You are on page 1of 66

Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT


Version 7.0.0
Windows, UNIX, and Linux

Introduction

GI11-6360-00
Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT
®


Version 7.0.0
Windows, UNIX, and Linux

Introduction

GI11-6360-00
Before using this information, be sure to read the general information under “Notices,” on page 37.

7th edition (May 2006)


This edition applies to version 7.0.0 of IBM Rational ClearCase (product number 5724G29) and IBM Rational
ClearCase LT (product number 5724G31) and to all subsequent releases and modifications until otherwise indicated
in new editions. This edition replaces G126-5309-00.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 1992, 2006. All rights reserved.
US Government Users Restricted Rights – Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract
with IBM Corp.
Contents
Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Creating labels . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Using metadata to implement policies . . . . 18
Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Integrating base ClearCase with Rational
ClearQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Rational ClearCase MultiSite . . . . . . . . 19
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Chapter 2. Planning for and installing
About this book . . . . . . . . . . . xi Rational ClearCase . . . . . . . . . 21
User Roles and the Rational ClearCase
Planning issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Documentation Set . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
Using Unified Change Management or base
Who should read this book . . . . . . . . . xi
ClearCase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Related information . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Integrating with Rational ClearQuest . . . . . 22
Rational ClearCase documentation roadmap . . xii
Planning to use Rational ClearCase MultiSite . . 22
Rational ClearCase LT documentation roadmap xiii
Rational ClearCase site preparation . . . . . . 22
Rational ClearQuest documentation roadmap xiv
Installation requirements . . . . . . . . . 22
Typographical conventions . . . . . . . . . xiv
Running site preparation . . . . . . . . . 23
Contacting IBM Customer Support for Rational
Installing Rational ClearCase server software . . . 23
software products . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Installing Rational ClearCase on individual
Downloading the IBM Support Assistant . . . xv
computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Summary of changes . . . . . . . . xvii Chapter 3. Working in Rational


ClearCase . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Chapter 1. Overview of Rational Project managers . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
ClearCase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Using UCM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Benefits of using Rational ClearCase . . . . . . 1 Using base ClearCase . . . . . . . . . . 25
Basic terminology of Rational ClearCase . . . . . 1 Developers working on Windows . . . . . . . 26
Differences between Rational ClearCase and Rational Developers working on Linux or the UNIX system 27
ClearCase LT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Working in UCM . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Using Unified Change Management . . . . . . 5 Working in base ClearCase . . . . . . . . 28
UCM terminology . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Using cleartool . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Creating a project . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Using Rational ClearCase integrations with IDEs . . 29
Joining a project . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Microsoft Visual Studio.NET . . . . . . . . 29
Delivering work to the integration stream . . . 10 Rational Application Developer for WebSphere
Rebasing private work areas . . . . . . . . 11 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Implementing development policies . . . . . 12 Using the Rational ClearCase Web interface . . . 30
Integrating UCM with Rational ClearQuest . . . 12 Using the Rational ClearCase Remote Client . . . 31
Using base ClearCase . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Setting up a project . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Planning a branching strategy . . . . . . . 16
Using a private branch . . . . . . . . . 16 Appendix. Notices . . . . . . . . . . 37
Merging work between branches . . . . . . 17
Creating standardized config specs . . . . . 18 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 iii


iv IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction
Figures
1. Elements and their versions . . . . . . . 2 15. Version label . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2. Storing elements in a versioned object base 16. Selecting versions used in development work 15
(VOB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 17. Selecting versions included in a particular
3. Using the check out/check in model . . . . 3 release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4. Using a view to see shared elements . . . . 4 18. Branches in a file system directory tree 16
5. An activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 19. Working on a private branch . . . . . . . 17
6. A stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 20. Merging branches . . . . . . . . . . 18
7. A baseline . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 21. Rational ClearCase MultiSite VOB family 20
8. Composite baseline . . . . . . . . . . 8 22. Rational ClearCase Project Explorer . . . . 25
9. Private work areas . . . . . . . . . . 9 23. Rational ClearCase Explorer . . . . . . . 27
10. Shared work area . . . . . . . . . . 10 24. Rational ClearCase integration with Visual
11. Delivering work to the integration stream 11 Studio.NET . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
12. Rebasing the development stream . . . . . 12 25. Rational ClearCase integration with
13. Using a Rational ClearQuest to-do list to find Application Developer . . . . . . . . . 30
UCM activities . . . . . . . . . . . 13 26. Rational ClearCase Web interface . . . . . 31
14. Branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 v


vi IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction
Tables
1. Features in Rational ClearCase that are not in 3. Frequently used cleartool commands . . . . 28
Rational ClearCase LT . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Rational ClearCase objects created by
installation procedure . . . . . . . . . 23

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 vii


viii IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction
Preface
Rational ClearCase and Rational ClearCase LT are configuration management
(CM) systems that manage multiple versions of evolving software systems.
Rational ClearCase is IBM's enterprise configuration management solution for large
development teams working in parallel. Rational ClearCase LT contains a subset of
Rational ClearCase features and is suitable for customers who do not need the
scalability, flexibility, and robustness provided by Rational ClearCase. Rational
ClearCase MultiSite is an optional add-on product that extends Rational ClearCase
by supporting parallel development across geographically distributed project
teams.

Unless otherwise noted, Rational ClearCase refers to both Rational ClearCase and
Rational ClearCase LT throughout this manual.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 ix


x IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction
About this book
This book provides the following information about Rational ClearCase:
v Description of the product’s features, concepts, and main user workflows
v Overview of the planning and installation process
v Overview of the product’s main tools and user interfaces

In this manual, the references to Windows® apply to all Microsoft® Windows


platforms on which Rational ClearCase is supported. References to the UNIX®
system apply to all platforms running the UNIX system on which Rational
ClearCase is supported. References to Linux® apply to all Linux platforms on
which Rational ClearCase is supported. See the IBM Rational ClearCase, ClearCase
MultiSite, and ClearCase LT Installation and Upgrade Guide for a current list of
operating systems supported by Rational ClearCase.

User Roles and the Rational ClearCase Documentation Set


Rational ClearCase documentation consists of task-oriented information,
supporting Rational ClearCase users acting in the following roles:
v Project manager— Defines, implements, and manages the objects, policies, and
processes of a software development project
v Developer — Makes changes to the software configuration (that is, the files and
directories) of a software development project
v Integrator (also called build engineer or release engineer) — Builds and
integrates the products of a software development project
v Administrator — Configures and maintains the Rational ClearCase
infrastructure, including Rational ClearCase VOBs, views, servers, and clients,
for part or all of your organization

Who should read this book


This book is intended for evaluators and new users of Rational ClearCase. This
book provides information about how using Rational ClearCase enables
development teams to work more efficiently to produce high quality work in less
time. This book assumes familiarity with basic configuration management concepts
such as parallel development, version control, and project policy implementation.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 xi


Related information

Rational ClearCase documentation roadmap

Orientation

Introduction
Release Notes
Online tutorials

Software Project
Development Management

Developing Software (online help) Guide to Managing Software Projects

More Information
Command Reference
Online documentation
Help files

Build
Management Administration

Guide to Building Software Installation and Upgrade Guide


OMAKE Guide Administrator's Guide
(Windows platforms) (Rational ClearCase/
Rational ClearCase LT)
Administrator's Guide
(Rational ClearCase MultiSite)
Platforms Guide
(Rational ClearCase)
Guide to Deployment Tracking
(Rational ClearCase/Rational ClearQuest)

xii IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Rational ClearCase LT documentation roadmap

Orientation

Online tutorials
Release Notes
Introduction

Software Project
Development Management

Developing Software (online documentation) Guide to Managing Software Projects

More Information
Command Reference
Online documentation
Help files

Administration

Installation and Upgrade Guide


Administrator's Guide

About this book xiii


Rational ClearQuest documentation roadmap

Orientation

Introduction
Release Notes
(See online documentation)
Designer tutorials
(See online documentation)

Database Project
Design Management

Administrator's Guide Using Project Tracker


(Rational ClearQuest) (Windows platforms;
API Reference see online
(See online More Information documentation)
documentation) Online documentation
Help files

Administration

Installation Guide (Rational Desktop Products)


Installation Guide (Rational Server Products)
Installation Guide (UNIX)
Administrator's Guide (Rational ClearQuest)
Administrator's Guide (Rational ClearQuest MultiSite)
Upgrade Guide (Rational Suite)

Typographical conventions
This manual uses the following typographical conventions:
v ccase–home–dir represents the directory into which Rational ClearCase, Rational
ClearCase LT, or Rational ClearCase MultiSite has been installed. By default, this
directory is /opt/rational/clearcase on the UNIX system and Linux, and
C:\Program Files\Rational\ClearCase on Windows.
v cquest-home-dir represents the directory into which Rational ClearQuest has been
installed. By default, this directory is /opt/rational/clearquest on the UNIX
system and Linux, and C:\Program Files\Rational\ClearQuest on Windows.
v Bold is used for names the user can enter; for example, command names and
branch names.
v A sans-serif font is used for file names, directory names, and file extensions.
v A serif bold font is used for GUI elements; for example, menu names and
names of check boxes.
v Italic is used for variables, document titles, glossary terms, and emphasis.

xiv IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


v A monospaced font is used for examples. Where user input needs to be
distinguished from program output, bold is used for user input.
v Nonprinting characters appear as follows: <EOF>, <NL>.
v Key names and key combinations are capitalized and appear as follows: Shift,
Ctrl+G.
v [ ] Brackets enclose optional items in format and syntax descriptions.
v { } Braces enclose a list from which you must choose an item in format and
syntax descriptions.
v | A vertical bar separates items in a list of choices.
v ... In a syntax description, an ellipsis indicates you can repeat the preceding item
or line one or more times. Otherwise, it can indicate omitted information.

Note: In certain contexts, you can use “...” within a pathname as a wildcard,
similar to “*” or “?”. For more information, see the wildcards_ccase
reference page.
v If a command or option name has a short form, a “slash” ( / ) character
indicates the shortest legal abbreviation. For example:
lsc/heckout

Contacting IBM Customer Support for Rational software products


If you have questions about installing, using, or maintaining this product, contact
IBM Customer Support as follows:

The IBM software support Internet site provides you with self-help resources and
electronic problem submission. The IBM Software Support Home page for Rational
products can be found at http://www.ibm.com/software/rational/support/.

Voice Support is available to all current contract holders by dialing a telephone


number in your country (where available). For specific country phone numbers, go
to http://www.ibm.com/planetwide/.

Note: When you contact IBM Customer Support, please be prepared to supply the
following information:
v Your name, company name, ICN number, telephone number, and e-mail
address
v Your operating system, version number, and any service packs or patches
you have applied
v Product name and release number
v Your PMR number (if you are following up on a previously reported
problem)

Downloading the IBM Support Assistant


The IBM Support Assistant (ISA) is a locally installed serviceability workbench that
makes it both easier and simpler to resolve software product problems. ISA is a
free, stand-alone application that you download from IBM and install on any
number of machines. It runs on AIX, (RedHat Enterprise Linux AS), HP-UX,
Solaris, and Windows platforms.

ISA includes these features:


v Federated search
v Data collection

About this book xv


v Problem submission
v Education roadmaps

For more information about ISA, including instructions for downloading and
installing ISA and product plug-ins, go to the ISA Software Support page.

IBM Support Assistant: http://www.ibm.com/software/support/isa/

xvi IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Summary of changes
This edition includes the following changes:
v “Using the Rational ClearCase Remote Client” on page 31 features information
about how the Rational ClearCase Remote Client enables you to perform
Rational ClearCase operations over wide-area networks (WANs), local-area
networks (LANs), and dial-up connections.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 xvii


xviii IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction
Chapter 1. Overview of Rational ClearCase
This chapter introduces features of Rational ClearCase and Rational ClearCase LT,
and describes different models for using the products. This chapter also introduces
Rational ClearCase MultiSite. Unless otherwise noted, Rational ClearCase refers to
both Rational ClearCase and Rational ClearCase LT.

Rational ClearCase features two configuration management interfaces:


v Unified Change Management (UCM), an activity-based change management
process included in Rational ClearCase.
v Base ClearCase, which is a set of tools can be used to create a configuration
management solution tailored to a particular development environment.

Benefits of using Rational ClearCase


Rational ClearCase can be used to manage and track all software assets, whether
they are mission-critical software artifacts, documentation, Web pages, or source
code. Like other source code control tools, Rational ClearCase can be used to:
v Create new versions of a software artifact
v Compare versions of a software artifact
v Merge changes from one version of an artifact into another version
v Control simultaneous changes to a software artifact
v Mark certain versions of artifacts as stable sources to be used in builds
v Determine the who, when, and why of a particular change to an artifact

Rational ClearCase also provides advantages to different development team


members:
v Team leaders can coordinate the activities of people developing products
together
v Project managers have control over the extent and frequency with which team
members synchronize their work
v Developers can work in parallel, developing their artifacts in private areas so
that the work of other team members is not affected by their changes
v Integrators can combine the efforts of the team in a controlled manner

Basic terminology of Rational ClearCase


It is helpful for you to understand the following terms before learning about the
most important features of Rational ClearCase:
v File element
v Version
v Versioned object base (VOB)
v Check out-edit-check in model
v View

A file element is a file that contains source code, requirements data, visual models,
HTML source, XML source, or other data that can be stored in a file system.

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 1


A directory element contains file elements and other directory elements.

A version is a specific revision of an element. For instance, instead of overwriting


the same copy of a draft each time you work on it, you store a copy of the first
version, the second version, and so on. Figure 1 displays several elements and their
versions.

prog.c util.h msg.cat lib.c

0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4

Figure 1. Elements and their versions

A versioned object base, or VOB, is a secure repository that stores versions of file
elements and directory elements. Figure 2 displays a VOB.

2 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


VOB

prog.c util.h msg.cat lib.c

0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

Figure 2. Storing elements in a versioned object base (VOB)

Rational ClearCase's check out-edit-check in model enables you to manage changes to


your project. When you check out an element, an editable copy of the element is
created in your view. When you check in an element, a new version of it is added
to your VOB. For example, you can check out a chapter of a book from the
documentation VOB. You can then work on a copy of the chapter in your view.
When you want your changes to become a part of a new version of the chapter,
you can save the changes and check in the chapter, as displayed in Figure 3.

3 3

4
Checking out Checking in
the version the version
Figure 3. Using the check out/check in model

A view provides access to a specific version of one or more elements in a VOB. It


lets you select a set of versions of elements that you want to work on, without
requiring you to explicitly specify the versions. It also provides a workspace,
displayed in Figure 4, in which you can work on tasks in isolation from other
developers. For example, as you work on the latest version of a Web page, no one
can see the changes you make until you check in your work to the VOB.

Chapter 1. Overview of Rational ClearCase 3


Name
View pat_v1.4_CropCircle
lib.c
Activities My Activities
(UCM only) msg.cat
doc Versions of file elements
prog.c
guivob
Versions of directory util.h
hello_world
elements
src

temp

lost+found

Figure 4. Using a view to see shared elements

Differences between Rational ClearCase and Rational ClearCase LT


This manual describes Rational ClearCase and Rational ClearCase LT. Rational
ClearCase is an enterprise configuration management system designed for medium
to large development teams working in parallel. Customers who do not need the
scalability, flexibility, and robustness provided by Rational ClearCase can use
Rational ClearCase LT as their configuration management solution. Table 1
describes the main differences between Rational ClearCase and Rational
ClearCase LT.
Table 1. Features in Rational ClearCase that are not in Rational ClearCase LT
Feature Description
Dynamic views Rational ClearCase and Rational ClearCase LT offer snapshot
views. Snapshot views work by copying versions of elements from
VOBs to your computer. Your snapshot view will need to be
updated periodically to see the latest versions of elements. An
update operation copies the latest versions of elements from the
VOB to your view.

Rational ClearCase also offers dynamic views. A dynamic view uses


the Multiversion File System (MVFS) to provide immediate,
transparent access to data stored in VOBs. When you work in a
dynamic view, you do not need to copy data from VOBs to your
view; you see the latest versions of elements in real time.
Multiple servers Rational ClearCase and Rational ClearCase LT use a client-server
architecture. A Rational ClearCase client process issues a request
for a Rational ClearCase operation, such as checkout or checkin.
Server processes that run on the host where the VOB resides
handle the request. Rational ClearCase supports a multiple server
configuration, so VOBs can be located on multiple, distributed
hosts. Rational ClearCase LT supports a single server
configuration, so VOBs can be located on only one server host.

4 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Table 1. Features in Rational ClearCase that are not in Rational ClearCase LT (continued)
Feature Description
Advanced build tool You can use the Rational ClearCase commands clearmake, omake,
and clearaudit to perform makefile based builds of software
systems. These commands provide the following powerful features:
v Build auditing, with automatic detection of source dependencies,
including header file dependencies
v Automatic creation of permanent bill-of-materials documentation
of the build process and its results
v Sophisticated build-avoidance algorithms to guarantee correct
results when building in a parallel development environment
v Sharing of binaries among views, saving both time and disk
storage
v Parallel building, which applies the resources of multiple
processors and multiple hosts to builds of large software systems

These features are available only if you use dynamic views;


therefore, they are available in Rational ClearCase but not in
Rational ClearCase LT.
Rational ClearCase Rational ClearCase MultiSite is an optional add-on to Rational
MultiSite ClearCase. Rational ClearCase MultiSite can be used for parallel
software development and software reuse across geographically
distributed project teams. Rational ClearCase MultiSite is not
supported with Rational ClearCase LT.

Using Unified Change Management


UCM structures the work of a project team into a defined, consistent, repeatable
process. This section provides an overview of key concepts and tasks involved in
using UCM.

UCM terminology
A project is a specific product of a development effort, such as a corporate Web site
or order fulfillment process. In UCM, a project is an object that contains the
configuration information (for example, components, activities, and policies)
needed to manage and track work on a product. A typical UCM project in Rational
ClearCase consists of one shared work area and many private work areas (one for
each developer).

A component is a group of source code and other relevant elements or files, such as
a license module or a GUI, that the team develops, integrates, and releases as a
unit. Components constitute parts of a project.

An activity is an object that records the set of files (known as the change set) that a
developer creates or modifies to complete and deliver a development task, such as
a bug fix.Figure 5 displays an activity. Other activities could include an update to a
help file or the addition of a menu item to a GUI component.

Chapter 1. Overview of Rational ClearCase 5


Fixing bug 2144 Headline
Creator: pat Activity creator

lib.c, version 4 Change set


prog.c, version 5

Figure 5. An activity

A work area consists of a view and a stream. As described in “Basic terminology of


Rational ClearCase” on page 1, a view is a directory tree that shows a single
version of each file in your project. A stream is an object that maintains a list of
activities and baselines, and determines which versions of elements are shown in
your view.Figure 6 displays an example of a stream.

View

Fixing bug 2144 Activity


l prog.c, version 5
l lib.c, version 4

Baseline Stream

Figure 6. A stream

A project contains one integration stream, which records the project’s baselines and
enables access to versions of the project’s shared elements. The integration stream
and a corresponding integration view represent the project’s primary shared work
area.

Each developer on a project has a private work area, which consists of a


development stream and a corresponding development view. The development
stream maintains a list of the developer’s activities and determines which versions
of elements are displayed in the developer’s view.

Although the integration stream is the project’s primary shared work area, project
managers can designate a development stream to be a shared work area for several
developers who are working on the same feature.

6 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


A baseline identifies one version of each element in a component that represents the
integrated or merged work of team members, as displayed in Figure 7. A baseline
represents a version of a component at a particular stage in project development,
such as the first draft of a book, a beta release, or a final product release. As
milestones are reached throughout the project lifecycle, the project manager creates
and recommends baselines and changes their promotion level attributes to reflect
these milestones.

Element

Version

Component
Baseline
Figure 7. A baseline

When developers join a project, they populate their work areas with the versions
of directory and file elements represented by the project’s recommended baselines.
Alternatively, developers can join a project at a feature-specific development stream
level, where they populate their work areas with the development stream’s
recommended baselines. This practice ensures that all members of the project team
base their development on the same set of files.

If your project team works on multiple components, you may consider using a
composite baseline. A composite baseline is a baseline that selects baselines in other
components. In Figure 8, the ProjBL1 composite baseline selects baselines BL1 and
BL2 of components A and B, respectively. The Proj component does not contain
any elements of its own. Its sole purpose is to contain the composite baseline that
selects the recommended baselines of the project’s components. By using a
composite baseline in this manner, you can identify one baseline to represent the
entire project.

Chapter 1. Overview of Rational ClearCase 7


Component A

Component Proj Baseline BL1

PB1 Component B

Baseline
Baseline BL2

Figure 8. Composite baseline

Creating a project
Before creating a UCM project, the project manager maps files and directories in
the product architecture to a set of UCM components. Using utilities provided in
Rational ClearCase, the project manager or administrator converts existing files and
directories from other version control software systems to elements in a VOB. For
details about importing existing files and directories into Rational ClearCase
components, see the IBM Rational ClearCase Guide to Managing Software Projects and
the IBM Rational ClearCase Administrator’s Guide.

The project manager then creates a UCM project, along with its baselines and
integration stream, with the Rational ClearCase Project Explorer. A new project can be
created from scratch or populated with baselines from an existing project.

The project includes a private work area for each developer, displayed in Figure 9,
and one shared work area, displayed in Figure 10. The project manager manages
the shared work area. These areas are explained in more detail in “Joining a
project” on page 10 and “Delivering work to the integration stream” on page 10.

8 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Pat's development
stream

Joe's development
stream

Chris's development
stream

Baseline BL1

Figure 9. Private work areas

Chapter 1. Overview of Rational ClearCase 9


Pat's
integration
view

Joe's Integration stream


integration
view

Chris's
integration
view

Figure 10. Shared work area

Joining a project
To join the UCM project, use the Join Project wizard to create a development
stream, a development view, and an integration view.

The development stream and development view make up the private work area, where
you work on activities. You use the development view to access and change
elements. The development stream determines which versions of elements are
displayed in each development view.

The integration view gives developers and project managers access to work that has
been delivered to the shared work area.

Delivering work to the integration stream


The project manager created the UCM project with one shared work area, or
integration stream.

When you are ready to integrate your work with the work of your team, you
deliver your work from your development stream to the integration stream. The
deliver operation may involve a merge if other team members have already
delivered versions of one or more of the same elements, as displayed in Figure 11.

10 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Development
stream

Deliver

Integration
stream

Baseline BL1

Figure 11. Delivering work to the integration stream

After all team members' work is delivered and merged, you use the integration
view to build and test work in the integration stream. The integration stream
determines which versions of delivered elements are displayed in the integration
view.

Rebasing private work areas


Periodically, the project manager creates new baselines. Each new baseline includes
work that has been delivered since the last baseline was created. When a new
baseline passes a certain level of testing, the project manager promotes it,
designating it as the project’s recommended baseline.

You then update, or rebase, your development stream to use the new recommended
baseline, as displayed in Figure 12. The rebase operation updates the development
view to include versions from the new baseline. If the baseline includes new
versions of the same element that you checked in from a private work area (that is,
if other developers have checked in and delivered new versions of the same
element to the integration stream), the rebase operation merges the new versions
into your development stream.

Chapter 1. Overview of Rational ClearCase 11


Development
stream
Rebasing

Baseline BL1 Baseline BL2

Figure 12. Rebasing the development stream

Implementing development policies


UCM includes a set of policies that you can use to enforce development practices
among members of the project team. By setting policieson projects and streams,
you can improve communication among project team members and minimize
problems you may encounter when integrating their work. For example, you can
set a policy that requires developers to update their work areas with the project’s
latest recommended baseline before they deliver work to the integration stream.
This practice reduces the likelihood that developers will need to work through
complex merges when they deliver their work. For a description of all policies that
you can implement in UCM, see IBM Rational ClearCase Guide to Managing Software
Projects.

In addition to the set of policies that UCM provides, you can create triggers on
UCM operations to enforce customized development policies. A trigger is a
mechanism that specifies one or more programs or actions to be run whenever a
given Rational ClearCase operation is performed. For details about creating
triggers, see the IBM Rational ClearCase Command Reference and the IBM Rational
ClearCase Administrator’s Guide.

Integrating UCM with Rational ClearQuest


Rational ClearQuest is a change request management solution. Using Rational
ClearQuest, team members can submit change requests for their product, view and
modify existing change requests, and create and run user-specific or site-specific
queries and reports to determine project status.

The Rational ClearQuest integration with UCM provides activity management


capabilities by linking project activities in UCM to corresponding records in a
Rational ClearQuest user database. The integration enables the project team to
track an activity’s progress from creation through completion. Project managers can
assign activities to developers, and developers can use Rational ClearQuest
queries, as displayed in Figure 13, to find their assigned activities. Because
activities have corresponding records in a Rational ClearQuest user database,
project managers can use the query, reporting, and charting utilities in Rational
ClearQuest to help manage their projects.

12 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Headline State State Type UCM Project View UCM Stream
Anti-virus program crashes Active Active CropCircle_1.4 pat_CropCircle_1.
Use one button to stop and start Active Active CropCircle_1.4 pat_CropCircle_1 pat_CropCircle_1.
Integrate product with Eclipse Active Active CropCircle_1.4 pat_CropCircle_1.

Result set Query editor Display editor SQL editor

Figure 13. Using a Rational ClearQuest to-do list to find UCM activities

For information about planning and setting up the Rational ClearQuest integration
with UCM, see the IBM Rational ClearCase Guide to Managing Software Projects. For
information about working on activities in a project that is linked to a Rational
ClearQuest user database, see the IBM Rational ClearCase Developing Software
Manual.

Using base ClearCase


A project team can use Rational ClearCase tools to develop its own system of
managing and tracking software resources. This section describes the basic steps
involved in setting up a work environment in base ClearCase.

For more information about creating a customized configuration management


environment, see the IBM Rational ClearCase Guide to Managing Software Projects,
and the IBM Rational ClearCase Administrator’s Guide.

Terminology
A branch is an object that specifies a sequence of versions of an element. Each
element has one main branch , which represents the principal line of development.
Each element may also have multiple subbranches, each of which represents a
separate line of development. A branch is displayed in Figure 14.

Chapter 1. Overview of Rational ClearCase 13


util.h
main

2
r1_bugs
3
0

4
1
bug404
2
0

3
1

Figure 14. Branches

A label can be attached to any version of an element to identify that version in a


meaningful way. A single version of an element can have several different labels.
Labels are usually applied to a set of elements to mark important project
milestones. Labels can also be applied to a specific version of an element to
indicate the proposed starting point of a branch, a displayed in Figure 15.

util.h
main

2 V1.0

Figure 15. Version label

14 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


A configuration specification, or config spec, contains rules used by a view to select
versions of elements. The rules are very flexible, and you can use various criteria
to indicate which versions of elements you want the view to display. For example,
a config spec for a view used in ongoing development could contain a rule that
selects the latest version on the development branch, as displayed in Figure 16.

prog.c util.h msg.cat lib.c

0 0 0 0

1 1 1 V1.0 1

2 2 V1.0 2 2 V1.0

3 V1.0 3 3 3

4 4 4

Figure 16. Selecting versions used in development work

To examine versions that are included in a particular release, use a config spec that
uses a label rule to select the versions that were labeled for that release. An
example of how to select versions that are included in a release is displayed in
Figure 17.

prog.c util.h msg.cat lib.c

0 0 0 0

1 1 1 V1.0 1

2 2 V1.0 2 2 V1.0

3 V1.0 3 3 3

4 4 4

Figure 17. Selecting versions included in a particular release

Setting up a project
When project managers set up projects in base ClearCase, they map files and
directories in the product architecture to a set of VOBs (just as project managers

Chapter 1. Overview of Rational ClearCase 15


map files and directories to components in UCM). For instructions on creating
VOBs and populating them with files and directories, see the IBM Rational
ClearCase Developing Software Manual.

After files and directories are imported into VOBs, the project manager usually
applies labels to a set of versions of elements in those VOBs to designate the
versions from which development should start.

Planning a branching strategy


When you use base ClearCase, you must use branches to implement parallel
development. (UCM uses streams to manage branches for you.)

This section provides a simple example of how to define a branching strategy. As


you read the section, keep in mind that the possible branching and merging
combinations are almost infinite.

A project team can work on many branches concurrently. In Figure 18, the main
branch represents the integration branch, an r1_port subbranch is a port to a new
platform, an r2_beta subbranch contains work for the beta version of the next
release, and so on.

opt.c
main

r1_port
2
r2_beta 0
3
0
1
4
1
2

2
3

Figure 18. Branches in a file system directory tree

Using a private branch


At times, you may want to create a private branch based on the project branch. For
example, say you want to work on a bug fix without affecting the work that other
developers are doing. To do this, choose the version from which you want to start.
Then you can create a second config spec for a second view that will create a
private branch starting at that version. A private branch is displayed in Figure 19.

16 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


util.h
main

4
smg_bugfix

Figure 19. Working on a private branch

To incorporate your work into the project, merge the changes on your private
branch to the project branch. If you decide to abandon your work, do not merge
the changes. In either case, when you want to resume your work on the project
branch, change your view back to use the project branch view.

For more information about creating private branches for development work and
merging your work back to the project branch, see the IBM Rational ClearCase
Developing Software Manual.

Merging work between branches


To integrate work from one branch with work on another branch, you merge work
from one subbranch to another branch. In Figure 20, all work must be merged to
the main branch before it can be included in a product release. After the fix on the
bug102 branch is tested and approved for integration, you first merge the work to
the r1_fix branch. You then test all the work on the r1_fix branch; when that work
is ready to be incorporated into the main project, you merge from that branch to
the main branch.

Chapter 1. Overview of Rational ClearCase 17


element: opt.c
main

4
r1_fix
5
0

6
1

7
2

8 bug102
3
0

4
1

5
merge
2

6 merge

Figure 20. Merging branches

Creating standardized config specs


To ensure that team members are working on the correct branches (that is, on the
appropriate directory and file versions), the project manager can create a
standardized config spec that team members use for their views. For more
information on creating config specs, see the IBM Rational ClearCase Guide to
Managing Software Projects and the IBM Rational ClearCase Developing Software
Manual.

Creating labels
A label in base ClearCase is a name that can be attached to a version. Labels are a
powerful tool for project managers. By applying labels to groups of elements, the
relationship of a set of file and directory versions to one another can be defined
and preserved at a given point in the development lifecycle. For example, you
could apply a BASELINE label to all versions that are considered stable after
integration and testing. You can then use this label as the foundation for new
work.

Using metadata to implement policies


In base ClearCase, project managers use metadata to define project policies and to
annotate objects in the VOB. Metadata includes the following:
v Attributes

18 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


v Branch types
v Hyperlinks
v Locks
v Triggers
v Labels

Note: You can also use attributes, hyperlinks, locks, and triggers when using
UCM.

Project managers can use attributes, hyperlinks, and labels to annotate objects in
the VOB. The following section provides definitions of attributes, hyperlinks, and
labels and gives examples of how they can be used.
v Attributes are name-value pairs that are attached to objects. You could use
attributes to attach bug numbers to versions. You could also use them to identify
which versions in a baseline have been tested.
v Hyperlinks connect two VOB objects. For example, you can define a hyperlink to
connect a design specification to its associated executable file.
v Labels identify specific versions of elements. You can use labels in config spec
rules to identify branching points, or to mark all versions that were used in a
build.

Project managers can use locks and triggers to define and enforce project policies.
For example, a project manager could temporarily lock an integration branch to
prevent developers from merging work onto it. A project manager could also create
a trigger that prompts developers to enter the bug number associated with a
checkin and then attaches that bug number to the new, checked-in version.

For details about using Rational ClearCase metadata, see the IBM Rational ClearCase
Guide to Managing Software Projects and the IBM Rational ClearCase Developing
Software Manual.

Integrating base ClearCase with Rational ClearQuest


Rational ClearQuest is a change request management solution. Using Rational
ClearQuest, team members can submit change requests for their product, view and
modify existing change requests, and create and run user-specific or site-specific
queries and reports to determine project status.

You can associate change requests with versions of elements using the base
ClearCase integration with Rational ClearQuest. Versions associated with a change
request constitute a change set. In Rational ClearQuest, a page on the change
request’s record form displays its change set information.

You can specify conditions under which developers are prompted to associate
versions with change requests when you configure the integration. For example,
you can require developers to specify a change request associated with a given file
when they check out or check in that file, and you can apply this requirement only
to specific VOBs, branch types, or element types.

Rational ClearCase MultiSite


Rational ClearCase MultiSite extends Rational ClearCase by supporting parallel
software development across geographically distributed project teams.

Chapter 1. Overview of Rational ClearCase 19


Developers at different locations can use Rational ClearCase MultiSite to work on
the same VOB, as displayed in Figure 21. Each site has its own copy, or replica, of
that VOB. The set of replicas of a particular VOB is called a family. At any time, a
site can propagate changes made in its VOB replica to other members of the VOB
family, using an automated or manual synchronization process.

peer-to-peer pattern

Boston

San Francisco
Bangalore

Figure 21. Rational ClearCase MultiSite VOB family

This manual describes Rational ClearCase MultiSite only where it applies to a


given Rational ClearCase operation or concept. See the IBM Rational ClearCase
MultiSite Administrator’s Guide for details about configuring, using, and
administering Rational ClearCase MultiSite.

20 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Chapter 2. Planning for and installing Rational ClearCase
This chapter provides a high-level overview of the Rational ClearCase installation
process. It identifies major planning decisions you need to make and summarizes
the steps required to install Rational ClearCase. It is not intended to be a complete
installation guide. For details about installing Rational ClearCase at your site, see
the IBM Rational ClearCase, ClearCase MultiSite, and ClearCase LT Installation and
Upgrade Guide.

If you are a Rational ClearCase administrator who is responsible for installing


Rational ClearCase at your site, read this chapter.

If you are a project manager, read “Planning issues.” This section contains
information about using UCM, base ClearCase, Rational ClearQuest, and Rational
ClearCase MultiSite in your organization.

If you need information about installing Rational ClearCase on your client


computer, start with “Installing Rational ClearCase on individual computers” on
page 24.

Planning issues
This section describes significant decisions administrators or project managers must
make before installing Rational ClearCase.

Using Unified Change Management or base ClearCase


UCM is an optional activity-based process that you can use with Rational
ClearCase to implement configuration management. You do not need to have
mastered the details of base ClearCase to work in UCM.

UCM provides the convenience of a built-in, automated solution; base ClearCase


offers the flexibility you need to implement virtually any configuration
management solution that is appropriate for your environment. Think of base
ClearCase as a feature-rich toolset and UCM as a process, based on recommended
software development practices, that uses that toolset.

If your team plans to use UCM, you need to make the following decisions:
v Which components your team will work on
v What stream hierarchy your project will use
v Which development policies you will enforce
v What naming scheme you will use for baselines

If your team plans to use base ClearCase, you need to make the following
decisions:
v What branching strategy your team will use
v What configuration specification (config spec) rules developers will use so that
their views to select particular versions of elements
v What label types and labels you will use to identify project milestones

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 21


For an overview of differences in configuring, working in, and managing software
development projects between base ClearCase and UCM, see Chapter 1, “Overview
of Rational ClearCase,” on page 1. For detailed information, see the following
sources:
v For information about creating and managing projects using UCM or base
ClearCase, including details about what you must consider for either
environment before you install Rational ClearCase, see the IBM Rational
ClearCase Guide to Managing Software Projects.
v For information about how UCM or base ClearCase affects how developers work
in Rational ClearCase, see the IBM Rational ClearCase Developing Software Manual.

Integrating with Rational ClearQuest


In UCM, you can use Rational ClearQuest to provide additional activity
management features to your development environment, such as assigning
activities, moving activities through states, and querying and reporting on activities
based on state, user assignment, project, and so on. For details about configuring
Rational ClearQuest and Rational ClearCase to support activity management using
UCM, see the IBM Rational ClearCase Guide to Managing Software Projects.

If you are using the base ClearCase integration with Rational ClearQuest instead of
UCM, you can associate Rational ClearQuest change requests with Rational
ClearCase versions. For details about configuring this integration, see the IBM
Rational ClearCase Guide to Managing Software Projects.

Planning to use Rational ClearCase MultiSite


If your team plans to use Rational ClearCase MultiSite, you need to make the
following decisions:
v Which development artifacts you will share among geographically diverse sites
v How developers at various sites will access and change those artifacts
v How and when you will synchronize changes among sites
For details about planning for use of Rational ClearCase MultiSite, see the IBM
Rational ClearCase MultiSite Administrator’s Guide.

Rational ClearCase site preparation


The Rational ClearCase administrator (possibly with advice from the Rational
ClearCase project manager) decides how to configure the Rational
ClearCaseinstallation for the site. The administrator creates a shared release area
from which users can install Rational ClearCase on their individual computers.
When creating the shared release area, the administrator specifies default values
for installation parameters that are based on the configuration decisions that have
been made for the site. These parameter values will then be used when Rational
ClearCase is installed on individual hosts.

Installation requirements
Before you install Rational ClearCase at your site, see the IBM Rational ClearCase,
ClearCase MultiSite, and ClearCase LT Installation and Upgrade Guide for the following
information:
v Supported platforms and file systems (including system file access for all
supported platforms)
v Hardware and software requirements

22 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


v Platform-specific information relevant to installation, such as disk space
required, OS patches required, layered software packages required, and so on
v Rational ClearCase and Rational ClearCase MultiSite fix packs incorporated into
this release
v Information about upgrading from a previous Rational ClearCase release
v Known issues relevant to installation

Running site preparation


The Rational ClearCase Site preparation program prepares the shared release area
from which users can install Rational ClearCase on their computers.

Rational ClearCase Site preparation configures the sitewide defaults that users see
when they install Rational ClearCase on their computers. This simplifies sitewide
installation because the Rational ClearCase administrator defines Rational
ClearCase installation parameters for the site only once, rather than requiring
everyone to specify appropriate values for these parameters when they install
Rational ClearCase. Instead, users can accept the default parameter values when
prompted during the installation process.

On Windows, running Rational ClearCase Site preparation requires local


administrator privileges and often also requires network administrator privileges.
On Linux and the UNIX system, running Rational ClearCase Site preparation
requires root privileges.

For detailed information about running Rational ClearCase Site preparation, see
the IBM Rational ClearCase, ClearCase MultiSite, and ClearCase LT Installation and
Upgrade Guide.

Installing Rational ClearCase server software


After running the Rational ClearCase Site preparation program, the administrator
installs the Rational ClearCase server software on one or more server hosts.
Rational ClearCase LT allows you to install the server software on one host only;
Rational ClearCase enables you to install it on multiple hosts.

In addition to installing Rational ClearCase server software, the installation


procedure creates some Rational ClearCase objects, displayed in Table 2, and
performs initial configuration to set up your team’s development environment.
Table 2. Rational ClearCase objects created by installation procedure
Rational ClearCase Object UCM Base ClearCase
Project X
Project VOB (PVOB) X
Component VOB X
Administrative VOB X
VOB X

In Table 2, the term administrative VOB refers to a VOB that contains global type
objects, such as branch types, that are copied to client VOBs when users create
instances of the type objects in the client VOBs.

Chapter 2. Planning for and installing Rational ClearCase 23


Installing Rational ClearCase on individual computers
To install Rational ClearCase on your computer, go to the release area created by
your Rational ClearCase administrator and run the Rational ClearCase installation
program. (On Windows, this is setup.exe; on Linux or the UNIX system, it is
install_release.)

Typically, you should accept the default installation parameters. Consult your
Rational ClearCase administrator before you override any default values.

For detailed information about installing Rational ClearCase, see the IBM Rational
ClearCase, ClearCase MultiSite, and ClearCase LT Installation and Upgrade Guide.

24 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Chapter 3. Working in Rational ClearCase
This chapter describes the main tasks that project managers and developers
perform and the tools that they use while working in Rational ClearCase.

Project managers
As a project manager, you are responsible for creating and maintaining the
development environment for your team. The tasks that you perform and the tools
that you use differ depending on whether you use UCM or base ClearCase.

Using UCM
The primary tool used for managing UCM projects is the Rational ClearCase
Project Explorer. The left pane provides a hierarchical view of UCM objects,
starting with the project VOB (PVOB). This view displays components, folders,
projects, and streams. The right pane displays the contents of the object that you
highlight in the left pane. For example, Figure 22 displays activities created in the
integration stream.

Exploring ClearCase Projects


File View Tools Help

OM_proj1.0_Integration

ccase Name Owner Created On


Components ktessier_OM_proj1.0 ktessier 08/10/01 12:59:54 PM
OM_projects act for creating test_el2 ktessier 08/10/01 04:14:35 PM
OM_proj1.0 act1 ktessier 08/10/01 03:46:00 PM
OM_proj1.0_Integration
ktessier_OM_proj1.0
OM_proj2.0

For Help, press F1

Figure 22. Rational ClearCase Project Explorer

The Rational ClearCase Project Explorer enables you to do the following:


v Create projects, streams, and views
v Set development policies
v Create and recommend baselines
v View baseline histories and compare the contents of baselines with the contents
of previous baselines
v Deliver to and rebase from streams in other projects

Using base ClearCase


To manage a project in base ClearCase, you must do the following:
v Define and implement a branching strategy
v Create a standard config spec for developers to use for their views
v Create label types and apply them to versions of elements to identify project
milestones

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 25


v Merge versions from one branch to another branch

Linux or the UNIX system


On Linux or the UNIX system, you can perform all Rational ClearCase project
managementtasks from the File Browser. To run the File Browser, invoke the
xclearcase command.

Windows
Several tools that can help you perform project management tasks are included in
Rational ClearCase on Windows:
v The Type Explorer can be used to create branch types and label types
v The View creation wizard and the VOB creation wizard can be used to create
views and VOBs
v The Merge Manager can be used to merge versions of elements between
branches

To run Rational ClearCase, click Start > Programs > IBM Rational > IBM
Rational ClearCase

To run Rational ClearCase LT, click Start > Programs > IBM Rational > IBM
Rational ClearCase LT

Developers working on Windows


As a developer, you are responsible for setting up your work environment,
creating and modifying files, and sharing those files with other members of your
project team. The tasks you perform differ slightly depending on whether you use
UCM or base ClearCase; however, you can use the same user interface for both
environments. The Rational ClearCase Explorer, as shown in Figure 23, is the
primary tool for developers to use to work in UCM or base ClearCase on
Windows.

26 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Rational ClearCase Explorer - ktessier_view (Z:\doc\ccase\relnotes)

File View Go Tools Enviorment Help

Name Size Kind


Getting Started ccase cc_bugs.fm 26624 File Ele
4.2_supplement cc_bugs.xml 2664 File Ele
UCM
admin
cc_issues.cclt.fm 164864 File Ele
api

Join Project

Deliver from Stream

Rebase Stream

Project Explorer

Base ClearCase

Views Toolbox

Ready View: ktessier_view

Figure 23. Rational ClearCase Explorer

The Rational ClearCase Explorer contains three main panes. The Shortcut pane on
the left contains shortcuts for UCM, base ClearCase operations, and your views.
The UCM page contains shortcuts for the following operations:
v Joining a project
v Delivering work to a stream
v Rebasing your stream with a new baseline
v Starting the Project Explorer

The Base ClearCase page contains shortcuts for the following operations:
v Merging versions of an element
v Creating, starting, and removing views
v Updating snapshot views
v Editing a view’s properties
v Running the Rational ClearCase Reporting wizard

After you set a view context, you can use the Folder pane to browse the hierarchy
of folders within your VOBs. The Details pane, on the right, displays versions of
elements within the folder you select. If you are using UCM, the Folder pane also
contains folders for your activities.

Developers working on Linux or the UNIX system


As a developer, you are responsible for setting up your work environment,
creating and modifying files, and sharing those files with other members of your
project team. The tasks you perform differ slightly depending on whether you use
UCM or base ClearCase; however, you can use the same user interface for both
environments.

Chapter 3. Working in Rational ClearCase 27


The Rational ClearCase File Browser provides you with access to most Rational
ClearCase operations. You can run the File Browser by invoking the xclearcase
command.

Working in UCM
The Project menu of the File Browser contains selections for the following UCM
developer operations:
v Joining a project
v Delivering work to a stream
v Rebasing your stream with a new baseline
v Running the Project Explorer

Working in base ClearCase


The View menu of the File Browser contains menu items for creating, setting, and
updating your view.

The Versions menu contains menu items for checking in and checking out files,
comparing versions of elements, and merging versions.

Using cleartool
In addition to GUIs, Rational ClearCase includes a robust command-line interface
utility called cleartool. Table 3 lists cleartool commands that are used to perform
common Rational ClearCase operations. For more information about cleartool
commands, see the IBM Rational ClearCase Command Reference.
Table 3. Frequently used cleartool commands
cleartool Command Description
checkin Creates a new version of an element
checkout Creates a modifiable copy of a version
deliver Merges changes from one stream to another stream
merge Combines the contents of two or more versions of files or
directories into a new version
mkactivity Creates a UCM activity
mkbl Creates a baseline
mkbrtype, mkbranch Creates a branch type; creates a branch on the version tree of an
element
mkelem Creates a file or directory element
mklbtype, mklabel Creates a label type; applies a label to versions of elements
mkproject Creates a UCM project
mkstream Creates a UCM stream
mkview Creates a view
rebase Updates your the configuration of a stream with a new set of
foundation baselines

28 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Using Rational ClearCase integrations with IDEs
Rational ClearCase supports integrations with a variety of interactive development
environments (IDEs). This section describes integrations with two IDEs: Microsoft®
Visual Studio.NET and Rational® Application Developer for WebSphere® Software.

Microsoft Visual Studio.NET


Developers can use the Rational ClearCase integration with Microsoft Visual
Studio.NET to perform all their development tasks from within one user interface.
To use this integration, developers add views to the Visual Studio.NET integration
and then place their Visual Studio.NET projects under Rational ClearCase source
control. Figure 24 shows the ClearCase Front Desk page of the Visual Studio.NET
GUI.

Developers can use the Front Desk page to set their base ClearCase or UCM view
context. In Figure 24, the developer has chosen to work in UCM and has navigated
to the ucm_proj1_mydev stream within the ucm_proj1 project. The View Details
area displays the view associated with the selected stream.

After setting a view context, developers can use the Rational ClearCase Explorer
within the Visual Studio.NET GUI to perform Rational ClearCase operations, such
as checking out and checking in files and selecting UCM activities to work on.

Microsoft Development Environment [design] - ClearCase Home

File Edit View Project Build Debug ClearCase Tools Window Help

Debug

ClearCase Explorer Start Page Front Desk

Create View Join Project Submit Default Change Request Run Query

Rational Developer Network Rational.com


Rational ® ClearCase®

View Details
UCM Views Open Solution New Project Deliver Rebase
Views
ucm_proj1
Change Requests
ucm_proj1_mydev Selected View: ucm_proj1_mydev
Tools ucm_proj1_myint
UCM Project: ucm_proj1
Help
UCM Stream: ucm_proj1_mydev

Parent Stream: ucm_proj1_Integration

VS.NET Projects

Name Path

Figure 24. Rational ClearCase integration with Visual Studio.NET

Rational Application Developer for WebSphere Software


Developers can use the Rational ClearCase integration with Rational Application
Developer for WebSphere Software to access most Rational ClearCase operations
from within the Rational Application Developer GUI. As shown in Figure 25, this
integration adds a ClearCase menu and toolbar icons to the Application Developer

Chapter 3. Working in Rational ClearCase 29


GUI. Developers can set up their integrated environments by associating their
Rational ClearCase views with Application Developer workspaces. Developers can
then perform Rational ClearCase operations, such as checking out and checking in
files, by clicking a toolbar icon or a context menu option or by starting Rational
ClearCase Explorer. Icons in the Navigator pane indicate which files are under
Rational ClearCase source control and whether they are checked out.

Resource - Eclipse Platform


File Edit Navigate Search Project ClearCase Run Window Help

Connect to Rational ClearCase

Navigator Set Current Activity . . .


Deliver Stream . . .

newjava2 [java_Example] Rebase Stream . . .

newjava.mkelem . . . Update View . . .


.classpath ClearCase Build
.project
Run ClearCase Explorer
.project.keep
.project.keep Show Project Checkouts . . .
Run Merge Manager
Create New View . . .
Edit View Properties . . .
Start View . . .
Outline
Stop View . . .
An outline is not available.
Mount VOB . . .
Unmount VOB . . .
ClearCase Help

Task (1 item)
C Description Resource In Folder
The declared package does not . . . SampleClass newjava2/example . . .

Writable Insert

Figure 25. Rational ClearCase integration with Application Developer

Using the Rational ClearCase Web interface


In addition to its native user interfaces, Rational ClearCase provides a Web
interface, shown in Figure 26. Developers can perform the following operations
through the Web interface:
v Access VOBs
v Create views
v Add files to source control
v Check out and check in files
v Compare and merge versions
v View properties and histories of elements
v Join UCM projects
v Deliver work from streams
v Rebase their streams with recommended baselines

To use the Web interface, developers need only a Web browser; they do not need
to install Rational ClearCase on their computers.

30 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


VOB View of \doc_ctg\nonpii\en-us\clearcase\books\cc_intro - Microsoft Internet Explorer

File Edit View Favorites Tools Help

Back Search Favorites Media

http://www.ctg.rational.com:81/ccase/bin/ccweb.exe?session=3viqXVKxk6hFjQOhw%40GxhnRPTDhge22ii3_o& Go Links

Search Web Site popups allowed AutoFill Options

ClearCase Home Documentation Help About Logo Out

Enter VOB Directory: \CLQ_project\install\src Go

Add to ClearCase Update View Find Modified Files Edit View Config
Select View
All VOBs
VOB View (Location: C:\ClearCase_Storage\views\nll_view)
\ CLQ_project
\ install
Check Out Check In Undo Checkout Undo Hijack Compare Merge Properties History
\src
Filter: Include Exclude Filter Unfilter

Select All Select None

Name Size Modified Version


config.java 97kb 5 Jul 2005 3:21 PM \main\9

interface.java 2kb 5 Jul 2005 3:21 PM \main\10

license.java 253 5 Jul 2005 3:21 PM \main\8

registry.java 40 5 Jul 2005 3:21 PM \main\8

View: nlum_nll_view View location: C:\ClearCase_Storage\views\nll_view Internet

Figure 26. Rational ClearCase Web interface

Using the Rational ClearCase Remote Client


Developers can use the Rational ClearCase Remote Client to access Rational
ClearCase from a variety of network connections, including broadband (WAN),
dial-up, and local area networks (LANs). The Rational ClearCase Remote Client is
available in three forms:
v The Rational ClearCase Remote Client standalone interface, which is designed
for those who do not work in an integrated development environment. This
interface includes:
– Viewers, such as the Rational ClearCase Navigator and Rational ClearCase
Details view, that provide access to resources loaded into Rational ClearCase
views and allow you to browse the contents of remote Rational ClearCase
repositories
– Windows that developers can use to perform Rational ClearCase operations
such as checkout and checkin
– Wizards that automate tasks such as joining a UCM project and creating
Rational ClearCase views
– Toolbars and context menus that provide access to windows and wizards
v The Rational ClearCase Remote Client for Microsoft Visual Studio.NET, which
integrates the Rational ClearCase Remote Client with the Microsoft Visual
Studio.NET IDE.
v The Rational ClearCase Remote Client for Eclipse, which integrates the Rational
ClearCase Remote Client with the Eclipse platform, including IBM Rational
Software Development Platform products based on Eclipse. In the Rational
ClearCase Remote Client for Eclipse, all Rational ClearCase Remote Client
viewers are available in the Rational ClearCase perspective and can also be
added to other Eclipse perspectives. Windows and wizards are accessible from
Rational ClearCase toolbars (which can be added to any Eclipse perspective that
supports a team provider) and the Eclipse Team context menu.

Chapter 3. Working in Rational ClearCase 31


For more information about Eclipse, see the Eclipse Web site at
http://www.eclipse.org.

32 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Glossary
A C
activity. A Rational ClearCase UCM object that tracks change set. A list of related versions associated with a
the work required to complete a development task. An UCM activity. The versions that developers create while
activity includes a text headline, which describes the working on an activity are recorded. An activity uses a
task, and a change set, which identifies all versions that change set to record the versions of files that are
developers create or modify while working on the delivered, integrated, and released together.
activity. When working on a version, developers must
associate that version with an activity. If your project is checkout/checkin. (1) The two-part process that
configured to use the UCM integration with Rational extends a branch of an element’s version tree with a new
ClearQuest, a corresponding Rational ClearQuest version. The first part of the process, checkout, expresses
record stores additional activity information, such as your intent to create a new version at the current end
the state and owner of the activity. of a particular branch. (This is sometimes called
checking out a branch.) The second part, checkin,
administrative VOB. A VOB that contains global type completes the process by creating the new version. (2)
objects. Local copies of global type objects can be For file elements, the checkout process creates an
created in any VOB that has an AdminVOB hyperlink editable version of the file in the view with the same
to the administrative VOB that defines the global type contents as the version at the end of the branch.
object. See also auto-make-type, global type, local copy. Typically, a user edits this file, then checks it back in.
(3) For directory elements, the checkout process allows
file elements, subdirectory elements, and VOB symbolic
B links to be created, renamed, moved, and deleted. (4)
Performing a checkout of a branch does not necessarily
baseline. A Rational ClearCase UCM object that
guarantee you the right to perform a subsequent
typically represents a stable configuration for one or
checkin. Many users can check out the same branch, as
more components. A baseline identifies activities and
long as they are working in different views. At most
one version of every element visible in one or more
one of these can be a reserved checkout, which
components. Developers can create a development stream
guarantees the user’s right to check in a new version.
or rebase an existing development stream from a
An unreserved checkout does not. If several users have
baseline.
unreserved checkouts on the same branch in different
branch. An object that specifies a linear sequence of views, the first user to check in creates the next version.
versions of an element. The entire set of versions of an
ClearCase administrators group. (Windows platforms
element is called a version tree; it always has a single
only) A special group, usually created in the Windows
main branch and may also have subbranches. Each
NT® domain when Rational ClearCase is installed.
branch is an instance of a branch type object.
Only Rational ClearCase administrative accounts and
build. The process during which a Rational ClearCase the login account for the ALBD Service should be
build program (clearmake, clearaudit, or omake) members of this group.
produces one or more derived objects. This may involve
ClearCase registry. A set of files on the registry server
actual translation of source files and construction of
host that map logical VOB and view names (VOB tags
binary files by compilers, linkers, text formatters, and
and view tags) to physical storage locations (VOB storage
so on. A system build consists of a combination of
directories and view storage directories).
actual target rebuilds and build avoidance. See also express
build. component. A Rational ClearCase object that you use
to group a set of related directory and file elements
build avoidance. The ability of a Rational ClearCase
within a UCM project. Typically, the elements that make
build program to fulfill a build request by using an
up a component are developed, integrated, and
existing derived object instead of creating a new one by
released together. A project must contain at least one
executing a build script. The build program can reuse a
component, and it can contain multiple components.
derived object currently in the view or wink in a
Projects can share components.
derived object that exists in another view. The process
by which the build program decides how to produce a config spec. A set of rules that specify which versions
derived object is called configuration lookup. of VOB elements a view selects. The config spec for a

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 33


snapshot view also specifies which elements to load into access any version of any element, independently of
the view. See also scope, version selector, version-selection (and overriding) version selection by views. Derived
rule, and load rule. objects also have extended pathnames, which include
DO IDs.
D
F
deliver. A Rational ClearCase operation in which
developers merge the work from their own development fire a trigger. The process by which verification is
streams to the project’s integration stream or to a made that the conditions defined in a trigger are
feature-specific development stream. If required, the satisfied and the associated trigger actions are
deliver operation invokes the Merge Manager to merge performed.
versions.
foundation baseline. A property of a stream.
derived object (DO). An MVFS file produced by a Foundation baselines specify the versions and activities
clearmake or omake build or a clearaudit session. Each that appear in your view. As part of a rebase operation,
derived object is associated with the configuration record foundation baselines of the target stream are replaced
that is created by the Rational ClearCase build program with the set of recommended baselines from the source
to document the build. A shareable DO can be winked stream.
in by other views; a nonshareable DO cannot be
winked in unless you explicitly make it available.
H
development stream. A Rational ClearCase UCM
object that determines which versions of elements hijacked file. A version in a snapshot view that is
appear in a development view and maintains a list of a modified but not checked out. By default, a
developer’s activities. The development stream non-checked-out version in a snapshot view is given
configures the development view to select the versions the file attribute of read-only. If you change this
associated with the foundation baselines plus any attribute and modify the file, you have hijacked the file
activities and versions that developers create after they by taking it out of direct Rational ClearCase control.
join the project or rebase their development stream.
history. Metadata in a VOB, consisting of event records
dynamic view. A view that is always current with the for that VOB’s objects. The history of a file element
VOB (as specified by the config spec). Dynamic views includes the creation event of the element itself, the
use the MVFS to create and maintain a directory tree creation event of each version of the file, the creation
that contains versions of VOB elements and view-private event of each branch, the attributes assigned to the
files. Dynamic views are not supported on all Rational element and/or its versions, the hyperlinks attached to
ClearCase platforms. the element and/or its versions, and so on.

E L
eclipsed. A VOB object that is not visible because label. An instance of a label type object, supplying a
another object with the same name is currently selected user-defined name for a version. See also object,
by the view. metadata.

element. An object that encompasses a set of versions, label type. A type object that defines a version label for
organized into a version tree. use within a VOB.

element type. A class of versioned file or directory load. To copy a version of an element to a snapshot
objects. Predefined element types are supported in the view and keep track of the checkins, updates, and other
Rational ClearCase environment. Users can define Rational ClearCase operations that affect the element.
additional types that are refinements of the predefined
load rule. A statement in the config spec that specifies
types. When an element is created, it is assigned one of
an element or subtree to load into a snapshot view.
the currently defined element types in its VOB. Each
Config specs can have more than one load rule. See
user-defined element type is implemented as a separate
also version-selection rule.
VOB object.
lost+found. A subdirectory of a VOB’s top-level
extended namespace. The Rational ClearCase
directory, to which elements are moved if they are no
extension of the standard file system pathname
longer cataloged in any version of any directory
hierarchy. Each host has a view-extended namespace,
element.
which allows a pathname to access VOB data using any
view that is active on that host. Each VOB has a
VOB-extended namespace, which allows a pathname to

34 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


M multiple development streams, which configure views
that allow developers to work in isolation from the rest
of the project team.
main branch. The starting branch of an element’s
version tree. The default name for this branch is main. project VOB (PVOB). A VOB that stores UCM objects,
such as projects, streams, activities, and change sets.
master replica. (Rational ClearCase MultiSite) The
Every UCM project must have a PVOB. Multiple
master replica of a Rational ClearCase object is the only
projects can share the same PVOB.
replica at which the object can be modified or instances
of the object can be created.
R
mastership. (Rational ClearCase MultiSite) The ability
to modify an object or to create instances of a type rebase. A Rational ClearCase operation that makes a
object. development work area current with the set of versions
represented by a more recent baseline in another stream,
metadata. The data associated with an object that
usually the project’s integration stream or a
supplements its file system data. Some of this data is
feature-specific development stream.
created by users; some of it is created during Rational
ClearCase operations on the object. replica. (Rational ClearCase MultiSite) An instance of
a VOB, located at a particular site. A replica consists of
multiversion file system (MVFS). A directory tree
the VOB’s database, along with all of the VOB’s data
that, when activated (mounted as a file system of type
containers.
MVFS), implements a VOB. To standard operating
system commands, a VOB appears to contain a
directory hierarchy; Rational ClearCase commands can S
also access the VOB’s metadata. Also, MVFS file system
refers to a file system extension to the operating scrubbing. The removal of objects that are no longer
system, which provides access to VOB data. The MVFS used to free storage space:
file system is not supported on all Rational ClearCase v The scrubber utility discards data container files from
platforms. cleartext pools and derived object storage pools.
v The vob_scrubber utility discards event records and
O Rational ClearCase MultiSiteoplog entries from a VOB
database.
object. An item stored in a VOB. An object can be v The view_scrubber utility removes derived object
identified by an object-selector string, which includes a containers from the view storage directory.
prefix that indicates the kind of object, the object’s
name, and a suffix that indicates the VOB in which the snapshot view. A view that contains copies of Rational
object resides. Examples: lbtype:REL1@/vobs/vega on ClearCase elements and other file system objects in a
Linux or the UNIX system and lbtype:REL1@\vega on directory tree. You use the Update Tool to keep the
Windows view current with the VOB (as specified by the config
spec).
object registry. A networkwide database that records
the storage locations of all VOB storage directories and stream. A Rational ClearCase UCM object that
all view storage directories. The mktag, rmtag, determines which versions of elements appear in any
mkview, rmview, mkvob, rmvob, register, and view configured by that stream. Streams maintain a list
unregister commands add, delete, or modify registry of baselines and activities. A project contains one
file entries. integration stream and typically multiple development
streams.
orphaned element. An element that is no longer
cataloged in any version of any directory. Such
elements are moved to the VOB’s lost+found directory. T
trigger. A monitor that specifies one or more standard
P programs or built-in actions to be executed whenever a
certain Rational ClearCaseoperation is performed. See
project. A Rational ClearCase UCM object that also preoperation trigger, postoperation trigger, trigger type.
contains the configuration information needed to
manage a significant development effort, such as a type. An object that defines a Rational ClearCase data
product release. A project includes one integration structure. Users can create instances of these structures:
stream, which configures views that select the latest metadata annotations are placed on objects by creating
versions of the project’s shared elements, and typically instances of label types, attribute types, and hyperlink

Glossary 35
types. Each file and directory is an instance of an actually located in a VOB’s derived object storage pool. 2)
element type; each branch is an instance of a branch To convert a nonshareable derived object to a shared
type. derived object.

U
Unified Change Management (UCM). A process,
layered on base ClearCase and Rational ClearQuest
functionality, for organizing software development
teams and their work products. Members of a project
team use activities and components to organize their
work.

V
version. An object that implements a particular
revision of an element. The versions of an element are
organized into a version tree structure. Also: checked-out
version can refer to the view-private file that corresponds
to the object created in a VOB database by the
checkout command.

version tree. The hierarchical structure in which all


the versions of an element are (logically) organized. The
version tree display also shows merge operations.

view. A Rational ClearCase object that provides a


work area for one or more users. For each element in a
VOB, a view’s config spec selects one version from the
element’s version tree. Each view can also store
view-private files and view-private directories, which do
not appear in other views. There are two kinds of
views: snapshot views and dynamic views.

view-private object. A file or directory that exists only


in a particular view. View-private objects are not
version controlled.

VOB (versioned object base). A repository that stores


versions of file elements, directory elements, derived
objects, and metadata associated with these objects. With
Rational ClearCase MultiSite, a VOB can have multiple
replicas, at different sites.

VOB database. The part of a VOB storage directory in


which Rational ClearCase metadata and VOB objects are
stored. This area is managed by the database
management software embedded in Rational ClearCase.
The actual file system data is stored in the VOB’s
storage pools.

VOB family. (Rational ClearCase MultiSite) The set of


all replicas of a particular VOB. All the replicas share
the same VOB family UUID; each replica has its own
VOB replica UUID.

W
wink in. 1) To cause a shareable derived object to
appear in a view, even though its file system data is

36 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


Appendix. Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.
IBM® may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document
in other countries. Consult your local IBM representative for information on the
products and services currently available in your area. Any reference to an IBM
product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM
product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product,
program, or service that does not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may
be used instead. However, it is the user’s responsibility to evaluate and verify the
operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.

IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter
described in this document. The furnishing of this document does not grant you
any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, in writing, to:
IBM Director of Licensing
IBM Corporation North Castle Drive
Armonk, NY 10504-1785
U.S.A.

For license inquiries regarding double-byte (DBCS) information, contact the IBM
Intellectual Property Department in your country or send inquiries, in writing, to:
IBM World Trade Asia Corporation Licensing
2-31 Roppongi 3-chome, Minato-ku
Tokyo 106, Japan

The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other
country where such provisions are inconsistent with local law:
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION PROVIDES THIS
PUBLICATION ″AS IS″ WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer of express or
implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply
to you.

This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors.


Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes will be
incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM may make improvements
and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this
publication at any time without notice.

Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for
convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of those Web
sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of the materials for this IBM
product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk.

IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it
believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.

Licensees of this program who wish to have information about it for the purpose
of enabling: (i) the exchange of information between independently created

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 37


programs and other programs (including this one) and (ii) the mutual use of the
information which has been exchanged, should contact:
IBM Corporation
Department BCFB
20 Maguire Road
Lexington, MA 02421
U.S.A.

Such information may be available, subject to appropriate terms and conditions,


including in some cases, payment of a fee.

The licensed program described in this document and all licensed material
available for it are provided by IBM under terms of the IBM Customer Agreement,
IBM International Program License Agreement or any equivalent agreement
between us.

Any performance data contained herein was determined in a controlled


environment. Therefore, the results obtained in other operating environments may
vary significantly. Some measurements may have been made on development-level
systems and there is no guarantee that these measurements will be the same on
generally available systems. Furthermore, some measurement may have been
estimated through extrapolation. Actual results may vary. Users of this document
should verify the applicable data for their specific environment.

Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of


those products, their published announcements or other publicly available sources.
IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the accuracy of
performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products.
Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the
suppliers of those products.

COPYRIGHT LICENSE:

This information contains sample application programs in source language, which


illustrates programming techniques on various operating platforms. You may copy,
modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to
IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing application
programs conforming to the application programming interface for the operating
platform for which the sample programs are written. These examples have not
been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM, therefore, cannot guarantee or
imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. You may copy,
modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to
IBM for the purposes of developing, using, marketing, or distributing application
programs conforming to IBM’s application programming interfaces.

Each copy or any portion of these sample programs or any derivative work, must
include a copyright notice as follows:

(c) IBM 2006. Portions of this code are derived from IBM Corp. Sample Programs.
(c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2006. All rights reserved.

Additional legal notices are described in the legal_information.html file that is


included in your Rational software installation.

Trademarks

38 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction


ClearCase®, ClearCase MultiSite®, ClearQuest®, and Rational are trademarks of
International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries,
or both.

Microsoft, Windows, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft


Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both.

UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other
countries.

Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or


both.

Other company, product or service names may be trademarks or service marks of


others.

Appendix. Notices 39
40 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction
Index
B Rational ClearCase (continued)
installing
VOB (versioned object base)
glossary definition 36
branches on clients 24
glossary definition 33 installing server software 23
overview 1
planning issues 21
C hardware and software
ccase-home-dir directory xiv requirements 22
Changes since last edition xvii site preparation 22
cleartool 28 Project manager considerations 25
Command-line interface Rational ClearCase MultiSite 19
using cleartool 28 user interfaces
config specs command-line interface 28
glossary definition 33 Rational ClearCase Remote
conventions, typographical xiv Client 31
cquest-home-dir directory xiv Rational ClearCase Web
customer support xv interface 30
using base ClearCase 13
integrating with Rational
D ClearQuest 19
using Unified Change Management
development policies (UCM) 5
implementing 12 integrating with Rational
ClearQuest 12
working in an IDE 29
E Rational ClearCase MultiSite
eclipsed planning issues 22
glossary definition 34 Rational ClearCase Remote Client 31
elements Rational ClearCase Web interface 30
glossary definition 34 Rational ClearCase LT
types differences from Rational
glossary definition 34 ClearCase 4

F S
fire Summary of changes xvii
a trigger
glossary definition 34
T
typographical conventions xiv
H
history
glossary definition 34 U
Unified Change Management (UCM)
integrating with Rational
M ClearQuest 12
MultiSite 19 using 5
planning issues 22 using base ClearCase 13
Using base ClearCase
integrating with Rational
N ClearQuest 19

namespace
extended
glossary definition 34 V
version control
labels
R views
types, glossary definition 34

Rational ClearCase glossary definition 36


Developer considerations 26

© Copyright IBM Corp. 1992, 2006 41


42 IBM Rational ClearCase and ClearCase LT: Introduction
Readers’ Comments — We’d Like to Hear from You
ClearCase and ClearCase LT
Introduction
Version 7.0.0

Publication No. GI11-6360-00

Overall, how satisfied are you with the information in this book?

Very Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Very


Dissatisfied
Overall satisfaction h h h h h

How satisfied are you that the information in this book is:

Very Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Very


Dissatisfied
Accurate h h h h h
Complete h h h h h
Easy to find h h h h h
Easy to understand h h h h h
Well organized h h h h h
Applicable to your tasks h h h h h

Please tell us how we can improve this book:

Thank you for your responses. May we contact you? h Yes h No

When you send comments to IBM, you grant IBM a nonexclusive right to use or distribute your comments in any
way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you. IBM or any other organizations will only use
the personal information that you supply to contact you about the issues that you state on this form.

Name Address

Company or Organization

Phone No.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Readers’ Comments — We’d Like to Hear from You Cut or Fold
GI11-6360-00  Along Line

_ _ _ _ _ _ _Fold
_ _ _and
_ _ _Tape
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Please
_ _ _ _ _do
_ _not
_ _ staple
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _Fold
_ _ _and
_ _ Tape
______

NO POSTAGE
NECESSARY
IF MAILED IN THE
UNITED STATES

BUSINESS REPLY MAIL


FIRST-CLASS MAIL PERMIT NO. 40 ARMONK, NEW YORK

POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE

IBM Corporation
Attn: Dept CZLA
20 Maguire Road
Lexington, MA 02421-3112

_________________________________________________________________________________________
Fold and Tape Please do not staple Fold and Tape

Cut or Fold
GI11-6360-00 Along Line


Printed in USA

GI11-6360-00