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# Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

1.
106 50 (− j80)
Zc = = − j80 Ω, = 42.40∠ − 32.01°Ω
j 500 × 25 50 − j80
∴ V = 84.80∠ − 32.01° V, I R = 1.696∠ − 32.01° A
I c = 1.0600∠57.99° A
ps (π / 2ms) = 84.80 cos (45° − 32.01°) 2 cos 45° = 116.85 W
pR = 50 × 1.6962 cos 2 (45° − 32.01°) = 136.55 W
pc = 84.80 cos (45° − 32.01°) = 1.060 cos (45° + 57.99°) = −19.69 W

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

2.

(a) 1 2 1
4H : i = 2t 2 − 1∴ v = Li′ = 4 (4t ) = 16t , wL =
Li = × 4 (4t 4 − 4t 2 + 1)
2 2
4 2 4 2
∴ wL = 8t − 8t + 2 ∴ wL (3) − wL (1) = 8 × 3 − 8 × 3 + 2 − 8 × 1 + 8 × 1 − 2 = 576 J

1 t 2 ⎛2 ⎛2 ⎞ ⎛2 ⎞
t

(b) 0.2 F : vc = ∫
0.2 1
(2t − 1) dt + 2 = 5 ⎜ t 3 − t ⎟ + 2 = 5 ⎜ t 3 − t ⎟ − 5 ⎜ − 1⎟ + 2
⎝3 ⎠1 ⎝3 ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠
10 10 61 61
∴ vc (2) = × 8 − 10 − + 5 + 2 = V ∴ Pc (2) = × 7 = 142.33 W
3 3 3 3

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

R 1
3. vc (0) = −2V, i (0) = 4A, α = = 2, ω o2 = = 3, s1,2 = −2 ± 1 = −1, − 3
2L LC

(a) 1
i = Ae− t + Be−3t ∴ A + B = 4; i (0+ ) = vL (0+ ) = (−4 × 4 × +2) = −14
1
∴−A − 38 = −14 ∴ B = 5, A = −1, i = −e − t + 5e −3t A
t
∴+vc = 3∫ (−e− t + 5e−3t ) dt − 2 = 3(e− t − 5e −3t ) to − 2 = e −t − 3 − 5e −3t + 5 − 2
o

−t

## (c) Pc (0.4) = (3e −0.4 − 5e−1.2 ) (5e−1.2 − e−0.4 ) = 0.4220 W

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

## 4. We assume the circuit has already reached sinusoidal steady state by t = 0.

2.5 kΩ → 2.5 kΩ, 1 H → j1000 Ω, 4 μF → -j250 Ω, 10 kΩ → 10 kΩ
Zeq = j1000 || -j250 || 10000 = 11.10 – j333.0 Ω
(20∠30)(11.10 − j 333.0)
Veq = = 2.631∠ − 50.54o V
2500 + 11.10 − j 333.0
Veq Veq
I10k = = 0.2631 ∠ - 50.54o mA I1 H = = 2.631 ∠ - 140.5o mA
10000 j1000
Veq (20∠30)(2500)
I4 μF = = 10.52 ∠39.46o mA V2.5k = = 19.74∠37.55o V
− j 250 2500 + 11.10 − j 333.0

Thus, P2.5k =
[19.74 cos 37.55 ] o 2
= 97.97 mW
2500

[ ][
P1 H = 2.631cos(− 50.54 ) 2.631 × 10-3 cos(−140.5o ) = - 3.395 mW
o
]
[ ][
P4 μF = 2.631cos(− 50.54o ) 10.52 × 10-3 cos(39.46o ) = 13.58 mW ]
P2.5k =
[2.631cos(− 50.54 )] = o 2

279.6 μW
10000

## FREQ IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1) FREQ VM(L,0) VP(L,0)

1.592E+02 7.896E-03 3.755E+01 1.592E+02 2.629E+00 -5.054E+01

## FREQ VM(R2_5k,\$N_0002)VP(R2_5k,\$N_0002) FREQ IM(V_PRINT11) IP(V_PRINT11)

1.592E+02 1.974E+01 3.755E+01 1.592E+02 1.052E-02 3.946E+01

## FREQ IM(V_PRINT2) IP(V_PRINT2) FREQ IM(V_PRINT12) IP(V_PRINT12)

1.592E+02 2.628E-03 -1.405E+02 1.592E+02 2.629E-04 -5.054E+01

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

5.
40∠ − 53.13°
is → 5∠0° A, C → − j 4 Ω, Zin = 8 (3 − j 4) =
11 − j 4
= 3.417∠ − 33.15°∴ Vs = 17.087∠ − 33.15°,
vs = 17.087 cos (25t − 33.15°) V ∴
Ps ,abs (0.1) = −17.087 cos (2.5rad − 33.147°) × 5cos 2.5rad = −23.51 W
17.087
i8 = cos (25t − 33.15°) ∴
8
i8 (0.1) = 2.136 cos (2.5rad − 33.15°) = −0.7338 A
∴ P8,abs = 0.73382 × 8 = 4.307 W ;
17.087∠ − 33.15°
I3 = = 3.417∠19.98° A
3 − j4
∴ i3 (0.1) = 3.417 cos (2.5rad + 19.98°) = −3.272 A ∴
P3,abc = 3.2722 × 3 = 32.12 W
Vc = − j 4 (3.417∠19.983°) = 13.67∠ − 70.02°,
vc (0.1) = 13.670 cos (2.5rad − 70.02°) = 3.946 V
∴ Pc , abc = 3.946 (−3.272) = −12.911 W (Σ = 0)

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

−R t
6. For t > 0, i(t) = 8e L
= 8e −2t .

## (c) at t = 2 s, i = 8e–4 = 146.5 mA; p(2) = i2R = 21.47 mW

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

−t
7. v(t ) = (3)(6000)e 30×10−3

p(0.03)

## (c) p(0.09) = v2(0.09)/R = (18×103e–3)2 / 6000 = 134 W

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

## (b) W = (1.080×106)(150×10–6) = 162 J

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

1
9. W = CV 2 . The initial voltage, v(0+), is therefore
2

2W 2(100 ×10−3 ) −t −t
v(0+ ) = = −3
= 2 V and so v(t ) = 2e RC = 2e 0.12 V.
C 100 × 10

p(120 =
ms) = = 226 mW
R 1.2

## The energy dissipated over the first second is given by

−2 t
v 2 (t ) 1 2e RC ⎛ 2 ⎞ −2
∫0 R dt = − 2 ⎜⎝ R ⎟⎠ ⎡⎣⎢e RC − 1⎤⎥⎦ ≈ 100 mJ
1 RC

∫0 R dt =

## Thus, the final temperature

100 ×10−6 kJ
= 271.15 + 23 + = 271.15 + 23 + 0.1111
⎛ kJ ⎞
(10 kG ) ⎜ 0.9 kg ⋅ K ⎟
−3

⎝ ⎠

## = 294.3 K, representing a temperature increase of 0.1111 K.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

## 10. (a) p = (276)(130) = 358.8 mW

(b) v(t) = 2.76cos1000t V (given); we need to know the I-V relationship for this
(nonlinear) device.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

11.
j 5(10 − j 5)
Zin = 4 + = 4 + 2.5 + j 5 = 6.5 + j 5 Ω
10
100
∴ Is = = 12.194∠ − 37.57° A
6.5 + j5
1
∴ Ps , abs = − × 100 × 12.194 cos 37.57° = −483.3 W
2
1
P4, abs = (12.194) 2 4 = 297.4 W,
2
Pcabs = 0
100 j5
I10 = = 6.097∠52.43° so
6.5 + j 5 10
1
P10,abs = (6.097) 2 × 10 = 185.87 W
2
PL = 0 (Σ = 0)

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

12.
40∠30°
V = (10 + j10) = 52.44∠69.18° V
5∠50° + 8∠ − 20°
1
P10, gen = × 10 × 52.44 cos 69.18° = 93.19 W
2
1
Pj10, gen = × 10 × 52.44 cos (90° − 69.18°) = 245.1 W
2
2
1 ⎛ 52.44 ⎞
P5∠50 abs = ⎜ ⎟ cos (50°) = 176.8 W
2⎝ 5 ⎠
2
1 ⎛ 52.44 ⎞
P8∠− 20 abs = ⎜ ⎟ cos (−20°) = 161.5 W (Σ gen = Σ abs )
2⎝ 8 ⎠

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

13.
1
ZR = 3 + = 3 + 1 + j3 = 4 + j3 Ω
0.1 − j 0.3
2 + j5 5 29
Ignore 30° on Vs , I R = 5 , IR =
6 + j8 10

2
1 ⎛ 5 29 ⎞
(a) P3 Ω = ⎜⎜ ⎟ × 3 = 10.875 W
2 ⎝ 10 ⎟⎠

(2 + j 5) (4 + j 3)
(b) Vs = 5∠0° = 13.463∠51.94° V
6 + j8
1
∴ Ps , gen = × 13.463 × 5cos 51.94° = 20.75 W
2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

14.
Pj10 = P− j 5 = 0,
V10 − 50 V10 V10 − j 50
+ + =0
j10 10 − j5
∴ V10 (− j 0.1 + 0.1 + j 0.2) + j 5 + 10 = 0
∴ V10 = 79.06∠16.57° V
1 79.062
P10 Ω = = 312.5 W;
2 10
79.06∠161.57° − 50
I 50 = = 12.75∠78.69° A
j10
1
∴ P50V = × 50 × 12.748cos 78.69° = 62.50 W
2
79.06∠161.57° − j 50
I j 50 = = 15.811∠ − 7.57° :
− j5
1
Pj 50 = × 50 × 15.811cos (90° + 71.57°) = −375.0 W
2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

15.
Vx − 20 Vx − Vc
+ = 2Vc 
2 3
and
V V − Vx
0= c + c 
− j2 3
which simplify to

## 5Vx − 14Vc = 60  and

j 2Vx + (3 − j 2)Vc = 0 

Solving,
Vx = 9.233∠ − 83.88° V and Vc = 5.122∠ − 140.2° V
1
Pgen = × 9.233 × ( 2 × 5.122 ) cos (−83.88° + 140.2°) = 26.22 W
2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

16.

(a) X in = 0 ∴ Z L = R th + j 0

## (b) R L , X L independent∴ Z L = Z∗th = R th − jX th

2
1 Vth
(c) R L fixed∴ PL = × R L ∴ Z L = R L − jX th
2 (R th + R L ) 2 + (X th + X L ) 2

2PL RL
(d) X L fixed, Let X L + Xth = a ∴ f = 2
=
Vth (R th + R L ) 2 + a 2
df R + R 2L + a 2 − 2R L (R th + R L )
= th 2
=0
dRL ⎡⎣(R th + R L ) 2 + a 2 ⎤⎦
R th2 + 2R th R L + R 2L + a 2 − 2R th R L = 2R 2L = 0
∴ R L = R th2 + a 2 = R th2 + (Xth + X L ) 2

## (e) X L = 0 ∴ R L = R th2 + X th2 = Zth

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

17.
− j10
Vth = 120 = 107.3∠ − 116.6° V
10 + j 5
− j10 (10 + j15)
Zth = = 8 − j14 Ω
10 + j 5

ZTH = ( Z L ) = 8 + j14 Ω
*
(a)

(b) IL = = .
ZTH + ( ZTH )
*
16

## ( ZTH ) = (107.3∠ − 116.6° )(16.12∠ − 60.26° )

*

VL = VTH
ZTH + ( ZTH )
*
16
1 ⎡ (107.3)(16.12 ) ⎤ ⎡107.3 ⎤
PL ,max = ⎢
2 ⎣ 16
⎥⎢ ⎥ cos ( −116.6° − 60.26° + 116.6° ) = 179.8 W
⎦ ⎣ 10 ⎦

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

18.
R L = Zth ∴ R L = 82 + 142 = 16.125 Ω
1 107.332
PL = × 16.125 = 119.38 W
2 (8 + 16.125) 2 + 142

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

19.
− j 9.6 = −4.8 I x − j1.92 I x − +4.8I x
9.6
∴ Ix = =5
1.92
∴ V = (0.6 × 5)8 = 24 V
1
∴ Po = × 24 × 1.6 × 5 = 96 )
( genW
2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

20.
j 480 80 − j 60
(a) Z th = 80 j 60 =
80 + j 60 80 − j 60
= 28.8 + j 38.4 Ω ∴ Z L max = 28.8 − j 38.4 Ω

## (b) Vth = 5(28.8 + j38.4) = 144 + j192 V,

144 + j192
∴ IL =
2 × 28.8
1 1442 + 1922
and PL ,max = × 28.8 = 250 W
2 4 × 28.82

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

## I6-j8 = Veq / (6 – j8) = 4.161 ∠ 3.69o A

I4+j2 = I8+j7 = Veq/ 12+j9 = 2.774 ∠ -86.31o A

## P4+j2 = ½ (2.774)2 (4) = 15.39 W

P8+j7 = ½ (2.774)2 (8) = 30.78 W

## Check: Σ = 98.11 W (okay)

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

22.
j10 j10 (20)
Vth = 100 = 20 + j 40, Zth = = 4 + j8 Ω
20 + j10 20 + j10
∴ R L = Zth ∴ R L = 8.944 Ω
1 202 + 402
∴ PL ,max = × 8.944 = 38.63 W
2 (4 + 8.944) 2 + 64

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

23. We may write a single mesh equation: 170 ∠0o = (30 + j10) I1 – (10 – j50)(-λI1)
Solving,
170∠0 o
I1 =
30 + j10 + 10λ − j 50λ
170∠0 o
(a) λ = 0, so I1 = = 5.376∠ - 18.43 o A and, with the same current flowing
30 + j10
through both resistors in this case,
P20 = ½ (5.376)2 (20) = 289.0 W
P10 = ½ (5.376)2 (10) = 144.5 W

170∠0 o
(b) λ = 1, so I1 = = 3.005∠45 o A
40 − j 40
P20 = ½ (3.005)2 (20) = 90.30 W
The current through the 10-Ω resistor is I1 + λI1 = 2 I1 = 6.01 ∠ 45o so
P10 = ½ (6.01)2 (10) = 180.6 W
(c)

(a)
FREQ IM(V_PRINT3) IP(V_PRINT3)
6.000E+01 5.375E+00 -1.846E+01

## FREQ IM(V_PRINT4) IP(V_PRINT4)

6.000E+01 5.375E+00 -1.846E+01

(b)
FREQ IM(V_PRINT3) IP(V_PRINT3)
6.000E+01 6.011E+00 4.499E+01

## FREQ IM(V_PRINT4) IP(V_PRINT4)

6.000E+01 3.006E+00 4.499E+01

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

## (10)(1) + (−5)(1) + 0(1)

24. (a) Waveform (a): Iavg = = 1.667 A
3
1
(20)(1) + 0(1)
Waveform (b): Iavg = 2 = 5A
2

Waveform (c):

10 −3
1 2πt ⎛ 4 × 10 −3 ⎞ ⎛ πt ⎞
Iavg = ∫
10 − 3
8sin (
dt = - 8 × 10 3 ) ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ cos⎜ −3 ⎟
1 × 10 −3 ⎝ 2π ⎠ ⎝ 2 × 10 ⎠
−3
0 4 × 10 0

16 16
= − (0 − 1) = A
π π

## 2 (100)(1) + (25)(1) + (0)(1)

(b) Waveform (a): I avg = = 41.67 A 2
3
Waveform (b): i(t) = -20×103 t + 20
i2(t) = 4×108 t2 – 8×105 t + 400
1
2
I avg =
10 -3
-3 ∫ 0
(4 × 108 t 2 - 8 × 10 5 t + 400) dt
2 × 10
1 ⎡ 4 × 10 8 −3 3 8 × 10
5
⎤ 0.1333
= -3 ⎢
2 × 10 ⎣ 3
(
10 ) -
2
(10 −3 ) + 400(10 −3 )⎥ =
2

2 × 10 -3
= 66.67 A 2

Waveform (c):
10 −3
1 2πt 3 ⎡t sin π × 10 3 t ⎤
2
I avg =
1 × 10 −3 ∫
10 − 3
64sin 2
4 × 10 −3
dt = 64 (
× 10 ⎢ - ) 2π × 10 3 ⎦

0
⎣2 0

⎡10 −3
sin π ⎤
(
= 64 × 10 3 ⎢ ) − 3⎥
= 32 A 2
⎣ 2 2π × 10 ⎦

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

## 25. At ω = 120π, 1 H → j377 Ω, and 4 μF → -j663.1 Ω

Define Zeff = j377 || -j663.1 || 10 000 = 870.5 ∠ 85.01o Ω

V2.5k =
(400
2∠ − 9 o 2500 )
= 520.4 ∠ - 27.61o V
o
2500 + 870.5 ∠85.01

V10k =
( )(
400 2∠ − 9 o 870.5 ∠85.01o )
= 181.2 ∠57.40 o V
o
2500 + 870.5 ∠85.01
Thus, P2.5k = ½ (520.4)2 / 2 500 = 54.16 W
P10k = ½ (181.2)2 / 10 000 = 1.642 W
P1H = 0
P4μF = 0 (A total absorbed power of 55.80 W.)
To check, the average power delivered by the source:

400 2∠ − 9 o
Isource = = 0.2081 ∠ - 27.61o A
2500 + 870.5∠85.01o

and Psource = ½ ( 400 2 )(0.2081) cos (-9o + 27.61o) = 55.78 W (checks out).

## FREQ IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1) FREQ VM(L,0) VP(L,0)

6.000E+01 2.081E-01 -2.760E+01 6.000E+01 1.812E+02 5.740E+01
FREQ VM(R2_5k,\$N_0002) VP(R2_5k,\$N_0002) FREQ IM(V_PRINT11) IP(V_PRINT11)
6.000E+01 5.204E+02 -2.760E+01 6.000E+01 2.732E-01 1.474E+02

## FREQ IM(V_PRINT2) IP(V_PRINT2) FREQ IM(V_PRINT12) IP(V_PRINT12)

6.000E+01 4.805E-01 -3.260E+01 6.000E+01 1.812E-02 5.740E+01

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

1 144 144
T
26. (a) ∫ (1 + cos 2000t ) dt = = 8.485
T 0 2 2

1 144 144
T
(b) ∫ (1 − cos 2000t ) dt = = 8.485
T 0 2 2

1 144 144
T
(c) ∫ (1 + cos1000t ) dt = = 8.485
T 0 2 2

1 144 ⎡ 144
T
(d) ∫
T 0 2 ⎣ (
1 + cos 1000t − 176o ⎤⎦ dt = )2
= 8.485

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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

1 4 2
T
27. (a) ∫ (1 + cos 20t ) dt = = 1.414
T 02 2

1 4 2
T
(b) ∫ (1 − cos 20t ) dt = = 1.414
T 02 2

1 4 2
T
(c) ∫ (1 + cos10t ) dt = = 1.414
T 02 2

1 4⎡ 2
T
(d) ∫
T 02 ⎣ ( )
1 + cos 10t − 64o ⎤⎦ dt =
2
= 1.414

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

28. T = 3 s; integrate from 1 to 4 s; need only really integrate from 1 to 3 s as function is zero
between t = 3 and t = 4 s.

3 3
1 100 100(2)
Vrms =
31∫ (10) 2 dt =
3 1
t =
3
= 8.165 V

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

29. T = 3 s; integrate from 2 to 5 s; need only really integrate from 2 to 3 s as function is zero
between t = 3 and t = 4 s.

3 3
1 49 49(1)
I rms =
32∫ (7) 2 dt =
3 2
t =
3
= 4.041 A

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

30. (a) 1 V

2
2 2 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞
(b) Vrms = V 1eff +V 2eff = 1 +⎜ ⎟ = 1.225 V
⎝ 2⎠

2
2 2 2 ⎛ 1 ⎞
(c) Vrms = V 1eff +V
2eff = 1 +⎜ ⎟ = 1.225 V
⎝ 2⎠

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

31.

## (a) v = 10 + 9 cos100t + 6sin100t

1 1
∴ Veff = 100 + × 81 + × 36 = 158.5 = 12.590 V
2 2

1 2
(b) Feff = (10 + 202 + 102 ) = 150 = 12.247
4

## (10)(1) + (20)(1) + (10)(1) 40

(c) F avg = = = 10
4 4

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32.

## (a) g(t) = 2 + 3cos100t + 4cos(100t – 120o)

o o 3.606 2
3 ∠0 + 4∠-120 = 3.606 ∠-73.90 so Geff = 4+ = 3.240
2

## h (t ) = 2 + 3cos100t + 4 cos (101t − 120°)

(b) 1 1
∴ H eff = 22 + 32 + 42 = 16.5 = 4.062
2 2
1 0.1 6 2
0.3 ∫0
(c) f (t ) = 100t , 0 < t < 0.1∴ Feff = 10 t dt

10 1
= ×106 × × 10−3 = 33.33
3 3

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33. f (t ) = (2 − 3cos100t ) 2

## (a) f (t ) = 4 − 12 cos100t + 9 cos 2 100t

∴ f (t ) = 4 − 12 cos100t + 4.5 + 4.5cos 200t ∴ Fav = 4 + 4.5 = 8.5

1 1
(b) Feff = 8.52 + × 122 + × 4.52 = 12.43
2 2

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1
⎡1
( )
⎤ 2
34. (a) ieff = ⎢ 102 + (−5) 2 + 0⎥ = 6.455 A
⎣3 ⎦

1
⎡1 1 ⎤ 2
(b) ieff = ⎢ ⎛⎜ ∫ [− 20t + 20] dt ⎞⎟ + 0⎥ = 5 = 2.236 A
⎣2 ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎦

1 1
⎡1 ⎛ 1 ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎞⎤ ⎛ πt ⎞ ⎤
2
⎡ ⎛2⎞
(c) ieff = ⎢ ⎜⎜ ∫ 8sin ⎜ t ⎟ dt ⎟⎟⎥ = ⎢- 8 ⎜ π ⎟ cos ⎜ 2 ⎟⎥ = 2.257 A
⎣1 ⎝ ⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦ 0
0

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35.

## (a) A = B = 10V, C = D = 0 ∴10∠0° + 10∠ − 45° = 18.48∠ − 22.50o

1 1
∴P = × × 18.482 = 42.68 W
2 4
(b) A = C = 10V, B = D = 0, vs = 10 cos10t + 10 cos 40t ,
1 102 1 102
P= + = 25 W
2 4 2 4

1 7.6542
∴P = = 7.322 W
2 4

## (d) v = 10 cos10t + 10sin (10t + 45°) + 10 cos 40t ;

10∠0° + 10∠ − 45° = 18.48∠ − 22.50o
1 1 1 1
∴ P = × 18.482 × + × 102 × = 55.18 W
2 4 2 4

102
(e) // + 10dc ∴ Pav = 55.18 + = 80.18 W
4

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

j 0.3Rω
36. Zeq = R || j0.3ω = . By voltage division, then, we write:
R + j 0.3Rω

## j 0.1ω - 0.03ω 2 + j 0.1ωR

V100mH = 120∠0 = 120∠0
j 0.3Rω − 0.03ω 2 + j 0.4 Rω
j 0.1ω +
R + j 0.3ω
j 0.3Rω
R + j 0.3ω j 36 Rω
V300mH = 120∠0 = 120∠0
j 0.3Rω − 0.03ω2 + j 0.4 Rω
j 0.1ω +
R + j 0.3ω
(a) We’re interested in the value of R that would lead to equal voltage magnitudes, or

j 36 Rω = (
(120) - 0.03ω 2 + j 0.1ωR )
Thus, 36Rω = 12.96ω 4 + 144ω 2 R 2 or R = 0.1061 ω

(b) Substituting into the expression for V100mH, we find that V100mH = 73.47 V,
independent of frequency.
To verify with PSpice, simulate the circuit at 60 Hz, or ω = 120π rad/s, so R = 40 Ω.
We also include a miniscule (1 pΩ) resistor to avoid inductor loop warnings. We see
from the simulation results that the two voltage magnitudes are indeed the same.

FREQ VM(\$N_0002,\$N_0003)VP(\$N_0002,\$N_0003)
6.000E+01 7.349E+01 -3.525E+01

FREQ VM(\$N_0001,\$N_0002)VP(\$N_0001,\$N_0002)
6.000E+01 7.347E+01 3.527E+01

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

37.

## (a) Vav ,1 = 30V

1
Vav ,2 = (10 + 30 + 50) = 30V
3
1 3 1 1
(b) Veff ,1 =
3 ∫0
(20t ) 2 dt =
3
× 400 × × 27 = 1200 = 34.64V
3
1 2 1
Veff ,2 = (10 + 302 + 502 ) = × 3500 = 34.16 V
3 3
(c) PSpice verification for Sawtooth waveform of Fig. 11.40a:

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⎛ − j106 ⎞ − jR106
38. Zeff = R || ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ =
⎝ 3ω ⎠ 3ωR − j10
6

ISRC =
120∠0
=
120ω 3ωR - j106 ( )
−j
106
−j
R106 (
− j106 3ωR − j106 − jωR106 )
ω 3ωR − j106
R
I3μF = ISRC
106
R− j

R
(a) For the two current magnitudes to be equal, we must have = 1 . This is
106
R− j

only true when R = ∞; otherwise, current is shunted through the resistor and the two
capacitor currents will be unequal.
(b) In this case, the capacitor current is

1
120∠0 6
= j 90ω μA, or 90ω cos(ωt + 90o ) μA
10 106
−j −j
ω 3ω
(c) PSpice verification: set f = 60 Hz, simulate a single 0.75- μF capacitor, and include a
100-MΩ resistor in parallel w ith the capacitor to prevent a floating node. This should
resit in a rms current amplitude of 33.93 mA, which it does.

## FREQ IM(V_PRINT3) IP(V_PRINT3)

6.000E+01 3.393E-02 9.000E+01

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

39.
v(t ) = 10t [u (t ) − u (t − 2)] + 16e −0.5(t −3) [u (t − 3) − u (t − 5)] V
Find eff. value separately
1 2 20
V1,eff =
5 ∫0
100t 2 dt =
3
× 8 = 7.303

1 5 256 3 − t 5
V2,eff =
5 ∫3
256e − ( t −3) dt =
5
e (−e )3 = 6.654

## ∴ Veff = 7.3032 + 6.6542 = 9.879

1⎡ 2
256e3e− t dt ⎤
5
∫ ∫
2
Veff = 100t dt +

5⎣ 0 3 ⎥⎦
1 ⎡100 ⎤
= ⎢ × 8 + 256e3 (e −3 − e−5 ) ⎥
5⎣ 3 ⎦
1 ⎡ 800 ⎤
= ⎢ + 256 (1 − e −2 ) ⎥ = 9.879 V OK
5⎣ 3 ⎦

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

40. The peak instantaneous power is 250 mW. The combination of elements yields
Z = 1000 + j1000 Ω = 1414 ∠45o Ω.
Vm ∠0 Vm ∠ − 45o
Arbitrarily designate V = Vm ∠0 , so that I = = A.
Z 1414
W e may write p(t) = ½ Vm Im cos φ + ½ Vm Im cos (2ωt + φ) where φ = the angle of the
curren t (-45o). This function has a maximum value of ½ VmIm cos φ + ½ VmIm.
Thus, 0.250 = ½ VmIm (1 + cos φ) = ½ (1414) Im2 (1.707)
and Im = 14.39 mA.

In terms of rms current, the largest rms current permitted is 14.39 / 2 = 10.18 mA rms.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

## (a) V = 20I + 80∠35° Vrms, Ps , gen = 80 × 10 cos 35° = 655.3 W

2
(b) PR = I R = 16 × 20 = 320 W

## (f) I L = 10∠0° − 4∠35° = 7.104∠ − 18.84° A rms

∴ APL = 80 × 7.104 = 568.3 V A

PL 335.3
(g) PFL = cos θ L = = = 0.599
APL 568.3
since I L lags V, PFL is lagging

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42.
120
(a) Is = = 9.214∠ − 26.25° A rms
j192
4+
12 + j16
∴ PFs = cos 26.25 = 0.8969 lag

## (b) Ps = 120 × 9.214 × 0.8969 = 991.7W

j 48 1
(c) ZL = 4 + = 4+ (192 + j144)
3 + j4 25
11.68 − j 5.76
∴ Z L = 11.68 + j 5.76 Ω, YL =
11.682 + 5.762
j 5.76
∴ j120π C = , C = 90.09μ F
11.682 + 5.762
(d) PSpi ce verification

## FREQ VM(\$N_0003,0) VP(\$N_0003,0)

6.000E+01 1.200E+02 0.000E+00

## FREQ IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)

6.000E+01 9.215E+00 -2.625E+01 ; (a) and (b) are correct

## FREQ IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)

6.000E+01 8.264E+00 -9.774E-05 ;(c) is correct (-9.8×10-5 degrees
is essentially zero, for unity PF).

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

43.
Z A = 5 + j 2 Ω, Z B = 20 − j10 Ω, Z c = 10∠30° Ω
8.660
= + j5 Ω
Z D = 10∠ − 60° = 5 − j8.660 Ω

## 200 −20 + j10

0 33.66 − j13.660 7265∠22.09°
I1 = = = 15.11∠3.908° A rms
25 − j8 −20 + j10 480.9∠ − 26.00°
−20 + j10 33.66 − j13.660
25 − j8 200
−20 + j10 0 200 (20 − j10)
I2 = = = 9.300∠ − 0.5681° A rms
480.9∠ − 26.00° 480.9∠20.00°

2
APA = I1 Z A = 15.1082 29 = 1229 VA
2
APB = I1 − I 2 Z B = 5.8812 × 10 5 = 773.5 VA
APC = I 2 2 ZC = 9.32 × 10 = 86.49 VA
2
APD = I 2 Z1 = 9.32 × 10 = 864.9 VA
APS = 200 I1 = 200 × 15.108 = 3022 VA

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## (a) Ztot = 30∠15° + 40∠40° = 68.37∠29.31°Ω

∴ PF = cos 29.3° = 0.8719 lag

## (b) V = IZtot = 683.8∠29.31o Ω so

( )
S = VI* = 683.8∠29.31o (10∠0 ) = 6838∠29.31o VA .

## Thus, the apparent power = S = 6.838 kVA.

(c) The impedance has a positive angle; it therefore has a net inductive character.

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## 45. θ1 = cos-1(0.92) = 23.07o, θ 2 = cos-1 (0.8) = 36.87o, θ 3 = 0

100 ∠23.07o
S1 = = 100 + j 42.59 VA
0.92
250 ∠36.87 o
S2 = = 250 + j187.5 VA
0.8
500 ∠0o
S3 = = 500 VA
1
Stotal = S1 + S2 + S3 = 500 + j230.1 VA = 550.4 ∠24.71o VA
Stotal 550.4
(a) Ieff = = = 4.786 A rms
Veff 115

## (b) PF of composite load = cos (24.71o) = 0.9084 lagging

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

46.

IL =
APL = 10, 000 VA, PFL = 0.8lag, 40 A rms
Let I40
L = ∠0° A rms; PL = 10, 000 × 0.8 = 8000 W
8000
ZL =
Let R + jX L ∴ R L = =5 Ω
402
L

## cosθ L = 0.8lag∴θ L = cos −1 0.8 = 36.87°

∴ X L = 5 tan 36.87° = 3.75 Ω, Z L = 5 + j 3.75, Ztot = 5.2 + j 3.75 Ω
1
∴ Vs = 40 (5.2 + j 3.75) = 256.4∠35.80° V; Ytot =
5.2 + j 3.75
= 0.12651 − j 0.09124S, Ynew = 0.12651 + j (120π C − 0.09124),
PFnew = 0.9 lag,θ new = 25.84°∴ tan 25.84° = 0.4843
0.09124 − 120π C
= ∴
0.12651
C = 79.48μ F

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47. Zeff = j100 + j300 || 200 = 237 ∠54.25o. PF = cos 54.25o = 0.5843 lagging.

## Znew = j100 + jXC + j300 || 200 = 138.5 + j(192.3 + XC) Ω

⎛ 192.3 + X C ⎞
tan −1 ⎜ -1
⎟ = cos 0.92 = 23.07
o

⎝ 138.5 ⎠
Solving, we find that XC = -133.3 Ω = -1/ωC, so that C = 7.501 μF

## (b) Raise PF to 0.92 lagging with parallel capacitance

− 100 X C
Znew = j100 || jXC + j300 || 200 = +138.5 + j92.31 Ω
j (100 + X C )
⎛ 100X C ⎞
= 138.5 + j ⎜⎜ 92.31 + ⎟ Ω
⎝ 100 + X C ⎟⎠
⎛ 100X C ⎞
⎜ 92.31 + ⎟
−1 ⎜ 100 + X C ⎟
tan = cos-1 0.92 = 23.07o
⎜ 138.5 ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
Solving, we find that XC = -25 Ω = -1/ωC, so that C = 40 μF

## FREQ IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1) θ PF

With no compensation: 1.592E+02 4.853E-01 -5.825E+01 54.25o 0. 5843 lag
With series compensation: 1.592E+02 7.641E-01 -2.707E+01 23.07o 0. 9200 lag
With parallel compensation: 1.592E+02 7.641E-01 -2.707E+01 23.07o 0. 9200 lag

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

48.
20 (1 + j 2)
Zin = − j10 + = 10.769 − j 3.846 = 11.435+ ∠ − 19.65° Ω
3 + j2
100
∴ Is = = 8.745∠19.65°
11.435∠ − 19.654°
∴ S s = − Vs I ∗s = −100 × 8.745∠ − 19.65° = −823.5 + j 294.1VA
10 + j 20
I 20 = 8.745∠19.65° × = 5.423∠49.40°
30 + j 20
∴ S 20 = 20 × 5.4322 = 588.2 + j 0 VA
20 × 5.423∠49.40
I10 = = 4.851∠ − 14.04°
10 + j 20
S10 = 10 × 4.8512 = 235.3 + j 0 VA
S j 20 = j 20 × 4.8512 = j 470.6 VA,
S − j10 = − j10 × 8.7452 = − j 764.7 VA, Σ=0

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49.

Vx − 100 V V − j100
+ x + x =0
6 + j4 − j10 5
⎛ 1 ⎞ 100
∴ Vx ⎜ + j 0.1 + 0.2 ⎟ = + j 20
⎝ 6 + j4 ⎠ 6 + j4
∴ Vx = 53.35− ∠42.66° V
100 − 53.35− ∠42.66°
∴ I1 = = 9.806∠ − 64.44° A
6 + j4
1
∴ S1. gen = ×100 × 9.806∠64.44° = 211.5 + j 442.3VA
2
1
S 6, abs = × 6 × 9.8062 = 288.5 + j 0 VA
2
1
S j 4,abs = ( j 4) 9.8062 = 0 + j192.3VA
2
j100 − 53.35− ∠42.66°
I2 = = 14.99∠121.6°,
5
1
S5 abs = × 5 × 14.992 = 561.5 + j 0 VA
2
1
S 2, gen = ( j100)14.99∠ − 121.57° = 638.4 − j 392.3VA
2
1 ⎛ 53.35 ⎞
S − j10, abs = ⎜ ⎟ (− j10) = 0 − j142.3VA = 142.3∠ − 90° VA Σ=0
2 ⎝ 10 ⎠

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50.

## (a) 500 VA, PF = 0.75 lead∴

S = 500∠ − cos −1 0.75 = 375 − j 330.7 VA

## 500 W, PF = 0.75 lead∴

(b)
500
S = 500 − sin (cos −1 0.75) = 500 − j 441.0 VA
j.075

## (c) −500 VAR, PF = 0.75(lead) ∴θ = − cos −1 0.75 = −41.41°

∴ P 500 / tan 41.41° = 566.9W,
S = 566.9 − j 500 VA

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## 51. S s = 1600 + j 500 VA (gen)

1600 + j 500
(a) I ∗s = = 4 + j1.25 ∴ I s = 4 − j1.25
400
400
Ic = = j 3.333A rms∴ I L = I s − I c = 4 − j1.25 − j 3.333
− j120
∴ I L = 4 − j 4.583A rms∴
S L = 400 (4 + j 4.583) = 1600 + j1833 VA
⎛ 1833.3 ⎞
(b) PFL = cos ⎜ tan −1 +
⎟ = 0.6575 lag
⎝ 1600 ⎠

## (c) S s = 1600 + j 500 = 1676∠17.35° VA ∴ PFs = cos17.35° = 0.9545 lag

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## (a) S tot = 1200∠36.87° + 1600∠25.84° + 900

= 960 + j 720 + 1440 + j 697.4 + 900
= 3300 + j1417.4 = 3592∠23.25° VA
3591.5
∴ Is = = 15.62 A rms
230

## (c) S = 3300 + j1417 VA

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53.

## (b) 20, 000

I1 = = 80∠0° A rms
250
I 2 = 25, 000 / 250 = 100 A rms
∠I 2 = − cos −1 0.8 = −36.87 ∴ I 2 = 100∠ − 36.87 o A rms
30, 000 40, 000
AP3 = = 40, 000 VA, I 3 = = 160 A rms
0.75 250
∠ I 3 = − cos −1 0.75 = −41.41° ∴ I 3 = 160∠ − 41.41° A rms
∴ I s = 80∠0° + 100∠ − 36.87° + 160∠ − 41.41° = 325.4∠ − 30.64° A rms
∴ APs = 250 × 325.4 = 81,360 VA

70, 000
(c) PF3 = = 0.8604 lag
81,360

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54. 200 kW average power and 280 kVAR reactive result in a power factor of
PF = cos (tan-1 (280/200) = 0.5813 lagging, which is pretty low.

## (a) 0.65 peak = 0.65(200) = 130 kVAR

Excess = 280 – 130 = 150 kVAR, for a cost of (12)(0.22)(150) = \$396 / year.

## (b) Target = S = P + j0.65 P

θ = tan-1(0.65P/P) = 33.02o, so target PF = cos θ = 0.8385

(c) A single 100-kVAR increment costs \$200 to install. The excess kVAR would then be
280 – 100 – 130 = 50 kVAR, for an annual penalty of \$332. This would result in a
first-year savings of \$64.

A single 200-kVAR increment costs \$395 to install, and would remove the entire excess
kVAR. The savings would be \$1 (wow) in the first year, but \$396 each year thereafter.

## The single 200-kVAR increment is the most economical choice.

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

55. Perhaps the easiest approach is to consider the load and the compensation capacitor
separately. The load draws a complex power Sload = P + jQ. The capacitor draws a
purely reactive complex power SC = -jQC.

## θload = tan-1(Q/P), or Q = P tan θload

Vrms
QC = SC = Vrms = ω CVrms
2
= ω CVrms
2

(− j / ω C)

## Stotal = Sload + SC = P + j(Q – QC)

⎛ Q-QC ⎞
θnew = ang(Stotal) = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ , so that Q – QC = P tan θnew
⎝ P ⎠

## Substituting, we find that QC = P tan θload – P tan θnew

or
ω CVrms
2
= P (tan θload – tan θnew)

## P ( tan θ old - tan θ new )

C =
ω Vrms
2

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Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

## 56. V = 339 ∠-66o V, ω = 100π rad/ s, connected to Z = 1000 Ω.

339
(a) Veff = = 239.7 V rms
2
(b) pmax = 3392 / 1000 = 114.9 W

(c) pmin = 0 W

⎛ 339 ⎞
⎛ 339 ⎞ ⎜ 2 ⎟ 2
Veff
(d) Apparent power = Veff Ieff = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ = = 57.46 VA
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎜ 1000 ⎟ 1000
⎝ ⎠

(e) Since the load is purely resistive, it draws zero reactive power.

(f) S = 57.46 VA

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

57. V = 339 ∠-66o V, ω = 100π rad/s to a purely inductive load of 150 mH (j47.12 Ω)

V 339∠ - 66o
(a) I = = = 7.194 ∠ - 156o A
Z j 47.12
7.194
so Ieff = = 5.087 A rms
2
(b) p(t) = ½ VmIm cos φ + ½ VmIm cos(2ωt + φ)
where φ = angle of current – angle of voltage
pmax = ½ VmIm cos φ + ½ VmIm = (1 + cos(-90o)) (339)(7.194)/ 2 = 1219 W

## (c) pmin = ½ VmIm cos φ - ½ VmIm = -1219 W

339
(d) apparent power = Veff Ieff = (5.087 ) = 1219 VA
2
(e) reactive power = Q = Veff Ieff sin (θ – φ) = 1219 VA

## (f) complex power = j1219 VA

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

58. 1 H → j Ω, 4 μF → –j250 Ω

## (5∠0) (1.004∠ 89.99o )

V10k = = 2.008 ∠89.97 o mV
2500 + (1.004∠89.99o )
(a) pmax = (0.002)2 / 10×103 = 400 pW

## (c) apparent power = VeffIeff = ½ VmIm = ½ (0.002)2 / 10000 = 200 pVA

1 5∠0
(d) Ssource = ( 5∠0 ) ⎜⎛ ⎞
⎟ = 0.005 ∠-0.02292o VA
2 ⎝ 2500∠0.02292 ⎠

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

## 59. (a) At ω = 400 rad/s, 1 μF → -j2500 Ω, 100 mH → j40 Ω

Defi ne Zeff = -j2500 || (250 + j40) = 256 ∠ 3.287o Ω

12000∠0
IS = = 43.48 ∠ - 3.049o A rms
20 + 256∠3.287 o
Ssource = (12000)(43.48) ∠ 3.049o = 521.8 ∠3.049o kVA

## S20Ω = (43.48)2 (20) ∠0 = 37.81 ∠0 kVA

(12000∠0)(256∠3.287 o )
Veff = = 11130 ∠0.2381o V rms
20 + 256∠3.287 o

Veff
I1μF = = 4.452 ∠90.24o A rms
- j 2500
so S1μF = (11130)(4.452) ∠-90o = 49.55 ∠-90o kVA

(11130∠0.2381o )( j 40)
V100mH = = 1758 ∠81.15o V rms
250 + j 40

V100mH
I100mH = = 43.96 ∠ - 8.852o A rms
j 40
so S100μΗ = (1758)(4.43.96) ∠90o = 77.28 ∠90o kVA

(11130∠0.2381o )(250)
V250Ω = = 10990 ∠ − 8.852o V rms
250 + j 40
so S250Ω = (10990)2 / 250 = 483.1 ∠0o kVA

(b) 37.81 ∠0 + 49.55 ∠-90o +77.28 ∠90o + 483.1 ∠0o = 521.6 ∠3.014o kVA,
which is within rounding error of the complex power delivered by the source.

(c) The apparent power of the source is 521.8 kVA. The apparent powers of the passive
elements sum to 37.81 + 49.55 + 77.28 + 483.1 = 647.7 kVA, so NO! Phase angle is
important!

(d) P = Veff Ieff cos (ang VS – ang IS) = (12000)(43.48) cos (3.049o) = 521 kW

(e) Q = Veff Ieff sin (ang VS – ang IS) = (12000)(43.48) sin (3.049o) = 27.75 kVAR

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Engineering Circuit Analysis, 7th Edition Chapter Eleven Solutions 10 March 2006

## 60. (a) Peak current = 28 2 = 39.6 A

(b) θload = cos-1(0.812) = +35.71o (since lagging PF). Assume ang (V) = 0o.

## (g) Q = Veff Ieff sin θ = 37.59 kVAR

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.