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The Evolutionary study (and Biodiversity) of Diversification Biology:

True or False?

Prof. BOT R. Geeta 202

12/1/10

1. Variation starting of point traits for in evolution living organisms to occur. is a necessary

2. Mutations helping its environment. the arise species in a species to become with better the purpose adapted of to

3. Natural the good selection of the species; acts to favor e.g., animal traits that behavior are for is shaped for the good of the species.

4. Individual adapted to plants their evolve environments. over time to become better

Tentative Lecture Schedule

1 Evolution: Pattern and process; Natural

2 Microevolution: drift Selection Population Genetics, genetic 3a Speciation;

3b Macroevolution: Geologic and Fossil record

4 Phylogenetics

Pattern scientific & Process theories components of

The cell theory All cells organisms are made up of

Pattern component:

Process component:

All existing cells cells arise from pre-

(Multiplicity), There resemble are which each many vary other types (Diversity), (Unity). of organisms This but also BIODIVERSITY Hierarchy is organized in a Nested

Species environments are adapted to their

How does this pattern of variation arise?

The Historical Context

Wallace (evol, natl sel) Evolution Essentialism Lyell (uniformitarianism) Lamarck (evol, mech.) Species Species
Wallace (evol, natl sel)
Evolution
Essentialism
Lyell (uniformitarianism)
Lamarck (evol, mech.)
Species Species don’t don’t change vary
•Species •Species each other are vary to related different to
Cuvier (Paleontology)
extents
Linnaeus (Taxonomy)
•Species change (fossils)
1700
1725
1750
1775
1800
1825
1850
1875
1900

Evolution happens

Biodiversity: Pattern of variation

Multiplicity, Diversity, Unity

Adaptedness

• variation Evolution: (Descent Process of with generation modification) of

Evidence for evolution-1

Evidence for change over time

Fossils resemble living species (but differ from them)

Fossils are species gone extinct

Vestigial traits reflect past function

Evidence for Evolution-2

Evidence for relatedness of species

Nested hierarchy

Taxa (Taxonomic systems)

Traits (Homology)

Biogeography

each Closely other related species may live close to

Evolution and mechanism

Wallace (evol, natl sel)

Darwin (evol, natl sel)

Lyell (uniformitarianism)

Lamarck (evol, mech)

Lamarck (evol, mech)
Lamarck (evol, mech)
Lamarck (evol, mech)

Cuvier (Paleontology)

Linnaeus (Taxonomy)

Linnaeus (Taxonomy)
Linnaeus (Taxonomy)
Linnaeus (Taxonomy)

1700

1725

1750

1775

1800

1825

1850

1875

1900

Similar Species geographic species form area a live nested in the hierarchy same

Species to are each somehow other related What process/es relates them? Species change over time Descent with modification

Transformation Lamarck of Individuals:

change “Innate tendency” of individuals to

(“adaptation”) Individual acquire new traits

Inidividuals to progeny pass on acquired traits

Transformational Theory

Variational Theory

Variation within species

Variational Theory Variation within species Differential AND reproduction survival over time Change in species Variation

Differential AND reproduction survival over time

Change in species Variation between species

Natural Selection

“I have called this principle, by Natural useful, which each is Selection.” preserved, slight variation, Charles by the if Darwin term

C h a r l e s by the if D a r w i n

Wild Mustard

t i m e

by the if D a r w i n term Wild Mustard t i m e

Artificial Selection

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Bud size (cm) 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Bud size (cm)
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5

…and, several (10-15) generations of selection later….

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
of selection later…. 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Brussels sprouts Microevolution: Anagenesis Change within

Brussels sprouts

Microevolution: Anagenesis

Change within a species/lineage

A' A Time
A'
A
Time

Macroevolution: Cladogenesis

Splitting of species/lineages

D

A'' A' C A
A''
A'
C
A

Multiplicity

E Diversity

Unity (Similarity)

Natural selection

one long argument”

Inference 1 produced survive More offspring than can

Inference 1 produced survive More offspring than can advantageous Individuals Inference 2 with likely traits

advantageous Individuals Inference 2 with likely traits reproduce survive are more to

2 with likely traits reproduce survive are more to Inference 3 favorable If the heritable, traits

Inference 3 favorable If the heritable, traits are the occurs evolution population of

Evolutionary tree

are the occurs evolution population of Evolutionary tree Otto-http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~bio336/ Natural selection:

Otto-http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~bio336/

Natural selection:

one long argument

organisms Individual Obs 4: Obs 1: Organisms potential have great fertility populations in within traits
organisms Individual Obs 4:
Obs 1: Organisms
potential have great fertility
populations in within traits vary
populations Obs 2: Natural
constant normally remain in size
Inf 1: More
produced can offspring survive than
Obs resources limited 3: Natural are

variations heritable Obs 5 Some are

advantageous Individuals Inf 2 with likely reproduce traits survive are more to (=differential survival)

If Inf the 3 traits favorable are evolution heritable, the of population occurs.
If Inf the 3
traits favorable are
evolution heritable, the of
population occurs.
are more to (= differential survival ) If Inf the 3 traits favorable are evolution heritable,

Natural Selection involves two steps

Random genetic production variation (Mutation) of new Nonrandom of some of retention the new (Survival) genetic

variants (=Natural Selection)

Lamarck vs Darwin

Lamarck

variants (=Natural Selection) Lamarck vs Darwin Lamarck Darwin Wallace Natural Selection: Evidence Rapid Selection
variants (=Natural Selection) Lamarck vs Darwin Lamarck Darwin Wallace Natural Selection: Evidence Rapid Selection
variants (=Natural Selection) Lamarck vs Darwin Lamarck Darwin Wallace Natural Selection: Evidence Rapid Selection
variants (=Natural Selection) Lamarck vs Darwin Lamarck Darwin Wallace Natural Selection: Evidence Rapid Selection

Darwin Wallace

Selection) Lamarck vs Darwin Lamarck Darwin Wallace Natural Selection: Evidence Rapid Selection Antibiotic
Selection) Lamarck vs Darwin Lamarck Darwin Wallace Natural Selection: Evidence Rapid Selection Antibiotic

Natural Selection: Evidence

Rapid Selection

Darwin Wallace Natural Selection: Evidence Rapid Selection Antibiotic treatment Antibiotic- resistant selected in

Antibiotic treatment

Selection: Evidence Rapid Selection Antibiotic treatment Antibiotic- resistant selected in cells an antibiotic-rich

Antibiotic-

resistant selected in cells an

antibiotic-rich environment

resistant selected in cells an antibiotic-rich environment Evolution tuberculosis Evolution of antibiotic in
resistant selected in cells an antibiotic-rich environment Evolution tuberculosis Evolution of antibiotic in

Evolution tuberculosis Evolution of antibiotic in bacteria action resistance in

Bacteria within a trait population resistance for antibiotic vary in a Obs 4

More are produced bacteria than Inference survive 1 (Obs 1-3)

There is bacteria the selection trait with for for antibiotic resistance Inference 2 resistance is
There is
bacteria the selection trait with for for
antibiotic resistance Inference 2
resistance is The heritable drug trait
Obs 5

Because drug the heritable resistance frequency trait, is a resistance increases of drug over cells time. Inference 3

No Selection

No Selection Selection Antibiotic treatment Antibiotic- resistant selected in cells an antibiotic-rich environment
No Selection Selection Antibiotic treatment Antibiotic- resistant selected in cells an antibiotic-rich environment
No Selection Selection Antibiotic treatment Antibiotic- resistant selected in cells an antibiotic-rich environment
No Selection Selection Antibiotic treatment Antibiotic- resistant selected in cells an antibiotic-rich environment

Selection

Antibiotic treatment

Antibiotic- resistant selected in cells an antibiotic-rich environment
Antibiotic-
resistant selected in cells an
antibiotic-rich environment

Natural Selection: Evidence

Rapid Evolution

Year introduced

Penicillin 1943

Methicillin 1960

Evolution Year introduced Penicillin 1943 Methicillin 1960

http://www.geo.arizona.edu/Antevs/nats104/antibioticevoln.html