Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5

c 

„V No Depletion of Natural Resources ʹ Unlike a power plant that requires coal to be


extracted and transported using huge amounts of natural resources like fossil fuels,
water etc. in the process, wind is available easily and naturally all around the surface of
the earth. Therefore, it significantly reduces the use of natural resources, and also the
cost, time and effort involved in the extraction process.
Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel 
              


    
     

           
     
   
   

„V Renewable Source of Energy ʹ Wind is fast moving air, present everywhere. It is
renewed all the time as the earth heats and cools. It is a renewable source of
energy unlike the fossil fuels like coal dug from the core of the earth and depleting fast.
Experts believe that for every kilowatt-hour generated by wind one pound of coal can
be saved.
„V No Air Pollution ʹ When wind is used to generate electricity, there are no hazardous
waste eliminated into the air. Whereas traditional power plants produce harmful gases
like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that cause acid rain harming forest, wildlife and
human health.
„V No Water Pollution ʹ Most conventional power plants release toxic metal wastes into
the environment polluting lakes and other water bodies. These can accumulate in the
tissues and are hazardous to the marine life as well as humans. Wind turbine farms do
not release toxic wastes to the environment.
„V No Emission of Greenhouse Gases ʹ It is known that conventional power plants emit
carbon dioxide, which is the number one cause of global warming. Carbon dioxide acts
as a shield trapping the sun͛s rays inside earth͛s atmosphere and heating up the surface,
just like a greenhouse. This greenhouse gas is therefore cause for alarm and not emitted
at all by a wind power plant.
„V Minimum Use of Land - Wind turbines require very little land area. In a typical wind
farm, only about 5 percent of the area is used by the trubines and other equipments.
The rest of the surrounding area can be used as usual for farming, cattle grazing etc.
„V A good method of supplying energy to remote areas.
G   
         
 

  



 
 G 

  
     
 !
„V Wind Energy is  
. This may also put a spanner in depending upon wind
power as a primary energy supplier. Wind energy depends upon the wind in an area and
therefore is a variable source of energy. The amount of wind supplied to a place and the
amount of energy produced from it will depend on various factors like wind speeds and
the turbine characteristics. Some critics also wonder whether wind energy can be used
in areas of high demand.
" 
!
a term for an energy system that cannot be expected to provide a continuous output to
furnish power on demand, because production cannot be correlated to load.
Hydrocarbon-based or nuclear power plants are dispatchable, but solar and wind power
are non-dispatchable (without some added component for storage), since the supply of
sunlight or wind is periodic and cannot be predicted and controlled. Thus, non-
dispatchable power or energy.

Suitable areas for wind farms are often near the coast, where land is expensive.
„V Can kill birds - migrating flocks tend to like strong winds.
However, this is rare, and we tend not to build wind farms on migratory routes anyway.
„V Can affect television reception if you live nearby.
„V Can be noisy. Having said that, as aerodynamic designs have improved modern wind
farms are much quieter. A lot quieter than, say, a fossil fuel power station; and wind
farms tend not to be close to residential areas anyway. Though the costs of creating
wind energy is going down, even today a large number of turbines have to be built to
generate a proper amount of wind energy. Though wind power is non-polluting, the
turbines may create a lot of noise, which indirectly contributes to noise pollution.
0 
!
Compared to the environmental effects of traditional energy sources, the environmental
effects of wind power are relatively minor. Wind power consumes no fuel, and emits no air
pollution, unlike fossil fuel power sources 
    

     
Noise can be reduced using aerodynamic designes for blades of generators. As per the
collected data, the coastal belt of Pakistan is blessed by God Almighty with a wind corridor that
is 60 km wide (#$ % ) and 180 km long (up to Hyderabad.) This corridor has the
exploitable potential of 50,000 MW of electricity generation through wind energy (courtesy:
AEDB).We should be able to meet a major part of our electricity requirement by installing wind
turbines in this corridor.
0
    
    !
Wind speeds have gradually slow downed over three decades.A research study reported that
the slowing wind speed is reducing up to 60% mainly due to vegetation density. Declines in
wind speed is a major concern causing lowering of wind turbine efficiency.
& c
 
Deforestation contributes to global warming problems. Solar heat, seasonal changes, and the
rising temperature of oceans (70% of earth is occupied by oceans) cause natural convection
currents that cause uniform levels of high wind speed. This is a natural phenomenon.
Afforestation, increased Y  vegetation, and surrounding tall trees certainly ensure
the steady, natural flow of high wind speeds that boost wind turbine efficiency. Wind turbines
are purposely designed to operate at large heights, as the wind speed is higher up high than at
ground level. 
       due to extreme high
temperatures and lack of water and nutrients. Nevertheless, researchers have found solutions
providing greenhouses of high humidity at a lower temperature. Several greenhouse projects
in deserts are being cultivated, namely the Sahara Forest project, the Eden project, and
the seawater greenhouse invented by Charlie Paton.
G'( 
Pakistan is fortunate to have something many other countries do not, which are high wind
speeds near major centres. Near Islamabad, the wind speed is anywhere from 6.2 to 7.4
metres per second (between 13.8 and 16.5 miles per hour). Near Karachi, the range is between
6.2 and 6.9 (between 13.8 and 15.4 miles per hour). Pakistan is also fortunate that in
neighboring India, the company Suzlon manufactures wind turbines, thus decreasing
transportation costs. Its turbines start to turn at a speed of 3 metres per second. Vestas, which
is one of the world͛s largest wind turbine manufacturers, has wind turbines that start turning
at a speed of 4 metres per second. In addition to Karachi and Islamabad, there are other areas
in Pakistan that receive a significant amount of wind.
In only the Balochistan and Sindh provinces, sufficient wind exists to power every coastal
village in the country. There also exists a corridor between Gharo and Keti Bandar that alone
could produce between 40,000 and 50,000 megawatts of electricity.
Given this surplus potential, Pakistan has much to offer Asia with regards to wind energy. In
recent years, the government has completed several projects to demonstrate that wind energy
is viable in the country. In Mirpur Sakro, 85 micro turbines have been installed to power 356
homes. In Kund Malir, 40 turbines have been installed, which power 111 homes. The
Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) has also acquired 18,000 acres for the
installation of more wind turbines.
In addition to high wind speeds near major centres as well as the Gharo and Keti Bandar
corridor, Pakistan is also very fortunate to have many rivers and lakes. Wind turbines that are
situated in or near water enjoy an uninterrupted flow of wind, which virtually guarantees that
power will be available all the time.
)    !
*   +    
„V  
Siemens have developed a 3MW wind turbine that is much lighter than a conventional one.
Their new turbine incorporates permanent magnets in the turbine generator, reducing the
dimensions and weight of the generator and this combined with the elimination of a gearbox,
is where the weight loss occurs.
„V #0


General Electric is currently developing a 4MW wind turbine model that should be in
production by 2012 for use in offshore windfarms.
This new turbine will be 25% more efficient than a conventional 4MW turbine due to the
innovative design of the blades coupled with a very efficient drive chain mechanism.
The new turbine will stand 300 feet high with a blade diameter of 360 feet.
Last year two large capacity 5MW wind turbines were installed and are operating in deep
water alongside the Beatrice oil and gas field in the Outer Moray Firth. These are currently the
largest capacity wind turbines to be installed anywhere in the world and supply power at 33kV
to the Beatrice Field Oil Production Platforms.
This field was unique for a number of reasons:
„V First windfarm to participate in Distant Offshore Windfarms with no Visual Impact in
Deepwaters ( DOWNVInD)
„V The use of the world͛s biggest wind turbine (5MW) in an offshore windfarm.
„V Installing the turbines in 45m of water using a steel jacket structure for the first time.
„V %
 +  
„V SeaEnergy PLC (formerly Ramco Energy PLC), a New Scottish Offshore Renewable
Energy Company, have recently announced their plans to develop a 920MW windfarm,
under the name of Beatrice Offshore Windfarm that will be located adjacent to the two
Beatrice demonstrator turbines in the Outer Morayfirth.

The windfarm will consist of 184 wind turbines of 5MW capacity that will be supported on
conventional offshore oil platform steel jackets, piled into the ocean bed.

„V G
, +  )

SeaEnergy have also applied to lease an area 10 miles of the East Coast of Scotland in the
outer Tay Estuary.

This will be known as the Inch Cape Offshore Wind Farm and will have an output of 905MW
from 181 wind turbines of 5MW capacity.

Both these fields will be subject to a Strategic Environmental Assessment (͞SEA͟), along with
an environmental survey of local marine flora and fauna and an Environmental Impact
Statement, which will take up to two years to complete.

c  !
This is a double-helix wind turbine known as aeroturbines. The design of these aeroturbines is
simple and it has been tried to eliminate the drawbacks of the existing turbines. Harvesting
wind energy from high rise buildings will be possible and production and cost efficiency will be
the key factors. The propellers of these aero turbines resemble an electric beater and don͛t
look like a blade. These aeroturbines will not produce noise pollution and can be installed at
the rooftops of high rise buildings.
The other plus factors of aeroturbines are that they are safe for birds. They can harness the
power of multidirectional and gusting winds. They require low maintenance and are self
regulatory as far as overspeed protection is concerned. Aeroturbines can work in a heavy
snowfall too. Continuous wind supply is not a precondition.
. This urban-friendly wind power can be positioned horizontally hence they can be installed on
existing high rise buildings. The structural design of aeroturbines are such that they can be
easily integrated and installed into new as well as existing buildings and their model cages can
be mounted in vertical, horizontal and diagonal orientations.
The aeroturbines must be installed 40 feet above the ground in order to operate efficiently
and care should be taken that they are not obstructed by surrounding trees and other
structures.

!
Because the potential energy produced from the wind is directly proportional to the cube of
the wind speed, increased wind speeds of only a few miles per hour can produce a significantly
larger amount of electricity. For instance, a turbine at a site with an average wind speed of 16
mph would produce 50% more electricity than at a site with the same turbine and average
wind speeds of 14 mph.
Once a suitable place for the wind facility is located,   are driven into the seabed. For each
turbine, a support structure and a   to support the turbine assembly, to house the
remaining plant components.



Offshore turbines look similar to those onshore with several design modifications. These
include strengthening the tower to cope with wind-wave interactions, protecting the nacelle
components from sea air, and adding brightly colored access platforms for navigation and
maintenance. Offshore turbines are typically equipped with corrosion protection, internal
climate control, high-grade exterior paint, and built-in service cranes. To minimize expensive
servicing, offshore turbines may have automatic greasing systems to lubricate bearings and
blades and pre-heating and cooling systems to maintain gear oil temperature within a narrow
temperature range. Lightning protection systems minimize the risk of damage from lightning
strikes that occur frequently in some locations offshore. There are also navigation and aerial
warning lights. Turbines and towers are typically painted light blue or grey to help them blend
into the sky. The lower section of the support towers may be painted bright colors (e.g. yellow)
to aid in navigation and highlight the structures for passing vessels.