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Seminar On: -

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Submitted by:

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GUIDEc c c c c c ccccccccccccc HOD


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c Definition.
c Terminology.
c Experimentation of CT
c Applications of CT.
c Uses.
c Pictures
c Checking of bags.
c Industrial Usage
c 3D rendering techniques.
c Advantages of CT over traditional radiography.
c Application of software programming.
c Strengths and limitations of CT.
c Innovative in CT.
c Industrial usage.
c Menacing by CT.
c Working principle of computed tomography.
c Ultrasound effects.

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Diagnostic imaging method using a low-dose beam of x-rays that crosses the body in a single plane
at many different angles.

. Detectors record the strength of the exiting X-rays; this information is then processed by computer
to produce a detailed two-dimensional cross-sectional image of the body.

A series of such images in parallel planes or around an axis can show the location of abnormalities
(especially tumours and other masses) more precisely than can conventional X-ray images.

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TOMAGRAPHY:-

Derived from Greek word:

Tomb (slice) and ]  (to write).

The word "tomography" is derived from the Greek  


(slice) and ]  (to write).

Computed tomography was originally known as the "EMI scan".

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c Commercial safety measure of baggage checking.


c Industrial applications.
c In medical field.
c Ultrasound effect.
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c For porosity measurement of sedimentary rock.
c Non-destructive material testing
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Although most common in medicine, CT is also used in other fields, such as n¦ndestructive
materials testing. Another example is archaeological uses such as imaging the contents of sarcophagi or the
Digi Morph project at the University of Texas at Austin which uses a CT scanner to study biological and
paleontological specimens.
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Drawbacks:

CT scanners are slow compared to other types of baggage-scanning systems. Because of this, they
are not used to check every bag. Instead, only bags that the computer flags as "suspicious" are checked.

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c[ USING EDGE DETECTION

[ALLOWANC OF DIFFERENT COLORSc


Surface rendering
A threshold value of radio density is set by the operator (e.g. a level that corresponds to bone).
From this, a three-dimensional model can be constructed using edge detection image processing algorithms
and displayed on screen.

Multiple models can be constructed from various different thresholds, allowing different colors to
represent each anatomical component such as bone, muscle, and cartilage.
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[SPIRAL CT MACHINES

[ OLUMETRIC INFORMATION

1. Newer machines with faster computer systems and newer software strategies can process not
only individual cross sections but continuously changing cross sections as the gantry (structure supporting
the travelling crane). These are called    or spiral CT machines.

2. Their computer systems integrate the data of the moving individual slices to generate three
dimensional volumetric information (3D-CT scan).

This is in turn viewable from multiple different perspectives on attached CT workstation monitors.
 
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[MULTIPLANAR REFORMATTED IMAGING

[ACCURACY

[HIGH CONTRAST

c There are several advantages that CT has over traditional 2D medical radiography.
c Because of the inherent high-contrast resolution of CT, differences between tissues that differ in
physical density by less than 1% can be distinguished.
c Computed tomography (CT) scan has been shown to be more accurate than radiographs.
c Data from a single CT imaging procedure consisting of either multiple contiguous or one helical
scan can be viewed as images in the axial, coronal, or sagittal planes, depending on the diagnostic
task.
c This is referred to as multiplanar reformatted imaging.
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. CONTEMPORARY CT SCANNERS

[STAC INGc

. DISPLAY THE OLUME

c Contemporary (MODERN) CT scanners offer isotropic (HA IN SAME PHYSICAL


PROPERTIES IN ALL DIRECTIONS) or near isotropic, resolution.
c Display of images does not need to be restricted to the conventional axial (putting around a
axis) images.
c Instead, it is possible for a software program to build a volume by "stacking" the individual
slices one on top of the other.
c The program may then display the volume in an alternative manner.

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TYPICAL SCREEN LAYOUT FOR DIAGNOSTIC SOFTWARE ,SHOWING 3D.
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Strengths

!c Entirely non-destructive 3D imaging


!c Little or no sample preparation required

Limitations

!c Resolution limited to about 1000-2000x the object


cross-section diameter;
!c high resolution requires small objects
!c Finite resolution causes some blurring of material
boundaries.
!c Large (dm-scale) geological specimens cannot be
penetrated by low-energy X-RAYS.
!c Image artefacts can complicate data interpretation.
!c Large data volumes (gigabytes+) can require
considerable computer resources for visualization
and analysis
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In the mid-1980s, an innovation called the "power slip ring" allowed scanners to rotate
continuously. This development led to a new type of CT called "spiral" or "helical" scanning.

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[ Non-invasive imaging

[ Less time

[ Patient comfort.

This new technology will provide for more non-invasive imaging of a wider range of conditions in less
time and with greater patient comfort.

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irtual endoscopy performed with CT visualizes same organ interiors without using an invasive endoscope

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Industrial use of Computed tomography (CT)

1. To resolve industrial problems, for materials characterizations flaws in parts.

2. In greater reliability and greater safety for workers;

3. To provide quality control of fresh fruits and vegetables, enhancing the safety of food.
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[Exactly how much radiation is too much?

-DNA vulnerability

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c DNA is more vulnerable to damage because of rapid cell divisions.


c Fatal cancer cells are prone to be introduced by radiations of CT scan in one¶s body is as high as 1 in
500.
c Many report severe life-threatening allergic reactions.
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The Ultrasound CT Imaging System is an automated, fully digital imaging


device that uses transmission ultrasound to produce two unique images of the object;
one based on the speed of sound and one based on attenuation of sound.

Example of it is CT scanning of chest on projection of heartbeats.


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CT is often used to image complex fractures, especially ones around joints, because of its ability to
reconstruct the area of interest in multiple planes computed axial tomography can use any penetrative
radiation differentially absorbed by a sample. CT scans constituted 7% of all radiologic examinations-ray
computed tomography (CT) as a technique that can link petrography and petro physics.
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CT machines are now so sophisticated that the test can be done with a patient visit of
5 minutes with an approximate scan time of only 5 seconds or less. Because contrast CT
scans rely on administered contrast in order to provide superior image quality. Co mputed
tomography (CT) scan has been shown to be more accurate than radiographs
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From: -
WWW: - Wikipedia
(Google search)
Book: - Britannica Encyclopaedia.
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