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1. INTRODUCTION such a type of Virtual Reality the human is
The Virtual Reality uses a huge number of completely isolated from the outside world
technologies to produce a Virtual world so and he is placed an entirely computer
that a user can interact and manipulate generated world. The applications being
with the virtual objects in the so produced developed for Virtual Reality are wide
Virtual Worlds. With the aid of some range utilities. Among them the real time
specially developed gadgets like a Head applications occupy the prominent place.
Mounted Display, Electronic Glove and 2 CLASSIFICATION OF VIRTUAL
Mechanical armatures that fit the human REALITY
organs we can immerse the human into the After a deep study of this emerging
Virtual world. The simulation technique is technology, we have classified Virtual
combined with the motion of the human to Reality into three types.
produce the output that what human 2.1 VIRTUAL REALITY USING
expects for. For example the person in a SOFTWARE
Virtual world looks at a particular object The first category of Virtual Reality that
then he has to get the feeling that he is we consider is Virtual Reality using
actually looking at that object and he software. Here we use many tools to
should also get the feeling of the sounds develop the virtual worlds. The most
that come from that object. The word commonly used tools for developing 3d
Virtual Reality is an “oxymoron”. It worlds are VRML v1.0, VRML97, VRML
means using two words that are v2.0, 3d Studio max, Rhino3d, Amapi3d,
contradictory to each other side by side. ALICE99, BLENDER and other such
Virtual Reality is a collection of software. The VRMLv1.0 is the child
technologies for many people. The word language developed from the XML family.
Virtual Reality has many contexts. The There aren’t many differences between the
word Virtual Reality is defined as follows later versions of VRML (VRML97 and
in the book “The Silicon Mirage”. The VRML v2.0). The programming
most difficult thing in the Virtual Reality paradigms are entirely different from
is to produce the interaction between VRMLv1.0 to VRMLv2.0. There are
Virtual world and the human but not the many companies dedicated to develop the
production of the Virtual world. The type tools for creating virtual worlds, such as
of Virtual Reality in which the human is Parallel Graphics Co., and Trapezium Co.,.
actually immersed into the Virtual world is Also there are many concepts of
called the immersive Virtual Reality. In
developing the virtual worlds using the As we have mentioned earlier VRML is a
software. language born from the family of XML.
They are : VRML is Virtual Reality Modeling
2.1.1 RENDERING Language. VRML v2.0 is more advanced
In this we are conscious about the compared to the version 2.0.Here we are
rendering techniques. Here we use the presenting one simple program in each of
technique of wire framing. A sample the versions. For developing the virtual
output and its wire frame model are shown worlds using VRML we need a plug-in for
below. After developing the wire frame the Internet Explorer or Netscape
model what we have to do is simply to Navigator. With the help of this only we
apply the texture to it. This is called can interact with the virtual world. More
texturing. The texture applied can be a information regarding the browser plugins,
photograph or any predefined textures parsers and editors is included at
such as metal, rock, wood and cement
It is a common thing that is three axes X,
Y, Z. In order to track the motion of an
object in the virtual world we need to track
the motion of the particular object in all
the three axes. These calculations may
cause some latency. The latency is the
major problem in any Virtual Reality
2.1.2 PROGRAMMING systems. The simplest hardware for Virtual
The other tool available for developing the Reality is a Mouse, Track ball and a
virtual worlds is by programming. There Joystick. These are the conventional
are many programming languages by hardware used for Virtual Reality using 2d
which we can develop the virtual worlds. systems. Creative programming can make
The best one we prefer is by using VRML them useful for 3d and 6d controls. Also
v2.0. Prior to this language, people used to there are a number of 3dand 6d mice,
develop the virtual worlds using the Track balls and joysticks. These have
traditional programming language, JAVA. some extra buttons for controlling not only
the XY transformations, but also the Z determine the strengths and angles of
transformations of the pointer, its rotation deflections in the fields.
also. One other most commonly used 2.2.3 STEREO VISION
motion-tracking device is an Electronic Stereo vision is a technique where two
Glove. An electronic glove is different different images are developed one for
from a normal glove in the sense that it has each eye. The two images developed may
a number of sensors. There are a number vary a little bit or may completely be the
of sensors that can be used. The optical same. The Head mounted displays having
fiber sensors are used for tracking the two LCD’s are for each eye is commonly
motion of fingers and the magnetic sensors required. Here the images are to be
are used for the tracking of rest of the computed from a particular distances and
arms. angles at each moment. There are number
2.2.2 POSITION TRACKING of techniques for producing the two
There are many tools available for tracking images. The two images can be placed side
the position of the object in the Virtual by side and the viewer may be asked to
world. Some of them are as described cross his eyes against each other. Using
below. Mechanical armatures are the most two differently polarized filters; we can
commonly used ones. They help in project the images. There is another
providing very accurate and fast results. technique for producing the two images,
Some of them seem like a table lamp while i.e., by placing two different LCD’s before
some others look as exoskeletons that are each eye and producing the image. Thus
outfitted to objects in the Virtual world. by shutting down each shutter at
The main disadvantage using them is that perspective times the user can be made to
they are cumbersome. Ultrasonic sensors think the depth of the image. The serious
are also most commonly used tools. Here a health hazard by this stereo vision is that
set of emitters as well as receivers is used the two eyes can be affected very
to note the time lags between the known adversely.
relationships and the results. Though these
are more effective, the main disadvantages
are the time lags and echoes that come
from the surroundings. Magnetic sensors
use a coil to note the deflections produced
in the fields due to the change in the
position of the object. These are used to
There is also software for producing the The Head mounted display consists of two
virtual 3D photos such as miniature display screens that produce the
PHOTOMODELER. The technology used stereo scopic images and an optical
to develop a 3D photo is stitching. For position tracking system that tracks the
producing a 3D photo of a node several orientation of the humans head in the
photos are taken and they are stitched Virtual world and that produces the
together. The user gets a sense that he is in impulse to the image generating large
the middle and he is seeing the 3d photo projection Areas to get more immersive
by revolving around himself. QUICK feeling. The characteristics of the IVR can
TIME is used to see these photos. You can be summarized as follows. Using a Head
see one suchmodel at mounted display can increase the capabilities like walk through, look
zone/3ds/index.shtml around, fly through in the 3d Virtual world
3 MORE ABOUT IMMERSIVE Computer. The image generating computer
VIRTUAL REALITY produces the respective view
1) An immersive Virtual Reality adds corresponding to the orientation of the user
special gadgets like Head mounted head in the Virtual world. This is the basic
displays, Boom, Multiple device used in the IVR. As a result the
2) Stereo scopic viewing adds enhanced user can see in the direction that he wants
features like deep peeping through the and he can walk through the Virtual world.
Virtual world.
3) Eliminating the real world and placing 3.2 BOOM AND CAVE
the human in a computer generated world To over come the intrusiveness with the
is one of the enhancements. HMD the Boom and Cave are used. These
4) The convincing factor about IVR is the are also extensively used in the IVR.
auditory, haptic, touch and other non- Screens and stereo scopic image
visual senses. generating apparatus are fixed in a box,
5) Interactions with the objects in the which is attached to a multi link arm. The
Virtual world are controlled by a data user peeps into the Virtual world through
glove, head mounted display and other two holes, and controls his motions with
gadgets. the arms.
The Cave is an interesting topic in IVR. A Defense Department to enable diverse
cave consists of a cube shaped room. The simulators to be interconnected into a vast
stereo scopic images are projected on to network .The soldiers can be trained to the
the walls and the floor of the room with war by developing a Virtual world that
the help of a number of projectors. The looks exactly the war field. This helps
head tracking system worn by the leading them in knowing how to deal in war fields.
user controls the view of the Virtual world. Distributed Interactive System (DIS)
Several users may sit on the Virtual world protocol has been developed by the
at a time. Orlando Institute of Training and
Simulation, which is the future of Virtual
Reality in war strategies.
The next interesting step in Virtual Reality
is cockpit simulation. This is used in
training the pilots. With the help of Virtual
Reality the entire cockpit is simulated. The
pilot is placed in the thus developed
Virtual world and the computer guides him
by giving the maps and the feeling that he
is piloting an actual flight. This helps him
SIMNET is the first war related Virtual
in dealing with the critical conditions that
Reality application. This project is
may arise while he is piloting an actual
standardization being pushed by the USA
flight. The data glove plays a vital role in Virtual Reality helps in designing the
this type of training. A variety of virtual models of the certain objects. By
instruments along with the data glove are building the virtual models we can see
used. The maps generated by the how the model works, what the defects
computers and the data available with the may be and how we can overcome the
pilot are correlated to know the paths. previous defects. These all can not be seen
4.3 VIRTUAL REALITY IN by actually developing the model as it
MEDICAL APPLICATIONS includes a lot of cost and laborious time.
Virtual Reality is now being used to train
physicians to carry out intricate surgical
procedures such as laparoscopies,
arthroscopies, endoscopies and other
minimally invasive surgeries. Virtual
Reality provides a view of the surgical
field normally blocked during such
procedures and enables trainees to get
much needed practice in the left-right
motion inversion obligatory for the
operation of instruments in minimally This concept of Virtual Reality is being is
invasive surgeries. In contrast to the use of mostly used in the designing of conceptual
cadavers which can only be dissected once cars.
and which are becoming more difficult to
procure, it allows students to access
libraries of healthy and pathologic body
tissue 3-D images at their convenience,
and perform the same. Nano surgery is
another medical application, where the
doctors located at a distinct place guide the
robots. They guide the robots with the help
of multilink arms that we have already
seen in the case of booms.
Concept cars are being designed to study
new ideas. Most of these designs are never
built. Virtual reality provides a tool for optimized in two ways: on individual
evaluating such designs in full scale desktops and across the Internet. VRTP
without building time consuming and appears to be a necessary next step in the
costly physical prototypes. deployment of all encompassing
4.5 VIRTUAL REALITY IN interactive internetworked 3D worlds.
Virtual Reality is also playing a vital role REALITY
in the amusement parks. The conceptual Yesterday Virtual Reality was a science
cars that we have discussed above and the fiction fantasy. Today it is a research topic
racing games are being developed to in laboratories and amusement parks.
attract people. With the help of electronic Tomorrow it will certainly replace our
gloves, head-mounted displays and stereo televisions and computers. Many
scopic vision racing games attract the researches are being done to find more and
people. more applications of Virtual Reality. In the
5 VIRTUAL REALITY forth coming days the web sites developed
TRANSFERRING PROTOCOL using Virtual Reality will replace the
The capabilities of the Virtual Reality entire present web industry.
Modeling Language (VRML) permit 7. CONCLUSIONS
building large-scale virtual environments The ability of Virtual Reality to produce
using the Internet and the World Wide realistic worlds of data, objects, with
Web. However the underlying network which the users can interact and
support provided by the hypertext transfer manipulate in a realistic and an intuitive
protocol (http) is insufficient for large- manner, opens up a vast wealth of
scale virtual environments. Additional possibilities for work-related applications.
capabilities for many-to-many peer-to-peer The concept of Virtual Reality provides an
communications plus network monitoring innovative mix of entertainment, education
need to be combined with the client-server and State-of-Art. From waterbeds to
capabilities of http. To accomplish this gyroscopes and hydraulic units, a variety
task, we present a detailed design rationale of platforms will provide a new kind of
for the virtual reality transfer protocol travel; into Cyberspace; into virtual worlds
(VRTP). VRTP is designed to support where one can swim with the dolphins and
interlinked VRML worlds in the same experience intense sensory stimulation..
manner as http was designed to support Working in many fields like medicine,
interlinked HTML pages. VRTP will be rocket launching, massive constructions,
designing and modeling, war training and Proceedings of Vision, Modeling,
cockpit training, it is very important to be Visualization 2003,2003. In Print.

more precise and accurate and here Virtual

Reality provides a solution by providing a
platform which makes it possible by using
the applications of Virtual Reality.



[2] M. Gross, S. Würmlin, M. Naef, E.

Lamboray, C. Spagno, A. Kunz, E.
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[3] S. Lang, M. Naef, M. Gross, L.

Hovestadt: “IN: SHOP: Using
telepresence and immersive VR for a
new shopping experience”. In
Proceedings of Vision, Modeling,
Visualization 2003, 2003. In Print.



[6] S. Lang, M. Naef, M. Gross, L.

Hovestadt: “IN: SHOP: Using
telepresence and immersive VR for a
new shopping experience”. In