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# Electric Power Distribution 1 Electric Power Distribution 2

Introductory Question
 Electric power reaches our city via high
Electric Power voltage transmission lines. What fraction of
the electric charges traveling on those
Distribution transmission lines pass through this room?

C. Exactly 0%

## Electric Power Distribution 3 Electric Power Distribution 4

Electric Power Distribution Electric Power Distribution
 Household electricity is alternating current (AC)  Why isn’t power transmitted at low voltages?
 Household voltages are typically 120V or 240V  Why isn’t power delivered at high voltages?
 Power is distributed at much higher voltages  What is “alternating current” and why use it?
 Power transformers are common around us  How does a transformer transfer power?
 Power substations are there, but harder to find

## Question 1 Electric Power and a Wire

 Why isn’t power transmitted at low voltages?  An electric current passing through a wire
converts electrical power in thermal power
power wasted = current · voltage drop in wire.
 Si
Since th
the wire
i obeys
b OhOhms llaw,
voltage drop in wire = resistance · current
current,,
 the power that wire wastes is
power wasted = resistance · current2.
 Doubling current quadruples wasted power!

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## Clicker Question Large Currents are Wasteful

 Two long wires will carry electrical power most  The goal of a power distribution system is to
efficiently from a generator to a community if transmit lots of electric power to a city,
the voltage difference between the wires is power transmitted = current · voltage drop at city,
city,
 while
hil wasting
ti littl
little electric
l t i power in
i the
th wires,
i
A. large and the current they carry is large. power wasted = resistance · current2.
B. large and the current they carry is small.  That energy efficiency can be achieved by using
C. small and the current they carry is large.  a small current,
 a huge voltage drop,
D. small and the current they carry is small.
 and low
low--resistance wires.

## Question 2 High Voltages are Dangerous

 Why isn’t power delivered at high voltages?  When large voltage drops are available,
 strong electric fields are present,
 charges experience enormous forces,
 and
nd currents
rr nt ttend
nd tto fl
flow through
thr h unexpected
n p t dp paths.
th
 High--voltage electrical power in a home is
High
 a spark hazard,
 a fire hazard,
 and a shock hazard.

## The Voltage Hierarchy Question 3

 Large currents are too wasteful for transmission  What is “alternating current” and why use it?
 High voltages are too dangerous for delivery
 So electric power distribution uses a hierarchy:
 high-voltage circuits in the countryside
high-
 medium--voltage circuits in cities
medium
 low
low--voltage circuits in neighborhoods and homes
 Transformers transfer power between circuits!

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## Alternating Current (AC) AC and Transformers

 In alternating current,  AC has little effect on simple electric devices
 the voltages of the power delivery wires alternate (e.g., lightbulbs,
lightbulbs, space heaters, toasters)
 and the resulting currents normally alternate, too.  AC is a nuisance for electronic devices
 Alternating
Al i voltage
l iin the
h US (e.g.,
(e g computers,
comp ters televisions,
televisions sound
so nd systems)
 completes 60 cycles per second,  AC permits the easy use of transformers,
 reversing every 1/120 second.  which can move power between circuits:
 from a low
low--voltage circuit to a high-
high-voltage circuit
 from a high-
high-voltage circuit to a low-
low-voltage circuit

## Question 4 Electromagnetism (Version 2)

 How does a transformer transfer power?  Magnetic fields are produced by
 magnetic poles (but free poles don’t seem to exist),
 moving electric charges,
 and
nd changing
h n in electric
l tri fi
fields
ld [more
[m r llater…].
later…]
t r ].
 Electric fields are produced by
 electric charges,
 moving magnetic poles
poles,,
 and changing magnetic fields
fields..

## Electromagnetic Induction Lenz’s Law

 Moving poles or changing magnetic fields  Lenz’s law predicts the nature of the induced
 produce electric fields, magnetic fields:
 which propel currents through conductors,
 which p
produce magnetic
g fields. “When a changing
g g magnetic
g field induces a current in a
 Changing magnetic effects induce currents conductor, the magnetic field from that current
opposes the change that induced it.”
 Induced currents produce magnetic fields

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## Transformer Current and Voltage

 Alternating current in one circuit can induce an  A transformer must obey energy conservation
alternating current in a second circuit  Power arriving in its primary circuit must equal
 A transformer power leaving in its secondary circuit
 uses induction
i d i  Si
Since power is
i the
h product
d off voltage
l · current,
current,
 to transfer power  a transformer can exchanging voltage for current
between its circuits  or current for voltage!
 but doesn’t
transfer any charges
between its circuits

## Clicker Question Step--Down Transformer

Step
 If you increase the number of turns of wire in  A step
step--down transformer
the secondary coil of a transformer, each charge  has relatively few turns in its secondary coil
traveling through that wire will experience  so charge is pushed a shorter distance
 and
nd experiences
p ri n a smaller
m ll r voltage
lt ri
rise
A. the same forward force for a longer distance.  A larger current
B. a larger forward force for a longer distance. at smaller voltage
flows in the
C. a larger forward force for the same distance.
secondary circuit
D. the same forward force for the same distance.

## Electric Power Distribution 23 Electric Power Distribution 24

Step--Up Transformer
Step Power Distribution System
 A step
step--up transformer  A step
step--up transformer increases the voltage
 has relatively many turns in its secondary coil for efficient long-
long-distance transmission
 so charge is pushed a longer distance  A step
step--down transformer decreases the voltage
 and
nd experiences
p ri n a llarger
r r voltage
lt ri
rise for safe delivery to communities
comm nities and homes
 A smaller current
at larger voltage
flows in the
secondary circuit

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