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1.

106 50 (− j80)

Zc = = − j80 Ω, = 42.40∠ − 32.01°Ω

j 500 × 25 50 − j80

∴ V = 84.80∠ − 32.01° V, I R = 1.696∠ − 32.01° A

I c = 1.0600∠57.99° A

ps (π / 2ms) = 84.80 cos (45° − 32.01°) 2 cos 45° = 116.85 W

pR = 50 × 1.6962 cos 2 (45° − 32.01°) = 136.55 W

pc = 84.80 cos (45° − 32.01°) = 1.060 cos (45° + 57.99°) = −19.69 W

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

2.

(a) 1 2 1

4H : i = 2t 2 − 1∴ v = Li′ = 4 (4t ) = 16t , wL =

Li = × 4 (4t 4 − 4t 2 + 1)

2 2

4 2 4 2

∴ wL = 8t − 8t + 2 ∴ wL (3) − wL (1) = 8 × 3 − 8 × 3 + 2 − 8 × 1 + 8 × 1 − 2 = 576 J

1 t 2 ⎛2 ⎛2 ⎞ ⎛2 ⎞

t

⎞

(b) 0.2 F : vc = ∫

0.2 1

(2t − 1) dt + 2 = 5 ⎜ t 3 − t ⎟ + 2 = 5 ⎜ t 3 − t ⎟ − 5 ⎜ − 1⎟ + 2

⎝3 ⎠1 ⎝3 ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠

10 10 61 61

∴ vc (2) = × 8 − 10 − + 5 + 2 = V ∴ Pc (2) = × 7 = 142.33 W

3 3 3 3

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

R 1

3. vc (0) = −2V, i (0) = 4A, α = = 2, ω o2 = = 3, s1,2 = −2 ± 1 = −1, − 3

2L LC

(a) 1

i = Ae− t + Be−3t ∴ A + B = 4; i (0+ ) = vL (0+ ) = (−4 × 4 × +2) = −14

1

∴−A − 38 = −14 ∴ B = 5, A = −1, i = −e − t + 5e −3t A

t

∴+vc = 3∫ (−e− t + 5e−3t ) dt − 2 = 3(e− t − 5e −3t ) to − 2 = e −t − 3 − 5e −3t + 5 − 2

o

−t

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

2.5 kΩ → 2.5 kΩ, 1 H → j1000 Ω, 4 μF → -j250 Ω, 10 kΩ → 10 kΩ

Zeq = j1000 || -j250 || 10000 = 11.10 – j333.0 Ω

(20∠30)(11.10 − j 333.0)

Veq = = 2.631∠ − 50.54o V

2500 + 11.10 − j 333.0

Veq Veq

I10k = = 0.2631 ∠ - 50.54o mA I1 H = = 2.631 ∠ - 140.5o mA

10000 j1000

Veq (20∠30)(2500)

I4 μF = = 10.52 ∠39.46o mA V2.5k = = 19.74∠37.55o V

− j 250 2500 + 11.10 − j 333.0

Thus, P2.5k =

[19.74 cos 37.55 ] o 2

= 97.97 mW

2500

[ ][

P1 H = 2.631cos(− 50.54 ) 2.631 × 10-3 cos(−140.5o ) = - 3.395 mW

o

]

[ ][

P4 μF = 2.631cos(− 50.54o ) 10.52 × 10-3 cos(39.46o ) = 13.58 mW ]

P2.5k =

[2.631cos(− 50.54 )] = o 2

279.6 μW

10000

1.592E+02 7.896E-03 3.755E+01 1.592E+02 2.629E+00 -5.054E+01

1.592E+02 1.974E+01 3.755E+01 1.592E+02 1.052E-02 3.946E+01

1.592E+02 2.628E-03 -1.405E+02 1.592E+02 2.629E-04 -5.054E+01

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

5.

40∠ − 53.13°

is → 5∠0° A, C → − j 4 Ω, Zin = 8 (3 − j 4) =

11 − j 4

= 3.417∠ − 33.15°∴ Vs = 17.087∠ − 33.15°,

vs = 17.087 cos (25t − 33.15°) V ∴

Ps ,abs (0.1) = −17.087 cos (2.5rad − 33.147°) × 5cos 2.5rad = −23.51 W

17.087

i8 = cos (25t − 33.15°) ∴

8

i8 (0.1) = 2.136 cos (2.5rad − 33.15°) = −0.7338 A

∴ P8,abs = 0.73382 × 8 = 4.307 W ;

17.087∠ − 33.15°

I3 = = 3.417∠19.98° A

3 − j4

∴ i3 (0.1) = 3.417 cos (2.5rad + 19.98°) = −3.272 A ∴

P3,abc = 3.2722 × 3 = 32.12 W

Vc = − j 4 (3.417∠19.983°) = 13.67∠ − 70.02°,

vc (0.1) = 13.670 cos (2.5rad − 70.02°) = 3.946 V

∴ Pc , abc = 3.946 (−3.272) = −12.911 W (Σ = 0)

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

−R t

6. For t > 0, i(t) = 8e L

= 8e −2t .

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

−t

7. v(t ) = (3)(6000)e 30×10−3

p(0.03)

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

1

9. W = CV 2 . The initial voltage, v(0+), is therefore

2

2W 2(100 ×10−3 ) −t −t

v(0+ ) = = −3

= 2 V and so v(t ) = 2e RC = 2e 0.12 V.

C 100 × 10

p(120 =

ms) = = 226 mW

R 1.2

−2 t

v 2 (t ) 1 2e RC ⎛ 2 ⎞ −2

∫0 R dt = − 2 ⎜⎝ R ⎟⎠ ⎡⎣⎢e RC − 1⎤⎥⎦ ≈ 100 mJ

1 RC

∫0 R dt =

100 ×10−6 kJ

= 271.15 + 23 + = 271.15 + 23 + 0.1111

⎛ kJ ⎞

(10 kG ) ⎜ 0.9 kg ⋅ K ⎟

−3

⎝ ⎠

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

(b) v(t) = 2.76cos1000t V (given); we need to know the I-V relationship for this

(nonlinear) device.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

11.

j 5(10 − j 5)

Zin = 4 + = 4 + 2.5 + j 5 = 6.5 + j 5 Ω

10

100

∴ Is = = 12.194∠ − 37.57° A

6.5 + j5

1

∴ Ps , abs = − × 100 × 12.194 cos 37.57° = −483.3 W

2

1

P4, abs = (12.194) 2 4 = 297.4 W,

2

Pcabs = 0

100 j5

I10 = = 6.097∠52.43° so

6.5 + j 5 10

1

P10,abs = (6.097) 2 × 10 = 185.87 W

2

PL = 0 (Σ = 0)

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

12.

40∠30°

V = (10 + j10) = 52.44∠69.18° V

5∠50° + 8∠ − 20°

1

P10, gen = × 10 × 52.44 cos 69.18° = 93.19 W

2

1

Pj10, gen = × 10 × 52.44 cos (90° − 69.18°) = 245.1 W

2

2

1 ⎛ 52.44 ⎞

P5∠50 abs = ⎜ ⎟ cos (50°) = 176.8 W

2⎝ 5 ⎠

2

1 ⎛ 52.44 ⎞

P8∠− 20 abs = ⎜ ⎟ cos (−20°) = 161.5 W (Σ gen = Σ abs )

2⎝ 8 ⎠

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

13.

1

ZR = 3 + = 3 + 1 + j3 = 4 + j3 Ω

0.1 − j 0.3

2 + j5 5 29

Ignore 30° on Vs , I R = 5 , IR =

6 + j8 10

2

1 ⎛ 5 29 ⎞

(a) P3 Ω = ⎜⎜ ⎟ × 3 = 10.875 W

2 ⎝ 10 ⎟⎠

(2 + j 5) (4 + j 3)

(b) Vs = 5∠0° = 13.463∠51.94° V

6 + j8

1

∴ Ps , gen = × 13.463 × 5cos 51.94° = 20.75 W

2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

14.

Pj10 = P− j 5 = 0,

V10 − 50 V10 V10 − j 50

+ + =0

j10 10 − j5

∴ V10 (− j 0.1 + 0.1 + j 0.2) + j 5 + 10 = 0

∴ V10 = 79.06∠16.57° V

1 79.062

P10 Ω = = 312.5 W;

2 10

79.06∠161.57° − 50

I 50 = = 12.75∠78.69° A

j10

1

∴ P50V = × 50 × 12.748cos 78.69° = 62.50 W

2

79.06∠161.57° − j 50

I j 50 = = 15.811∠ − 7.57° :

− j5

1

Pj 50 = × 50 × 15.811cos (90° + 71.57°) = −375.0 W

2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

15.

Vx − 20 Vx − Vc

+ = 2Vc [1]

2 3

and

V V − Vx

0= c + c [2]

− j2 3

which simplify to

j 2Vx + (3 − j 2)Vc = 0 [2]

Solving,

Vx = 9.233∠ − 83.88° V and Vc = 5.122∠ − 140.2° V

1

Pgen = × 9.233 × ( 2 × 5.122 ) cos (−83.88° + 140.2°) = 26.22 W

2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

16.

(a) X in = 0 ∴ Z L = R th + j 0

2

1 Vth

(c) R L fixed∴ PL = × R L ∴ Z L = R L − jX th

2 (R th + R L ) 2 + (X th + X L ) 2

2PL RL

(d) X L fixed, Let X L + Xth = a ∴ f = 2

=

Vth (R th + R L ) 2 + a 2

df R + R 2L + a 2 − 2R L (R th + R L )

= th 2

=0

dRL ⎡⎣(R th + R L ) 2 + a 2 ⎤⎦

R th2 + 2R th R L + R 2L + a 2 − 2R th R L = 2R 2L = 0

∴ R L = R th2 + a 2 = R th2 + (Xth + X L ) 2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

17.

− j10

Vth = 120 = 107.3∠ − 116.6° V

10 + j 5

− j10 (10 + j15)

Zth = = 8 − j14 Ω

10 + j 5

ZTH = ( Z L ) = 8 + j14 Ω

*

(a)

(b) IL = = .

ZTH + ( ZTH )

*

16

*

VL = VTH

ZTH + ( ZTH )

*

16

1 ⎡ (107.3)(16.12 ) ⎤ ⎡107.3 ⎤

PL ,max = ⎢

2 ⎣ 16

⎥⎢ ⎥ cos ( −116.6° − 60.26° + 116.6° ) = 179.8 W

⎦ ⎣ 10 ⎦

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

18.

R L = Zth ∴ R L = 82 + 142 = 16.125 Ω

1 107.332

PL = × 16.125 = 119.38 W

2 (8 + 16.125) 2 + 142

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

19.

− j 9.6 = −4.8 I x − j1.92 I x − +4.8I x

9.6

∴ Ix = =5

1.92

∴ V = (0.6 × 5)8 = 24 V

1

∴ Po = × 24 × 1.6 × 5 = 96 )

( genW

2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

20.

j 480 80 − j 60

(a) Z th = 80 j 60 =

80 + j 60 80 − j 60

= 28.8 + j 38.4 Ω ∴ Z L max = 28.8 − j 38.4 Ω

144 + j192

∴ IL =

2 × 28.8

1 1442 + 1922

and PL ,max = × 28.8 = 250 W

2 4 × 28.82

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

I4+j2 = I8+j7 = Veq/ 12+j9 = 2.774 ∠ -86.31o A

P8+j7 = ½ (2.774)2 (8) = 30.78 W

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

22.

j10 j10 (20)

Vth = 100 = 20 + j 40, Zth = = 4 + j8 Ω

20 + j10 20 + j10

∴ R L = Zth ∴ R L = 8.944 Ω

1 202 + 402

∴ PL ,max = × 8.944 = 38.63 W

2 (4 + 8.944) 2 + 64

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

23. We may write a single mesh equation: 170 ∠0o = (30 + j10) I1 – (10 – j50)(-λI1)

Solving,

170∠0 o

I1 =

30 + j10 + 10λ − j 50λ

170∠0 o

(a) λ = 0, so I1 = = 5.376∠ - 18.43 o A and, with the same current flowing

30 + j10

through both resistors in this case,

P20 = ½ (5.376)2 (20) = 289.0 W

P10 = ½ (5.376)2 (10) = 144.5 W

170∠0 o

(b) λ = 1, so I1 = = 3.005∠45 o A

40 − j 40

P20 = ½ (3.005)2 (20) = 90.30 W

The current through the 10-Ω resistor is I1 + λI1 = 2 I1 = 6.01 ∠ 45o so

P10 = ½ (6.01)2 (10) = 180.6 W

(c)

(a)

FREQ IM(V_PRINT3) IP(V_PRINT3)

6.000E+01 5.375E+00 -1.846E+01

6.000E+01 5.375E+00 -1.846E+01

(b)

FREQ IM(V_PRINT3) IP(V_PRINT3)

6.000E+01 6.011E+00 4.499E+01

6.000E+01 3.006E+00 4.499E+01

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

24. (a) Waveform (a): Iavg = = 1.667 A

3

1

(20)(1) + 0(1)

Waveform (b): Iavg = 2 = 5A

2

Waveform (c):

10 −3

1 2πt ⎛ 4 × 10 −3 ⎞ ⎛ πt ⎞

Iavg = ∫

10 − 3

8sin (

dt = - 8 × 10 3 ) ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ cos⎜ −3 ⎟

1 × 10 −3 ⎝ 2π ⎠ ⎝ 2 × 10 ⎠

−3

0 4 × 10 0

16 16

= − (0 − 1) = A

π π

(b) Waveform (a): I avg = = 41.67 A 2

3

Waveform (b): i(t) = -20×103 t + 20

i2(t) = 4×108 t2 – 8×105 t + 400

1

2

I avg =

10 -3

-3 ∫ 0

(4 × 108 t 2 - 8 × 10 5 t + 400) dt

2 × 10

1 ⎡ 4 × 10 8 −3 3 8 × 10

5

⎤ 0.1333

= -3 ⎢

2 × 10 ⎣ 3

(

10 ) -

2

(10 −3 ) + 400(10 −3 )⎥ =

2

2 × 10 -3

= 66.67 A 2

⎦

Waveform (c):

10 −3

1 2πt 3 ⎡t sin π × 10 3 t ⎤

2

I avg =

1 × 10 −3 ∫

10 − 3

64sin 2

4 × 10 −3

dt = 64 (

× 10 ⎢ - ) 2π × 10 3 ⎦

⎥

0

⎣2 0

⎡10 −3

sin π ⎤

(

= 64 × 10 3 ⎢ ) − 3⎥

= 32 A 2

⎣ 2 2π × 10 ⎦

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

Define Zeff = j377 || -j663.1 || 10 000 = 870.5 ∠ 85.01o Ω

V2.5k =

(400

2∠ − 9 o 2500 )

= 520.4 ∠ - 27.61o V

o

2500 + 870.5 ∠85.01

V10k =

( )(

400 2∠ − 9 o 870.5 ∠85.01o )

= 181.2 ∠57.40 o V

o

2500 + 870.5 ∠85.01

Thus, P2.5k = ½ (520.4)2 / 2 500 = 54.16 W

P10k = ½ (181.2)2 / 10 000 = 1.642 W

P1H = 0

P4μF = 0 (A total absorbed power of 55.80 W.)

To check, the average power delivered by the source:

400 2∠ − 9 o

Isource = = 0.2081 ∠ - 27.61o A

2500 + 870.5∠85.01o

and Psource = ½ ( 400 2 )(0.2081) cos (-9o + 27.61o) = 55.78 W (checks out).

6.000E+01 2.081E-01 -2.760E+01 6.000E+01 1.812E+02 5.740E+01

FREQ VM(R2_5k,$N_0002) VP(R2_5k,$N_0002) FREQ IM(V_PRINT11) IP(V_PRINT11)

6.000E+01 5.204E+02 -2.760E+01 6.000E+01 2.732E-01 1.474E+02

6.000E+01 4.805E-01 -3.260E+01 6.000E+01 1.812E-02 5.740E+01

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

1 144 144

T

26. (a) ∫ (1 + cos 2000t ) dt = = 8.485

T 0 2 2

1 144 144

T

(b) ∫ (1 − cos 2000t ) dt = = 8.485

T 0 2 2

1 144 144

T

(c) ∫ (1 + cos1000t ) dt = = 8.485

T 0 2 2

1 144 ⎡ 144

T

(d) ∫

T 0 2 ⎣ (

1 + cos 1000t − 176o ⎤⎦ dt = )2

= 8.485

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

1 4 2

T

27. (a) ∫ (1 + cos 20t ) dt = = 1.414

T 02 2

1 4 2

T

(b) ∫ (1 − cos 20t ) dt = = 1.414

T 02 2

1 4 2

T

(c) ∫ (1 + cos10t ) dt = = 1.414

T 02 2

1 4⎡ 2

T

(d) ∫

T 02 ⎣ ( )

1 + cos 10t − 64o ⎤⎦ dt =

2

= 1.414

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

28. T = 3 s; integrate from 1 to 4 s; need only really integrate from 1 to 3 s as function is zero

between t = 3 and t = 4 s.

3 3

1 100 100(2)

Vrms =

31∫ (10) 2 dt =

3 1

t =

3

= 8.165 V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

29. T = 3 s; integrate from 2 to 5 s; need only really integrate from 2 to 3 s as function is zero

between t = 3 and t = 4 s.

3 3

1 49 49(1)

I rms =

32∫ (7) 2 dt =

3 2

t =

3

= 4.041 A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

30. (a) 1 V

2

2 2 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞

(b) Vrms = V 1eff +V 2eff = 1 +⎜ ⎟ = 1.225 V

⎝ 2⎠

2

2 2 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞

(c) Vrms = V 1eff +V

2eff = 1 +⎜ ⎟ = 1.225 V

⎝ 2⎠

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

31.

1 1

∴ Veff = 100 + × 81 + × 36 = 158.5 = 12.590 V

2 2

1 2

(b) Feff = (10 + 202 + 102 ) = 150 = 12.247

4

(c) F avg = = = 10

4 4

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

32.

o o 3.606 2

3 ∠0 + 4∠-120 = 3.606 ∠-73.90 so Geff = 4+ = 3.240

2

(b) 1 1

∴ H eff = 22 + 32 + 42 = 16.5 = 4.062

2 2

1 0.1 6 2

0.3 ∫0

(c) f (t ) = 100t , 0 < t < 0.1∴ Feff = 10 t dt

10 1

= ×106 × × 10−3 = 33.33

3 3

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

33. f (t ) = (2 − 3cos100t ) 2

∴ f (t ) = 4 − 12 cos100t + 4.5 + 4.5cos 200t ∴ Fav = 4 + 4.5 = 8.5

1 1

(b) Feff = 8.52 + × 122 + × 4.52 = 12.43

2 2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

1

⎡1

( )

⎤ 2

34. (a) ieff = ⎢ 102 + (−5) 2 + 0⎥ = 6.455 A

⎣3 ⎦

1

⎡1 1 ⎤ 2

(b) ieff = ⎢ ⎛⎜ ∫ [− 20t + 20] dt ⎞⎟ + 0⎥ = 5 = 2.236 A

⎣2 ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎦

1 1

⎡1 ⎛ 1 ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎞⎤ ⎛ πt ⎞ ⎤

2

⎡ ⎛2⎞

(c) ieff = ⎢ ⎜⎜ ∫ 8sin ⎜ t ⎟ dt ⎟⎟⎥ = ⎢- 8 ⎜ π ⎟ cos ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ = 2.257 A

⎣1 ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ 0

0

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

35.

1 1

∴P = × × 18.482 = 42.68 W

2 4

(b) A = C = 10V, B = D = 0, vs = 10 cos10t + 10 cos 40t ,

1 102 1 102

P= + = 25 W

2 4 2 4

1 7.6542

∴P = = 7.322 W

2 4

10∠0° + 10∠ − 45° = 18.48∠ − 22.50o

1 1 1 1

∴ P = × 18.482 × + × 102 × = 55.18 W

2 4 2 4

102

(e) // + 10dc ∴ Pav = 55.18 + = 80.18 W

4

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

j 0.3Rω

36. Zeq = R || j0.3ω = . By voltage division, then, we write:

R + j 0.3Rω

V100mH = 120∠0 = 120∠0

j 0.3Rω − 0.03ω 2 + j 0.4 Rω

j 0.1ω +

R + j 0.3ω

j 0.3Rω

R + j 0.3ω j 36 Rω

V300mH = 120∠0 = 120∠0

j 0.3Rω − 0.03ω2 + j 0.4 Rω

j 0.1ω +

R + j 0.3ω

(a) We’re interested in the value of R that would lead to equal voltage magnitudes, or

j 36 Rω = (

(120) - 0.03ω 2 + j 0.1ωR )

Thus, 36Rω = 12.96ω 4 + 144ω 2 R 2 or R = 0.1061 ω

(b) Substituting into the expression for V100mH, we find that V100mH = 73.47 V,

independent of frequency.

To verify with PSpice, simulate the circuit at 60 Hz, or ω = 120π rad/s, so R = 40 Ω.

We also include a miniscule (1 pΩ) resistor to avoid inductor loop warnings. We see

from the simulation results that the two voltage magnitudes are indeed the same.

FREQ VM($N_0002,$N_0003)VP($N_0002,$N_0003)

6.000E+01 7.349E+01 -3.525E+01

FREQ VM($N_0001,$N_0002)VP($N_0001,$N_0002)

6.000E+01 7.347E+01 3.527E+01

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

37.

1

Vav ,2 = (10 + 30 + 50) = 30V

3

1 3 1 1

(b) Veff ,1 =

3 ∫0

(20t ) 2 dt =

3

× 400 × × 27 = 1200 = 34.64V

3

1 2 1

Veff ,2 = (10 + 302 + 502 ) = × 3500 = 34.16 V

3 3

(c) PSpice verification for Sawtooth waveform of Fig. 11.40a:

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

⎛ − j106 ⎞ − jR106

38. Zeff = R || ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ =

⎝ 3ω ⎠ 3ωR − j10

6

ISRC =

120∠0

=

120ω 3ωR - j106 ( )

−j

106

−j

R106 (

− j106 3ωR − j106 − jωR106 )

ω 3ωR − j106

R

I3μF = ISRC

106

R− j

3ω

R

(a) For the two current magnitudes to be equal, we must have = 1 . This is

106

R− j

3ω

only true when R = ∞; otherwise, current is shunted through the resistor and the two

capacitor currents will be unequal.

(b) In this case, the capacitor current is

1

120∠0 6

= j 90ω μA, or 90ω cos(ωt + 90o ) μA

10 106

−j −j

ω 3ω

(c) PSpice verification: set f = 60 Hz, simulate a single 0.75- μF capacitor, and include a

100-MΩ resistor in parallel w ith the capacitor to prevent a floating node. This should

resit in a rms current amplitude of 33.93 mA, which it does.

6.000E+01 3.393E-02 9.000E+01

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

39.

v(t ) = 10t [u (t ) − u (t − 2)] + 16e −0.5(t −3) [u (t − 3) − u (t − 5)] V

Find eff. value separately

1 2 20

V1,eff =

5 ∫0

100t 2 dt =

3

× 8 = 7.303

1 5 256 3 − t 5

V2,eff =

5 ∫3

256e − ( t −3) dt =

5

e (−e )3 = 6.654

1⎡ 2

256e3e− t dt ⎤

5

∫ ∫

2

Veff = 100t dt +

⎢

5⎣ 0 3 ⎥⎦

1 ⎡100 ⎤

= ⎢ × 8 + 256e3 (e −3 − e−5 ) ⎥

5⎣ 3 ⎦

1 ⎡ 800 ⎤

= ⎢ + 256 (1 − e −2 ) ⎥ = 9.879 V OK

5⎣ 3 ⎦

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

40. The peak instantaneous power is 250 mW. The combination of elements yields

Z = 1000 + j1000 Ω = 1414 ∠45o Ω.

Vm ∠0 Vm ∠ − 45o

Arbitrarily designate V = Vm ∠0 , so that I = = A.

Z 1414

W e may write p(t) = ½ Vm Im cos φ + ½ Vm Im cos (2ωt + φ) where φ = the angle of the

curren t (-45o). This function has a maximum value of ½ VmIm cos φ + ½ VmIm.

Thus, 0.250 = ½ VmIm (1 + cos φ) = ½ (1414) Im2 (1.707)

and Im = 14.39 mA.

In terms of rms current, the largest rms current permitted is 14.39 / 2 = 10.18 mA rms.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

2

(b) PR = I R = 16 × 20 = 320 W

∴ APL = 80 × 7.104 = 568.3 V A

PL 335.3

(g) PFL = cos θ L = = = 0.599

APL 568.3

since I L lags V, PFL is lagging

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

42.

120

(a) Is = = 9.214∠ − 26.25° A rms

j192

4+

12 + j16

∴ PFs = cos 26.25 = 0.8969 lag

j 48 1

(c) ZL = 4 + = 4+ (192 + j144)

3 + j4 25

11.68 − j 5.76

∴ Z L = 11.68 + j 5.76 Ω, YL =

11.682 + 5.762

j 5.76

∴ j120π C = , C = 90.09μ F

11.682 + 5.762

(d) PSpi ce verification

6.000E+01 1.200E+02 0.000E+00

6.000E+01 9.215E+00 -2.625E+01 ; (a) and (b) are correct

6.000E+01 8.264E+00 -9.774E-05 ;(c) is correct (-9.8×10-5 degrees

is essentially zero, for unity PF).

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

43.

Z A = 5 + j 2 Ω, Z B = 20 − j10 Ω, Z c = 10∠30° Ω

8.660

= + j5 Ω

Z D = 10∠ − 60° = 5 − j8.660 Ω

0 33.66 − j13.660 7265∠22.09°

I1 = = = 15.11∠3.908° A rms

25 − j8 −20 + j10 480.9∠ − 26.00°

−20 + j10 33.66 − j13.660

25 − j8 200

−20 + j10 0 200 (20 − j10)

I2 = = = 9.300∠ − 0.5681° A rms

480.9∠ − 26.00° 480.9∠20.00°

2

APA = I1 Z A = 15.1082 29 = 1229 VA

2

APB = I1 − I 2 Z B = 5.8812 × 10 5 = 773.5 VA

APC = I 2 2 ZC = 9.32 × 10 = 86.49 VA

2

APD = I 2 Z1 = 9.32 × 10 = 864.9 VA

APS = 200 I1 = 200 × 15.108 = 3022 VA

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

∴ PF = cos 29.3° = 0.8719 lag

( )

S = VI* = 683.8∠29.31o (10∠0 ) = 6838∠29.31o VA .

(c) The impedance has a positive angle; it therefore has a net inductive character.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

100 ∠23.07o

S1 = = 100 + j 42.59 VA

0.92

250 ∠36.87 o

S2 = = 250 + j187.5 VA

0.8

500 ∠0o

S3 = = 500 VA

1

Stotal = S1 + S2 + S3 = 500 + j230.1 VA = 550.4 ∠24.71o VA

Stotal 550.4

(a) Ieff = = = 4.786 A rms

Veff 115

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

46.

IL =

APL = 10, 000 VA, PFL = 0.8lag, 40 A rms

Let I40

L = ∠0° A rms; PL = 10, 000 × 0.8 = 8000 W

8000

ZL =

Let R + jX L ∴ R L = =5 Ω

402

L

∴ X L = 5 tan 36.87° = 3.75 Ω, Z L = 5 + j 3.75, Ztot = 5.2 + j 3.75 Ω

1

∴ Vs = 40 (5.2 + j 3.75) = 256.4∠35.80° V; Ytot =

5.2 + j 3.75

= 0.12651 − j 0.09124S, Ynew = 0.12651 + j (120π C − 0.09124),

PFnew = 0.9 lag,θ new = 25.84°∴ tan 25.84° = 0.4843

0.09124 − 120π C

= ∴

0.12651

C = 79.48μ F

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

47. Zeff = j100 + j300 || 200 = 237 ∠54.25o. PF = cos 54.25o = 0.5843 lagging.

⎛ 192.3 + X C ⎞

tan −1 ⎜ -1

⎟ = cos 0.92 = 23.07

o

⎝ 138.5 ⎠

Solving, we find that XC = -133.3 Ω = -1/ωC, so that C = 7.501 μF

− 100 X C

Znew = j100 || jXC + j300 || 200 = +138.5 + j92.31 Ω

j (100 + X C )

⎛ 100X C ⎞

= 138.5 + j ⎜⎜ 92.31 + ⎟ Ω

⎝ 100 + X C ⎟⎠

⎛ 100X C ⎞

⎜ 92.31 + ⎟

−1 ⎜ 100 + X C ⎟

tan = cos-1 0.92 = 23.07o

⎜ 138.5 ⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

Solving, we find that XC = -25 Ω = -1/ωC, so that C = 40 μF

With no compensation: 1.592E+02 4.853E-01 -5.825E+01 54.25o 0. 5843 lag

With series compensation: 1.592E+02 7.641E-01 -2.707E+01 23.07o 0. 9200 lag

With parallel compensation: 1.592E+02 7.641E-01 -2.707E+01 23.07o 0. 9200 lag

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

48.

20 (1 + j 2)

Zin = − j10 + = 10.769 − j 3.846 = 11.435+ ∠ − 19.65° Ω

3 + j2

100

∴ Is = = 8.745∠19.65°

11.435∠ − 19.654°

∴ S s = − Vs I ∗s = −100 × 8.745∠ − 19.65° = −823.5 + j 294.1VA

10 + j 20

I 20 = 8.745∠19.65° × = 5.423∠49.40°

30 + j 20

∴ S 20 = 20 × 5.4322 = 588.2 + j 0 VA

20 × 5.423∠49.40

I10 = = 4.851∠ − 14.04°

10 + j 20

S10 = 10 × 4.8512 = 235.3 + j 0 VA

S j 20 = j 20 × 4.8512 = j 470.6 VA,

S − j10 = − j10 × 8.7452 = − j 764.7 VA, Σ=0

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

49.

Vx − 100 V V − j100

+ x + x =0

6 + j4 − j10 5

⎛ 1 ⎞ 100

∴ Vx ⎜ + j 0.1 + 0.2 ⎟ = + j 20

⎝ 6 + j4 ⎠ 6 + j4

∴ Vx = 53.35− ∠42.66° V

100 − 53.35− ∠42.66°

∴ I1 = = 9.806∠ − 64.44° A

6 + j4

1

∴ S1. gen = ×100 × 9.806∠64.44° = 211.5 + j 442.3VA

2

1

S 6, abs = × 6 × 9.8062 = 288.5 + j 0 VA

2

1

S j 4,abs = ( j 4) 9.8062 = 0 + j192.3VA

2

j100 − 53.35− ∠42.66°

I2 = = 14.99∠121.6°,

5

1

S5 abs = × 5 × 14.992 = 561.5 + j 0 VA

2

1

S 2, gen = ( j100)14.99∠ − 121.57° = 638.4 − j 392.3VA

2

1 ⎛ 53.35 ⎞

S − j10, abs = ⎜ ⎟ (− j10) = 0 − j142.3VA = 142.3∠ − 90° VA Σ=0

2 ⎝ 10 ⎠

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

50.

S = 500∠ − cos −1 0.75 = 375 − j 330.7 VA

(b)

500

S = 500 − sin (cos −1 0.75) = 500 − j 441.0 VA

j.075

∴ P 500 / tan 41.41° = 566.9W,

S = 566.9 − j 500 VA

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

1600 + j 500

(a) I ∗s = = 4 + j1.25 ∴ I s = 4 − j1.25

400

400

Ic = = j 3.333A rms∴ I L = I s − I c = 4 − j1.25 − j 3.333

− j120

∴ I L = 4 − j 4.583A rms∴

S L = 400 (4 + j 4.583) = 1600 + j1833 VA

⎛ 1833.3 ⎞

(b) PFL = cos ⎜ tan −1 +

⎟ = 0.6575 lag

⎝ 1600 ⎠

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

= 960 + j 720 + 1440 + j 697.4 + 900

= 3300 + j1417.4 = 3592∠23.25° VA

3591.5

∴ Is = = 15.62 A rms

230

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

53.

I1 = = 80∠0° A rms

250

I 2 = 25, 000 / 250 = 100 A rms

∠I 2 = − cos −1 0.8 = −36.87 ∴ I 2 = 100∠ − 36.87 o A rms

30, 000 40, 000

AP3 = = 40, 000 VA, I 3 = = 160 A rms

0.75 250

∠ I 3 = − cos −1 0.75 = −41.41° ∴ I 3 = 160∠ − 41.41° A rms

∴ I s = 80∠0° + 100∠ − 36.87° + 160∠ − 41.41° = 325.4∠ − 30.64° A rms

∴ APs = 250 × 325.4 = 81,360 VA

70, 000

(c) PF3 = = 0.8604 lag

81,360

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

54. 200 kW average power and 280 kVAR reactive result in a power factor of

PF = cos (tan-1 (280/200) = 0.5813 lagging, which is pretty low.

Excess = 280 – 130 = 150 kVAR, for a cost of (12)(0.22)(150) = $396 / year.

θ = tan-1(0.65P/P) = 33.02o, so target PF = cos θ = 0.8385

(c) A single 100-kVAR increment costs $200 to install. The excess kVAR would then be

280 – 100 – 130 = 50 kVAR, for an annual penalty of $332. This would result in a

first-year savings of $64.

A single 200-kVAR increment costs $395 to install, and would remove the entire excess

kVAR. The savings would be $1 (wow) in the first year, but $396 each year thereafter.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

55. Perhaps the easiest approach is to consider the load and the compensation capacitor

separately. The load draws a complex power Sload = P + jQ. The capacitor draws a

purely reactive complex power SC = -jQC.

Vrms

QC = SC = Vrms = ω CVrms

2

= ω CVrms

2

(− j / ω C)

⎛ Q-QC ⎞

θnew = ang(Stotal) = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ , so that Q – QC = P tan θnew

⎝ P ⎠

or

ω CVrms

2

= P (tan θload – tan θnew)

C =

ω Vrms

2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

339

(a) Veff = = 239.7 V rms

2

(b) pmax = 3392 / 1000 = 114.9 W

(c) pmin = 0 W

⎛ 339 ⎞

⎛ 339 ⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎟ 2

Veff

(d) Apparent power = Veff Ieff = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = = 57.46 VA

⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎜ 1000 ⎟ 1000

⎝ ⎠

(e) Since the load is purely resistive, it draws zero reactive power.

(f) S = 57.46 VA

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

57. V = 339 ∠-66o V, ω = 100π rad/s to a purely inductive load of 150 mH (j47.12 Ω)

V 339∠ - 66o

(a) I = = = 7.194 ∠ - 156o A

Z j 47.12

7.194

so Ieff = = 5.087 A rms

2

(b) p(t) = ½ VmIm cos φ + ½ VmIm cos(2ωt + φ)

where φ = angle of current – angle of voltage

pmax = ½ VmIm cos φ + ½ VmIm = (1 + cos(-90o)) (339)(7.194)/ 2 = 1219 W

339

(d) apparent power = Veff Ieff = (5.087 ) = 1219 VA

2

(e) reactive power = Q = Veff Ieff sin (θ – φ) = 1219 VA

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

58. 1 H → j Ω, 4 μF → –j250 Ω

V10k = = 2.008 ∠89.97 o mV

2500 + (1.004∠89.99o )

(a) pmax = (0.002)2 / 10×103 = 400 pW

1 5∠0

(d) Ssource = ( 5∠0 ) ⎜⎛ ⎞

⎟ = 0.005 ∠-0.02292o VA

2 ⎝ 2500∠0.02292 ⎠

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

Defi ne Zeff = -j2500 || (250 + j40) = 256 ∠ 3.287o Ω

12000∠0

IS = = 43.48 ∠ - 3.049o A rms

20 + 256∠3.287 o

Ssource = (12000)(43.48) ∠ 3.049o = 521.8 ∠3.049o kVA

(12000∠0)(256∠3.287 o )

Veff = = 11130 ∠0.2381o V rms

20 + 256∠3.287 o

Veff

I1μF = = 4.452 ∠90.24o A rms

- j 2500

so S1μF = (11130)(4.452) ∠-90o = 49.55 ∠-90o kVA

(11130∠0.2381o )( j 40)

V100mH = = 1758 ∠81.15o V rms

250 + j 40

V100mH

I100mH = = 43.96 ∠ - 8.852o A rms

j 40

so S100μΗ = (1758)(4.43.96) ∠90o = 77.28 ∠90o kVA

(11130∠0.2381o )(250)

V250Ω = = 10990 ∠ − 8.852o V rms

250 + j 40

so S250Ω = (10990)2 / 250 = 483.1 ∠0o kVA

(b) 37.81 ∠0 + 49.55 ∠-90o +77.28 ∠90o + 483.1 ∠0o = 521.6 ∠3.014o kVA,

which is within rounding error of the complex power delivered by the source.

(c) The apparent power of the source is 521.8 kVA. The apparent powers of the passive

elements sum to 37.81 + 49.55 + 77.28 + 483.1 = 647.7 kVA, so NO! Phase angle is

important!

(d) P = Veff Ieff cos (ang VS – ang IS) = (12000)(43.48) cos (3.049o) = 521 kW

(e) Q = Veff Ieff sin (ang VS – ang IS) = (12000)(43.48) sin (3.049o) = 27.75 kVAR

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

(b) θload = cos-1(0.812) = +35.71o (since lagging PF). Assume ang (V) = 0o.

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers

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