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SEMINAR REPORT

ON

“DAWN OF THE NET”


Date: -03/02/2011

Submitted By:
SWAYAM PRAKASH ROUT

Silicon Institute of Technology

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am greatly indebted to my esteemed faculty


Mrs. Sushree Rout and Mr. Chittaranjan
Mohapatra for giving me immense support,
confidence and advice constantly for making this
seminar.

I owe my heartiest thanks to my friends who all along


helped in times of my need and rendered useful
advice in the preparation and presentation of this
seminar.

Swayam Prakash Rout


Reg no:0801209314
Information Technology

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ABSTRACT

Getting information off the Internet is like taking a drink from a fire hydrant.
When we clicked on the link or url we starts a flow of information. This information
flows to our personal mail room where ip makes packet of these information. Then these
packets are launched into the lan. They travel in the lan which is very uncontrolled place.
Routers are their to pick these packets from lan and place them in other networks if
necessary. At the destination proxy unpacks it and collects the url from it. After it passes
through corporate fire wall if it satisfies the rules of the fire wall. Passing through the
firewall the packet moves into the world of internet. Here due to ample of freedom there is a
chance of intermixing of other ping packets with the normal ping packets and these packets
behave similar to normal packets. These packets travel through different medium and at the
destination they meet with another fire wall. Near the fire wall the packets are tested and
passes if these packets meets the criteria of the fire wall. The fire wall operates on certain
ports e.g. port-80 port-25. When the packets passes through this fire wall they move into the
web server from where they collect the requested information by the client. With those
information they returned back to the client and hence we get our requested information.

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CONTENTS:

1. Introduction……………………………………………...5
2. Packet formation………………………………………..5
3. Local area network(LAN)……………………………...6
4. Router…………………………………………………….7
5. Proxy server...…………………………………………...8
6. Fire wall…………………………………………………..10
7. Internet…………………………………………………...11
8. Port……………………………………………………….12
9. Web server………………………………………………12
10. Conclusion……………………………………………...14
11. Reference……………………………………………….16
12. Slides…………………………………………………….17

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INTRODUCTION :

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the
standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a
network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and
government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic,
wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of
information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the
World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.

The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned by the
United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to build robust,
fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by
the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other
commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new
networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The commercialization of what
was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation
into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2009, an estimated quarter of Earth's
population used the services of the Internet.

For the first time in history people and machinery are working together, realizing a
dream. A uniting force that knows no geographical boundaries. Without regard to race,
creed or color. A newera where communication truly brings people together. This is the
Dawn of The Net.

PACKET FORMATION:

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The Internet Standards describe a framework known as the Internet Protocol Suite.
This is a model architecture that divides methods into a layered system of protocols . The
layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate. At the top is
the Application Layer, the space for the application-specific networking methods used in
software applications, e.g., a web browser program. Below this top layer, the Transport
Layer connects applications on different hosts via the network (e.g., client–server model)
with appropriate data exchange methods. Underlying these layers are the core networking
technologies, consisting of two layers. The Internet Layer enables computers to identify and
locate each other via Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, and allows them to connect to one-
another via intermediate (transit) networks. Lastly, at the bottom of the architecture, is a
software layer, the Link Layer, that provides connectivity between hosts on the same local
network link, such as a local area network (LAN) or a dial-up connection.

The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP)
which provides addressing systems (IP addresses) for computers on the Internet. IP enables
internetworking and essentially establishes the Internet itself.

Now exactly what happenes when we clicked on the link? We started a flow of
information. This information travels down to our own personal mail-room where IP
packages it, labels it and sends it on its way. Each packet is limited in its size. The mail-
room must decide how to divide the information and how to package it.

The IP packet now needs a label, containing important information such as senders
address, receivers address and the type of packet it is. Because this particular packet is going
out onto the Internet, it also gets an address for the Proxy Server.

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN):

A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that connects computers and
devices in a limited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory or office
building. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs),

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include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need
for leased telecommunication lines. Any given node in the LAN has one or more links to
one or more nodes in the network and the mapping of these links and nodes in a graph
results in a geometric shape that may be used to describe the physical topology of the
network. Likewise, the mapping of the data flow between the nodes in the network
determines the logical topology of the network. The physical and logical topologies may or
may not be identical in any particular network. Inside a small organization we can have a no
of lans which are connected among themselves by lan cables.

After the formation of packet of information it is launched into the lan. This network
is used to connect all the local computers, routers, printers etc. for information exchange
within the physical walls of the building. The LAN is a pretty uncontrolled place and
unfortunately accidents can happen.

The highway of the LAN is packed with all types of information. There are IP
packets, Novell packets, Apple Talk packets. Their motion is random and sometimes they
are going against traffic. The local router reads the address and if necessary lifts the packet
onto another network.

ROUTER:

A symbol of control in a seemingly disorganized world. There he is..systematic,


uncaring, methodical, conservative and sometimes not quite up to speed. But he is exact...
for the most part.

Routers forward data packets across computer networks. A Router checks the data
packet for its destination address and protocol format details. If the router microprocessor
finds a match in its address tables, it routes it to that destination address. If the destination
address is on a network type that uses a different transmission protocol, the appropriate new
protocol data is added to the packet.

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For pure Internet Protocol (IP) forwarding function, a router is designed to minimize
the state information on individual packets. The main purpose of a router is to connect
multiple networks and forward packets destined either for its own networks or other
networks. A router is considered a Layer 3 device because its primary forwarding decision is
based on the information in the Layer 3 IP packet, specifically the destination IP address.
This process is known as routing. When each router receives a packet, it searches its routing
table to find the best match between the destination IP address of the packet and one of the
network addresses in the routing table. Once a match is found, the packet is encapsulated in
the layer 2 data link frame for that outgoing interface. A router does not look into the actual
data contents that the packet carries, but only at the layer 3 addresses to make a forwarding
decision, plus optionally other information in the header for hint on, for example, QoS. Once
a packet is forwarded, the router does not retain any historical information about the packet,
but the forwarding action can be collected into the statistical data, if so configured.

As the packets leave the router, they make their way into the corporate intranet and
head for the router switch. A bit more efficient than the router, the router switch plays fast
and loose with IP packets deftly routing them along their way. A digital pin-ball wizard if
you will.

PROXY SERVER:

In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an


application program) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources
from other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a
file, connection, web page, or other resource, available from a different server. The proxy
server evaluates the request according to its filtering rules. For example, it may filter traffic
by IP address or protocol. If the request is validated by the filter, the proxy provides the
resource by connecting to the relevant server and requesting the service on behalf of the
client. A proxy server may optionally alter the client's request or the server's response, and
sometimes it may serve the request without contacting the specified server. In this case, it

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'caches' responses from the remote server, and returns subsequent requests for the same
content directly.

Most proxies are a web proxy, allowing access to content on the World Wide Web.

A proxy server has a large variety of potential purposes, including:

• To keep machines behind it anonymous (mainly for security).


• To speed up access to resources (using caching). Web proxies are commonly used to
cache web pages from a web server.
• To apply access policy to network services or content, e.g. to block undesired sites.
• To log / audit usage, i.e. to provide company employee Internet usage reporting.
• To bypass security/ parental controls.
• To scan transmitted content for malware before delivery.
• To scan outbound content, e.g., for data leak protection.
• To circumvent regional restrictions.

A proxy server that passes requests and replies unmodified is usually called a gateway or
sometimes tunneling proxy.

A proxy server can be placed in the user's local computer or at various points between the
user and the destination servers on the Internet.

A reverse proxy is (usually) an Internet-facing proxy used as a front-end to control


and protect access to a server on a private network, commonly also performing tasks such as
load-balancing, authentication, decryption or caching.

As packets arrive at their destination they are picked up by the network interface,
ready to be sent to the next level. In this case, the proxy. The proxy is used by many
companies as a sort of "middleman" in order to lessen the load on their Internet connection.
And for security reasons as well. We can see that the packet are all of various sizes,
depending on their content.

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The proxy opens the packet and looks for the WEB address or URL. Depending
upon whether the address is acceptable…the packet is sent on to the Internet. There are,
however, some addresses which do not meet with the approval of the proxy (that is to say
corporate or management guidelines). These are summarily dealt with. We'll have none of
that. For those who make it, it's on the road again.

FIRE WALL:

A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block


unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications. It is a device or set of
devices that is configured to permit or deny network transmissions based upon a set of rules
and other criteria.

Firewalls can be implemented in either hardware or software, or a combination of


both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing
private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or
leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which inspects each message and blocks those
that do not meet the specified security criteria.

There are several types of firewall techniques:

• Packet filter: Packet filtering inspects each packet passing through the network and
accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules. Although difficult to configure, it is
fairly effective and mostly transparent to its users. It is susceptible to IP spoofing.
• Application gateway: Applies security mechanisms to specific applications, such as
FTP and Telnet servers. This is very effective, but can impose a performance
degradation.
• Circuit-level gateway: Applies security mechanisms when a TCP or UDP connection
is established. Once the connection has been made, packets can flow between the
hosts without further checking.

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• Proxy server: Intercepts all messages entering and leaving the network. The proxy
server effectively hides the true network addresses.

The corporate Fire Wall serves two purposes. It prevents some rather nasty things
from the Internet from coming into the intranet. And it also can prevent sensitive corporate
information from being sent out to the Internet.

Once through the fire wall, a router picks up the packet and places it on to a much
narrower road or band-width, as we say. Obviously, the road is not broad enough to take
them all. Now we might wonder what happens to all those packets which don't make it along
the way. Well, when IP doesn't receive an acknowledgment that a packet has been received
in due time, he simply sends a replacement packet.

INTERNET:

A spider web of inter-connected networks which spans our entire globe. Here,
routers and switches establish links between networks.

Net is an entirely different environment than you'll find within the protected walls of
your LAN. Out here, it's the Wild West. Plenty of space, plenty of opportunities, plenty of
things to explore and places to go. Thanks to very little control and regulation new ideas find
fertile soil to push the envelope of their possibilities. But because of this freedom, certain
dangers also lurk. You'll never know when you'll meet the dreaded Ping Of Death. A special
version of a normal request Ping which some idiot thought up to mess up unsuspecting
hosts.

The paths our packets take maybe via satellite, telephone lines, wireless or even trans-
oceanic cable. They don't always take the fastest or shortest routes possible, but they
probably will get there - eventually. Maybe that's why it's sometimes known as the World
Wide Wait. But when everything is working smoothly, you can circumvent the globe 5
times over, at the drop of a hat - literally. And all for the cost of a local call or less. Near the

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end of our destination, we'll find another Fire Wall. Depending upon your perspective as a
data packet, the fire wall can be a bastion of security or a dreaded adversary. It all depends
on which side your on and what your intentions are.

PORT:

In computer networking, a port is an application-specific or process-specific


software construct serving as a communications endpoint. It is used by Transport Layer
protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite, such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and
User Datagram Protocol (UDP). A specific port is identified by its number, commonly
known as the port number, the IP address with which it is associated, and the protocol used
for communication.

A well-known range of port numbers is reserved by convention to identify specific


service types on a host computers. In the client-server model of application architecture this
is used to provide a multiplexing service on each port number that network clients connect
to for service initiation, after which communication is reestablished on other connection-
specific port numbers.The Fire Wall is designed to let in only those packets that meet its
criteria. This wall is operating on ports 80 and 25. All attempts to enter through other ports
are closed for business.Port25 is used for mail packets, while port 80 is the entrance for
packets from the Internet to the Web server.

Inside the fire wall, packets are screened more thoroughly, some packets make easily
through "customs" while others look just a bit dubious. The Fire Wall officer is not easily
fooled, such as when this ping of death packet tried to disguise itself as a "normal" ping
packet.

WEB SERVER:

For those packets lucky enough to make this far, the journey is almost over. It's just
to line up on the interface to be taken up into the web server. A web server can be referred

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to as either the hardware (the computer) or the software (the computer application) that
helps to deliver content that can be accessed through the Internet. A web server is what
makes it possible to be able to access content like web pages or other data from anywhere as
long as it is connected to the internet. The hardware houses the content, while the software
makes the content accessible through the internet.

The most common use of web servers is to host websites but there are other uses like
data storage or for running enterprise applications. There are also different ways to request
content from a web server. The most common request is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP), but there are also other requests like the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
or the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

The primary function of a web server is to deliver web pages on the request to
clients. This means delivery of HTML documents and any additional content that may be
included by a document, such as images, style sheets and JavaScripts.

A client, commonly a web browser or web crawler, initiates communication by


making a request for a specific resource using HTTP and the server responds with the
content of that resource or an error message if unable to do so. The resource is typically a
real file on the server's secondary memory, but this is not necessarily the case and depends
on how the web server is implemented.

While the primary function is to serve content, a full implementation of HTTP also
includes ways of receiving content from clients. This feature is used for submitting web
forms, including uploading of files.

Many generic web servers also support server-side scripting, e.g., Apache HTTP
Server and PHP. This means that the behaviour of the web server can be scripted in separate
files, while the actual server software remains unchanged. Usually, this functionality is used
to create HTML documents "on-the-fly" as opposed to returning fixed documents. This is
referred to as dynamic and static content respectively. The former is primarily used for

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retrieving and/or modifying information from databases. The latter is, however, typically
much faster and more easily cached.

Web servers are not always used for serving the world wide web. They can also be
found embedded in devices such as printers, routers, webcams and serving only a local
network. The web server may then be used as a part of a system for monitoring and/or
administrating the device in question. This usually means that no additional software has to
be installed on the client computer, since only a web browser is required (which now is
included with most operating systems).

Nowadays, a web server can run on many things. From a mainframe, to a web-cam
to the computer on your desk. Or why not your refrigerator? With the proper set-up, you can
find out if you the makings for Chicken Catchitory or if you have to go shopping.
Remember this is the Dawn of the Net - almost anything's possible.

One by one, the packets are received, opened and unpacked. The information they
contained, that is your request for information is sent onto the Web server application. The
packet itself is recycled. Ready to be used again. And filled with your requested information.
Addressed and sent out on its way back to you. Back past the fire walls, routers, and on
through the Internet. Back through your corporate fire wall and onto your interface.

Ready to supply your web browser with the information you requested.

CONCLUSION:

The Internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction, activities, and
organizing, thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access. Social
networking websites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have created new ways to
socialize and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to
pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others. It is also possible to find
existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like

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LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections. YouTube and Flickr specialize in
users' videos and photographs.

In the first decade of the 21st century the first generation is raised with widespread
availability of Internet connectivity, bringing consequences and concerns in areas such as
personal privacy and identity, and distribution of copyrighted materials. These "digital
natives" face a variety of challenges that were not present for prior generations.

The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool, leading to Internet
censorship by some states. The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United
States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet. Many political
groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing in order to carry out their
mission, having given rise to Internet activism. Some governments, such as those of Iran,
North Korea, Myanmar, the People's Republic of China, and Saudi Arabia, restrict what
people in their countries can access on the Internet, especially political and religious content.
This is accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may not
be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention.

In Norway, Denmark, Finland and Sweden, major Internet service providers have
voluntarily, possibly to avoid such an arrangement being turned into law, agreed to restrict
access to sites listed by authorities. While this list of forbidden URLs is only supposed to
contain addresses of known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret. Many
countries, including the United States, have enacted laws against the possession or
distribution of certain material, such as child pornography, via the Internet, but do not
mandate filtering software. There are many free and commercially available software
programs, called content-control software, with which a user can choose to block offensive
websites on individual computers or networks, in order to limit a child's access to
pornographic materials or depiction of violence.

Many people use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to
plan and book vacations and to find out more about their interests. People use chat,

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messaging and e-mail to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the
same way as some previously had pen pals. The Internet has seen a growing number of Web
desktops, where users can access their files and settings via the Internet.

Cyberslacking can become a drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee


spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work, according to a 2003 study by
Peninsula Business Services. Internet addiction disorder is excessive computer use that
interferes with daily life. Some psychologists believe that Internet use has other effects on
individuals for instance interfering with the deep thinking that leads to true creativity.

Internet usage has also shown a strong connection to loneliness. Lonely people tend
to use the internet for an outlet for their feelings and to share their stories with other lonely
people, such as in the "I am lonely will anyone speak to me" thread.

REFERENCE:

1. URL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
2. URL http://www.slideshare.net/
3. URL http://www.google.co.in/ig?hl=en
4. URL http://www.scribd.com/
5. URL http://www.internet.com/

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