had
5 reached our destination5 and nothing stood in the way of having a cool beer and
a nice evening. When we got out of our car I could already hear the customers6
sing. The pub was an old cottage7 with a thatched roof8. My host told me to
mind my head when entering because the frame of the door9 was so low10. The
ceiling11 was so low that I felt my hair touch it. I saw more and more customers
10 come into the pub and I asked myself where they were going to sit. So I watched
them enjoy themselves12 for a while. I saw them order13 their drinks and then
they remained14 standing just where they were. It was new for me to see the
glasses be filled up to the rim15. There was no foam16 on the beer, just a few
bubbles17. When I told my host about my observation18 and asked him to explain
15 he said, ’Well, if I order a glass to be filled, it must be full. A pint is a pint19!’

1
English pub: englische ‘Kneipe’
2
to be induced: veranlaßt werden
3
host: Gastgeber
4
to brighten: sich aufhellen
5
destination: Ziel
6
customer: Gast
7
cottage: Kate
8
thatched roof: Reetdach
9
frame of the door: Türrahmen
10
low: niedrig
11
ceiling: Decke
12
to enjoy oneself: sich amüsieren
13
to order: bestellen
14
to remain: bleiben
15
up to the rim: bis zum Rand
16
foam: Schaum
17
bubble: Blase
18
observation: Beobachtung
19
a pint: etwa ein halber Liter

158 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 13 THE INFINITIVE WFITH OR WITHOUT ‘TO’
AS PART OF THE OBJECT (A.C.I.)

Meanwhile the pub was thronged with20 people that I could hardly see the inn-
keeper21 work behind the bar. So I begged my host to order a pint of beer for me
together with his beer. I saw him smile. I saw him point at a number-plate22 on
the wall.

20
to be thronged with: gedrängt voll sein mit
21
inn-keeper: Gastwirt
22
number-plate: Autonummernschild

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 159


Chapter 13 THE INFINITIVE WFITH OR WITHOUT ‘TO’ THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
AS PART OF THE OBJECT (A.C.I.)

 13.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by repeating the infinitive with or without ‘to’:
Example: Who heard him tell the story? Peter heard him tell the story.
(1) Who invited Peter to have a drink?

(2) Who saw the host’s face brighten?

(3) Who heard the customers sing?

(4) Who told Peter to mind his head?

(5) What did Peter feel his hair touch?

(6) Who watched the customers enjoy themselves?

(7) Who asked the host to explain?

(8) Who begged the host to order a pint of beer?

2nd exercise:
Find out whether to use the infinitive with or without ‘to’ in the
second and third text.

160 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 13 THE INFINITIVE WFITH OR WITHOUT ‘TO’
AS PART OF THE OBJECT (A.C.I.)

 Text 2
Dear Peter,
this time you’ll hear me ____ tell you something about an Englisch pub. I was
induced to go by my host who invited me ____ have a drink in a pub in the
country. After a journey of half an hour I saw my host’s face ____ brighten. We
5 had reached our destination and nothing stood in the way of having a cool beer
and a nice evening. When we got out of our car I could already hear the
customers ____ sing. The pub was an old cottage with a thatched roof. My host
told me ____ mind my head when entering because the frame of the door was so
low. The ceiling was so low that I felt my hair ____ touch it. I saw more and
10 more customers ____ come into the pub and I asked myself where they were
going to sit. So I watched them ____ enjoy themselves for a while. I saw them
____ order their drinks and then they remained standing just where they were. It
was new for me to see the glasses ____ be filled up to the rim. There was no
foam on the beer, just a few bubbles. When I told my host about my observation
15 and asked him ____ explain he said,’Well, if I order a glass ____ be filled, it
must be full. A pint is a pint!’ Meanwhile the pub was thronged with people that
I could hardly see the inn-keeper ____ work behind the bar. So I begged my host
____ order a pint of beer for me together with his beer. I saw him ____ smile. I
saw him ____ point at a number-plate on the wall.
20

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 161


Chapter 13 THE INFINITIVE WFITH OR WITHOUT ‘TO’ THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
AS PART OF THE OBJECT (A.C.I.)

 Text 3
On this plate was : 58²

At first I did not know what my host meant, but I somehow expected him ____
explain. Then he told me ____ read the inscription1. I read,’Are you 18’. My
host said,’You see I can’t permit2 you ____ drink beer if you are not yet 18’.
5 Well, I asked him ____ get another drink for me because I was older than that,
and I got him ____ let me ____ pay this time.The pub was then so full that my
host had to ask some friends ____ order the drinks for him and ____ pass3 them
to us as we were forced4 ____ stay in our seats. I was surrounded5 by English
people and I heard them ____ talk and ____ laugh and ____ sing. I had to smile
10 when remembering the prejudice6 I had heard about the cool English. Here they
were and I heard them ____ sing at the top of their voices7 and ____ laugh at
each others’ jokes. I had the feeling they were members of one big family and I
wanted to be one of them. I heard the piano-player ____ play one popular tune8
after the other and all the customers willingly joined9 in. Suddenly I felt
15 someone ____ tap on my shoulder. This person asked me ____ move my arm so
that he could lift up his glass of beer. This really caused me ____ laugh. Never
before had I drunk my beer under similar circumstances10. When it was nearly
eleven o’clock my host advised me ____ empty my glass because all English
pubs close at 11 o’clock. I’m going to tell you more about my impressions in
20 England in my next letter.
Yours,
1
inscription: Aufschrift
2
to permit: gestatten
3
to pass: weiterreichen
4
5
to be forced: gezwungen sein Martin
to be surrounded: umgeben sein
6
prejudice: Vorurteil
7
at the top of their voices: aus voller Kehle
8
popular tune: beliebte Melodie
9
to join in: einstimmen
10
under similar circumstances: unter ähnlichen Umständen

162 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 13 THE INFINITIVE WFITH OR WITHOUT ‘TO’
AS PART OF THE OBJECT (A.C.I.)

 13.2 Grammar: The Infinitive with or without ‘to’ as Part


of the Object

$ 7KHLQILQLWLYHLVXVHGZLWKRXW¶WR·DVSDUWRIWKHREMHFW
  DIWHUYHUEVRISHUFHSWLRQ 9HUEHQGHU6LQQHVZDKUQHKPXQJ 
 6XFKYHUEVDUH
WRVHHWRQRWLFHWRKHDUWRREVHUYH EHREDFKWHQ WRZDWFKWRIHHO

 ,KHDUGKLPJR,IHOWDZLQGEORZ
  DIWHUWKHIROORZLQJYHUEVRIFDXVLQJDQGDOORZLQJ GHV9HUDQODVVHQVX=XODVVHQV 
 WRPDNH YHUDQODVVHQ 
 WRKDYH YHUDQODVVHQGD‰HWZDVJHVFKLHKW 
WROHW ]XODVVHQ 

 <RXFDQQRWPDNHDKRUVHGULQN,KDGP\VHUYDQWZDVKP\FDU

% 7KHLQILQLWLYHLVXVHGZLWK¶WR·DIWHUWKHIROORZLQJYHUEV
  RIFDXVLQJDOORZLQJDQGUHTXLULQJ GHV9HUDQODVVHQV=XODVVHQVXQG)RUGHUQV 
 WRDGYLVH UDWHQ WREHJ ELWWHQ WRDOORZ HUODXEHQ 
 WRDVN ELWWHQ WRH[SHFW HUZDUWHQ  WRFRPPDQG EHIHKOHQ 
 WRIRUFH ]ZLQJHQ  WRJHW MHPGD]XEULQJHQ WRLQGXFH MHPGD]XEHZHJHQ 
WRLQYLWH HLQODGHQ  WRRUGHU EHIHKOHQWRSHUPLW HUODXEHQ 
 WRZDUQ ZDUQHQUDWHQ  WRWHOO MHPGUlQJHQGD‰VROO 

 ,DGYLVHGKLPWRVHOOWKHKRXVH+HWROGKLPWRJR
  H[SUHVVLQJDZLVKRUWKHRSSRVLWH
 WRZLVK,VKRXOGSUHIHU HVZlUHPLUOLHEHUZHQQ 
,VKRXOGOLNH LFKP|FKWHJHUQGD‰ ,VKRXOGKDWH LFKZLOOQLFKWGD‰ 
 ,KDWH LFKNDQQQLFKWOHLGHQGD‰ WRZDQW

 ,ZDQW\RXWRGRP\KRPHZRUN,VKRXOGOLNH\RXWRKHOSKLP
  H[SUHVVLQJDWKRXJKWRURSLQLRQ *HGDQNHQRGHU0HLQXQJ 
 7KLVFRQVWUXFWLRQLVPDLQO\WREHIRXQGLQZULWWHQPDWWHU 6FKULIWVSUDFKH 7KHHYHU\GD\
 ODQJXDJHSUHIHUVDVXEFODXVH 1HEHQVDW] ZLWKµWKDW¶
,FRQVLGHUKLPWREHWKHEHVWH[SHUW
 ,FRQVLGHUWKDWKHLVWKHEHVWH[SHUW

 WREHOLHYH JODXEHQ WRLPDJLQH VHWZYRUVWHOOHQ WRGHFODUH HUNOlUHQ 
 WRFRQVLGHU DQVHKHQ WRSURYH EHZHLVHQ  WRVXSSRVH DQQHKPHQ 
 WRUHFRPPHQG HPSIHKOHQ  WRGHQ\ OHXJQHQ WRWKLQN GHQNHQPHLQHQ 
 WRJXHVV DQQHKPHQ 

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 163


Chapter 13 THE INFINITIVE WFITH OR WITHOUT ‘TO’ THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
AS PART OF THE OBJECT (A.C.I.)

 13.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
The infinitive without ‘to’
Example: ‘Did you tell me you saw him come out of the shop?’ ‘That’s right. I saw
him come out of the shop.’
(a) to hear – to order the drinks

(b) to watch – to buy stamps at the post-office

(c) to feel – to touch your shoulder

(d) to notice – to take away the keys

(e) to observe – to open the door

(f) to see – to skate on the ice

(g) to watch – to mow the lawn

164 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 13 THE INFINITIVE WFITH OR WITHOUT ‘TO’
AS PART OF THE OBJECT (A.C.I.)

2nd exercise:
The infinitive without ‘to’
Example: ‘What did you tell him?’ – ‘I didn’t tell him anything. I made him obey the laws.’
(a) to let – to take my bicycle

(b) to make – to shut the door

(c) to have – to switch the light on

(d) to let – to drink a cup of tea

(e) to make – to sell the expensive car

(f) to have – to lay the table

(g) to make – to leave the house

3rd exercise:
The infinitive with ‘to’ (Verbs of causing, allowing and requiring)
Example: ‘Did you help him?’ – ‘No, I couldn’t. So I advised him to ask my brother.’
(a) to allow – to take my car

(b) to ask – to come back the next day

(c) to tell – to borrow money from a bank

(d) to urge – to give up the plan

(e) to beg –to forget the whole story

(f) to cause – to think about the plan again

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 165


Chapter 13 THE INFINITIVE WFITH OR WITHOUT ‘TO’ THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
AS PART OF THE OBJECT (A.C.I.)

4th exercise:
The infinitive with ‘to’ (Verbs expressing a wish or the opposite)
Example: ‘If you had the choice what would you like him to do?’ – ‘If I had the choice I
should want him to do the job at once.’
(a) I should like – to do his work at once

(b) I should hate – to give up the plan

(c) I should prefer – to start the project at once

(d) I should wish – to carry on his work

(e) I should like – to wash my car

(f) I should hate – to neglect his duties

5th exercise:
The infinitive with ‘to’ (Verbs expressing a thought or opinion)
Example: ‘Did you help him?’ – ‘No, I couldn’t. So I advised him to ask my brother.’
(a) to consider – to be very fair

(b) to imagine – to be really generous

(c) to suppose – to be without any fault

(d) to think – to be careful in those matters

(e) to consider – to be a good teacher

(f) to imagine – to be extremely mean

166 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 14

5()/(;,9(9(5%6
Reflexive Verben
Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

5()/(;,9(9(5%6
Reflexive Verben

 Text 1
John’s ancestors1 had been farmers for hundreds of years. But this long tradition
of farmers had come to an end when he was born with a hunched back2, the only
son of his parents. Everybody can imagine3 that it took a long time before his
parents got accustomed to4 this fate. When John left school he made up his
5 mind5 to move to the next town to start an apprenticeship6 in one of the offices.
He did not complain of7 having to leave the village because during all the years
of his youth he had been mocked8 and looked down upon. The people in town
were certainly not better than his fellow villagers9, but his colleagues10 in the
office soon realized that he could be relied on11. So when he had completed12 his
10 apprenticeship the owner of the factory, in whose office he was working, offered
him a post13.
John had many friends in the office because he was a cheerful chap14 and if
someone had a difficult problem that needed solving15 he would turn to16 him.
One of John’s best friends was Paul, the son of his employer17. In many
15 situations Paul had cared about18 John because he, Paul, had always been the
weak child of the family with a delicate constitution19. He could imagine what
John must feel like with his physical defect20. John was very glad of this
friendship and was very glad if Paul asked him to go with him into the country
in his sportscar.

1
ancestor: Vorfahr
2
hunched back: Buckel
3
to imagine sthg.: sich etwas vorstellen
4
to get accustomed to: sich gewöhnen an
5
to make up one’s mind: sich entschließen
6
apprenticeship: Lehre
7
to complain of: sich beklagen über
8
to be mocked: verspottet werden
9
fellow villager: Dofmitbewohner
10
colleague: Arbeitskamerad
11
to rely on :sich verlassen auf
12
to complete: beenden
13
post: Posten
14
cheerful chap : lustiger Bursche
15
to solve a problem: ein Problem lösen
16
to turn to s.o.: sich jem. zuwenden
17
employer: Arbeitgeber
18
to care about: sorgen für
19
delicate constitution: schwacher Gesundheitszustand
20
physical defect: körperliches Leiden

168 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS

20 Besides John was just as interested in sportscars as Paul though he could not
afford21 one. So it was no wonder that Paul taught him how to drive a car and
induced22 him to take his driving-test23 for a driving–licence24. One day Paul
offered John to use his car for a fortnight25. ‘Father and I are going on a business
trip26. So if you want my car, help yourself27.’ Before John went home with the
25 car the next weekend, he applied himself28 to washing and polishing29 the car.
On his journey home he confined himself30 to going very slowly because he did
not want to have any accidents. At home he did not park the car in the yard31 but
in front of his parents’ house. He had not been mistaken32 in presuming33 that a
lot of his former34 friends, who had looked down upon him, would come to see
30 the car. In the afternoon quite a few young man stood round the car, envying35
John. John was really enjoying himself. He was glad of being the centre of
general36 interest. As you can imagine he did not tell them that the car belonged
to37 a friend of his. Only a human being who had similarly38 been crippled39 by
nature can imagine how much he had been waiting for this moment. He had
35 used his friend’s car as a means40 to this end. That’s why he did not care about
the car in the evening but left it standing in front of the house.

21
to afford sthg.: sich etw. Leisten können
22
to induce s.o.: jem. anregen
23
to take one’s driving-test: die Fahrprüfung machen
24
driving-licence:Führerschein
25
fortnight: 2 Wochen
26
business trip: Geschäftsreise
27
help youself: bedien dich
28
to apply oneself to: sich widmen
29
to polish: putzen
30
to confine oneself: sich beschränken auf
31
yard: Hof
32
to be mistaken: sich irren
33
to presume: annehmen
34
former: ehemalig
35
to envy: beneiden
36
the centre of general interest: der Mittelpunkt des allgemeinen Interesses
37
to belong to: gehören
38
similarly: in ähnlicher Weise
39
to be crippled: verkrüppelt sein
40
a means: ein Mittel

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 169


Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 14.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by repeating the verbs underlined:
(1) Who can imagine that it took a long time before his parents got
accustomed to his fate?

(2) Who did not complain of having to leave the village?

(3) Who realized that he could be relied on?

(4) When could they turn to John?

(5) Who had cared about John in many situations?

(6) How do you think did John feel with his physical defect?

(7) Who was just as interested in sportscars as Paul?

(8) Who confined himself to going very slowly?

(9) Who had not been mistaken that a lot of his former friends would come to
see the car?

2nd exercise:
Put the verbs in brackets (in Klammern) into the second and third text and
find out where to use reflexive pronouns (Reflexivpronomen).

170 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS

 Text 2
John’s ancestors had been farmers for hundreds of years. But this long tradition
of farmers had come to an end when he was born with a hunched back, the only
son of his parents. Everybody can ______________ (to imagine) that it took a long
time before his parents ______________ (to get accustomed to) this fate. When John
5 left school he ______________ (to make up one’s mind) to move to the next town to
start an apprenticeship in one of the offices. He did not ______________
(to complain of) having to leave the village because during all the years of his youth
he had been mocked and looked down upon. The people in town were certainly
not better than his fellow villagers, but his colleagues in the office soon
10 ______________ (to realize) that he could be ______________ (to rely on). So when
he had completed his apprenticeship the owner of the factory, in whose office he
was working, offered him a post.
John had many friends in the office because he was a cheerful chap and if
someone had a difficult problem that needed solving he would ______________
15 (to turn to) him. One of John’s best friends was Paul, the son of his employer. In
many situations Paul had ______________ (to care about) John because he, Paul,
had always been the weak child of the family with a delicate constitution. He
could ______________ (to imagine) what John must ______________ (to feel) like
with his physical defect. John ______________ (to be glad of) this friendship and
20 ______________ (to be glad) if Paul asked him to go with him into the country in
his sportscar.
Besides John was just as ______________ (to be interested) in sportscars as Paul
though he could not ______________ (to afford) one. So it was no wonder that
Paul taught him how to drive a car and induced him to take his driving-test for a
25 driving–licence. One day Paul offered John to use his car for a fortnight. ‘Father
and I are going on a business trip. So if you want my car,

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 171


Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

______________ (to help).’ Before John went home with the car the next
weekend, he ______________ (to apply) to washing and polishing the car. On his
journey home he ______________ (to confine) to going very slowly because he did
30 not want to have any accidents. At home he did not park the car in the yard but
in front of his parents’ house. He ______________ (to be mistaken, not, past perfect) in
presuming that a lot of his former friends, who had looked down upon him,
would come to see the car. In the afternoon quite a few young man stood round
the car, envying John. John was really ______________ (to enjoy). He
35 ______________ (to be glad) of being the centre of general interest. As you can
______________ (to imagine) he did not tell them that the car belonged to a friend
of his. Only a human being who had similarly been crippled by nature can
______________ (to imagine) how much he had been waiting for this moment. He
had used his friend’s car as a means to this end. That’s why he did not
40 ______________ (to care about) the car in the evening but left it standing in front
of the house.

172 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS

 Text 3
He had finished ______________ (to undress) and was about ______________
(to lie down) in bed, when he heard a terrible crash1. When he came down the car
that had ripped open2 the side of his friend’s car had gone. He ______________
(to sit down) on the steps of the house and it took several minutes before he had
5 ______________ (to recover3) from the shock. He informed the village policeman
who did not find anything.
The next day he ______________ (to absent) from his office to settle everything
with the manager of the garage4. His father helped him to get a loan5 from the
bank. The costs of the repairs ______________ (to amount to) a tremendously6 high
10 sum. But John ______________ (to decide) to pay the sum in order not to
disappoint his friend and not to lose his job. But the new John ______________
(to differ) very much from the old one. He worked hard, doing extra work and
overtime7 in order to earn money to pay back the high costs. His friends,
together with Paul, noticed that he had ______________ (to change) and tried
15 ______________ (to keep) out of his way.
John became terribly nervous and irritated8 and easily flew into a temper9. One
day he had a big row10 with an old clerk of the firm and since John was in the
wrong11 he had to hand in his resignation12. Some weeks later – John had
already taken up a job with another firm – he met Paul in one of the pubs they

1
crash: Krach, Zusammenprall
2
to rip open: aufschlitzen
3
to recover: sich erholen
4
garage: Werkstatt
5
loan: Kredit
6
tremendously: furchtbar
7
overtime:Überstunden
8
irritated: gereizt
9
to fly into a temper: wütend werden
10
row: Streit
11
to be in the wrong: Unrecht haben
12
resignation: Entlassung

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 173


Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

20 used to go to. John ______________ (to bow) to Paul and ______________


(to endeaver13) to leave the pub. But Paul went after him and took him by his arm,
saying, ’I say, John, what’s the matter with you? Come on, tell me. After all it
was not us who ______________ (to quarrel).’ At first John did not want to tell
him but then he ______________ (to sit down) and told him the whole story. The
25 expression14 on Paul’s face ______________ (to change) from second to second
and when John had finished, Paul ______________ (to be glad) not
______________ (to be mistaken) about John. Paul put his arm round his shoulders
and said, ‘You poor little chap. I forgot to tell you when I offered you my car.
The car was insured15 against any damage16. The insurance company17 would
30 have paid in any case!’

13
to endeaver: sich bemühen
14
expression: hier: Gesichtsausdruck
15
to be insured: versichert sein
16
damage: Schaden
17
insurance company: Versicherungsgesellschaft

174 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS

 14.2 Grammar: Reflexive Verbs


$ 7KHQXPEHURIUHIOH[LYHYHUEVLVIDUVPDOOHULQ(QJOLVKWKDQLQ*HUPDQ

  9HUEVZKLFKFDQRQO\EHXVHGZLWKDUHIOH[LYHSURQRXQ 5HIOH[LYSURQRPHQ 


 WRDEVHQWRVIURP IHUQEOHLEHQ WRSULGHRVRQ VLFKUKPHQ 
 WRDSSO\RVWR VLFKZLGPHQ  WRFRQILQHRVWR VLFKEHVFKUlQNHQDXI 
 WRH[HUWRVWR VLFKEHPKHQ 
  9HUEVZKLFKFDQRQO\EHXVHGZLWKDUHIOH[LYHSURQRXQLQRQHSDUWLFXODUPHDQLQJ
 WRHQMR\RV VLFKJXWXQWHUKDOWHQ  WRKHOSRV VLFKEHGLHQHQ 
 WRDPXVHRV VLFKJXWXQWHUKDOWHQ WRGHIHQGRV VLFKYHUWHLGLJHQ 
 WRDFFXVWRPRVWR VJHZ|KQHQDQ  WRLQWURGXFHRV VLFKYRUVWHOOHQ 
 WRKXUWRV VLFKYHUOHW]HQ 

  9HUEVZKLFKFDQEHXVHGZLWKRUZLWKRXWDUHIOH[LYHSURQRXQ
 WRDVVHPEOH RV  VLFKYHUVDPPHOQ  WREHKDYH RV  VLFKEHWUDJHQ 
 WRGUHVV RV  VLFKDQNOHLGHQ WRIHHO RV  VLFKIKOHQ 
 WRKLGH RV  VLFKYHUEHUJHQ WRRIIHU RV  VLFKHUELHWHQ 
 WRSUHSDUH RV  VLFKYRUEHUHLWHQ WRSURYH RV  VLFKHUZHLVHQ 
 WRVHSDUDWH RV  VLFKWUHQQHQ WRVHWWOH RV  VLFKDQVLHGHOQ 
 WRVSUHDG RV  VLFKDXVEUHLWHQ WRVXEPLW RV  VLFKXQWHUZHUIHQ 
 WR\LHOG RV WRVXUUHQGHU RV  VLFKHUJHEHQ WRZDVK RV  VLFKZDVFKHQ 
 WRWURXEOH RV  VLFKEHXQUXKLJHQ  WRXQLWH RV  VLFKYHUHLQLJHQ 

% )DU JUHDWHU LV WKH QXPEHU RI YHUEV DQG YHUEDO H[SUHVVLRQV  ZKLFK DUH
UHIOH[LYHLQ*HUPDQLQ(QJOLVKKRZHYHUQRW
WRDIIRUG VLFKHWZOHLVWHQ WRDPRXQWWR VLFKEHODXIHQDXI 
WRDSSURDFK VLFKQlKHUQ WRERDVW VLFKUKPHQ 
WRERZWR VLFKYHUEHXJHQYRU WRFDUHDERXW VLFKNPPHUQXP 
WRFDWFKDFROG VLFKHUNlOWHQ WRFKDQJH VLFKlQGHUQ 
WRFRPSODLQRI VLFKEHNODJHQEHU WRHQGHDYRXU VLFKEHPKHQ 
WRGHSHQGRQWRUHO\RQ VLFKYHUODVVHQDXI WRKDSSHQ VLFKHUHLJQHQ 
WRLPDJLQH VLFKHWZYRUVWHOOHQ WRORQJIRU VLFKVHKQHQQDFK 
WRKXUU\ VLFKEHHLOHQ WRLPSURYH VLFK YHU EHVVHUQ 
WRLQFUHDVH VLFKYHUPHKUHQ WRLQTXLUHDIWHU VLFKHUNXQGLJHQQDFK 

WRZLWKGUDZ VLFK]XUFN]LHKHQ  WRUHFRYHU VLFKHUKROHQ 
WRFKDQJHRQH¶VPLQG VLFKDQGHUVEHVLQQHQ WRIDOOLQORYHZLWK VLFKYHUOLHEHQLQ 
WRWKLQNVWKJRYHU VLFKHWZEHUOHJHQ  WRMRLQ VLFKDQVFKOLH‰HQ 
WROLHGRZQ VLFKKLQOHJHQ  WRPHHW VLFKWUHIIHQ 
WRPRYH VLFKEHZHJHQ  WRULVH VLFKHUKHEHQ 
WRUHPHPEHUWRUHFROOHFW VLFKHULQQHUQ WRUHIXVH VLFKZHLJHUQ 
WRUHWLUH VLFK]XUFN]LHKHQ  WRWXUQWR VLFKZHQGHQDQ 
WRVLWGRZQ VLFKKLQVHW]HQ  WRZRQGHUDW VLFKZXQGHUQEHU 
WRGHFLGHWRPDNHXSRQH¶VPLQG VLFKHQWVFKOLH‰HQ 

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 175


Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

& 9HUEDOH[SUHVVLRQV
WREHJODGRI VLFKIUHXHQEHU  WREHDVKDPHGRI VLFKVFKlPHQEHU 
WREHLQWHUHVWHGLQ VLFKLQWHUHVVLHUHQIU  WREHPLVWDNHQ VLFKLUUHQ 
WRJHWDFFXVWRPHGWR VLFKJHZ|KQHQDQ  WRJHWHQJDJHGWR VLFKYHUOREHQPLW 
WRJHWPDUULHGWR VLFKYHUKHLUDWHQPLW  WRJHWULGRI VLFKHQWOHGLJHQ 

WREHFRPHDFTXDLQWHGZLWK VNHQQHQOHUQHQ WRJHWVKDYHG VLFKUDVLHUHQ 
WREHFRPHFORXG\ VLFKEHZ|ONHQ  WRJURZEHWWHU VLFKYHUEHVVHUQ 
WRJURZZRUVH VLFKYHUVFKOHFKWHUQ  WREHDIUDLGRI VLFKIUFKWHQYRU 
WREHVDWLVILHGZLWKWREHFRQWHQWHGZLWK VLFKEHJQJHQPLW 

176 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS

 14.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Verbs with a reflexive pronoun
Example: ‘Did you hear anything about John?’ – ‘Yes, they told me he absented
himself from the meeting’.
(a) to exert o.s. to – to get the new job

(b) to pride o.s. on – to have won the tennis match

(c) to confine o.s. to – to hold lectures only on Wednesdays

(d) to accustom o.s. to – to live in a suburb of London

(e) to hurt o.s. –on his last trip to France

(f) to enjoy o.s. – on the last party

(g) to apply o.s. to – to study French thoroughly

2nd exercise:
Verbs with or without reflexive pronouns
Example: ‘Did you say that John is preparing himself for a stay in Germany?’ – ’That’s right.
And so does Peter.’
(a) to dress (o.s.) like a peacock

(b) to hide (o.s.) from his friends

(c) to trouble (o.s.) about one’s examination

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 177


Chapter 14 REFLEXIVE VERBS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

(d) to behave (o.s.) in a strange way sometimes

(e) to wash (o.s.) twice a day

(f) to submit (o.s.) to the regulations of the contract

(g) to offer (o.s.) to help old people on week-ends

3rd exercise:
Verbs without reflexive pronouns
Example: ‘Look at this letter. Mary informs me that she cannot afford to go to France.’
(a) to catch a cold

(b) to long for a holiday with a lot of sunshine

(c) to make up her mind to buy the car

(d) to fall in love with John

(e) to be going to retire from the post of the president

(f) to recover quite soon from the illness

(g) to refuse to do the work again

178 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 15

9(5%6:,7+$',5(&7$1'
$35(326,7,21$/2%-(&7
Das Verb mit direktem und präpositionalem Objekt
Chapter 15 VERBS WITH A DIRECT AND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

9(5%6:,7+$',5(&7$1'
$35(326,7,21$/2%-(&7
Das Verb mit direktem und präpositionalem Objekt

 Text 1
Jack and Jim had been born in the same year and since their parents were living
next door to each other, they had been friends since the first year of their lives.
So if one of them confided1 his day’s experiences2 to his mother , the other was
sure to have played his part in it. Since they were always introduced3 to other
5 people as Jack and Jim because of the double ‘J’, many of them thought they
were twins4. And indeed if any prank5 had been played on one of the
neighbours, either both of them or neither of them were involved6 in it. The two
spent all their spare time7 together and neither of them8 could hide anything
from the other. They confided everything to each other. This great friendship,
10 however, was put to the test9 when they were eighteen. Both had been invited to
a party and both wanted to invite the same girl to that party, since both knew
only one nice-looking girl. She lived futher10 down their road. Jack and Jim did
not want to quarrel over11 a girl and so they both went to her and asked her to
make her choice12 as to whom she would accompany to the party. Isabel, that
15 was her name, however suggested13 somethig to them, ‘I’ll go to the party with
the one who succeeds in14 putting a white flag on top of the old tower’.
Everybody in the town knew the old tower and that it was dangerous15 to climb
because the old staircase16 inside was partly in ruins. Jim, who had usually been
more courageous in other situations, explained his point view to her,
20 saying,’Nobody should ask a person to do such a thing. I’m afraid I’ll have to go

1
to confide: anvertrauen
2
experience: Erlebnis, Erfahrung
3
to introduce: vorstellen
4
twins: Zwillinge
5
prank: Streich
6
to be involved: verwickelt sein
7
spare time: Freizeit
8
neither of them: keiner von beiden
9
to put to the test: auf die Probe stellen
10
further: weiter
11
to quarrel over: streiten über
12
choice: Wahl
13
to suggest sthg.: etwas vorschlagen
14
to succeed in doing sthg.: gelingen, etwas zu tun
15
dangerous: gefährlich
16
staircase: Treppe

180 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 15 VERBS WITH A DIRECT AND
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

to that party alone.’ This, however, could not prevent17 Jack, the more reserved
of the two, from accepting18 the challenge19. On their way home Jim could not
convince him of the needlessness of putting his life at stake20. On the day before
the great incident21 the two were together in Jim’s room when Jim was still
25 trying to explain the ridiculousness22 of the whole situation to Jack.Jim kept on
repeating to Jack that the whole thing was pointless23.

17
to prevent from: hindern an
18
to accept: annehmen
19
challenge: Herausforderung
20
to put sthg. at stake: etwas aufs Spiel setzen
21
incident: Begebenheit
22
ridiculousness: Lächerlichkeit
23
pointless: sinnlos

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 181


Chapter 15 VERBS WITH A DIRECT AND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

 15.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by repeating the prepositions:
(1) Who played pranks on their neighbours?

(2) Who could not hide anything from his friend?

(3) Who confided everything to his friend?

(4) Who suggested something to the boys?

(5) Who explained his point of view to the girl?

(6) Who could not prevent Jack from accepting the challenge?

(7) Who could not convince Jack of the needleesness of putting his life at stake?

(8) Who explained the ridiculousness of the whole situation to Jack?

(9) Who kept repeating to Jack that the whole thing was pointless?

2nd exercise:
Put the right prepositions into the second and third text.

182 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 15 VERBS WITH A DIRECT AND
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

 Text 2
Jack and Jim had been born in the same year and since their parents were living
next door to each other, they had been friends since the first year of their lives.
So if one of them confided his day’s experiences ______ his mother , the other
was sure to have played his part in it. Since they were always introduced ______
5 other people as Jack and Jim because of the double ‘J’, many of them thought
they were twins. And indeed if any prank had been played ______ one of the
neighbours, either both of them or neither of them were involved in it. The two
spent all their spare time together and neither of them could hide anything
______ the other. They confided everything ______ each other. This great
10 friendship, however, was put to the testhen they were eighteen. Both had been
invited to a party and both wanted to invite the same girl ______ that party,
since both knew only one nice-looking girl. She lived further down their road.
Jack and Jim did not want to quarrel over a girl and so they both went to her and
asked her to make her choice as to whom she would accompany to the party.
15 Isabel, that was her name, however suggested something ______ them, ‘I’ll go
to the party with the one who succeeds in putting a white flag on top of the old
tower’. Everybody in the town knew the old tower and that it was dangerous to
climb because the old staircase inside was partly in ruins. Jim, who had usually
been more courageous in other situations, explained his point view ______ her,
20 saying,’Nobody should ask a person to do such a thing. I’m afraid I’ll have to go
to that party alone.’ This, however, could not prevent Jack, the more reserved of
the two, ______ accepting the challenge. On their way home Jim could not
convince him of the needlessness of putting his life at stake. On the day before
the great incident the two were together in Jim’s room when Jim was still trying
25 to explain the ridiculousness of the whole situation ______ Jack. Jim kept on
repeating ______ Jack that the whole thing was pointless.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 183


Chapter 15 VERBS WITH A DIRECT AND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

 Text 3
‘Look’, he said, ’you are wasting your time ______ this girl1. You are not
proving your courage ______ her in this way2. She should have gone with you
to the party without the test because I didn’t accept the conditions. Nobody will
blame3 you ______ not climbing the tower. I’m definitely4 not jealous5 but want
5 to prevent you ______ doing it, because you are my friend.’ Jim did not try to
hide his feelings ______ Jack. Jack remained silent6 for a while and the said,
’I’d like to admit7 something ______ you. It’s not because of the girl. I want to
do it myself because if I didn’t do it, I couldn’t be your friend any longer. You
always did what you had promised me before. When I announced8 ______ her
10 and you that I would do it, I should have known what I was doing.’ Jack went to
the tower in the late afternoon. Jim had offered to help ______ the climbing, but
Jack had told him, he could manage alone. His decision9 to be alone seemed
important ______ him at that time. The first part of the staircase was the worst
because the staircase was falling to pieces. He remembered what Jim had
15 mentioned10 ______ him but he went on. Jack had to keep close to the wall,
searching11 the wall ______ footholds12 in order to climb a little
higher.Fortunately he could hold on to the old railing13 which was fastened to
the inside of the wall. It took him nearly half an hour before he was able to

1
to waste one’s time: seine Zeit vergeuden
2
to prove one’s courage: seinen Mut beweisen
3
to blame s.o.: jem. tadeln
4
definitely: bestimmt
5
jealous: eifersüchtig
6
to remain silent: ruhig bleiben
7
to admit: eingestehen
8
to announce: ankündigen
9
decision: Entschluß
10
to mention: erwähnen
11
to search for:suchen nach
12
foothold: Halt für den Fuß
13
railing: Geländer

184 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 15 VERBS WITH A DIRECT AND
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

fasten14 the piece of white cloth to the top. Meanwhile dusk15 had fallen and he
20 had to hurry up if he wanted to see the steps at all. The first part down was easy
enough but then came the last bit.This part was too high for him to jump
down.He could not see the holes in the wall and clung16 desperately17 to the
railing. He kept saying angry things ______ himself. He was perspiring18 all
over his body and thought of his friend who had advised19 him not to put his life
25 at stake. When he looked down he had the feeling that he could see something
moving underneath20. He didn’t look down a second time because he thought it
was a cat. And besides he had to concentrate on the wall. Nobody could protect
him now ______ falling down if he were not careful. But suddenly the railing
gave way and he fell into space21. The next thing he noticed was that the ground
30 on which he fell was relatively soft. He examined his head and his arms and still
couldn’t believe it. But then he heard a moaning22. Someone was lying under
him.
It was Jim who had followed him. He had tried to catch him but had been
knocked down. He had thus demonstrated23 his loyalty24 ______ Jack. Later the
35 doctor informed him ______ Jim’s state of health25. The doctor didn’t seem too
worried ______ Jack. Jim had a broken arm and his ribs on the right side were
bruised26. The next day Jack met Isabel by chance but he did not mention the
accident27 ______ her. She came to him, saying, ’I congratulate28 you ______

14
to fasten: befestigen
15
dusk: Abenddämmerung
16
to cling, clung, clung: sich klammern
17
desperately: verzweifelt
18
to perspire: schwitzen
19
to advise s.o.: jem. raten
20
underneath. unter sich
21
into space: ins Leere
22
moaning: Stöhnen
23
to demonstrate: zeigen
24
loyalty: Treue, Loyalität
25
state of health: Gesundheitszustand
26
to be bruised: gequetscht sein
27
accident: Unfall
28
to congratulate s.o. on: jem. gratulieren zu

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 185


Chapter 15 VERBS WITH A DIRECT AND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

your success. By the way when does the party start?’ Jack looked at her coldly
40 and answered, ’I’m sorry, Isabel, but I’ve changed my mind29. You wouldn’t
have liked that party anyway.’ (In other words he preferred30 going alone
______ taking her after all the trouble she had caused31.)

29
to change one’s mind: seine Meinung ändern
30
to prefer: vorziehen (he preferred!!)
54
to cause trouble: Schwierigkeiten machen

186 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 15 VERBS WITH A DIRECT AND
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

 15.2 Grammar: Verbs with a Direct and Prepositional Object


$ 4XLWHDIHZYHUEVKDYHDGLUHFWDQGSUHSRVLWLRQDOREMHFW LQGLUHFWREMHFW
ZLWKHJ¶WR·RU¶IURP· $VDUXOHWKHGLUHFWREMHFWLVWREHIRXQGLQIURQWRI
WKHSUHSRVLWLRQDOREMHFW,IWKHSUHSRVLWLRQDOREMHFWLVVWUHVVHG EHWRQW LW
FDQEHSODFHGLQIURQWRIWKHGLUHFWREMHFW
1RUPDO+HH[SODLQHGWKHPDFKLQH GLUHFWREM WRKLVEURWKHU SUHSRVLWLRQDOREMHFW 

6WUHVVHG+HH[SODLQHGWRKLVEURWKHUWKHPDFKLQH
9HUEVZLWK¶WR· 
WRDQQRXQFHVWKWRVR DQNQGLJHQ  WRLQWURGXFHVRWRVR YRUVWHOOHQ 
WRDGGVWKWRVWK KLQ]XIJHQ  WRPHQWLRQVWKWRVR HUZlKQHQ 
WRDGGUHVVVWKWRVR ULFKWHQDQ  WRSUHIHUVRWRVR YRU]LHKHQ 
WRDGPLWVWKWRVR ]XJHEHQ  WRSUHIHUVWKWRVWK YRU]LHKHQ 
WRDVFULEHVWKWRVR ]XVFKUHLEHQ  WRSURSRVHVWKWRVR YRUVFKODJHQ 
WRFRQILGHVWKWRVR DQYHUWUDXHQ  WRSURYHVWKWRVR EHZHLVHQ 
WRGHFODUHVWKWRVR |IIHQWOLFKHUNOlUHQ  WRUHDGVWKWRVR YRUOHVHQ 
WRGHOLYHUVWKWRVR ]XVWHOOHQOLHIHUQ  WRUHODWHVWKWRVR HU]lKOHQ 
WRGHPRQVWUDWHVWKWRVR DP%HLVSLHOHUNOlUHQ  WRUHSHDWVWKWRVR ZLHGHUKROHQ 
WRGHVFULEHVWKWRVR EHVFKUHLEHQ  WRUHSO\VWKWRVR HUZLGHUQ 
WRGLFWDWHVWKWRVR GLNWLHUHQ  WRVD\VWKWRVR VDJHQ 
WRGLVWULEXWHVWKWRVR YHUWHLOHQ  WRVHHPVWKWRVR VFKHLQHQ 
WRH[SODLQVWKWRVR HUNOlUHQ  WRVXJJHVWVWKWRVR YRUVFKODJHQ 
9HUEVZLWK¶IURP·
WRKLGHVWKIURPVR HWZYRUMHPYHUEHUJHQ 
WRFRQFHDOVWKIURPVR HWZYRUMHP9HUEHUJHQ 

WRWDNHVWKIURPVR QHKPHQ 
WRVWHDOVWKIURPVR VWHKOHQ 
WRVQDWFKVWKIURPVR HQWUHL‰HQ 
 

1RWH 7KHHYHU\GD\ODQJXDJHRIWHQSUHIHUVDFRQVWUXFWLRQLQZKLFKWKHGLUHFWREMHFWLV
WREHIRXQGLQWKHVKDSHRIDVXEFODXVH 1HEHQVDW] DIWHUWKHLQGLUHFWREMHFW
+HUHSHDWHGWR-DFNWKDWWKHZKROHWKLQJZDVIRROLVK GLUHFWREMHFW 
  

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 187


Chapter 15 VERBS WITH A DIRECT AND THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 15.3
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Verbs with ‘to’
Example: ‘Did he announce the result of the election to all the members of the club?’
– ‘Well, as far as I know did he do that’.
(a) to explain – the plan – to everybody

(b) to mention – the news – to John as well

(c) to read – the letter – to his father

(d) to suggest – the compromise – to his friends at school

(e) to describe – the tour – to the other Boy Scouts

(f) to repeat – the lie – to his teacher as well

(g) to admit – the mistake – to all his class-mates

188 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 15 VERBS WITH A DIRECT AND
PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT

2nd exercise:
Verbs with ‘from’
Example: ‘Did the thief really succeed in hiding the jewels (Juwelen) from the police?’ –
‘Well, the article in the newspaper says so.’
(a) to conceal – the stolen car – from the police

(b) to take – to diamonds – from the safe

(c) to steal – the valuable books – from the antiqueshop

(d) to snatch – the handbag – from the old lady

(e) to hide – the two suitcases –from the detective

(f) to steal – the old coins – from the coin dealer

(g) to snatch – the documents – from the secretary

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 189


Chapter 16

7+(6(48(1&(2)7(16(6
,1&21',7,21$/&/$86(6
Die Zeitenfolge in den Bedingungssätzen (if-Sätzen)
Chapter 16 THE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

7+(6(48(1&(2)7(16(6
,1&21',7,21$/&/$86(6
Die Zeitenfolge in den Bedingungssätzen (if-Sätzen)

 Text 1
George: ‘If I could get myself to work hard, I would have a fair chance of
passing the exam1.’
Martin: ‘Well, if you had been sensible2 in the past with respect to3 your work,
you would have led a far quieter life and all the worry about your exam would
5 not have come up.’
George: ‘You are right in reproaching4 me, but if I hadn’t had other plans in
those days I should have done my work. Don’t you think that there is still a fair
chance for me?’
Martin: ‘I’m sure you will pass the exam, if you do your work properly5. I’ll
10 offer you any possible help, but I’ll only do so, if you give up some of your
hobbies. Going out nearly every day will harm6 your exam chances.’
George: ‘If I could only make up my mind which hobby to give up it would be
easier for me. You know I enjoy playing tennis and cricket just as much as
singing in the choir7 and collecting stamps8.’
15 Martin: ‘Take my advice and give up cricket and tennis for a while. If you stop
sport now and pass your exams, you can carry on later.’
George: ‘You are right. If I leave both teams now, it won’t do much harm to
the clubs since the competetive season9 is nearly over. Perhaps it will help, if I
stopped sport only for a short while.’
20 Martin: ‘Well, if wishes were horses, beggars10 would ride. You must choose
between your pleasure11 and your exam.’

1
to pass the exam: das Examen bestehen
2
sensible: vernünftig
3
with respect to: in Hinblick auf
4
to reproach: tadeln
5
properly: ordentlich
6
to harm: schaden
7
choir: Chor
8
to collect stamps: Briefmarken sammeln
9
competetive season: Spielsaison
10
beggar: Bettler
11
pleasure: Vergnügen

192 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 16 THE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

 16.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Answer the following questions by repeating the tenses:
Example: ‘What would you buy, if you were rich?’ – ‘I should buy a car, if I were rich.’
(1) What would there be, if George could get himself to work hard?

(2) Who would have led a far quieter life, if he had been sensible in the past?

(3) Who would have done his work, if he had not had other plans?

(4) Who will pass his examination, if he does his work properly?

(5) For whom would it be easier, if he could make up his mind to give up
some of his hobbies?

(6) What would beggars do, if wishes were horses?

2nd exercise:
Put the right tenses into the second and third text.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 193


Chapter 16 THE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

 Text 2
George: ‘If I could get myself to work hard, I ___________________ (to have) a
fair chance of passing the exam.’
Martin: ‘Well, if you had been sensible in the past with respect to your work,
you ___________________ (to lead) a far quieter life and all the worry about your
5 exam ___________________ (to come up, not).‘
George: ‘You are right in reproaching me, but if I hadn’t had other plans in
those days I ___________________ (to do) my work. Don’t you think that there
is still a fair chance for me?’
Martin: ‘I’m sure you ___________________ (to pass) the exam, if you do your
10 work properly. I ___________________ (to offer) you any possible help, but I
___________________ (to do, only) so, if you give up some of your hobbies.
Going out nearly every day will harm your exam chances.’
George: ‘If I could only make up my mind which hobby to give up it
___________________ (to be) easier for me. You know I enjoy playing tennis
15 and cricket just as much as singing in the choir and collecting stamps.’
Martin: ‘Take my advice and give up cricket and tennis for a while. If you stop
sport now and pass your exams, you ___________________ (can) carry on later.’
George: ‘You are right. If I leave both teams now, it ___________________
(to do, not) much harm to the clubs since the competetive season is nearly over.
20 Perhaps it ___________________ (to help), if I stopped sport only for a short
while.’
Martin: ‘Well, if wishes were horses, beggars ___________________ (to ride).

You must choose between your pleasure and your exam’.

194 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 16 THE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

 Text 3
Martin and George are standing in Trafalgar Square1.
George: ‘If I only knew who that man on top of the column2 was, I
___________________ (to be) very grateful3. He must have been quite an
important man.’
5 Martin: ‘If you don’t know him, ___________________ (to go) and
___________________ (to ask) the policeman over there. He will certainly tell
you.’
George: ‘If you can tell me who that man of the column was, I
___________________ (to be) very grateful to you.’
10 Policeman: ‘Well, young man, the man on the column is Admiral Lord Nelson.
He won the Battle of Trafalgar4 in 1805.’
George: ‘Thank you very much, constable5.’
Later George asked Martin: ‘Well, I’m really interested now. If he had told us
what kind of battle took place at Trafalgar, it ___________________ (to be) much
15 better for my knowledge6.’
Martin: ‘If you had seen Admiral Lord Nelson’s flagship7 in Portsmouth, there
___________________ (to be, not) any need for you to ask the policeman. You
remember that you missed that trip to Portsmouth, don’t you?’
George: ‘So this battle was a sea-battle8, then.’

1
Trafalgar Square: Platz in London, benannt nach der Seeschlacht von Trafalgar
2
column: Säule
3
grateful: dankbar
4
Battle of Trafalgar: Seeschlacht Britanniens gegen Napoleons Flotte (1805)
5
constable: Polizist, wenn man ihn anredet
6
knowledge: Wissen
7
flagship: Flaggschiff (des Admirals Nelson)
8
sea-battle: Seeschlacht

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 195


Chapter 16 THE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

20 Martin: ‘Yes, it was a sea-battle against Napoleon’s fleet9. If the French had not
been defeated10, Napoleon ___________________ (to invade11) England.’
George: ‘And if England had not been an island12, he ___________________
(to do, certainly) so after the loss13 of his fleet.’
Martin: ‘Well, yes. You see, if England had not had a strong fleet in those days,
25 French soldiers ___________________ (to march14) through London.’

9
fleet: Flotte
10
to defeat: besiegen
11
to invade: überfallen, eindringen
12
island: Insel
13
loss: Verlust
14
to march: marschieren

196 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 16 THE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

 16.2 Grammar: The Sequence of Tenses in


Conditional Clauses

$ &RQGLWLRQDOFODXVHVDUHXVXDOO\LQWURGXFHGE\WKHIROORZLQJFRQMXQFWLRQV

LI ZHQQIDOOV  LQFDVH WKDW  LP)DOOHGD‰ 


 LIQRW ZHQQQLFKW RQFRQGLWLRQ WKDW  XQWHUGHU%HGLQJXQJGD‰ 
XQOHVV IDOOVQLFKW VXSSRVLQJ WKDW  DQJHQRPPHQGD‰ 

% 7KHUHDUHWKUHHNLQGVRIFRQGLWLRQDOFODXVHV
  7KH¶UHDO· /DWLQUHDOLV FRQGLWLRQDOFODXVH
 7KHVSHDNHUWKLQNVWKDWWKHFRQGLWLRQPD\EHUHDOL]HGLQIXWXUH
  7KH¶LUUHDO· /DWLQLUUHDOLV FRQGLWLRQDOFODXVH
   7KH VSHDNHU LV VXUH WKDW WKH FRQGLWLRQ PD\ QRW RU FDQQRW EH UHDOL]HG RU WKH VSHDNHU
 GRHVQRWWDNHWKLVSRVVLELOLW\LQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQ 
7KH¶SRWHQWLDO· /DWLQSRWHQWLDOLV FRQGLWLRQDOFODXVH
7KHVSHDNHUXWWHUV DVXSSRVLWLRQ DQGUHIHUVWRDIXWXUHIDFWZKLFKPLJKWKDSSHQ,QWKH
 



LIFODXVH µVKRXOG¶ LV XVHG ZKLOH LQ WKH PDLQ FODXVH D UHTXHVW  RU D VXJJHVWLRQ  LV
 


H[SUHVVHG

1RWH 6LQFH WKH VHTXHQFH RI WHQVHV  LQ FRQGLWLRQDO FODXVHV LV QRW WKH VDPH DV LQ


*HUPDQDFRQSOHWHWDEOHRIWKHWHQVHVLQFRQGLWLRQDOFODXVHVLVDGGHG

1
conditional clause:Bedingungssatz
2
conjunction: Bindewort,leitet einen Nebensatz ein (Konjunktion)
3
to take into consideration: in Erwägung ziehen
4
to utter: äußern
5
supposition: Annahme
6
main clause: Hauptsatz
7
request: Bitte, Wunsch
8
suggestion: Vorschlag
9
sequence of tenses: Zeitenfolge

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 197


Chapter 16 THE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

 &RQGLWLRQDO&ODXVH 0DLQ&ODXVH
¶5HDO·  7KH VSHDNHU ,I\RXJRZLWKPH ,VKDOOJRWRWRZQ
WKLQNVWKDWWKHFRQGLWLRQ ,I\RXJLYHXVDULQJ ZHVKDOOFRPHWR\RXUKRXVH
FDQEHUHDOL]HG  
 7HQVHVSUHVHQWSUHVHQWSHUIHFW 7HQVHVIXWXUH,SUHVHQW
 SDVWSDVWSHUIHFW  LPSHUDWLYHDQGDX[LOLDULHV
¶,UUHDO·  7KH VSHDNHU 5HIHUULQJWRWKHSUHVHQW 
GRHV QRW WKLQN WKDW WKH
FRQGLWLRQ FDQ EH ,I)DWKHUKDGDKROLGD\ ZHZRXOGJRWRWKHVHDVLGH
UHDOL]HG ,I,ZHUH\RX ,ZRXOGEX\WKHFDU
 
 7HQVHSDVW 7HQVHFRQGLWLRQDO,
 1RWH DOO IRUPV RI ¶WR EH· LQ WKH 
 SDVW ZHUH 
 ,I,ZHUHWKHUH 
 ,IKHZHUH 
 5HIHUULQJWRWKHSDVW 

 ,I,KDGOHIW\RXHDUOLHU ,ZRXOGQRWKDYHPLVVHGWKHWUDLQ
 ,IWKHWULFNKDGQRWZRUNHGVRZHOO KHZRXOGQRWKDYHSOD\HGLWVRRIWHQ
 
 7HQVHSDVWSHUIHFW 7HQVHFRQGLWLRQDO,,
¶3RWHQWLDO·  7KH ,I+HOHQVKRXOGFDOO SOHDVHWHOOKHUWRULQJ
VXSSRVLWLRQ PD\ FRPH ,I,VKRXOGORVHP\ZD\ ,PLJKWDVNDSROLFHPDQWRGLUHFWPH
WUXH 7KH PDLQ FODXVH  
H[SUHVVHVDUHTXHVW 7HQVHVKRXOG ZHUHWR  7HQVHVLPSHUDWLYHSUHVHQWIXWXUH
  DX[LOLDULHVDQGFRQGLWLRQDO,

198 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 16 THE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

 16.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
The ‘real’ conditional clause (present tense – future I)
Example: If the weather is fine tomorrow, we shall take a trip to Salisbury.
(a) John, to come to see me – I, to tell him the truth

(b) Peter, to start now – he, to reach the train in time

(c) James, to study constantly – he, to pass the examination

(d) Jill, to do her homework – the teacher, not, to punish her

(e) Tom, to buy the car – he, to have practically a new car

(f) Barbara, to wash her dress – she, not, to have anything to put on

(g) Kate, to buy the book – she, not, to have any money left

2nd exercise:
The ‘irreal’ conditional clause (past – conditional I), referring to the present
Example: If I had the money, I should make a trip round the world.
(a) to have the courage – to tell him about the accident

(b) to like driving a car – to drive one every week-end

(c) to be able to help – to help you at once

(d) to know how to do it – to repair the car right at once

(e) to be rich – to invest all the money in this project

(f) to be you – to buy the house

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 199


Chapter 16 THE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

3rd exercise:
The ’irreal’ conditional clause (past perfect – conditional II), referring to
the past
Example: If I had seen him, I should have informed him.
(a) to have the money – to buy the coins

(b) to have the book – to write a better essay on the subject

(c) to know the result of the conference – not, to consent to the plan

(d) to pass the examination – to apply for the job

(e) to find the ring – to give it back to you

(f) to reach the bus in time – not, to walk all the way home

4th exercise:
The ‘potential’ conditional clause (should, were to – imperative1)
Example: If you should (were to) meet him, tell him the news, please.
(a) to pass the post-office – to post the letter, please

(b) to come to England – to phone Jack, please

(c) to write a letter to Jane – to give her my kindest regards2

(d) to get the job –to let me know at once

(e) to come to an agreement with him – to inform Jack

(f) to finish the book today – to ring me up

(g) to find the key – to give back this one, please

1
imperative: Imperativ, Befehlsform
2
give her my kindest regards: grüß sie ganz herzlich von mir

200 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 17

7+(7(16(62)5(3257('
63((&+
Die Zeiten bei der Umwandlung direkter in indirekte Rede
Chapter 17 THE TENSES OF REPORTED SPEECH THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

7+(7(16(62)5(3257('
63((&+
Die Zeiten bei der Umwandlung direkter in indirekte Rede

 Text 1
How to change direct speech into reported speech:

Text A (Direct Speech)


George asked, ‘Where were you yesterday?’
Martin answered, ‘I went to see Mr Brown. He has bought a new car and I was
interested to see it.’
George asked, ‘What will he do with his old car now?’
5 Martin replied, ‘Didn’t I tell you that he had an accident1 last week?’
George wanted to know, ‘What happened to2 his old car?’
Martin answered, ‘Well, his car was badly damaged3. Mr Brown had the car
repaired, but he made up his mind to buy a new one since4 he had had the old
one for five years.’
10 George replied, ‘I hope he will find a buyer5 for that car. I don’t think that any
one will buy such a car.’

Text B ( Reported Speech)


George asked where Martin had been the day before. Martin answered that he
had gone to see Mr Brown. He mentioned that Mr Brown had bought a new car
and that he himself had been interested to see it. George wanted to know what
15 Mr Brown would do with his old car. Martin
asked whether he had not told him that Mr Brown had had an accident the week
before. George wanted to know what had happened to his old car. Martin
informed him that Mr Brown’s car
had been teeribly damaged, that Mr Brown had had the car repaired, but that he
20 had made up his mind to buy a new one since he had had the old one for the last
five years. George replied that he hoped that Mr Brown would find a buyer for
that car. He didn’t think that anyone would buy such a car.

1
accident: Unfall
2
to happen to: passieren
3
badly damaged: schlimm beschädigt
4
since: hier: da
5
buyer: Käufer

202 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 17 THE TENSES OF REPORTED SPEECH

 Text 2
Change this text into reported speech (after having read the first and the
second text). (How the tenses are changed is to be found in the following table.)

George said, ‘Soon it will be the fifth of November, Martin.’


Martin, ‘So it will. Will you buy fireworks1?’
George, ‘Yes, and we shall have a bonfire2 in the garden, and Mother will make
good things to eat.’
5 Martin, ‘Do you know why the fifth of November is fireworks night?’
George, ‘Yes, it has something to do with Guy Fawkes3. In 1605 he tried to
blow up4 the Houses of Parliament5 in London.’
Martin, ‘As far as I know nobody blew up the Houses of Parliament.’
George, ‘You are right. They found out the plot6, and Guy Fawkes and his
10 friends were arrested7. But ever since8 we have had fireworks on the fifth of
November, and children have burnt ‘Guys’9 on bonfires in memory of that
incident10.’

1
fireworks: Knallkörper
2
bonfire: Freudenfeuer
3
Guy Fawkes: engl. Rebell
4
to blow up: in die Luft sprengen
5
Houses of Parliament: Parlamentsgebäude
6
plot: Verschwörung
7
to be arrested: eingesperrt werden
8
ever since: seither
9
Guys: Strohpuppen, die Guy Fawkes darstellen sollen
10
in memory of that incident: zur Erinnerung an dieses Ereignis.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 203


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 17 THE TENSES OF REPORTED SPEECH

 17.1 Grammar: The Sequence of Tenses1 in Reported


Speech2

$ ,VWKHWHQVHRIWKHLQWURGXFWRU\FODXVH
WKHSUHVHQWWHQVH ,VD\
WKHSUHVHQWSHUIHFW ,KDYHVDLG
WKHIXWXUHWHQVH ,VKDOOVD\
WKHWHQVHRIWKHUHSRUWHGVSHHFKUHPDLQVWKHVDPHDVLQWKHGLUHFWVSHHFK
'LUHFW6SHHFK 5HSRUWHG6SHHFK
7RPVD\V¶0\IDWKHULVSRRU¶ 7RPVD\VWKDWKLVIDWKHULVSRRU
7RPZLOOVD\¶0\IDWKHULVSRRU¶ 7RPZLOOVD\WKDWKLVIDWKHULVSRRU

% ,VWKHWHQVHRIWKHLQWURGXFWRU\FODXVH
WKHSDVWWHQVH ,VDLG
WKHSDVWSHUIHFW ,KDGVDLG
WKHFRQGLWLRQDO, ,VKRXOGVD\
WKHFRQGLWLRQDO,, ,VKRXOGKDYHVDLG
WKH WHQVHV RI WKH GLUHFW VSHHFK H[FHSW WKH SDVW SHUIHFW  DUH FKDQJHG DV
LQGLFDWHGLQWKHIROORZLQJWDEOH
1RWH :KHQGLUHFWVSHHFKLVFKDQJHGLQWRUHSRUWHGVSHHFKVRPHDGYHUEVRIWLPHDUH
FKDQJHG
'LUHFW6SHHFK 5HSRUWHG6SHHFK
KHUH WKHUH
QRZ WKHQDWWKDWWLPH
ODVW\HDU ZHHN  WKH\HDUEHIRUHWKHSUHYLRXV\HDU
QH[W\HDU ZHHN  WKHIROORZLQJ\HDUWKH\HDUDIWHU
WRGD\ WKDWGD\
WRQLJKW WKDWQLJKW
\HVWHUGD\ WKHGD\EHIRUHWKHSUHYLRXVGD\
WRPRUURZ WKHQH[WGD\WKHIROORZLQJGD\
WKLVWKHVH WKDWWKRVH

1
sequence of tenses: Zeitenfolge
2
reported speech: indirekte Rede
3
introductory clause: einleitender Satz, hier: Hauptsatz

204 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 17 THE TENSES OF REPORTED SPEECH

 ,QWURGXFWRU\FODXVH 'LUHFW6SHHFK 5HSRUWHG6SHHFK


  *HRUJHDQVZHUHG
 *HRUJHKDGDQVZHUHG 3UHVHQWWHQVH 3DVWWHQVH
 *HRUJHZRXOGDQVZHU µ,HDWWKHDSSOH¶ WKDW KHDWHWKHDSSOH
 *ZRXOGKDYHDQVZHUHG
  *HRUJHDQVZHUHG 3UHVHQW3HUIHFW 3DVWSHUIHFW
 HWF µ,KDYHHDWHQWKHDSSOH¶ WKDW KHKDGHDWHQWKHDSSOH
  *HRUJHDQVZHUHG 3DVWWHQVH 3DVWSHUIHFW
 HWF µ,DWHWKHDSSOH¶ WKDW KHKDGHDWHQWKHDSSOH
  *HRUJHDQVZHUHG 3DVWSHUIHFW 3DVWSHUIHFW
 HWF µ,KDGHDWHQWKHDSSOH¶ WKDW KHKDGHDWHQWKHDSSOH
  *HRUJHDQVZHUHG )XWXUH, &RQGLWLRQDO,
 HWF µ,VKDOOHDWWKHDSSOH¶ WKDW KHZRXOGHDWWKHDSSOH
  *HRUJHDQVZHUHG )XWXUH,, &RQGLWLRQDO,,
 HWF µ,VKDOOKDYHHDWHQWKHDSSOH¶ WKDW KHZRXOGKDYHHDWHQWKHDSSOH
1RWH &RQGLWLRQDO, )XWXUHLQWKH3DVW
&RQGLWLRQDO,, )XWXUH3HUIHFWLQWKH3DVW


© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 205


Chapter 17 THE TENSES OF REPORTED SPEECH THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 17.2 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:

Present Tense o Past Tense


Example: He said: ’My father is poor.’ He said that his father was poor.
(a) ‘I am very tired today.’

(b) ‘Mary is better at English than George.’

(c) ‘The situation is very serious.’

(d) ‘Peter is going to follow you right away.’

(e) ‘There is a moon tonight.’

(f) ‘We are going to do it now.’

(g) ‘There is little hope for a bright summer this year.’

2nd exercise:

Past Tense o Past Perfect


Example: Mother said: ’His father was comparatively rich.’ Mother said that his father had
been comparatively rich.
(a) ‘The weather was extremely nice.’

(b) ‘The boy had not the faintest idea.’

(c) ‘The car broke down on our way to London.’

(d) ‘The result was absolutely wrong.’

(e) ‘The policeman arrested the wrong man.’

(f) ‘The bus driver lost his glasses.’

206 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 17 THE TENSES OF REPORTED SPEECH

3rd exercise:

Future I o Conditional I
Example: Peter had said: ’I shall see him next year.’ Peter had said that he would see him
the following year.
(a) ‘The weather will be nice tomorrow.’

(b) ‘George will go to Paris next year.’

(c) ‘Jane will finish school in May.’

(d) ‘Father will buy a new car in autumn.’

(e) ‘The weather won’t change the next few days.’

(f) ‘Peter will go to that party.’

4th exercise:
Indirect questions (with interrogatives = Fragepronomen)
Example: They asked me: ’How much does he earn?’ They asked me how much he earned..
(a) ‘When does John arrive?’

(b) ‘Where does he go after dinner?’

(c) ‘How old is Mary?’

(d) ‘How much did the car cost?’

(e) ‘When does the bus start?’

(f) ‘What shall we do with the drunken sailor?’

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 207


Chapter 17 THE TENSES OF REPORTED SPEECH THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

5th exercise:
Indirect questions
Example: Father asked me,’ Can you help me to wash the car?’ Father asked me if
(whether) I could help him to wash the car.
(a) ‘Do you write to your friend regularly?’

(b) ‘Have you been ill this year?’

(c) ‘Can I help you?’

(d) ‘Have you any money left?’

(e) ‘Do you remember the lady with the tremendous hat?’

(f) ‘Can anything be more beautiful?’

208 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 18

+2:72&+$1*(¶0867·
$1'7+(,03(5$7,9(,172
5(3257('63((&+
’Must’ und der Imperativ bei der Umwandlung in die indirekte Rede
Chapter 18 HOW TO CHANGE ‘MUST’ AND THE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
IMPERATIVE INTO REPORTED SPEECH

+2:72&+$1*(¶0867·
$1'7+(,03(5$7,9(,172
5(3257('63((&+
’Must’ und der Imperativ bei der Umwandlung in die indirekte Rede

 Text 1
Text A (Direct Speech)
George said, ‘Come and help me with my homework. Mother said that you must
help me because you are so good at maths1.’
Martin, ‘Show me the problem. Ah, yes. First of all you must write properly2.
You must not write in the margin3.’
5 George, ‘Well, that has nothing to do with solving4 the mathematical problem.’
Martin, ‘Remember that one must do a job properly and secondly you must pay
attention5 at school when your teacher is explaining the whole thing.’
George, ‘Go and tell that to somebody else. And besides6, you must also have
been doing something else during the lesson when you dealt7 with that problem
10 because you can’t do it either8.’

Text B (Reported Speech)


George said that Martin should come and help him with his homework. Their
mother had said that Martin should help George because he was so good at
maths. Martin asked George to show him the problem. First he told George that
he had to write properly and that he must not (was not to) write in the margin.
15 George answered that that had nothing to do with solving the mathematical
problem. Martin said that he should remember that one must do a job properly
and he added that secondly he had to pay attention at school when his teacher
was explaining the whole thing. George replied that Martin should go and tell
that to somebody else. He added that besides Martin must also have been doing
20 something else during the lesson when they dealt with that problem because he
could not do it either.

1
maths: mathematics
2
properly: ordentlich
3
in the margin: auf dem Rand
4
to solve: lösen
5
to pay attention to: aufpassen
6
besides: außerdem
7
to deal, dealt, dealt: behandeln
8
you can’t do it either: du kannst es auch nicht lösen

210 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 18 HOW TO CHANGE ‘MUST’ AND THE
IMPERATIVE INTO REPORTED SPEECH

 Text 2
Change this text into reported speech (after having read the first and the
second text).

George said, ‘I have to go at once to see Mr Brown about the fishing-rod1.’


Martin, ‘Come and help me in the garden. You promised to help me and you
mustn’t break your word.’
George, ‘Don’t remind2 me of my word. No, I mustn’t break my word and I
5 shan’t. Mr Brown has bought a fishing-rod especially for trout3 and I must see it.
Come back this afternoon and I’ll help you.’
Martin, ‘This afternoon there is a good film on TV and I mustn’t miss4 that.’
George, ‘Well, in that case5 we must do our work tomorrow.’
Martin, ‘Go and tell Father. Remember, you must be careful explaining the
10 situation because we have delayed6 the work several times7 already.’

1
fishing-rod: Angelrute
2
to remind s.o. of sthg.: jem. an etwas erinnern
3
trout: Forelle
4
to miss: verpassen
5
in that case: in dem Fall
6
to delay: verschieben
7
several times: mehrere Male

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 211


Chapter 18 HOW TO CHANGE ‘MUST’ AND THE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
IMPERATIVE INTO REPORTED SPEECH

 18.1 Grammar: How to Change ‘ Must’ and the Imperative


into Reported Speech

$ ¶0XVW¶FDQEHFKDQJHGLQWZRZD\V,WGHSHQGVZKHWKHU¶PXVW·UHIHUVWRWKH
SUHVHQWRUWRWKHIXWXUH
  3UHVHQWPXVW KDGWR
 +HVDLG¶,PXVWJRDWRQFH¶ +HVDLGWKDWKHKDGWRJRDWRQFH
  Future:must = should (would) have to
 +HVDLG¶,PXVWJRWRVHHKLPWRPRUURZ¶
 +HVDLGWKDWKHZRXOGKDYHWRVHHKLPWKHQH[WGD\

1RWH ¶0XVW·FDQDOVREHXVHGLQWKHSDVWLQUHSRUWHGVSHHFKLIWKHWHQVHLVLQGLFDWHGE\
WKHLQWURGXFWRU\ PDLQ FODXVH 
+HVDLGWKDWKHPXVWJRKRPHDWRQFH

% ¶0XVW QRW· FDQ EH FKDQJHG LQWR ¶ ZDV QRW WR· ,Q JHQHUDO SURKLELWLRQV
KRZHYHU¶PXVWQRW·LVQRWFKDQJHG
0\WHDFKHUVDLG¶<RXPXVWQRWIRUJHWWRGR\RXUKRPHZRUN¶

 0\WHDFKHUVDLGWKDW,ZDVQRWWRIRUJHWWRGRP\KRPHZRUN
*HQHUDO3URKLELWLRQ
 )DWKHUVDLG¶&KLOGUHQPXVWQRWDQVZHUEDFN¶
 )DWKHUVDLGWKDWFKLOGUHQPXVWQRWDQVZHUEDFN

1RWH ,QHYHU\GD\ODQJXDJH¶PXVWQRW·LVXVXDOO\QRWFKDQJHG
0\WHDFKHUVDLGWKDW,PXVWQRWIRUJHWWRGRP\KRPHZRUN

& 7KHLPSHUDWLYHFDQEHFKDQJHGLQWZRZD\V
7KHLPSHUDWLYHDIWHU¶WRVD\·LVFKDQJHGLQWR¶VKRXOG·
 7KHGULYHUVDLG¶7HOOPHZKHQ,KDYHWRWXUQULJKW¶
7KHGULYHUVDLGWKDWWKH\VKRXOGWHOOKLPZKHQWRWXUQULJKW
7KHLPSHUDWLYHDIWHUYHUEVRIFDXVLQJUHTXLULQJDQGDOORZLQJ LVFKDQJHGLQWRDGLUHFW


REMHFWZLWKLQILQLWLYH ZLWK¶WR· 

7KHWHDFKHURUGHUHG¶*RDQGZDVK\RXUKDQGV¶
7KHWHDFKHURUGHUHGKLPWRJRDQGZDVKKLVKDQGV

1
introductury clause: einleitender Satz, hier: Hauptsatz
2
general prohibition: allgemeines Verbot
3
imperative: Befehlsform
4
verbs of causing, requiring and allowing: Verben des Veranlassens,des Forderns und des Erlaubens

212 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 18 HOW TO CHANGE ‘MUST’ AND THE
IMPERATIVE INTO REPORTED SPEECH

 18.2 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Present (must o had to)
Example: He said: ’I must go at once.’ He said that he had to go at once.
(a) ‘I must help my father in the garden.’

(b) ‘I must phone John at once.’

(c) ‘I must tell you about the meeting.’

(d) ‘I must go to meet him now.’

(e) ‘I must be very careful with the china.’

(f) ‘I must inform them about the result.’

2nd exercise:
Future (must o should have to, would have to)
Example: He said: ’I must see him tomorrow.’
He said that he would have to see him the next day.
(a) ‘He must leave the country next month.’

(b) ‘I must return next week.’

(c) ‘Jane must pay back the money next month.’

(d) ‘John must return the book in a fortnight.’

(e) ’Jack must inform him tomorrow.’

(f) ‘Jill must cancel the order next Friday.’

1RWHIRUDQG µ0XVW¶FDQDOVREHXVHGLQWKHSDVWLQUHSRUWHGVSHHFKLIWKHWHQVHLV
LQGLFDWHGE\WKHLQWURGXFWRU\ PDLQ FODXVH
+HVDLGWKDWKHPXVWJRDWRQFH

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 213


Chapter 18 HOW TO CHANGE ‘MUST’ AND THE THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
IMPERATIVE INTO REPORTED SPEECH

3rd exercise:
Must not o was not to
Example: My teacher said: ’You must not forget to do your homework.’ My teacher said that
I was not to forget to do my homework.
(a) ‘You must not be impolite.’

(b) ‘You must not answer back.’

(c) ‘You must not be lazy.’

(d) ‘You must not forget to help your mother.’

(e) ‘You must not be naughty.’

(f) ‘You must not chat with your neighbour.’

(g) ‘You must not be careless with your money.’

4th exercise:
Must not o must not (general prohibition)
Example: Father said: ‘Children must not answer back.’ Father said that
children must not answer back.
(a) ‘Children must not spend too much money.’

(b) ‘Children must not stay up too long at night.’

(c) ‘Children must not be careless.’

(d) ‘Children must not forget to help their parents.’

(e) ‘Children must not neglect their homework.’

(f) ‘Children must not forget to wash every morning.’

(g) ‘Children must not be cheeky.’

214 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 18 HOW TO CHANGE ‘MUST’ AND THE
IMPERATIVE INTO REPORTED SPEECH

5th exercise:
The imperative after ‘to say‘ is changed into ‘should‘.
Example: Father said to them: ‘Tell me when I have to turn right.’ Father said to them that
they should tell him when to turn right.
(a) ‘Go and post the letter.’

(b) ‘Show me the newspaper article.’

(c) ‘Come and help me in the garden.’

(d) ‘Don’t tell me that story.’

(e) ‘Don’t forget to write.’

(f) ‘Don’t forget your things in the youth hostel.’

(g) ‘Try to be helpful whenever you can.’

6th exercise:
The imperative after verbs of causing, requiring and allowing is changed
into a direct object with infinitive (with ‘to’)
Example: The teacher ordered him: ‘Go and wash your hands.’ The teacher ordered him to
go and wash his hands.
(a) ‘Don’t do such a thing.’

(b) ‘Don’t forget to inform Peter.’

(c) ‘Inform the girls about the trip.’

(d) ‘Open the door.’

(e) ‘Go and get some chalk.’

(f) ‘Don’t forget the letter.’

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 215


Chapter 19

5(/$7,9(&/$86(6
Relativsätze
Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

5(/$7,9(&/$86(6
Relativsätze

 Text 1
Dear Peter,
this time I want to tell you something about English food, which is so often
talked about on the Continent1. Summing up2 all the prejudices3 (that/which) I
heard before going to England one would imagine4 that the English live
5 exclusively5 on toast and tea and are extremely slim6. However the English
people (whom) I see here every day are neither extremely slim nor do they tend
to the other extreme, and fortunately toast is not the only food (that/which) they
eat. To give you an impression of what the English eat let me begin by
describing an English breakfast. Along with the toast, which one gets every
10 morning goes a fried egg7 and a slice of fried bacon8. You see, the English do in
fact like a hearty9 breakfast which/that gives them a good start to the day.
Instead of porridge10, which in former days was part of the English breakfast,
it’s corn-flakes (which/that) you find most often nowadays.
And then there is the inevitable11 cup of tea, (which) my hostess12 knows how to
15 prepare brilliantly. The English drink their tea with milk, which gives the tea a
marvellous taste13. I wish somebody would invent big tins in which I could send
tea ready prepared to Germany.
The tea which/ that is prepared in Germany tastes different, and there is nothing
that/which can beat good English tea! The breakfast is rounded off14 with one or
20 two slices of bread with butter and marmalade or jam15. It is white bread with
butter and marmalade which/that I call a real delicacy16. He who has had such a
breakfast feels fit to do really great things in the morning – or a least fit to start
them.
1
Continent: Europäisches Festland
2
to sum up: zusammenfassen
3
prejudice: Vorurteil
4
to imagine sthg.: sich etw. vorstellen
5
exclusively: ausschließlich
6
slim: schlank
7
fried egg: gebratenes Ei
8
a slice of fried bacon: Scheibe gebratenen Schinkens
9
hearty: hier: herzhaft
10
porridge: Haferbrei
11
inevitable: unvermeidbar
12
hostess: Gastgeberin
13
marvellous taste: wunderbarer Geschmack
14
to round off: abrunden
15
marmalade: (Orangen-)Marmelade, jam: (Frucht-)Marmelade
16
delicacy: Delikatesse

218 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES

 19.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Connect two sentences by a relative pronoun:
Example: Peter is sitting in a chair. He is fond of reading.
Peter, who is fond of reading, is sitting in a chair.
(1) I want to tell you something about English food. It is often talked about
on the Continent.

(2) With the toast goes a fried egg and a slice of fried bacon. Peter gets toast
every morning.

(3) Peter gets a lovely cup of tea every morning. The hostess knows how to
prepare it.

(4) The English drink their tea with milk. It gives the tea a marvellous taste.

(5) The tea tastes different. It is prepared in Germany.

2nd exercise:
Put the correct relative pronouns into the second and
third text. Find out where to use a comma and where
the relative pronoun can be omitted (to omit: auslassen).

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 219


Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 2
Dear Peter,
this time I want to tell you something about English food, ___________ is so
often talked about on the Continent. Summing up all the prejudices
___________ I heard before going to England one would imagine that the
5 English live exclusively on toast and tea and are extremely slim. However the
English people ___________ I see here every day are neither extremely slim nor
do they tend to the other extreme, and fortunately toast is not the only food
___________ they eat. To give you an impression ___________ the English eat
let me begin by describing an English breakfast. Along with the toast,
10 ___________ one gets every morning goes a fried egg and a slice of fried bacon.
You see, the English do in fact like a hearty breakfast ___________ gives them
a good start to the day. Instead of porridge, ___________ in former days was
part of the English breakfast, it’s corn-flakes ___________ you find most often
nowadays.
15 And then there is the inevitable cup of tea, ___________ my hostess knows how
to prepare brilliantly. The English drink their tea with milk, ___________ gives
the tea a marvellous taste. I wish somebody would invent big tins ___________
I could send tea ready prepared to Germany.
The tea ___________ is prepared in Germany tastes different, and there is
20 nothing ___________ can beat good English tea! The breakfast is rounded off
with one or two slices of bread with butter and marmalade or jam. It is white
bread with butter and marmalade ___________ I call a real delicacy. He
___________ has had such a breakfast feels fit to do really great things in the
morning – or a least fit to start them.
25

220 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES

 Text 3
The next meal ___________ is served1 is lunch. The meat and the potatoes taste
the same as in Germany. The potatoes, ___________ the English only eat in
small quantities2 are cooked or baked in the oven3. The thing ___________
makes all the difference from German lunch is the vegetables4.
5 They are cooked in water and prepared without any flour5. Peas ___________
keep rolling off your fork can be either funny or just a nuisance6. Though the
lunch ___________ I get here tastes different from ___________ I get at home,
English food is in my opinion more like our food than that of Southern
Germany. One meal ___________ seems to be regarded outside England as the
10 national dish7, but ___________ in any case is typically English, is fish and
chips. An England where one could not buy this delicacy would be suffering8 a
national disaster9. Fish and chips, ___________ is a cheap meal can be bought
in many shops all over nearly any town. At lunch time you may often see people
walking around with bags or packages10, ___________ are wrapped11 in
15 newspaper to keep the contents12 warm. For holiday makers13 ___________ like
to stay on the beach to enjoy the sun it is the ideal meal. In the late afternoon a
hearty tea is served, ___________ might consist of a salad, some slices of bread
or some cake and again a good cup of tea.

1
to be served: serviert werden
2
quantity: Menge
3
oven: (Back-) Ofen
4
vegetable: Gemüse
5
flour: Mehl
6
nuisance: Ärgernis
7
national dish: Nationalgericht
8
to suffer: erleiden
9
national disaster: nationale Katastrophe
10
bags or packages: Tüten oder Pakete
11
to wrap: einwickeln
12
contents: Inhalt
13
holiday maker: Urlauber

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 221


Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

20 You can see that the meals ___________ one can have here are another point in
favour of14 a visit to England. For those ___________ are willing to explore15,
as regards16 differences in food, it is quite worthwhile17.

Yours,

Martin

14
in favour of sthg.: für etw. sein
15
to explore: auskundschaften
16
as regards: hinsichtlich
17
worthwhile: lohnend

222 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES

 19.2 Grammar: Relative Clauses


$ 7KHUHODWLYHSURQRXQVUHODWLQJWRSHUVRQVDQGWKLQJVDUH

 1RQGHILQLQJUHODWLYHFODXVHV 'HILQLQJUHODWLYHFODXVHV
 3HUVRQV 7KLQJV 3HUVRQV 7KLQJV
6XEMHFW ZKR ZKLFK ZKRWKDW ZKLFKWKDW
*HQLWLYH ZKRVH RIZKLFKZKRVH ZKRVH RIZKLFKZKRVH
$FFXVDWLYH ZKRP ZKLFK ZKRPWKDW  ZKLFKWKDW 
  
:LWKSUHSRVLWLRQV RIZKRP RIZKLFK RIZKRP RIZKLFK
 WRZKRP WRZKLFK WRZKRP WRZKLFK
  ZKRP RI ZKLFK RI
  ZKRP WR ZKLFK WR

1RWH D 'RQ·WSODFHDSUHSRVLWLRQLQIURQWRIWKHUHODWLYHSURQRXQ¶WKDW·
E ¶7KDW·LVQHDUO\DOZD\VXVHGDIWHU
L PXFKDQ\DOOHYHU\OLWWOHIHZQRVRPHWKLQJDQ\WKLQJQRWKLQJ
LL WKHILUVWWKHODVWWKHRQO\
7KHUHZDVPXFKWKDWFRXOGEHGRQH

% 7KHUHDUHWZRNLQGVRIUHODWLYHFODXVHV

  1RQ'HILQLQJ5HODWLYH&ODXVH 


 7KHFRQGXFWRULQWKHEXVZKRVPLOHGDW\RXLQVXFKDNLQGZD\LVRXUQHLJKERXU
 
 1RQGHILQLQJUHODWLYHFODXVHVFDQEHRPLWWHG 7KHPDLQFODXVHFDQEHXQGHUVWRRGZLWKRXWWKH


 UHODWLYHFODXVH
 The conductor in the bus is our neighbour.
  'HILQLQJ5HODWLYH&ODXVHV
 $OOWKHPHQZKRWKDWZHUHVWDQGLQJLQIURQWRIWKHKRXVHDUHP\EURWKHUV
 
 ,7KHUHODWLYHFODXVHFDQQRWEHRPLWWHGZLWKRXWFKDQJLQJWKHVHQVH
 ,,1HDUO\DOOWKHUHODWLYHFODXVHVLQHYHU\GD\ODQJXDJHDUHGHILQLQJUHODWLYHFODXVHV
 ,,,,QGHILQLQJUHODWLYHFODXVHVWKHUHODWLYHSURQRXQLVLQWHUFKDQJHDEOH ZLWKµWKDW¶


 ,9'HILQLQJUHODWLYHFODXVHVKDYHQRFRPPD
 
 1RWHIRU,,,DQG,9 $OOWKHKRXVHVZKLFKWKDWVWDQGDWWKHHQGRIWKHVWUHHWDUHYHU\
 ROG

1
to relate to: sich beziehen auf
2
non-defining relative clause: schmückender, nicht notwendiger Relativsatz
3
to omit: auslassen
4
interchangeable: austauschbar

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 223


Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

& 3UHSRVLWLRQVLQ5HODWLYH&ODXVHV
3UHSRVLWLRQVFDQHLWKHUEHXVHGLQIURQWRIWKHUHODWLYHSURQRXQV QRW¶WKDW· RUDIWHUWKH
YHUE

'R\RXNQRZWKHPDQWRZKRP\RXUEURWKHUVSRNH\HVWHUGD\"
RU'R\RXNQRZWKHPDQZKRP\RXUEURWKHUVSRNHWR\HVWHUGD\"

' 7KH2PLVVLRQRIWKH5HODWLYH3URQRXQV

5HODWLYHSURQRXQVFDQEHRPLWWHGLQGHILQLQJUHODWLYHFODXVHVLI
 L WKHUHODWLYHSURQRXQLVWKHDFFXVDWLYHREMHFWRIWKHUHODWLYHFODXVH
LL WKHSUHSRVLWLRQFDQEHSODFHGDIWHUWKHYHUE
(YHU\GD\ODQJXDJHSUHIHUVWKHRPLVVLRQRIWKHUHODWLYHSURQRXQ
 'R\RXNQRZWKHPDQ ZKRP ZHVDZ\HVWHUGD\"
RU'R\RXNQRZWKHPDQ ZKRP \RXUEURWKHUVSRNHWR\HVWHUGD\"

( ¶:KDW·DV5HODWLYH3URQRXQ
 ¶:KDW·LVXVHGDVUHODWLYHSURQRXQLQWKHVHQVHRI
 DOOWKDW
 WKDWZKLFK
 DOO WKHWKDW
,DPKDSS\DERXWZKDW  WKDWZKLFK \RXWROGPH
,¶OOWHOO\RXZKDW  DOOWKDW ,NQRZ
,JDYHKLPZKDW  DOOWKHPRQH\WKDW ,KDG

5
omission: Auslassung

224 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES

 19.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
Who (that) referring to persons (general exercise)
Example: ‘What do you call a person who can drive a car?’ – ‘Well, a person who can drive
a car is a driver.’
(a) to type a letter – shorthand typist

(b) to teach children – teacher

(c) to repair cars – mechanic

(d) to translate foreign texts – interpreter

(e) to write a book – writer

(f) to cure ill people – doctor

(g) to make other people laugh – comedian

2nd exercise:
Which (that) referring to things (general exercise)
Example: ‘What are you going to do with the spade which (that) used to stand in the shed?’ –
‘Oh, I’ll give it to our neighbour.’
(a) lawn-mower – in the garage – to give to Aunt Margery

(b) vacuum-cleaner – in the attic ( Boden) – to give to your mother

(c) lamp – in the front-room – to give to my cousin

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 225


Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

(d) candle-stick (Leuchter) – on the mantel-piece (Kaminsims) – to give to Jill

(e) old books – on the shelf (Regal) – to give to John

(f) flower-pots (Blumentöpfe) – on the window-sill (Fensterbrett) – to throw away

(g) sculpture – on the cupboard – to give to the second-hand dealer (Trödler)

3rd exercise:
Defining Relative Clauses
Example: ‘When do you meet the man again?’ ‘Which man?’ ‘The man who used to do your
garden.’ ‘Oh, I’ll meet him next week.’
(a) woman – to clean your house – next Friday

(b) boy – to do your shopping – tomorrow

(c) girl – to help you in the house – next month

(d) man –to paint the doors – tonight in the pub

(e) mechanic – to repair your car – next week-end

(f) the nurse – to look after you – to marry

226 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES

4th exercise:
Non-defining Relative Clauses
Example: ‘Do you remember Mr Brown, who has always been so kind to us?’ – ‘Yes, he sent
a card to me last week.’
(a) Mrs Parish – talkative (gesprächig) – to phone me yesterday

(b) Mr Amos – friendly – to see him last summer

(c) Mrs Taylor – proud – to buy a car last month

(d) Mr Thomson – envious (neidisch) – to be still the same

(e) Jeremy – smart – to be married now

(f) Barbara – polite – to live in another town

(g) David – arrogant – to fail his exam (durch die Prüfung fallen)

1RWH 1RQGHILQLQJUHODWLYHFODXVHVKDYHFRPPDV

5th exercise:
Prepositions in Relative Clauses
Example: ‘Do you still have the old coat (that/which) you used to put on?’ – ‘Oh, yes. I still
have that old coat I used to put on.’
(a) the old clock – we, to look at

(b) the old photos – we, to laugh at

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 227


Chapter 19 RELATIVE CLAUSES THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

(c) the toy cars – we, to play with

(d) to tell the old jokes – we, to laugh at

(e) the old armchair – we, to sit in

(f) that funny hat – you, to put on

(g) those nice books – we, to go to bed with

1RWH 7KHUHODWLYHSURQRXQVFDQEHOHIWRXWLQGHILQLQJUHODWLYHFODXVHVLIWKHUHODWLYH
SURQRXQLVLQWKHREMHFWFDVH

6th exercise:
‘Whose’ referring to persons and things
Example: ‘Do you see the house?’ ‘Which house?’ – ‘The house whose windows are open.’
(a) car – the tyres (Reifen), white

(b) man – the hat, green

(c) boy – the trousers, blue

(d) house – the roof, grey

(e) ship – the masts, white

(f) girl – dress, red

(g) woman – coat, white

228 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


Chapter 20

35(326,7,216
Präpositionen
Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

35(326,7,216
Präpositionen

 Text 1
Tonio was 13 when he first went with his parents to a foreign country. At first
he and his family stayed in a big town, and Tonio was quite happy going to
school with boys and girls from his native country1, who were all eager to learn
the language of the country in which they were staying at that time. But then his
5 father, who was a mechanic2, changed his job, and his family moved3 to a small
village where his father started to work in a garage. As there was no school for
foreigners4 in the neighbourhood5 Tonio had to attend6 the local school. On his
first day at school the teacher took him by the arm and brought him to the front
of the class. Turning to the boys and girls, he said, ‘I’ve brought you a new
10 class-mate7. His name is Tonio.’ ‘Aha, spaghetti’, said a big boy, who was
sitting in the back row8. When the boys and girls went out during the break9 they
stood in a semicircle10 round Tonio who was standing with his back against a
wall. He did not know the language of his new classmates well enough to be
able to talk so that he did not know what he could say to them. Besides, they did
15 not speak to him. They just stood there, staring at11 him. Though he was
surrounded12 by children he felt utterly lonely13. In the afternoon he caught sight
of14 some boys from his form playing football on the green. After watching them
for quite a while, he timidly15 went up to them and asked them whether he could
play with them. Peter, the biggest of them, the boy who had called him
20 ‘spaghetti’ at school, answered curtly16, ‘Don’t you see that we have already
enough players?’ So Tonio sat down at the edge17 of the green and watched
them. Then after a while they suddenly stopped playing football and one of them

1
native country: Geburtsland
2
mechanic: Mechaniker
3
to move to: umziehen nach
4
foreigner: Ausländer
5
neighbourhood: Nähe
6
to attend a school: eine Schule besuchen
7
class-mate: Klassenkamerad
8
back row: hinterste Reihe
9
break: Pause
10
semicircle: Halbkreis
11
to stare at: anstarren
12
surrounded: umgeben
13
utterly lonely: fürchterlich einsam
14
to catch sight of: sehen, erblicken
15
timidly: schüchtern
16
curtly: kurz, barsch
17
at the edge: am Rand

230 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS

suggested18, ’Let’s go for a swim in the lake19.’ The boys ran away in all
directions to fetch their bicycles and their things.
25 Tonio asked one of them, who passed him and looked at him angrily, ’May I
come with you for a swim?’ The answer was shattering20, ’We don’t want you.
And besides you haven’t got a bicycle to go with us to the lake.’

18
to suggest: vorschlagen
19
lake: See
20
shattering: niederschmetternd

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 231


Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 20.1 Exercises

1st exercise:
Find out the right prepositions. Read the compilation (Zusammenstellung)
of prepositional expressions (präpositionale Ausdrücke) first:
(1) I met him ____ (at/on) the post-office.
(2) My friend was not ____ (in/at) home.
(3) ____ (In/At) that moment the door was opened.
(4) There were clouds ____ (at/in) the sky.
(5) I met him ____ (on/at) my way home.
(6) The picture hangs ____ (on/at) the wall.
(7) He answered ____ (in/with) a low voice.
(8) ____ (On/In) my opinion he is an excellent artist.
(9) We went to Brighton ____ (at/on) a fine day.
(10) He answered ____ (in/with) a friendly manner.
(11) He opened the letter ____ (by/on) mistake.
(12) The policeman was ____ (on/at) duty.
(13) He opened the door ____ (on/by) force.
(14) He paid for the car ____ (in/by) instalments (Raten).
(15) It is 5 o’clock ____ (with/by) my watch.

2nd exercise:
Put the right prepositions into the second text.
3rd exercise:
Put the following prepositions into the third text:
at, against, behind, before, beside, during, down, for, in front, into, in, on,
of, out, to, with, outside.

232 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS

 Text 2
Tonio was 13 when he first went ____ his parents to a foreign country. ____
first he and his family stayed ____ a big town, and Tonio was quite happy going
to school ____ boys and girls ____ his native country, who were all eager to
learn the language ____ the country in which they were staying ____ that time.
5 But then his father, who was a mechanic, changed his job, and his family moved
____ a small village where his father started to work ____ a garage. As there
was no school ____ foreigners in the neighbourhood Tonio had to attend the
local school. ____ his first day at school the teacher took him ____ the arm and
brought him ____ the front of the class. Turning ____ the boys and girls, he
10 said, ‘I’ve brought you a new class-mate. His name is Tonio.’ ‘Aha, spaghetti’,
said a big boy, who was sitting in the back row. When the boys and girls went
out during the break they stood ____ a semicircle round Tonio who was
standing with his back ____ a wall. He did not know the language ____ his new
classmates well enough to be able to talk so that he did not know what he could
15 say ____ them. Besides, they did not speak ____ him. They just stood there,
staring ____ him. Though he was surrounded ____ children he felt utterly
lonely. ____ the afternoon he caught sight ____ some boys ____ his form
playing football ____ the green. After watching them ____ quite a while, he
timidly went ____ to them and asked them whether he could play ____ them.
20 Peter, the biggest ____ them, the boy who had called him ‘spaghetti’ at school,
answered curtly, ‘Don’t you see that we have already enough players?’ So Tonio
sat down ____ the edge of the green and watched them. Then ____ a while they
suddenly stopped playing football and one of them suggested, ‘Let’s go ____ a
swim ____ the lake.’ The boys ran away ____ all directions to fetch their
25 bicycles and their things. Tonio asked one of them, who passed him and looked
____ him angrily, ‘May I come with you for a swim?’ The answer was
shattering, ‘We don’t want you. And besides you haven’t got a bicycle to go
____ us to the lake.’

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 233


Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 Text 3
Tonio came home, terribly dejected1. His mother realized2 ____ once by the
look ____ his face that he was very disappointed3. But she did not say a word
____ him since she thought it better to leave the boys to sort out4 their own
relationships5 among themselves.
5 When school was over ____ the following day a bunch6 ____ boys and girls
followed Tonio, making fun ____ him. One ____ the girls shouted, ‘He, Tonio,
they say that the people ____ Sicily7 are dirty and they don’t wash. Do you wash
your ears and neck every morning?’ There was an outburst ____ loud laughter8.
Peter, who was now walking ____ Tonio, nudged9 him ____ his elbow. When
10 Tonio went further down the street, the shouting of the children following him
had gradually10 died ____, because some of them had already gone home. ____
last only he and Peter were walking down the street. Peter stopped ____ his
parents’ house, shouting, ‘Good-bye, Mr Maccaroni. Tomorrow we’ll have more
____ this!’ Tonio shouted back, ‘I’ll tell you what, I’m going to tell my father
15 what you did and said ____ me. How unfairly I’ve been treated11 ____ all of
you.’ ‘Your father? Ha, ha, what can such a funny creature12 do ____ me?’

1
terribly dejected: fürchterlich niedergeschlagen, verzweifelt
2
to realize: hier: merken
3
disappointed: enttäuscht
4
to sort out: eine Lösung finden
5
relationship: Beziehung
6
bunch of boys: Gruppe Jungen
7
Sicily: Sizilien
8
outburst of laughter: Gelächterausbruch
9
to nudge: knuffen
10
gradually: allmählich
11
to treat: behandeln
12
funny creature: hier: komische Figur

234 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS

That was the last straw13 that broke the camel’s back14. Now that he was alone
____ Peter he could not endure15 the humiliation16 any longer. As quick as
lightning17 he went ____ Peter. Peter was the stronger ____ the two but Tonio
20 was much quicker. ____ Peter could do anything he was pushed ____ the
ground, and Tonio was sitting ____ his knees ____ Peter’s chest18, hammering
Peter’s face ____ his fists. But Tonio’s anger19 was soon over now that he was
sitting ____ top of Peter. He felt terrible when he was smashing20 Peter’s face.
He was doing just the opposite21 ____ what he wanted to do. He did not want to
25 fight, he wanted to have a friend.
Peter, who was looking ____ Tonio’s face ____ the first time, saw that Tonio
felt miserable, that there was no expression of hatred22 ____ Tonio’s face. All
____ a sudden Tonio stood up, looked ____ Peter ____ an instant23 and then,
____ Peter could say a word, he ran away.
30 The next morning ____ Tonio went to school he felt awful24. He was sure Peter
would take revenge25, and all his friends would help him. But Tonio had no
friends. If he had only one, it would have been much easier ____ him to go ____
school. When Tonio entered the classroom, Peter was already sitting ____ his
desk26, scribbling27 ____ a piece of paper. ____ Tonio’s surprise Peter behaved28
35 as if he had not seen him coming ____.

13
straw: Strohhalm
14
the camel’s back: Rücken des Kameles
15
to endure: ertragen
16
humiliation: Erniedrigung
17
lightning: Blitz
18
chest: Brustkorb
19
anger :Zorn
20
to smash: schlagen, ‘demolieren’
21
the opposite: das Gegenteil
22
expression of hatred: Ausdruck von Haß
23
instant: kurzer Augenblick
24
awful: gräßlich
25
to take revenge: Rache nehmen
26
desk: Schultisch
27
to scribble: kritzeln
28
to behave: sich benehmen

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 235


Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

____ the lesson Tonio noticed Peter was looking ____ him ____ of the corner of
his eye29. When the bell rang all the boys and girls ran ____.
The boys formed two teams ____ a game of football. Tonio was leaning30 ____
the wall, not daring31 to ask whether he could play along ____ them. Suddenly
40 Peter shouted ____ to him, ’He, Tonio, come ____ to our side. Or don’t you
want to play football ____ us?’
Tonio was smiling all ____ his face. Of course he wanted to and he did.

29
out of the corner of his eye: aus den Augenwinkeln
30
to lean: lehnen
31
to dare: wagen

236 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS

 20.2 Grammar: Prepositions


$ +HUH DUH D QXPEHU RI SUHSRVLWLRQDO H[SUHVVLRQV ZKLFK RXJKW WR EH UHDG
FDUHIXOO\
DW UHIHUULQJWRSODFH 
,PHWKLPDWWKHSRVWRIILFH DWWKHVWDWLRQDWP\XQFOH¶VDWWKHKRXVHRIDIULHQG 
+HKDGDKRXVHDWWKHVHDVLGH+HWXUQHGOHIWDWWKHFRUQHURIWKHURDG
0\IULHQGZDVQRWDWKRPH+HORVWKLVOLIHDWVHD $XI6HH 
 <RXZLOOILQGWKHVHQWHQFHDWWKHWRSRIWKHSDJH DWWKHERWWRPRI XQWHQ 
7KHKRXVHVWRRGDWWKHWRS DWWKHERWWRP RIWKHKLOO DWWKHIRRWRI DP)X‰HGHV 
DWWDEOHDWDFRQIHUHQFHDWKDQG LQGHU1lKH 
DWFRXUW EHL+RIH DWVFKRRO LP8QWHUULFKW 
:HVDZWKHILUHIURPDGLVWDQFHRIPLOHV
DW UHIHUULQJWRWLPH 
DWR¶FORFNDWODVW HQGOLFK DW&KULVWPDV
,FDXJKWKLPDWWKHODVWPRPHQW+HSDVVHGWKHH[DPDWWKHDJHRI
DWOHDVW ZHQLJVWHQV 
:HVKDOOVWDUWDWGDZQ DWVXQULVH  0LWGHU0RUJHQGlPPHUXQJ 
DWGXVN DWVXQVHW  EHL$EHQGGlPPHUXQJ 
$WWKDWPRPHQWWKHGRRURSHQHG
$WQRRQDWDQ\WLPHDWILUVWDWQLJKW EXWE\GD\ DWRQFHDWSUHVHQW MHW]W 
 +HUHFRJQL]HGKLPDWILUVWVLJKW $XIGHQHUVWHQ%OLFN 
<RXFDQRQO\KDYHWZRDSSOHVDWDWLPH ]ZHLDXIHLQPDO 
7KHFRXQWULHVZHUHDWZDUZLWKHDFKRWKHU
:HDUHDWOLEHUW\WRLQYLWHKLPRUQRW (VVWHKWXQVIUHL 
:KHQ,DVNHGKLPKHZDVDWDORVV LQ9HUOHJHQKHLW 
WROLHDWDQFKRU YRU$QNHUOLHJHQ 
WREHJRRG EDG DWPDWKV JXWRGHUVFKOHFKWVHLQLQHLQHP)DFK 
,PHWKLPDWWLPHV  VRPHWLPHV 
+HZDVYHU\LOODWWKDWWLPH$WWKHVDPHWLPH ]XUJOHLFKHQ=HLW 
LQ UHIHUULQJWRSODFH 
,Q+DPEXUJLQWKHNLWFKHQLQWKHILHOG DXIGHP)HOG 
7KHUHDUHFORXGVLQWKHVN\ DP+LPPHO 
,QWKHVWUHHW DXIGHU6WD‰H LQWKHSLFWXUH DXIGHP%LOG 

+HOLYHGLQWKHFRXQWU\ DXIGHP/DQGH ,Q RQ WKH,VOHRI0DQ
+HZDVZDLWLQJLQWKHPDUNHWSODFH
7KH\PHWKLPLQWKHVFKRRO LP6FKXOJHElXGH 
,QFRXUW YRU*HULFKW 7KHFDUGLVDSSHDUHGLQWKHGLVWDQFH ,QGHU)HUQH 

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 237


Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

LQ UHIHUULQJWRWLPH 
+HVWDUWHGLQWKHPRUQLQJ EXWRQWKHPRUQLQJRIKLVELUWKGD\ 
LQWKHDXWXPQLQPLQXWHVLQLQWKHHQG VFKOLH‰OLFK 

,QWKHEHJLQQLQJKHGLGQRWVD\DZRUG DQIDQJV  %XWDWWKHEHJLQQLQJRIWKHVWRU\ 
+HZDVEDFNLQDPLQXWH LP1X ,QDVKRUWWLPH LQNXU]HU=HLW 
,QWKHUHLJQRI.LQJ-RKQ ]XU5HJLHUXQJV]HLWYRQ 
LQ UHIHUULQJWRPDQQHU $UWXQG:HLVH 
:HOHIWWKHSXELQJRRGKXPRXU LQJXWHU/DXQH +HDQVZHUHGLQDORZYRLFH
,QWKLVZD\ DXIGLHVH$UW LQDIULHQGO\PDQQHU DXIIUHXQGOLFKH$UW 

+HDUUDQJHGDSDUW\LQKRQRXURIKLVIULHQG
,QKLVRZQZRUGV PLWVHLQHQHLJHQHQ:RUWHQ LQDKXUU\ LQ(LOH 
LQP\RSLQLRQ QDFKPHLQHU0HLQXQJ LQILQHZHDWKHULQDOOGLUHFWLRQV LQDOOH5LFKWXQJHQ 
RQ UHIHUULQJWRWLPH 
+HPHWKLPRQ0RQGD\ RQ-DQXDU\WK 
 2QWKHPRUQLQJRIKLVPDUULDJH
,VKDOOFRQWDFWKLPRQP\DUULYDO EHLPHLQHU$QNXQIW 2QWKLVRFFDVLRQ DXVGLHVHP$QOD‰ 
:HPXVWJRRXWRQDILQHGD\OLNHWKLV2QDGDUNQLJKW LQGXQNOHU1DFKW 
RQ UHIHUULQJWRSODFH 
RQWKHWDEOHRQWKHIORRU
7KHSLFWXUHKDQJVRQWKHZDOO DQGHU:DQG 2QDIDUPRQWKHOHIW KDQG  OLQNV 
+HKDVKLVIODWRQWKHILUVWIORRU

7KHWRZQLVVLWXDWHGRQDULYHU ODNH   DQHLQHP)OX‰6HH 
,KDYHDKRXVHRQWKHFRDVW
2QDOOVLGHVRQDWULS MRXUQH\   DXIHLQHU5HLVH 
,PHWKLPRQP\ZD\KRPH

RQ LQRWKHUSUHSRVLWLRQDOH[SUHVVLRQV 
&RPHRQ YRUZlUWV IURPQRZ WKHQ RQ
+RZDUH\RXJHWWLQJRQWKHVHGD\V" :LHJHKW¶V" 
+ROGRQDPRPHQW  DP7HOHIRQHLQHQ$XJHQEOLFNELWWH 
2QFRQGLWLRQWKDW XQWHUGHU%HGLQJXQJGD‰ JRRQ IDKUIRUW 

RQSULQFLSOH DXV3ULQ]LS RQSXUSRVH DEVLFKWOLFK 
RQWKHFRQWUDU\ LP*HJHQWHLO 
RQDQDYHUDJH LP'XUFKVFKQLWW 
RQWKHZKROH LPJUR‰HQJDQ]HQ 
RQGXW\ LP'LHQVW RQKROLGD\ LQ)HULHQ RQOHDYH DXI8UODXE 

E\ UHIHUULQJWRWLPH 
,KDYHWRSD\WKHELOO 5HFKQXQJ E\0DUFKVW ELVVSlWHVWHQV 
E\WKHQ ELVGDKLQ <RXVKRXOGKDYHGRQHLWE\QRZ LQ]ZLVFKHQ 

%\WKHZRUNVKDGSURGXFHGPLOOFDUV
'D\E\GD\ 7DJIU7DJ E\WKHZD\ EULJHQV 
7KH\GLHGPDQE\PDQ 0DQQIU0DQQ 

238 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS

E\ LQRWKHUSUHSRVLWLRQDOH[SUHVVLRQV 
,PHWKLPE\FKDQFH ]XIlOOLJ 
6KHLV(QJOLVKE\ELUWK YRQ*HEXUW 
%\PLVWDNH HUURU   YHUVHKHQWOLFK E\QDWXUH YRQ1DWXUDXV 
+HRSHQHGWKHGRRUE\IRUFH PLW*HZDOW 
 %\PHDQVRI PLWWHOV E\DOOPHDQV XQWHUDOOHQ8PVWlQGHQ 
+HZDVE\QRPHDQVDEDGFKDUDFWHU NHLQHVZHJV 
%\IDU EHLZHLWHP E\SURIHVVLRQ WUDGH   YRQ%HUXI 
E\P\ZDWFK QDFKPHLQHU8KU E\RUGHURI DXI%HIHKOYRQ 
+HSDLGWKHFDUE\LQVWDOPHQWV DXI5DWHQ 
%\GHJUHHV DOOPlKOLFK E\DFFLGHQW ]XIlOOLJ 
RXW RXWRI  LQSUHSRVLWLRQDOH[SUHVVLRQV 
0U%URZQLVRXW QLFKW]X+DXVH +HVKRZHGKLPWKHZD\RXW $XVJDQJ 
7KH\VPRNHGRXWRIGRRUV GUDX‰HQ 7KHNQLIHOD\RXWRIUHDFK DX‰HU5HLFKZHLWH 
2XWRIVLJKWRXWRIPLQG $XVGHQ$XJHQDXVGHP6LQQ 
7KHQH[WKRXVHZDVRXWRIVLJKW DX‰HU6LFKW 
:HUHDFKHGWKHWRSRIWKHKLOORXWRIEUHDWK DX‰HU$WHP 

:HZDWFKHGWKHILUHIURPZKHUHZHZHUHRXWRIGDQJHU
7KHPDFKLQHZDVRXWRIGDWH YHUDOWHW 
7KHWLFNHWPDFKLQHZDVRXWRIRUGHU NDSXWW 
7KDWLVRXWRIWKHTXHVWLRQ DX‰HU)UDJH 
,PHWKLPVRPHZD\RXW GUDX‰HQ 
+HKDGDGD\RXW 7DJHVDXVIOXJ 

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 239


Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

 20.3 Additional Exercises

1st exercise:
At (referring to place)
Example: ‘Where did you meet him?’ ‘I met him at the post-office.’
(a) to see him – at the seaside

(b) to want to meet him – at the corner of the road

(c) to find the article in the newspaper – at the top of the page

(d) to find the house – at the top of the hill

(e) he, to lose his life – at sea

(f) he, to hide – at home

2nd exercise:
At (referring to time)
Example: ‘When did the accident happen?’ ‘It happened at dawn.’
(a) He, to pass the exam – at the age of 16

(b) he, to reach the bus – at the last moment

(c) he, to recognize the robber – at first sight

(d) he, to be allowed to go – at liberty to go at once

(e) he, to be maimed (verstümmeln) – in the war

(f) the house, to be watched – at night

(g) he, to want to leave – at once

240 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS

3rd exercise:
In (referring to place)
Example: ‘Where did you see the flying object (fliegendes Objekt) ?’ ‘I saw it in the sky.’
(a) the fast car – in the street

(b) the beautiful house – in the country

(c) the cheap vegetables – in the market place

(d) the old castle – in (on) the Isle of Wight

(e) the old oak tree – in the field

(f) the crippled boy – in the garden

(g) the cloud of smoke – in the distance

4th exercise:
In (referring to time)
Example: ‘When did you help him?’ ‘I helped him in the evening.’
(a) to see him – in the morning

(b) to go to America – in the autumn

(c) to start teaching English – in 1964

(d) he, to give his consent (Zustimmung) – in the end

(e) he, to be back – in a minute

(f) he, to read the book – in the spring of last year

(g) the historical event, to happen – in the reign of King John

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 241


Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

5th exercise:
In (referring to manner)
Example: ‘How did he leave the pub?’ ‘ Well, he left the pub in good humour.’
(a) to tell the story – in a low voice

(b) to answer the humorous question – in a friendly way

(c) to leave the house – in a hurry

(d) to describe the accident – in his own words

(e) the children, to run away – excitedly, in all directions

6th exercise:
On (referring to time)
Example: ‘When did he leave London?’ ‘He left London on Monday.’
(a) to hear the news – on the morning of his departure

(b) to be informed about the incident – on his arrival

(c) to go sailing – on a fine day during his stay in England

(d) to leave the town – on a dark night

(e) to give up work – on October 31st

242 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS

7th exercise:
On (referring to place)
Example: ‘Where did you find the letter?’ ‘I found it on the table.’
(a) the picture, to hang – on the wall

(b) to meet Mr Brown – on the first floor

(c) to have a house – on the coast

(d) the town, to be situated – on the river

(e) to meet the children – on my way home

(f) the accident, to happen – on the second floor

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 243


Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

$/LVWRI9HUEVZLWK3UHSRVLWLRQV

WREHDEVRUEHGLQ YHUWLHIWVHLQLQ
WRDFFXVHRI DQNODJHQZHJHQ
WRDFFXVWRPWR JHZ|KQHQDQ
WREHDFFXVWRPHGWR ]XWXQSIOHJHQJHZ|KQWVHLQDQ
WRDFWXSRQDGYLFH DXI5DWKDQGHOQ
WRDGGWR KLQ]XIJHQYHUJU|‰HUQ
WRDGGUHVVWR ULFKWHQDQ
WRDJUHHRQ VLFKYHUVWlQGLJHQDXI
WRDJUHHWRVWKJ ]XVWLPPHQ
WRDJUHHZLWKDSHUVRQRQVWKJ PLWMHPEHUHLQVWLPPHQEHU
WRDLPDW ]LHOHQDXIVWUHEHQQDFK
WRDPRXQWWR VLFKEHODXIHQDXI
WRDSSO\IRU VLFKEHZHUEHQXP
WRDVNDERXW IUDJHQEHU

WREHFRPHRI ZHUGHQDXV
WREHJIRU ELWWHQXP
WREHJVWKJRIVR HWZDVYRQMHPHUELWWHQ
WREHOLHYHLQ JODXEHQDQ
WREHORQJWR JHK|UHQ
WREODPHIRU WDGHOQZHJHQ
WREOXVKZLWK HUU|WHQYRU
WREOXVKDW VLFKVFKlPHQEHU
WRERDVWRI VLFKUKPHQ
WRERZ $XVVSUDFKHEDX WR VLFKYHUEHXJHQYRU
WRFDOODW VRPHRQH¶VKRXVH  HLQHQ%HVXFKPDFKHQ
WRFDOORQ SHUVRQ  YRUVSUHFKHQ
WRFDOOIRUDSHUVRQ QDFKMHPUXIHQ
WREHFDOOHGDIWHU EHQDQQWVHLQQDFK
WRFDUHIRU VLFKNPPHUQXP
WRFDUHDERXW VLFKHWZDVPDFKHQDXV
WRFKDQJHIRU YHUWDXVFKHQPLWXPVWHLJHQQDFK
WRFKDQJHLQWR YHUZDQGHOQLQ
WRFKDUJHVRZLWK MHPEHDXIWUDJHQPLWDQNODJHQZHJHQ
WRFKDUJHIRUVWKJ HWZDVEHUHFKQHQIU
WRFRPHDFURVV ]XIlOOLJWUHIIHQ
WRFRPSDUHZLWKWR YHUJOHLFKHQPLW
WRFRPSODLQRIDERXW VLFKEHNODJHQEHU
WRFRQFHDOIURP YHUEHUJHQYRU
WRFRQGHPQIRU IUHWZDVYHUXUWHLOHQ
WRFRQILQHWR EHVFKUlQNHQDXI
WRFRQJUDWXODWHRQ EHJOFNZQVFKHQ]X
WRFRQVHQWWR HLQZLOOLJHQ]X
WRFRQVLVWRI EHVWHKHQDXV
WRFRQYLQFHRI EHU]HXJHQYRQ
WRFRXQWRQ DXIMHPDQGHQ]lKOHQ

244 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS

WRGHDOZLWK VLFKEHIDVVHQPLW
WRGHPDQGRI IRUGHUQYRQ
WRGHSHQGRQ DEKlQJHQYRQVLFKYHUODVVHQDXI
WRGHSULYHRI EHUDXEHQ
WREHGHVFHQGHGIURP DEVWDPPHQYRQ
WRGHVFHQGIURP KHUDENOHWWHUQ YRP'DFK 
WRGHVSDLURI YHU]ZHLIHOQDQ
WRGLHRIDQLOOQHVV DQHLQHU.UDQNKHLWVWHUEHQ
WRGLHIURPDZRXQG DQHLQHU:XQGHVWHUEHQ
WRGLIIHUIURP VLFKXQWHUVFKHLGHQYRQ
WRGUHDPRIDERXW WUlXPHQYRQ
WRHQGLQZLWK HQGHQLQHQGHQDXI
WRHVFDSHIURP HQWNRPPHQDXV
WRIDLOLQ NHLQHQ(UIROJKDEHQPLW
WRIDVWHQVWKJWR HWZDVEHIHVWLJHQDQ
WRILUHDWXSRQRQ IHXHUQDXI
WRIOHHIURP IOLHKHQYRU
WRIUHHIURP EHIUHLHQYRQ
WRJD]HDWXSRQ DQVWDUUHQEHVWDXQHQ
WRJODQFHDW HLQHQ%OLFNZHUIHQDXI
WRJUXPEOHDWRYHUDERXW PXUUHQEHU
WRKDSSHQWR JHVFKHKHQPLW
WRKHDURIDERXW K|UHQYRQHUIDKUHQEHU
WRKLGHIURP YHUEHUJHQYRU
WRKLQGHUIRUP KLQGHUQDQ
WRLQIRUPRIDERXW LQ.HQQWQLVVHW]HQYRQ
WRLQVLVWRQXSRQ EHVWHKHQDXI
WREHLQWHUHVWHGLQ LQWHUHVVLHUWVHLQDQ
WRLQWHUIHUHZLWK VLFKHLQPLVFKHQLQ
WRLQWHUYHQHLQ HLQJUHLIHQ
WRLQWURGXFHWR YRUVWHOOHQ
WRODXJKDW ODFKHQEHU
WROLVWHQWR ]XK|UHQ
WROLYHRQ OHEHQYRQ
WRORQJIRU VLFKVHKQHQQDFK
WROLYHZLWK  ZRKQHQEHL
WRORRNDIWHU VRUJHQIU
WRORRNRYHUWKURXJK GXUFKVHKHQ
WRORRNIRUZDUGWR JHUXQG   VLFKIUHXHQDXI
WRPHQWLRQVWKJWRVR MHPJHJHQEHUHWZDVHUZlKQHQ
WREHPLVWDNHQDERXWLQ VLFKLUUHQ
WRPRFNDW  VLFKOXVWLJPDFKHQ
WRQDPHVRDIWHU MHPDQGHQQHQQHQQDFK

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 245


Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

WRREMHFWWR JHJHQHWZDVVHLQ
WRRFFXUWRVR HLQIDOOHQ
WREHRSSRVHGWR JHJHQHWZDVVHLQ
WRRULJLQDWHIURP VHLQHQ8UVSUXQJKDEHQLQ
WRRZHVWKJWRVR MHPDQGHPHWZDVYHUGDQNHQ
WRRZHVRVWKJ MHPDQGHPHWZDVVFKXOGHQ
WRSDUWLFLSDWHLQ WHLOQHKPHQDQ
WRSRLQWDWVR WRWRZDUGVVWKJ  ]HLJHQDXI
WRSRLQWWRWKHQRUWK QDFK1RUGHQ]HLJHQ
WRSUHIHUVWKJWRVWKJ YRU]LHKHQ
WRSUHYHQWIURP DEKDOWHQYRQ
WRSURWHFWIURP VFKW]HQYRU
WRSXWXSZLWK LQ.DXIQHKPHQ
WRTXDUUHOZLWK VLFKVWUHLWHQPLW
WRTXDUUHORYHUDERXW VLFKVWUHLWHQXP
WRUHDGRIDERXW OHVHQEHUYRQ
WRUHDVRQZLWKVR PLWMHPDQGHPGLVNXWLHUHQ
WRUHFRQFLOHVRZLWKVR MHPDGHQPLWMHPDQGHPYHUV|KQHQ
WRUHIHUWR VLFKEH]LHKHQDXI
WRUHO\RQXSRQ VLFKYHUODVVHQDXI
WRUHPLQGVRRIDERXWVWKJ MHPDQGHQDQHWZDVHULQQHUQ
WRUHVWUDLQRQHVHOIIURPGRLQJVWKJ VLFK]XUFNKDOWHQ
WRUHVWULFWRQHVHOIWRGRLQJVWKJ VLFKEHVFKUlQNHQGDUDXI]XWXQ
WRUXQDIWHU KLQWHUMHPKHUODXIHQXPLKQ]XIDQJHQ
WRUXQRYHU EHUIDKUHQ
WRVDYHIURP UHWWHQYRUDXV
WRVHDUFKIRU VXFKHQQDFK
WRVHHWR GDIUVRUJHQ
WRVHHNIRU VXFKHQQDFK
WRVKRXWDW DQVFKUHLHQ
WRVKRXWIRUMR\ YRU)UHXGHUXIHQ
WRVKULQNIURP ]XUFNVFKUHFNHQYRU
WRVPHOORI ULHFKHQQDFK
WRVPLOHDW DQOlFKHOQOlFKHOQEHU
WRVSHDNRIDERXW VSUHFKHQYRQEHU
WRVSHDNWR VSUHFKHQ]X
WRVSHQGPRQH\RQ *HOGDXVJHEHQIU
WRVWDQGIRU EHGHXWHQIUHWZDVVWHKHQ
WRVWDUHDWVR MHPDQGHQDQVWDUUHQ
WRVWD\ZLWK IDPLO\  ZRKQHQEHLOHEHQEHL
WRVWD\DW KRWHO  ZRKQHQLQ
WRVWLFNWRWKHSRLQW EHLGHU6DFKHEOHLEHQ
WRVXFFHHGLQ (UIROJKDEHQEHL
WRVXIIHUIURP OHLGHQDQ
WRVXSSO\VRZLWK MHPDQGHQPLWHWZDVYHUVRUJHQ
WRVXVSHFWVRRIVWKJ MHPDQGHQYHUGlFKWLJHQ

246 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 PREPOSITIONS

WRWDNHDIWHU DSHUVRQ  MHPDQGHPlKQHOQNRPPHQQDFK HLQHU3HUVRQ 


WRWDNHIRU DQVHKHQDOV
WRWDONWRZLWK VSUHFKHQ]XPLW
WRWDONRIDERXW VSUHFKHQYRQ
WRWDVWHRI VFKPHFNHQQDFK
WRWHOORIDERXW HU]lKOHQYRQ
WRWKDQNVRIRUVWKJ MHPDQGHPIUHWZDVGDQNHQ
WRWKLQNRIDERXW GHQNHQDQ
WRWKURZVWKJDWVR MHPDQGHQEHZHUIHQPLW
WRWUDGHZLWKVR PLWMHPDQGHPKDQGHOQ
WRWURXEOHDERXW VLFKVRUJHQEHU
WRWURXEOHVRIRUVWKJ MHPDQGHQELWWHQXP
WRYDU\IURP VLFKXQWHUVFKHLGHQYRQSHQGHOQ]ZLVFKHQ
WRZDLWIRU ZDUWHQDXI
WRZDYHWRVRDWVR MHPDQGHP]XZLQNHQ
WRZHHSIRUMR\ZLWKMR\ YRU)UHXGHZHLQHQ
WRZRQGHUDW VLFKZXQGHUQEHU
WRZRUU\DWDERXW VLFKVRUJHQXPEHU
WRZRUU\VRZLWKVWKJ MHPDQGHQEHOlVWLJHQPLW
WREHZRUULHGDERXW EHVRUJWVHLQXP
WRZULWHWRVR MHPDQGHPVFKUHLEHQ
WRZULWHVRVWKJ MHPDQGHPHWZDVVFKUHLEHQ

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 247


Appendix

.(< &+$37(5² 


Lösungen
Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20) THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

.(< &+$37(5² 


Lösungen

Chapter 1: The Definite Article
The next morning at the breakfast-table:
Aunt Jill: Come on, boys, have a cup of __/__English tea and help yourselves to the toast with
__/__ English jam. By the way, what do you think of __/__ English tea?
George: Well, __/__ English tea tastes different from the German variety, but I like __/__
English tea very much.
Aunt Jill: What are you boys going to do today?
Martin: I want to see the Tower, but George wants to see __/__ Buckingham Palace.
Aunt Jill: You can see both, if you go by __/__ underground (Tube) from one place to the
other. You can even see the Houses of Parliament with __/__ Big Ben and __/__ Westminster
Abbey where all the kings and queens since __/__ William the Conqueror have been
crowned. If you feel hungry or tired you can sit down in __/__ St. James´s Park and eat your
sandwiches as you probably won´t want to come back here for __/__ lunch. Don´t forget that
if the Royal Standard is flying on __/__ Buckingham Palace, the Queen is staying in London.
If you like you can have a look at __/__ Whitehall. The Changing of the Guard is at 11 o
´clock. On your way to Whitehall you pass __/__ Downing Street where our Prime Minister
lives. You can walk from __/__ Westminster Abbey to __/__ Trafalgar Square, another
famous sight in London. Have a look at the map of London on the wall. At __/__ Trafalgar
Square you have to catch the Tube to the Tower. But I think that is enough for the first day.
I´ll give you another map of London and in __/__ case you get lost, phone me. I´ll pick you
up in my car.

Chapter 2: Each, every, some and any


It is always a bit of an experience to travel by air. There were about 80 girls and boys and
each of us looked rather nervous. Some of us had heard that there had been trouble with
chartered planes. We had to wait some 2 hours before our flight was announced. After the
announcement everyone went to the buses which were to take us to the plane. As soon as we
saw the plane we all had something of a shock. The plane was at least 15 years old. When we
got off the bus one girl did not want to get on the plane. An elderly stewardess came to her,
asking, ‘Is there anything I can do for you? You needn´t be afraid of the plane. It is in perfect
condition and there won´t be any trouble with it.’ ‘Come on, Margaret’, said a boy who was
obviously her brother, ‘you neeedn´t worry. The plane will get there all right.’ Somewhat
timidly he added, ‘Somehow.’ When we were on board, we felt much happier. Each of us had
a comfortable seat. Some of the boys were even in the mood to crack jokes. I heard someone
say that the plane looked just as old as one of the stewardesses. I thought the joke rather nasty
and remarked, ‘Well, you needn´t waste any energy worrying about the plane then, because
the stewardess looks quite all right.’ When the plane was air-borne, the stewardess brought
each of us a cup of tea and some biscuits. When one of the boys complained that his tea was
too hot, the stewardess shrugged her shoulders and said, ‘Sorry, Sir, but some like it hot.’

250 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20)

Chapter 3: The Adverb


Our embarkation in Ostend went quickly without any trouble. When leaving the port after half
an hour, a slight suspicion of a breeze soon arose so that the journey became a little bit more
interesting. After an hour´s sailing I felt a slight stir in my stomach. But I really didn´t
recognize it as seasickness. When I was stumblingly going below, this feeling incessantly
increased. Sweat appeared on my forehead and the world really looked quite dark. I don´t
know if you have ever had such a feeling and whether you can imagine at all what it is like.
Well, I know now. Fortunately, when entering the saloon bar I was told that a whiskey would
really do me good if it was seasickness coming on. So I gratefully drank a whiskey and it did
me a lot of good actually. A tablet from a nice boy did the rest. We safely arrived in Dover.
Imagine, I did not even have to open my suitcases! The drive to London passed very quickly,
and then the great adventure began. I had to go from Victoria Station to Waterloo Station by
underground railway. I´d willingly tell you how the journey proceeded, but for the moment
I´ll have to stop.
Your friend Martin

Chapter 4: Adverb or Adjective?


Well, there I was in the Bornemouth train. I felt rather tired and hungry. So I started
unpacking my sandwiches. I suppose they were rather dry, but nevertheless they smelt and
tasted good and reminded me of home during my journey through England. After this meal
which to me seemed positively luscious my old optimism soon came back again. I felt happy
because an old dream of mine had come true: I was to stay in England for a long holiday. I
suppose this feeling and the long journey had caused me to fall asleep for I was rather rudely
wakened by the ticket-collector. It took quite a long time before I understood that he only
wanted to see my ticket. I felt satisfied that two other boys in the train, obviously foreigners
like me, had just the same difficulties in understanding him. I arrived in Bournemouth
unshaven, dirty and tired after 35 hours of travelling. I hailed a taxi to take me to my lodgings
and noticed that I was running short of loose change because I had my other money in
traveller´s cheques. The taxi soon stopped in front of my hostess´s house and two frightened
eyes peeped out of the car. But there was no need for anxiety because my hostess, my host
and their son made me heartily welcome. In my next letter you will hear about my adventures
in England.
Your friend Martin

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 251


Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20) THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Chapter 5: The Passive Voice


Suddenly a faint miaow was heard by him. With his hand he wiped the sweat from his
forehead and laughed at his fright. Quickly the door was opened by him and then he went
down the country road. His situation was such that he was not allowed to waste any time. The
next village had to be reached and the next train caught before his escape was noticed by the
guards. After twenty minutes the next village was entered by him. The lighted windows were
passed by him and he wished he could sit comfortably in one of the rooms without any fear.
When the little station had been reached, he went round the building twice to make sure that
the station could be entered without any danger. Finally the little room was entered by him.
The railway-man was seen by him in the ticket-office writing at his desk. His nerves strained
to the utmost he went up to the man and ordered his ticket. As he was not looked at by the
clerk everything was all right. When he reached into his pocket for the money his fingers
touched the photo of his wife. For a moment his wife´s voice was heard clearly by him,
‘Arthur, a person was killed by you in a car-accident because you were drunk. Stay in prison
until your penalty is paid and don´t make things worse than they are by any rash act. You will
be waited for and a new life can be started by us afterwards.’ He stood motionless for a
moment when he heard the clerk say, ‘Here is your ticket, Sir.’
‘Oh, I´ve changed my mind. I guess I´d better stay here.’ He turned and the station was left by
him. He trotted back along the same road he had come a few minutes before.

Chapter 6: The Defective Auxiliaries


Then they came to the stall with the stationery. Jill´s heart was beating violently and she
ought to have stopped Barbara, who was slipping a pen into her sleeve. Quickly they left the
shop and Jill had the feeling that someone might stop them at any moment.
‘Ha, there you are’, said Barbara as she handed her the pen. ‘You should try yourself. Nothing
could be easier than that!’
On that same day they stole a pair of sunglasses, a lighter and a purse. They neither really
needed nor wanted all the things they stole but Barbara said it was all for the sake of
practising. Later when Jill was alone in her room she did not quite know whether she should
listen to her inner voice and be ashamed or to be happy about their ‘success’. She couldn´t
help being happy about their ‘triumph’. In the following weeks a terrible mania took hold of
her. She went into the stores on her own and pinched a number of things, things which were
quite worthless to her because she couldn´t make any use of them, but she carried on stealing,
because she wanted to show off in front of Barbara. Then one day she was stopped by a
detective and she had to follow him to the manager of the store. The manager told her that he
had to tell her parents and the headmaster of her school to try and stop her. The following
week she had to leave her grammar school. Her parents tried to find a post for her as an
apprentice in a bank, but after the manager had made enquiries about her, he told her that he
could not take her that year, because unfortunately all the posts for apprentices had been
filled. She applied for several jobs, but again and again she got negative answers. At last one
of her father´s friends gave her a job as an assistant in his grocery shop. Jill´s promising
career had come to a disgraceful end. A month later she met her friend and told her so.
Barbara only shrugged her shoulders and answered curtly, ‘You stupid little thing. How could
you take everything I told you so seriously. You should have known that I was only joking.’

252 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20)

Chapter 7: The Conditional I and II of the Auxiliaries


George: ‘I don´t like sitting in th e garden. What could we do or where could we go?’
Martin: ‘We might go and see the old man in Fish Street whom we used to help beforeour
holidays started. I think he should be back from his visit to his daughter by now.’
George: ‘Yes, we should already have seen him last week and today is Tuesday. We ought to
have asked him whether he needed our help. Would you please tell mother where we are
going, while I put my bike into the garage.’

Martin: ‘Good afternoon, Mr Brown. We want to ask you, if we could help you. We should
have come to you earlier, but we forgot.’
Mr Brown: ’Well, it´s nice to see you again. I arrived from my daughter´s yesterday! I should
have sent you a message or given you a ring. Well, if you want to help me , there is a lot of
work to do. If you, Martin, could help me in the garden - the lawn needs cutting badly - you,
George, could do the shopping for me. I could have asked the girl next door to do the
shopping for me, but I knew you would come to help me.’
Martin: ‘Well, the garden needs doing badly.’
Mr Brown: ‘Normally my neighbour would have seen to the garden, but he has had trouble
with his left leg. Would you have come, if I had given you a ring?’
Martin: ‘That might have been a good idea. We might have watered the lawn as well. Look,
there are some patches of yellow grass. Could you show me how to prune the roses, because I
should be able to do that job as well.’
Mr Brown: ‘I could make you a perfect gardener, if you like me teaching you.’

Chapter 8a: The Past and the Past Perfect


When Peter left school at twenty his first thought was that he had attained everything in life,
because he had passed his examination quite well. Maybe he thought he had won life itself.
But his calculation was wrong. He soon found out that he had won only the foundation for a
better education. Therefore there existed only one thing for him. He longed to go to
university. Something like a spell came over him when he thought about it, and perhaps it was
the worst thing that could possibly have happened. When he was at school he had not thought
of all the consequences and implications of going to university. So before he could start his
studies he had to earn some money to pay the fees. He wanted to do this because he intended
to relieve his parents of this expense. So he decided to work in a dock-yard. The first day
there was the most difficult he had ever spent in his life. He passed through the gates and was
only given a number, but not even asked his name. He didn´t think he would ever forget that
number. It was 289. It was this which forced him to think over his existence. Was life only a
number? He felt like a prisoner and yet did not feel quite guilty about his plight. He kept
telling himself that the reason for his feeling depressed was that he had not thought over his
own life carefully enough.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 253


Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20) THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Chapter 8b: The Past and the Present Perfect


Our English friends had come to meet us at the customs clearance and welcomed us heartily.
Martin gave John a bottle of whiskey and Jill a box of chocolates. John’s face brightened up
and Jill exclaimed, ’How thoughtful of you. I have not received such a nice present for quite a
long time’, and she looked at John accusingly. John took us home in his car and we really
had a nice time. In the mornings John went with us to town to have a look at the shops and the
famous sights and almost every afternoon he invited us for a trip into the country. Jill on her
part prepared the most luxurious meals for us and spoilt our figures with most delicious
sweets. Martin looked down at his stomach and observed, ‘I have never put so much weight
on as during this week in England.’ I agreed with him, adding, ’And you have never eaten so
much in your life as in John's and Jill's house.’
Well, those nice days in England went by far too soon. As a kind of preparation for our
voyage back we watched the weather forecasts on television in the evenings. On our last
evening Martin exclaimed, ’Have you seen the weather chart just now? Some bad weather is
coming down from Scotland and going to cross the North Sea.’ I did not pay any attention to
that because I thought that our boat to Hamburg was quite a big ship. So what could happen to
us?
On our last day John and Jill took us in their car to Harwich, and we thanked them heartily for
their hospitality and invited them to come to stay with us in Germany as soon as possible.
When we went up the gangway, one of the passengers put on an ominous face, saying, ’I have
just heard one of the crew say that we are going to have a rough crossing.’ I saw Martin's face
turn pale when we took our luggage into our cabin to stow it away. I looked at Martin and
said, ’Well, no matter what the auspices are, let's go into the bar to have a whiskey against
seasickness. I have been told so far that this is the best medicine against seasickness.’ The
boat was then out at sea and we saw that the people in the bar were carefully choosing where
to put their feet because the ground under their feet was swaying.
When we had finished our whiskey, we noticed that almost all the people had left the bar.
Martin's face had a greenish colour by then and he said, rather meekly, ’I have never felt so
bad in my life.’ Very quickly we went into our cabin to lie down in our bunks. The night that
followed was really horrible. The boat was dancing on the waves and was swaying all the
time. We have never felt so miserable in all our life. When we left the boat after a 20-hour
voyage we were happy to have solid ground under our feet again. As we went from board
Martin could not help saying, ’I say, the owner of the ferry has saved quite a sum of money
on this trip because only very few passengers were inclined to have their breakfast.’

254 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20)

Chapter 9: Continuous or Simple Form


‘But I must have a father.’ ‘Well, he lives on a farm not so very far from here. He paid for you
all right, but he let us know that he didn´t want any contact with you. He is quite well off, but
he has a family of his own now.’ ‘I want to see him. Tell me where he lives.’
Tom parents knew they could not stop him. The next day his mother was preparing
sandwiches for her son while his father was helping him to pack up a bundle of things Tom
would need on the trip. It was a sunny morning when Tom started out on his bicycle. His
mother was waving him good-bye while tears were rolling down her cheeks. On his outing
Tom had all kinds of visions of what his father might look like. He had no doubts that he
would allow him to live on his farm. At noon he reached the little village. His father´s
farmhouse stood at the entrance of the village. Tom felt hungry and thirsty. He knocked at the
door of the house. He was still thinking about what he was going to say when a boy, a little
younger than he, opened the door. Tom was only able to stammer, ‘I´m thirsty. Could you
bring me a glass of water?’ The boy went away and Tom heard some arguing in the hall.
After some time the boy brought him a glass of water. A harsh man´s voice in the background
shouted, ‘Tell him, we don´t want any beggars here.’ While Tom was drinking the water, he
was looking into a pair of cold green eyes. He thanked the boy, gave him back the glass and
went back to his bicycle. Tears were rolling down his cheeks when he was pedalling back
along the same road, the way back home.

Chapter 10: The Continuous and the Simple Form of the


Perfect
George: ‘Where have you been? What have you been doing? I have been looking for you for
half an hour.’
Martin: ‘I have been reading a book. It is a detective story. It is such an interesting book that I
have been reading it for 3 hours, since 2 o´clock.’
George: ‘Have you already found out who committed the crime?’
Martin: ‘I have only got to page 65, and a man with dark glasses has just come into a bank.
He has been waiting in front of the bank for quite a long time to watch the traffic, and a
policeman, sitting in one of the cars parked in front of the building.’
George: ‘Ah, I remember that book. I have read it myself recently. That man has nothing to
do with the crime itself. He has been waiting in front of the bank for a friend and not for a
favourable moment to rob the bank.’
Martin: ‘Oh, you mustn´t tell me. I have been reading the book for 3 hours and should like
to find out myself.’
George: ‘Well, I agree since I have enjoyed the ending of the story myself. But what about
going to the cinema? I have booked tickets for us. I have been trying for fifteen minutes to
reach the office. I think it´s a good film. It´s a western.’
Martin: ‘Ah, the western at the Odeon. It has been on for three weeks now, so it must be
good. All right, let´s go then.’

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 255


Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20) THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Chapter 11: The Gerund


On watching the show intently to understand all of it, they nearly forgot the procession. The
hooting of veteran steam rollers reminded them of it. Then the steam rollers, the beginning of
the procession, came into sight. The boys admitted having never seen such old vehicles
before. They started running beside the steam rollers in order to have a chance of looking at
them more closely. The oldest vehicle looked as if it was on the point of falling to pieces any
minute. Martin who had intended taking photos of the whole procession used a whole film on
the steam rollers. After a while, however, they stopped running beside the steam rollers and
had a look at the other floats. They enjoyed looking at the people on the floats in fancy dress.
There was one float with a rocket and astronauts standing around it. The children and grown-
ups at the side of the street were busy throwing coins at the astronauts, and the astronauts
were absorbed in putting the pennies into their boxes. Other floats followed, showing scenes
of fairy-tales. But all the people on the floats had one thing in common: They took pleasure
in collecting money in aid of charity. The boys were fascinated to see how all the members of
the procession were taking an interest in raising money for the children´s home.

Chapter 12: The Present Participle


Coming across to England as a guest and staying with a family for several weeks you get
acquainted with ‘Bingo’. Bingo being the favourite past time of English housewives and
pensioners is nowadays something like an institution. Starting ten years ago it became very
popular right at once. Being a game for money it attracted in particular members of the lower
and middle classes. It is not a game of skill. Listening to numbers being called out every
player hopes to win an amount of money. Bringing people together it can be considered as
fulfilling a social function, creating a friendly atmosphere among the participants. So people
going once or twice a week to such a social club go there because it´s a bit of a giggle.
Addicts, however, going for money they can get there, will hardly ever giggle. The question
remaining is why it became so popular with the English. I heard people saying that the
English like to have a flutter. Ten years ago you heard people humming, ‘Bingo! Bingo! I´m
in love!’ Hearing as a foreigner that some English people are mad about Bingo you just
follow the general stream. So one night you might find yourself in one of the Bingo clubs,
listening to the numbers being called out. And after a few minutes you are just as mad about
Bingo as the others waiting for the scream ‘Bingo!’ from one of the players or perhaps
shouting yourself.

256 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20)

Chapter 13: The Infinitive with or without ‘to’ as Part of the


Object (A.c.I.)
On its plate was ‘R U – 18’. At first I didn´t know what my host meant but I somehow
expected him to explain. Then he told me to read the inscription. I read, ‘Are you 18?‘ My
host said, ‘Right. You see, I can´t permit you to drink beer if you are not yet 18.’ Well, I
asked him to get a drink for me because I was older than that and I got him to let me pay this
time. The pub was then so full that my host had to ask some friends to order the drinks for
him and to pass them to us as we were forced to stay in our seats. I was surrounded by
English people and I heard them talk and laugh and sing. I had to smile when remembering
the prejudices I had heard about the cool English. Here they were and I heard them sing at the
top of their voices and laugh at each others´ jokes. I had the feeling that they were all
members of one big family and I wanted to be one of them. I heard the piano-player play one
popular tune after the other and all the customers willingly joined in. Suddenly I felt someone
tap on my shoulder. This person asked me to move my arm so that he could lift up his glass of
beer. This really caused me to laugh. Never before had I drunk my beer under similar
circumstances. When it was nearly eleven o´clock my host advised me to empty my glass
because all English pubs close at 11 o´clock. I´m going to tell you more about my impressions
in England in my next letter.
Yours,
Martin.

Chapter 14: Reflexive Verbs


He had finished undressing and was about to lie down in bed when he heard a terrible crash.
When he came down the car that had ripped open the side of his friend´s car had gone. He sat
down on the steps of the house and it took several minutes before he had recovered from the
shock. He informed the village policeman who did not find out anything. The next day he
absented himself from his office to settle everything with the manager of the garage. His
father helped him to get a loan from the bank. The costs of the repairs amounted to a
tremendously high sum. But John decided to pay the sum in order not to disappoint his friend
and not to lose his job. But the new John differed very much from the old one. He worked
hard, doing up extra work and overtime in order to earn money to pay back the high costs. His
friends together with Paul noticed that he had changed and tried to keep out of his way. John
became terribly nervous and irritated and easily flew into a temper. One day he had a big row
with an old clerk of the firm and since John was in the wrong he had to hand in his
resignation. Some weeks later, John had already taken up a job with another firm, he met Paul
at one of the pubs they used to go to. John bowed to Paul and endeavoured to leave the pub.
But Paul went after him and took him by his arm, saying, ‘I say, John, what´s the matter with
you? Come on, tell me. After all it was not us who quarrelled.’ At first John did not want to
tell him but then he sat down and told him the whole story. The expression on Paul´s face
changed from second to second and when John had finished Paul was glad not to have been
mistaken about John.Paul put his arm round his shoulders and said, ‘You poor little chap. I
forgot to tell you when I offered you my car. The car was insured against any damage. The
insurance company would have paid in any case!’

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 257


Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20) THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Chapter 15: Verbs with a Direct and a Prepositional Object


‘Look’, he said, ’you are wasting your time on this girl. You are not proving your courage to
her in this way. She could have gone with you to the party without the test because I didn't
accept the conditions. Nobody will blame you for not climbing the tower. I´m definitely not
jealous but want to prevent you from doing it , because you are my friend.’ Jim did not try to
hide his feelings from Jack. Jack remained silent for a while and then he said, ‘I´d like to
admit something to you. It´s not because of the girl. I want to do it myself because if I didn´t
do it, I couldn’t be your friend any longer. You always did what you had promised me before.
When I announced to her and you that I would do it, I should have known what I was doing.’
Jack went to the tower in the late afternoon. Jim had offered to help him with the climbing,
but Jack had told him, he could manage alone. His decision to be alone seemed important to
him at that time. The first part of the staircase was the worst because the staircase was falling
to pieces. He remembered what Jim had mentioned to him but he went on. Jack had to keep
close to the wall, searching the wall for footholds in order to climb a little higher. Fortunately
he could hold on to the railing which was fastened to the inside of the wall. It took him nearly
half an hour before he was able to fasten the piece of white cloth to the top. Meanwhile dusk
had fallen and he had to hurry up if he wanted to see the steps at all. The first part down was
easy enough but then came the last bit.This part was too high for him to jump down.He could
not see the holes in the wall and clung desperately to the railing. He kept saying angry things
to himself. He was perspiring all over his body and thought of his friend who had advised him
not to put his life at stake. When he looked down he had the feeling that he could see
something moving underneath. He didn’t look down a second time because he thought it was
a cat. And besides he had to concentrate on the wall. Nobody could protect him now from
falling down if he were not careful. But suddenly the railing gave way and he fell into space
The next thing he noticed was that the ground on which he fell was relatively soft. He
examined his head and his arms and still couldn’t believe it. But then he heard a moaning.
Someone was lying under him. It was Jim who had followed him. He had tried to catch him
but had been knocked down. He had thus demonstrated his loyalty to Jack. Later the doctor
informed him of Jim’s state of health. The doctor didn’t seem too worried to Jack. Jim had a
broken arm and his ribs on the right side were bruised. The next day Jack met Isabel by
chance but he did not mention the accident to her. She came to him, saying, ’I congratulate
you on your success. By the way when does the party start?’ Jack looked at her coldly and
answered, ’I’m sorry, Isabel, but I’ve changed my mind. You wouldn’t have liked that party
anyway.’
(In other words he preferred going alone to taking her after all the trouble she had caused.)

258 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20)

Chapter 16: The Sequence of Tenses in Conditional Clauses


Martin and George are standing in Trafalgar Square.
George: ‘If I only knew who that man on the column was, I should be much more satisfied.
He must have been quite an important man.’
Martin: ‘If you don't know him, go and ask the policeman over there. He will certainly tell
you.’
George: ‘If you can tell me who that man on top of the column was, I shall be very much
obliged to you.’
Policeman: ‘Well, young man, the man on the column is Admiral Lord Nelson. He won the
Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.’
George: ‘Thank you very much, constable.’

Later George asked Martin: ‘Well, I'm really interested now. If he had told us what kind of
battle took place at Trafalgar, it would have been much better for my knowledge.’
Martin: ‘If you had seen Admiral Lord Nelson's flagship in Portsmouth, there would not have
been any need for you to ask the policeman. You remember that you missed that trip to
Portsmouth, don't you?’
George: ‘So this battle was a sea-battle, then.’
Martin: ‘Yes, it was a sea-battle against Napoleon's fleet. If the French had not been defeated,
Napoleon would have invaded England.’
George: ‘And if England had not been an island, he would certainly have done so after the
loss of his fleet.’
Martin: ‘Well, yes. You see, if England had not had a strong fleet in those days, French
soldiers would have marched through London.’

Chapter 17: The Tenses of Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)


George reminded Martin that soon it would be the fifth of November.
Martin answered that so it would and asked George whether he would buy fireworks.
George answered that he would. George added that they would have a bonfire in the garden
and that their mother would make good things to eat. Martin asked George whether he knew
why the fifth of November was fireworks night.
George answered that he knew and added that it had something to do with Guy Fawkes.
He said that in 1605 Guy Fawkes had tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament.
Martin replied that as far as he knew nobody had blown up the Houses of Parliament.
George answered that Martin was right, and that they had found out the plot, and that Guy
Fawkes had been arrested. He continued that ever since they had had fireworks on the fifth of
November and that children had burnt ‘Guys’ on bonfires in memory of that incident.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 259


Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20) THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR

Chapter 18: How to change ‘Must’ and the Imperative into


Reported Speech
George said that he had to go at once to see Mr Brown about the fishing-rod.
Martin answered that he should come and help him in the garden. He reminded George
that he had promised to help him and that he must not (was not to ) break his word.
George replied that he should not remind him of his word. He said that he must not
(was not to ) break his word and he wouldn’t. He continued that Mr Brown had bought a
fishing-rod especially for trout and that he had to see it. He told him to come back that
afternoon and he would help him.
Martin replied that there was a good film on TV in the afternoon of that day and that he must
not (was not to ) miss that film.
George suggested that they would have to do the work the next day.
Martin told him to go and tell their father, and to remember to be careful explaining the
situation because they had already delayed the work several times before.

Chapter 19: Relative Clauses


The next meal which/that is served is lunch. The meat and the potatoes taste the same as in
Germany. The potatoes, which the English only eat in small quantities are cooked or baked in
the oven. The thing which/that makes all the difference from German lunch is the
vegetables.They are cooked in water and prepared without any flour. Peas which/that keep
rolling off your fork can be either funny or just a nuisance. Though the lunch which/that I get
here tastes different from what I get at home, English food is in my opinion more like our
food than that of Southern Germany. One meal which /that seems to be regarded outside
England as the national dish, but which in any case is typically English, is fish and chips. An
England where one could not buy this delicacy would be suffering a national disaster. Fish
and chips, which is a cheap meal can be bought in many shops all over nearly any town. At
lunch time you may often see people walking around with bags or packages, which are
wrapped in newspaper to keep the contents warm. For holiday makers who like to stay on the
beach to enjoy the sun it is the ideal meal. In the late afternoon a hearty tea is served, which
might consist of a salad, some slices of bread or some cake and again a good cup of tea. You
can see that the meals which/that one can have here are another point in favour of a visit to
England. For those who are willing to explore, as regards differences in food, it is quite
worthwhile.
Yours
Martin

260 © by Jürgen Braatz, 2000


THE TOP 20 OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR Chapter 20 KEY (CHAPTER 1 – 20)

Chapter 20: Prepositions


Tonio came home, terribly dejected. His mother realized at once by the look on his face that
he was very disappointed. But she did not say a word to him since she thought it better to
leave the boys to sort out their own relationships among themselves.
When school was over on the following day a bunch of boys and girls followed Tonio,
making fun of him. One of the girls shouted, ’He, Tonio, they say that the people in Sicily are
dirty and they don’t wash. Do you wash your ears and neck every morning?’ There was an
outburst of loud laughter. Peter, who was now walking beside Tonio, nudged him with his
elbow. When Tonio went further down the street, the shouting of the children following him
had gradually died down, because some of them had already gone home. At last only he and
Peter were walking down the street. Peter stopped in front his parents’ house, shouting,
’Good-bye, Mr Maccaroni. Tomorrow we’ll have more of this!’ Tonio shouted back, ’I’ll tell
you what, I’m going to tell my father what you did and said to me. How unfairly I’ve been
treated by all of you.’ ‘Your father? Ha, ha, What can such a funny creature do to me?’ That
was the last straw that broke the camel’s back. Now that he was alone with Peter he could not
endure the humiliation any longer. As quick as lightning he went for Peter. Peter was the
stronger of the two but Tonio was much quicker. Before Peter could do anything he was
pushed to the ground, and Tonio was sitting with his knees on Peter’s chest, hammering
Peter’s face with his fists. But Tonio’s anger was soon over now that he was sitting on top of
Peter. He felt terrible when he was smashing Peter’s face. He was doing just the opposite of
what he wanted to do. He did not want to fight, he wanted to have a friend. Peter, who was
looking into Tonio’s face for the first time, saw that Tonio felt miserable, that there was no
expression of hatred on Tonio’s face. All of a sudden Tonio stood up, looked at Peter for an
instant and then, before Peter could say a word, he ran away.
The next morning before Tonio went to school he felt awful. He was sure Peter would take
revenge, and all his friends would help him. But Tonio had no friends. If he had only one, it
would have been much easier for him to go to school. When Tonio entered the classroom,
Peter was already sitting at his desk, scribbling on a piece of paper. To Tonio’s surprise Peter
behaved as if he had not seen him coming in . During the lesson Tonio noticed Peter was
looking at him out of the corner of his eye. When the bell rang all the boys and girls ran
outside.
The boys formed two teams for a game of football. Tonio was leaning against the wall, not
daring to ask whether he could play along with them. Suddenly Peter shouted over to him,
‘He, Tonio, come over to our side. Or don’t you want to play football with us?’
Tonio was smiling all over his face. Of course he wanted to and he did.

© by Jürgen Braatz, 2000 261

Das könnte Ihnen auch gefallen