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English
Quarter 3 – Module 1:
Composing an Argumentative Essay
English – Grade 10
Alternative Delivery Mode
Quarter 3 – Module 1: Composing an Argumentative Essay
First Edition, 2021

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over them.

Published by the Department of Education – Region III


Regional Director: May B. Eclar, PhD, CESO III
Assistant Regional Director: Rhoda T. Razon, EdD, CESO IV

Development Team of the Module

Author: Janina Lara T. Cabrera


Editor: Teresita M. Circa
Reviewers: Marlyn Gerio, Glenn Agustin, Aisee Almario,
Erwin Iruma, Roland Suarez
Illustrator: Janina Lara T. Cabrera
Layout Artist: Janina Lara T. Cabrera
Management Team:
Librada M. Rubio, PhD
Ma. Editha R. Caparas, EdD
Ramil G. Ilustre, PhD
Veronica B. Paraguison, PhD
Sheralyn E. Allas, RGC, PhD
Marcos C. Vizon

Printed in the Philippines by Department of Education - Region III

Office Address: Diosdado Macapagal Government Center, Maimpis,


City of San Fernando (P)
Telefax: (045) 598-8580 to 89; (045) 402-7003 to 05
E-mail Address: region3@deped.gov.ph
Introductory Message
For the facilitator:

Welcome to the English 10 Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM) Module on


Composing an Argumentative Essay!
This module was collaboratively designed, developed and reviewed by
educators both from public and private institutions to assist you, the teacher or
facilitator in helping the learners meet the standards set by the K to 12 Curriculum
while overcoming their personal, social, and economic constraints in schooling.

This learning resource hopes to engage the learners into guided and
independent learning activities at their own pace and time. Furthermore, this also
aims to help learners acquire the needed 21st century skills while taking into
consideration their needs and circumstances.

In addition to the material in the main text, you will also see this box in the
body of the module:

Notes to the Teacher


This contains helpful tips or strategies that
will help you in guiding the learners.

As a facilitator you are expected to orient the learners on how to use this
module. You also need to keep track of the learners' progress while allowing them to
manage their own learning. Furthermore, you are expected to encourage and assist
the learners as they do the tasks included in the module.

For the learner:

Welcome to the English 10 Alternative Delivery Mode (ADM) Module on


Composing an Argumentative Essay!

The hand is one of the most symbolized part of the human body. It is often
used to depict skill, action and purpose. Through our hands we may learn, create
and accomplish. Hence, the hand in this learning resource signifies that you as a
learner is capable and empowered to successfully achieve the relevant competencies
and skills at your own pace and time. Your academic success lies in your own hands!
This module was designed to provide you with fun and meaningful
opportunities for guided and independent learning at your own pace and time. You
will be enabled to process the contents of the learning resource while being an active
learner.

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What I Need to Know

This module was designed and written with you in mind. It aims to help you
master the skills needed in composing an argumentative essay. The learnings gained
in this module can be used in different learning situations that involve evaluating
accuracy of information and writing argumentative claims.

The module contains:


Lesson 1 – Composing an Argumentative Essay

After going through this module, you are expected to:


1. identify parts and features of an argumentative essay;
2. use techniques in developing argumentative claims; and,
3. write an argumentative essay.

What I Know

Directions: This part serves as your pre-test which will determine your background
and prior knowledge about the lesson that we are going to tackle. Answer the
questions honestly by choosing the letter of the correct answer. Write the chosen
letter on a separate sheet of paper.

1. Which of the following is a characteristic of an argumentative essay?


A. It presents arguments about an issue.
B. It provides readers with enough detailed descriptions.
C. It tells a story about a personal experience.
D. It provides information about a certain topic.
2. Which of the following is NOT a feature of argumentative writing?
A. It refutes the opposing argument.
B. It presents and explains an issue.
C. It gives reasons and supports these reasons.
D. It tells a story about a person
3. How many parts does an argumentative essay have?
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4
4. What is a thesis statement?
A. It is a statement summarizing the main point of an essay.
B. It is a statement that clarifies the issue.
C. It is a statement that analyzes the opposition’s argument.
D. It is a statement that provides evidence for the argument.
5. What argumentative technique is used in comparing two things for the purpose of
explanation or clarification?
A. Analogy B. Refutation C. Analysis D. Definition

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6. What lies at the heart of an argumentative essay?
A. Controversial issue C. Tone
B. Action D. Purpose
7. Which refers to the main argument of an essay and the writer’s position on a
problem of issue?
A. Counterclaim B. Claim C. Conclusion D. Refutation
8. What refers to the opinion or an evidence that others may bring up against your
argument that you must accept and refute in writing argumentative texts?
A. Counterclaim B. Claim C. Conclusion D. Refutation
9. How do you support and prove your claim as valid?
A. Copy the opinion of other writers. C. Use facts and evidences.
B. Use your opinions solely. D. Use a strong conclusion.

For numbers 10-12, answer the questions about the parts of the argumentative
essay. Choose the letter of your answer from the box.

A. Introduction B. Body C. Conclusion D. Technique

10. Which part states the claim, introduces the problem and gives background
information needed for the argument and the thesis statement?
11. What part states the main claim and gives one or two general statements which
exactly summarizes the arguments?
12. What part contains the reasons and supporting details which include examples,
statistics, personal experiences or quotations?

For numbers 13-15, answer the questions about the techniques in developing
argumentative claims. Choose the letter of your answer from the box.
A. Analogy B. Comparison-Contrast C. Definition D. Analysis

13. Which technique makes use of meaning or several meanings to a concept that
forms the argument?
14. What technique is done by taking a part from the whole and scrutinizes it to
prove a point?
15. Which technique is used to present similarities and/or differences of two major
concepts?

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Lesson Composing an
1 Argumentative Essay
In these global times, students like you must be equipped with critical
thinking and analytical skills in order for you to weigh the reliability and credibility
of the information you get from people or on the internet.

Through argumentative writing, the said skills can be developed. By means of


writing arguments, you will get to examine your own ideas in order to arrive to a fair
and sound judgement on conflicting claims and disputes about relevant and timely
issues in the community.

The tasks in this module will help you improve your skill in writing
argumentative essays.

At the end of this lesson, you are expected to:

1. identify parts and features of an argumentative essay;


2. use patterns and techniques in developing argumentative claims; and,
3. write an argumentative essay.

What’s In

Directions: Complete the chart below by writing your opinion about the issue. Write
your answer on a separate sheet of paper.

Issue I say…
Aggressive driving is a phenomenon, Aggressive driving should or should not
which has only recently got the public be avoided because…
worried. TheNational Highway Traffic ________________________________________
Safety Council (NHTSC) defines ________________________________________
aggressive driving as “the operation of ________________________________________
a motor vehicle in a manner that ________________________________________
endangers or is likely to endanger ________________________________________
persons or property” ________________________________________

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What’s New

Your everyday conversations with others often require you to present your
opinion on issues in the community. You give claims and arguments over issues or
topics relevant to your daily experiences.

Read the excerpt taken from an article entitled “We are Failing Mother Nature”,
then answer the questions that follow. Write your answers on a separate sheet of
paper.

“It is clear as day as to the environmental problems we are facing nowadays.


On the internet, we can see the impacts of human greed to the environment from rivers
and seas being littered with our garbage, wildlife going extinct, increasing temperature,
massive wildfires, and melting ice caps, among many others.”

“Our human greed is putting the only livable planet in our solar system in
danger. It is sad to note that the future generation will not be able to enjoy the beauty
of earth because we have been careless and greedy.”
Questions:

1. What is the main claim or argument of the excerpt?


___________________________________________________________________________
2. Do you agree with the claim or argument expressed by the writer? Why or why
not? ______________________________________________________________________

What is It

An argumentative essay is a kind of writing that aims to make the reader agree
with the writer’s opinion about a controversial or a debatable issue. An argument in
academic writing is usually a main idea, often called a claim or thesis statement,
backed up with evidence that supports the idea. A claim is the main argument of an
essay and the writer’s position on a problem or issue. Here are some examples.

1. “Filipino should be the medium of instruction in Philippine schools because it is


the national language and it is already developed yet the students have not
mastered it.”
2. “Education is the key that balances the opportunities between the rich and the
poor.”

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In writing an argumentative essay, claims or arguments should be developed
and supported by evidences. You cannot write an argumentative essay just by solely
stating your opinion on an issue. Your evidence can come from what you already
know, from expert opinions, and from reliable sources like books and articles. You
must use facts, reasons, evidence or examples to support your claim as valid.

The argumentative essay has the following features:

1. presents and explains the issue or case through the claim or argument;
2. gives reasons and supports these reasons with facts, proof or evidences; and,
3. refutes or proves wrong the opposing arguments.

In addition, the argumentative essay has the following parts:

1. Introduction. This is where you state your claim, introduce the problem and
give background information needed for the argument and the thesis
statement. The thesis statement is a short statement summarizing the main
point or claim of your essay.
2. Body. This part contains the reasons. Note that each paragraph must contain
one reason and the details supporting the stated reason or claim. The
supporting details may include examples, statistics, personal experiences or
quotations. The body also contains the counterclaim. A counterclaim is an
opinion or an evidence that others may bring up against your argument. The
counterclaim must be accepted and refuted.
3. Conclusion. The conclusion restates the main claim and gives one or two
general statements which exactly summarizes the arguments and support the
main claim or thesis statement of your essay. You can also end your essay
with quotations or call to action. Remember to conclude with a strong
statement.

Now that you know the parts and features of an argumentative essay, here are
several techniques in developing argumentative claims that can help you write
an objective and logical essay.

1. Analogy. This is used in comparing two things for the purpose of explanation
or clarification. It is assumed that two things similar in one aspect are alike
in another aspect. You may also use metaphors as analogies. Here is an
example.
Life is like a box of chocolates. You never know what you are
going to get.
2. Comparison-Contrast. This technique is used to present similarities and/or
differences of two major concepts. Read the example.
The most commonly cited advantage of distance learning is the flexibility
and accessibility it offers. Rather than being required to travel to a specific
location every week), students can participate from anywhere with an internet
connection. However, distance learning presents its own accessibility
challenges; not all students have a stable internet connection and a computer
or other device with which to participate in online classes, and less

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technologically literate students and teachers may struggle with the technical
aspects of class participation.
3. Definition. This technique makes use of meaning or several meanings to a
concept that forms your argument. For example, you want to write about
prejudice about people’s colors or colorism. You may start with:
Colorism is a form of discrimination based on a person’s skin color.
People tend to favor individuals with fair skin than those with black skin.
4. Analysis. This technique is done by taking a part from the whole and
scrutinizes it to prove a point. For example, you are to write about teenage
preferences in choosing friends.
A person’s preference in choosing friends depends on the extent of
belongingness one feels in the company of peers. A girl can have more male
friends than females because she may feel more comfortable with the opposite
gender. Guys may also feel the same.

N What’s More

In writing any essay, you must begin with an introduction. Your introduction
must present your thesis statement or your argumentative claim. Your claim may
come from your answer to a debatable issue or a question. To make your claim,
explain your answer to the questions below. Use a separate sheet of paper.

1: What is the greatest challenge that students face today?

Claim:
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

2: Has the rise of the internet given a positive or negative impact on education?

Claim:
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

3. Should world governments get involved in addressing climate change?


Claim:
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

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What I Have Learned

Directions: Fill in the blanks with appropriate words that will complete the sentence.
Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.

1. The _______________ introduces the problem and gives background


information needed for the argument and the thesis statement.
2. The ______________ restates the main claim and gives one or two general
statements which exactly summarize/s the arguments.
3. _________________ is the technique used to present similarities and/or
differences of two major concepts.
4. _______________ is done by taking a part from the whole and scrutinizing it to
prove a point.
5. An __________________ aims to make the reader agree with the writer’s opinion
about a controversial issue or a debatable topic.

What I Can Do

Directions: Read the excerpt of a news story below posted by inquirer.net about the
Covid19 vaccine for Filipinos this 2021. Write an argumentative essay about your
thoughts on getting or not getting the vaccine for yourself and your family. Write your
essay on a separate sheet of paper and be guided by the rubric for scoring.

PH seeks 148 million doses from 7 COVID-19 vaccine makers


(from Philippine Daily Inquirer / 05:32 AM January 07, 2021)

MANILA, Philippines — The Philippines is negotiating with seven vaccine


manufacturers to procure at least 148 million doses as it seeks to inoculate close to two-
thirds of its population this year, according to the head of the country’s national
vaccination program and chief implementer of the National Task Force Against COVID-
19.
Speaking at the Laging Handa briefing on Wednesday, Carlito Galvez Jr. said the
government was hoping to close deals with Novavax, Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson of
the United States, United Kingdom’s AstraZeneca, China’s Sinovac Biotech and Russia’s
Gamaleya Institute.
“Based on our current negotiations, we will be able to purchase at least 148 million
doses from more or less seven manufacturers. However, it will be dependent on the
global supply,” he said.
“The government will have a portfolio of vaccines,” he said. “This means we will get
vaccines from different manufactures. This is to ensure that we will have vaccines for
everyone, particularly this year 2021.”

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Rubric for Scoring Argumentative Essay

Criteria 5 4 3
Introduction Well-developed Introductory The problem is
and introductory paragraph contains stated, but lacks
Conclusion paragraph with some background detail.
detailed information but
background and limited explanation of
clear thesis details.
statement.
Conclusion Conclusion Conclusion
summarizes the summarizes main summarizes main
main topics topics. topics, but is
without repeating repetitive.
previous sentences
using details.
Body Three or more Three or more main Three or more
paragraphs main points are points are present main points, but
well but may lack detail all
developed with and development in lack development.
supporting details. one or two.
Organization Effective, mature, Strong transitions Transitions appear
and graceful exist throughout irregularly but not
Mechanics transitions and add to the essay’s equally
exist throughout coherence throughout the
the essay. essay.
Sentence structure is Work contains
Sentence structure generally correct. structural
is correct. weaknesses and
grammatical
errors.

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Assessment

Directions: Answer the questions honestly by choosing the letter of the correct
answer. Write the chosen letter on a separate sheet of paper.

1. What are the main parts of an argumentative essay?


A. Lead, details and body C. Claim, counterclaim and refutation
B. Facts, evidences and examples D. Introduction, body and conclusion
2. What refers to the statement that summarizes the main points of an essay?
A. Call to action B. Evidence C. Details D. Thesis statement
3. What is the first step in writing an argumentative essay?
A. Provide evidence to support your claim.
B. State what you are attempting to prove.
C. Conclude with a strong statement.
D. Link your evidence to your claim.
4. How do you argue the “smart way” in argumentative writing?
A. Consider the evidence of both sides before making your claim.
B. Base your essay solely on your opinion.
C. Use unreliable sources of information.
D. Present your point without examples and evidence.
5. Which is not a component of argumentative writing?
A. Claim B. Evidence C. Reason D. Vivid Language
6. What is the main goal of argumentative writing?
A. Make the reader agree with the writer’s opinion.
B. Describe a person, place or thing in such a way that a picture is formed in the
reader's mind.
C. Explain the topic to increase the understanding of the reader.
D. Convince readers to believe in an idea and to do an action.

For numbers 7-10, identify the technique used in each argumentative claim
presented. Choose the letter of your answer from the box.

A. Analogy B. Comparison-Contrast C. Definition D. Analysis

7. “Absence makes the heart forget versus Absence makes the heart grow fonder”
8. “One’s personal interest determines his choice of a career because it is his natural
response to life in general.”
9. “A native language expresses best the thoughts, aspirations, and the soul of a
person. But, we have to wake up to the reality that English has become the global
lingua franca.”
10. “Bilingualism is the ability of an individual or the members of a community to use
two languages effectively. Being able to speak two languages means you are able
to speak to people in a different cultural and linguistic context.”

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For numbers 11-15, identify the part of the argumentative text where each excerpt
falls. Choose the letter of your answer from the box.

A. Introduction B. Body C. Conclusion D. Technique

11. “Filipinos must realize that they must prioritize their own language for it is their
part of their identity and culture. Filipino is part of their being.”
12. “As for the data from the National Statistical Coordination Board, more than one-
quarter (27.9%) of the population fell below the poverty line the first semester of
2012, an approximate 1 per cent increase since 2009.”
13. “It is not all about English. In the Philippines, English prevails as the predominant
medium of instruction. English is used more in teaching rather than its own
national language which is Filipino. All subjects except the subject of Filipino is
taught in English.”
14. “As a matter of fact, the government planned to eradicate poverty as stated in the
Philippines Development Plan 2011-2016 (PDP). The PDP for those six years is an
annual economic growth of 7%- 8% and the achievement of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs).”
15. “Poverty never gets out of the problems that most Filipino citizens face. An
unknown author once said, “Poverty is a choice, and not fate.”

Additional Activity

Directions: Cut and paste in a clean sheet of paper an editorial cartoon from any
broadsheet newspaper. Identify the argument presented in the editorial cartoon and
write it on your paper.

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What I Know What’s In What I have Assessment
1. A Learned 1. D
2. D Answers may 2. D
3. C vary. 1. Introduction 3. B
2. Conclusion 4. A
4. A What’s New 3. Comparison-
5. A 5. D
Contrast
6. A 6. A
Answers may 4. Analysis
7. B 7. B
vary. 5. Argumentative
8. A Essay 8. D
9. C What’s More 9. B
10. A 10. C
11. C Answers may What I Can Do 11. C
vary. 12. B
12. B
Answers may 13. A
13. C
vary. 14. B
14. D
15. B 15. A
Answer Key
References
Almonte, L. et.al. (2015). English Learner’s Manual Celebrating Multiculturalism
through World Literature First Edition. Philippines: REX Book Store, Inc.

Aggressive Driving Should be Avoided: Course Hero. (2017, May 30). Retrieved
January 18, 2021, from
https://www.coursehero.com/file/23227596/Aggressive-Driving-Should-be-
Avoided/

Aning, J. (2021, January 07). PH seeks 148 million doses from 7 COVID-19 vaccine
makers. Retrieved January 8, 2021, from
https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1380514/ph-seeks-148m-doses-from-7-
drugmakers

Caulfield, J. (2020, October 15). Comparing and Contrasting in an Essay: Tips &
Examples. Retrieved January 12, 2021, from
https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/compare-and-contrast/

Editorial: We are failing Mother Nature. (2019, September 24).


Retrieved January 9, 2021, from
https://www.sunstar.com.ph/article/1824691/Davao/Opinion/Editorial-We-
are-failing-Mother-Nature

For inquiries or feedback, please write or call:

Office Address: Diosdado Macapagal Government Center,


Maimpis, City of San Fernando (P)
Telefax: (045) 598-8580 to 89; (045) 402-7003 to 05
E-mail Address: region3@deped.gov.ph

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