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Topic – 1 Managerial Effectiveness I

Meaning of Managerial Effectiveness :


Managerial Effectiveness means performing managerial
activities effectively. An effective manager performs activities
effectively and efficiently. The means doing the right things and
doing three things right Many people believe that successful
managers are intelligent, Imaginative, and knowledgable only
effectiveness translates the intelligence, imagination and knowledge
into results and makes a manager successful.
An employee was expected to the efficient in producing the
desire result. His/her efficiency was measured in terms of output
desired or activities performed. Effectiveness is specially important
in the case of managers as they are responsible for the
performance of others to be effective managers need to walk on the
right things.

Characteristics of an Effective Manager:


Effective managers select people for tasks based on their
talent, apart from their experience, intelligence, and determination.
Then they specify the objectives and give the subordinate freedom
to plan their own path to achieve those objectives. An effective
manager’s focus on the strength of the employees and not on their
weaknesses.
They motivate subordinate by focusing their tasks that they
can perform well rather than focusing on those that they cannot.
Effective managers also help their subordinate to improve
themselves by giving prompt feedback and constructive criticism.
According to Peter Drucker, effective managers follow five
basic practice :
1. They focus on their contribution to the organization. They

focus on achieving results rather than simply working with


tools and techniques.
2. They know how they spend their time. They stay in control of

time and are effective time managers.


3. They build on strengths they empower the organization with

the strengths of the staff, their superiors and themselves.


4. They take decision after systematic analysis of facts and

information.
5. They concentrate on one activity at a time to produce
effective results.
Globalization and liberalization have made the business world
dynamic, changing consumers needs market environment have
made effective managers necessary for every organization.
Effective management means thinking and acting in the right
manner. Effective manager should be able to deal with unforeseen
situation without being invimid based by the consequences. They
should act as leaders and motivators. In an organization, managers
play a vital role. They plan organize, implement and control the
organisational activities and resources. Managers are responsible
for the effective working of the employees of their organization.
STRESS Management :
According to Taber’s Cyclopedia Dictionary, stress is “the
result produced when a structure, system, or organism is acted
upon by forces that disrupt equilibrium or produce strain.” A person
caught in a traffic jam while rushing to office, is under stress. A
student preparing for examinations is under stress. A manager
trying to make profits in a competitive market is under stress. Stress
is everywhere and influences everyone.
Stress in individuals is defined as anything that disrupts the
normal person’s physical or mental well-being. It .occurs when the
body performs activities outside its capabilities or when a person
faces extraordinary demands. A simple display of stress may be a
bad mood while an extreme display may be an act of violence. The
process of stress has a stressor or a stimulus. A stressor is a factor
or stimulant that creates stress. A stressor is not in itself either
positive or negative or good or bad, it is how one reacts to it that
determines its positivity or negativity. For example, one person may
perceive stressor as a motivator, whereas another person may
perceive it as a constraint. One individual may perceive it as a
challenge, another as a threat.
Stress can be positive or negative. Positive stress is called
eustress and negative stress is called distress. There is a difference
between the ways in which eustress and distress affect the body.
Eustress triggers the body alarm, enhances attention, performance,
and creativity. It has temporary effects. For instance, a person
applying for a visa to the US may be under eustress, and once
he/she obtains the visa his/her stress levels come back to normal.
Distress has negative effect, on the body. For instance, an
individual who has lost his/her job may become depressed, which is
a result of distress. Distress, if left unchecked, can have a serious
effect on the body over a period of time. The body’s nonspecific
response to the external situation results in stress and stress can
create a number of health problems both mental and physical.
Some, of these problems are sleeplessness, eating disorders, heart
problems, and suicidal tendencies. Stress represents the wear and
tear of the human body.
Hens Selye,’ developed a model called the General Adaptive
Syndrome model to explain the, stress phenomenon and the stress
levels. This model has three stages. The first stage, which is the
alarm. reaction stage, involves the body’s response to or
familiarizing itself with the new situation or stressor. In this stage, an
individual is under eustress. The second stage is the resistance
stage, which involves resisting and reacting to the situation. In this
stage, an individual is in a flight or fight situation (the body’s
reaction to control stress situation). In this situation, the body
prepares to either escape from the situation or to survive in it. The
third stage is the exhaustion stage, which is the aftermath of
resistance. If the resistance stage goes on for a long period, then
the person becomes distressed.
A certain level of stress can act as a motivator. Without
stress, a person becomes lethargic and dull. Good stress
encourages a person to perform better. However, if this stress
exceeds the resistance level of the individual, it can turn into
distress. The perception of stress varies from person to person and
each person has his/her own stress limit. There are many reasons
and sources of stress for every person. Also, while some people
tend to work better under pressure, there are others who cannot
bear the ‘last minute syndrome.’ They panic when faced with even
the most minor of stressful situations.

Types of Stress
Types of stress that are personal and work related are
discussed below.
1. Personal stress :
This is extra-organizational stress individuals play roles in life
like that of a father, brother, friend or mother, wife, sister, etc. In this
process, various cause stress.
a. Family stress: Family stress may arise from conflict ideas or
relationships with spouse, children, siblings, parents. This
stress may also be caused by the ill-health f a family, member,
financial problems, a divorce, or the death of a dear one.
b. Health related stress: This may be a result of undetected or
neglected health problems. For example, a person may neglect
minor ill health, which over a period may develop into a serious
health problem that may require immediate attention. Often
people ignore health and give importance to work. These
results in loss of health and in stress.
c. Society related stress: Society related stress occurs due to
the influence of the society on an individual. Here friends,
colleagues, and neighbors are the influencing factors. For
example attending a community meeting after a long workday
may seem very stressful.

2. Work related stress :


This is organizational stress. Work-related stress relates to
the working environment and policies of the organization. Work
related stress can be further classified into organizational stress
and job stress.
A. Organizational stress:
The stress resulting from the conflict of organizational goals
with personal goals is called organizational or work place stress.
The questionnaire in Exhibit 2.1 can be used to calculate an
individual’s stress level.
Exhibit 2.1
How Stressed out are You ?
In last three months, how Almos Some Very Your
Never Often
often have you felt t never times often Score
Upset because of an
0 1 2 3 4
unexpected situation ?
Nerveous and Tired ? 0 1 2 3 4
That you are unable to do
0 1 2 3 4
planned work ?
That things aren’t an your
0 1 2 3 4
control?
That work is getting
0 1 2 3 4
accumulated?
The mability handle a
4 3 2 1 0
personal problem ?
That things are going your
4 3 2 1 0
way?
Contented and satisfied 4 3 2 1 0
That you were in control of
4 3 2 1 0
situation ?
The higher the score the
higher stress level
a. Lack of organization skills: Poor organization skills lead to
confusion over delegation of authority and responsibility. For
instance, an employee may be given many responsibilities
without sufficient authority. This would result in stress in
performing the duties and responsibilities.
b. Long work hours: Everyone has a natural body clock. Working
against this clock can create stress. Attempts to alter the body
clock result in stress. -Studies on call center executives show
clearly the toll long work hours take in terms of stress-related
illness. A person regularly working long hours without taking a
break will be stressed.
c. Job Insecurity: Job insecurity is a major stress factor. This
kind of insecurity and lack of growth or promotions act as
stressors. The higher the uncertainty, higher is the Stress. A
sudden change in management and work policies can also
result in stress. For instance, a manager who has not been
promoted for a long period may feel insecure about his/her
future prospects in the organization and feel stressed.
B. Job stress:
Stress that occurs due to lack of resources or scarce
resources at the workplace is called job stress. Some of the
common job stressors are:
a. Difficult clients! Subordinates! Superiors! Colleagues:
Every employee has to handle a difficult client at some point of
time. A difficult or dissatisfied client is a stress creator.
Uncooperative colleagues and subordinates too can build up
high stress levels at the workplace. Superiors often feel that
putting pressure on subordinates brings out the best in them,
but this is not always true. Some employees feel overwhelmed
under stress and cannot work efficiently.
b. Personal Inadequacy: This can be a lack of knowledge or
skills to handle a particular task or job. This can create stress.
c. Role conflicts: This is a conflict between a person’s likes,
values, and job requirements. For instance, a manager may
have to take a decision regarding firing a subordinate keeping
the organization’s interest in mind even though he/she may like
the subordinate’s work. This creates a conflict between his/her
likes and job responsibilities, resulting in stress.
d. Setting high goals: Setting high goals for oneself is a major
stressor. For example, a sales manager may fix some high
sales target for himself/herself in a month. Not achieving the
target may result in stress and in extreme cases may even lead
to depression.
e. Overwork and deadlines: Extended periods of work or
continuous work can lead to extreme stress situations.
Employees, especially those in the BPO industry are required
to work in shifts that result in irregular rest hours that create
stress. Strict deadlines and rigid plans create stress in
employees.
3. Time and Stress:
Stress is a result of doing things at the wrong times. It is a
result of mismanaging time and striving hard to stick to deadlines.
By developing the art of time management people can reduce
stress. Effective time management and stress management are
inter-dependent. Time management includes planning, delegating,
organizing, and performing tasks as per schedule. Working against
deadlines can start to create stress in a person’s life over a period
of time. Stress management, deals indirectly with management as
time management is a measure to keep stress under control.
4. Techno-stress :
Technological innovations like mobiles, laptops and game
stations are adding to the stress levels of individuals. E-stress or
techno stress is a physical and physiological reaction to the
changing technological environment. Some clinical psychologists
have defined techno stress as any’ negative impact on attitudes,
thoughts behaviors, or body psychology caused directly or indirectly
by technology.

Coping strategies for stress:


Any high level of stress affects the individuals directly and
through him, his family and the organization. Therefore efforts
should be made to overcome the negative consequences, such
efforts can be made at two levels.

I. Individuals Strategies :
1. Physical exercise :
Physical exercise is a good strategy to get body fit and to
overcome stress. Physical exercises of different types such as
walking early in the morning, jogging, swimming or playing games.
2. Yoga :
Yoga is probably the most effective remedy for stress. Yoga
has been used in our countries for centuries. Several yoga
practices are useful to cope with the stress, such as Yogasans,
Shawasana, meditation and devotional session.
3. Relaxation :
Impact of stress can overcome by relaxation. The relaxation
can be simple one or some specific techniques of relaxations such
as biofeedback.
In biofeedback, the individual learns the internal rhythm of a
particular body process through electronic signals feedback that is
wired to the body area (For ex. Skin, brain or heart). From this
feedback, the persons can learn to control body process in
question.
4. Networking :
Networking is the formation of close associations with trusted
empathetic co-workers and collegous who are good listeners and
confidence builders, such persons provide mental support to get out
the persons from stressful situation.
II. Organizational Strategies :
Following are the organizational coping techniques and
efforts.
1. Supportive organizational climates :
Many of the organizational stressors emerge because of
faulty organizational processes and practices. To a great extent,
these can be controlled by creating supportive organizational
climate, supportive organizational climate depends upon
managerial leadership rather than the use of power and money to
control organizational behaviour. The foues is a participation and
involvement of employees in decision making process. Such a
climate develops belongingness among people which helps them to
reduce the stress.
2. Job Enrichment :
A major source of stress is monotonous and disinteresting
jobs being performed by employees in the organization. Improving
content factors such as responsibility recognition, opportunity for
achievement and advancement or improving core job
characteristics, such as skill variety task identity, tasks significance,
autonomy and feedback may lead to motivation, feeling sense of
responsibility and utilizing maximum capability at the work. Such a
phenomenon helps in reducing stress.
3. Organizational Role Clarity :
People experience stress when they are not clear about what
they are expected to do in the organization. This may happen
because either there is ambiguity in the role and there is role
conflict such a situation can be overcome by defining role more
clearly. Role analysis technique helps both managers and
employees to analyse what the job entails and what the
expectations are.

Emotional Intelligence :
To understand the concept of emotional intelligent, it will be
useful to have and idea of what emotions are. The word emotions
comes in the Latin words ‘motere’ which means to move. This
denotes that all emotions induce a desire act.
The oxford English dictionary defines emotional as agitation
or disturbance of a mind, feeling passion any excited mental state.
Definition : Daniel Goleman define emotions as feeling and its
distinctive thought psychological and biological stage and range of
propensities to act.

Evolution of Emotional Intelligence :


In 1983 a Harvard psychologists, Horword, Gardner,
proposed a model named multiple intelligence. In this model seven
kinds of intelligence were described out of these, two are different
from the usual skill related to intelligence like the verbal or
arithmetic skills. These skills were,
1. Social adeptness
2. Knowing one’s inner world.
These two skills were related more to emotions. This was a
major breakthrough in the study of distinction between emotional
capacities and the intellectual capacities of individuals.
In 1990, Dr. peter solovey of Yale University and Dr. John
Mayer of the university of new Hampshire coined the phrase
“emotional intelligence” They defied emotional intelligence as a
form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor ones
own and others feelings and emotions to discriminate among them
and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action.
Salovey and mayer identified four abilities and skills required for
emotional intelligence and catled them the four branches of
emotional intelligence, They were–
a) The ability to recognize emotions.
b) The ability to use emotions to assists thought process.
c) The ability to be aware of emotions.
d) The ability to manage the emotions.
These four abilities later came to be known as the four branch
model of emotional intelligence. The first branch involves the ability
to understand emotions from the facial expression and postures of
person. It involves the perception of emotions expressed through
non-verbal cannels of communication. The second branch involves
the ability to use emotions to assists the thought process. The 3rd
branch relates with the ability to be aware of emotions and
understand their likely development in due course and their
outcomes. The fourth branch relates to the ability of an individual to
manage emotions.

Maintaining Work life balance :


Work-life balance means a harmonious balance of work and
domestic life. It allows an employee to fulfill all the roles in his/her
life effectively and efficiently Researches have proved that
employees are at their best when they are contented and motivated
both at work and at home.
Achieving a work-life balance is not as easy as it seems. In
the corporate world, change is constant and imminent. The impact
of globalization has further fuelled these changes. The corporate
world signifies uncertainties, too many responsibilities, and long
work hours. These changes in the environment disturb the balance
between domestic and work-life of employees. The increasing
competition and demands of society further aggravate the situation.
All this adds up to stress.

Importance of Work life balance :


The corporate world is realizing the importance of the work-
life balance companies are realizing that the work-life balance of
employees has a threat effect on the productivity of their
organizations The importance of work-life balance is due to the
following reasons:
1. Changing social scene: In today’s world, maintaining work-life
balance is the greatest challenge employee’s face. Employees
have realized that the personal lives have an effect on their
work life. Hence, they are striving hard to maintain the balance.
2. Changing work culture: There is a shift in the organizational
work culture. Today’s work culture provides flexible work hours,
focus on results, and recognition of achievements. However,
this has made the workplace even more competitive as
employees are expected to always give their best, and this
leads to stress.
3. Increased work time: With globalization, organizations are
working 365 days 24 hours, and 7 days a week irrespective of
time zones. Businesses are focusing more and more on
customer care. With the coming of call centers, this focus has
doubled. The technology has added to the speed of work but
the workload remains the same.
4. Dual income families: The shift in attitudes, work styles, and
cultures has disturbed the work-life balance. Working mothers
have major responsibilities of managing both home and work
place. This makes it all the more important for them to balance
work and life. Organizations are helping women by providing
facilities like work from home, day care etc.

Benefits of Work.-Life Balance :


Achieving a work-life balance benefits both employers and
employees. While the employers get the benefit of productive and
active employees, the employees feel secure and loyal. It also
improves confidence, concentration, self-esteem, and loyalty
among the employees. The concept of work-life balance is still fresh
in India; Indian IT companies are probably the first ones to provide
a fun-work environment. Some companies are now investing in
recreational facilities at the worksite.
Steps to achieve work-life balance: To build up an awareness of
the importance of work-life balance in employees, companies
should conduct regular workshops and programs on work-life
balance.
The following measures have to be taken by employers: -
• Discourage employees from working late
• Take a regular employee satisfaction survey that can
identify the pitfalls in the work pattern
• Provide vacations and encourage employees to take
breaks
• Provide opportunities like work from home, flexi times.

Components of Emotional Intelligence :


Emotional intelligence is the capacity for recognizing our own
feelings and those of others, motivating ourselves and managing
emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships.
From these def. we can identify that emotional intelligence
has two major components.
1. Personal Competence
2. Social competence
A. Personal Competence :
Personal competence includes awareness of self i.e.
understanding one’s own emotions, feelings, drives, strengths etc
and management of self i.e. the ability to deal with the changing
situations. Personal competence helps the person to manage
his/her moods and emotions and channels them in a fruitful ways.
B. Social Competence :
Social competence includes social awareness and
management of relationships social awareness is the ability to
understand the feelings of others while management of relationship
is the ability to work effectively with other persons.
Topic – 2 - Managerial Effectiveness II

Creativity in Management :
According to Webster dictionary creativity means the ability to
create means to cause to come into existence to bring being give
rise took for the first time.
Creativity is the process which results into something’s new
coming into existence. Creative ability is the ability of an individual
to use new approaches to solve a particular problem. It is a result of
attitude and the thinking ability of an individual.
Creativity can also be defined as the way one approaches a
problems of a solutions. It depends on what an individual believes
and analysis, finally creativity is an the interaction between
opposing forces like learning and problems solving.
However there is the difference between two. An innovation is
a creative idea put into practice. It involves transforming a creative
idea into something that will enable others to use it while the goal of
creativity is to think beyond conventional ideas. Innovation is a
process where the result in defined. Creativity is a seeds of
innovations. There can be creativity without innovations but no
innovation is without creativity. The process of creativity involves
looking for solutions and ideas in the external envt.
On the other hand, the innovation process involves looking to
internal resources for implementing ideas.
For ex. A manager solving problems looks for various creative ideas
in the envt and then analysis the resources available to the
organization to act on the idea. This process produces an
innovative solution.

Stages of Creativity :
A creative manager put things from a new angle are very
keen observers and make unusual observations. They anticipate
opportunities challenges assumptions take adventurous decisions.
Creative managers break away from the conventional way for doing
seeing and analyzing things. A creative solutions involves and
original an new ideas which is used by the managers. The
following are the process of creative idea
development as four stages.
1. Exploring :
This stage involves identifying the possible courses of actions
for a given problem for situations in a company the manager should
identify what they have and want they haves. In this stage they
collect all available information’s about the situations including
contradictory and challenging information’s. This information is used
to define the problems and identify the areas that need focus. This
is an crucial stage in the creative process. Organization should
provide a creative envt which helps in exploring new ideas.
2. Inventing :
This stage involves searching for a variety of tools,
techniques and methods that might be helpful for thinking different
people different techniques to stimulate creative ideas.
For ex. One person may practice meditations which makes his/her
thinking clear and helps to generate creative ideas. A manager
uses techniques like brain storming and lateral thinking for coming
up with new solutions.
3. Selecting :
This stage involves the analysis of accumulated ideas and
information’s. The manager screens all the ideas in this stage. They
need to think without emotions and arrive at a creative solution.
Then they brings their ideas into existence. The ability of managers
to bring the ideas into existence depends on their knowledge of the
subject, intellectual curiosity, and independence of mind and
confidence.
4. Implementing :
The final stage of this creativity is implementation. Manager
decide how to put an idea into practice in this stage after an idea is
implemented feedback must be obtained on the utility of the idea
based on it, the idea should be modified to meet the requirement

Techniques of Creativity :
To be creative organization need to develop creative and
innovation oriented thinking at all levels. They have to identify key
creative and innovation area and lead changes and innovations and
to have a challenging visions of the future integrated with creative
and innovations. Creative thinking helps in effective problem
solving.
According to Pradeep Khandelwal the techniques of creativity
can be classified as under –
1. Problem decomposition techniques :
A business problems typically has different dimensions which
could political cultural and social. These techniques are used to
identify the variours dimensions of the problems and frame a
solutions that considers all of them. This techniques ensures that
the selected solutions are acceptable in a particular situations.
2. Information search techniques :
This techniques involves searching for information to solve a
problem. To resolve a conflict in an organizations. A manager can
gather information from the employees about their experience of
similar conflicts in the post. Information about such conflicts in their
personal lives can also be obtained since most of the conflicts that
arises in organizations can be related to conflicts that arise in
personal lives. Such information provides useful suggestions on
how these conflicts can be resolved.
3. Unblocking Techniques :
People have mental blocks that obstruct their thought
process. A fear of failure, fear of social disapproval a fear of
rejection by friends and relatives hamper the creative thoughts
process. These techniques involving enhancing, clarity of thinking
and generating creative ideas, by removing these mental blocks.
4. Mutual Stimulations :
This techniques involves information sharing about unusual
ideas among individuals. In these techniques individuals questions
each other’s assumptions and share information’s and ideas.
5. Ideating Techniques :
This techniques involves generating a large no of ideas. In
these techniques the emphasis is laid an quantity rather than quality
of ideas.
6. Dialectical Techniques :
This techniques is also known as demolitions techniques.
These techniques involve working back on the solution that has
been selected for implementation. It involves questioning the
feasibility (possible) of the selected solutions. These processes help
to identify the various fit falls (disturbance) and drawbacks in the
solutions.
7. Extremization Techniques :
This technique encouraging increasing employees to suggest
creative solutions that are different from conventional or regular
ones for certain unforeseen problems.
8. Fusion Techniques :
This techniques use various combination of ideas, including
those from unrelated areas to frame a creative solutions.
9. Techniques for breaking stereotypes Responses Techniques :
This techniques involves breaking the regular thinking pattern.
It involves questioning ones own assumptions.
10. Imaging Techniques :
This techniques involve visualizing problems and situation
downs to the minute details.
Non Verbal communication :
1. Kinesics :
Kinesics is related with body language. Body language is
differ from culture to culture and the body language of a particular
culture can be misunderstood in another culture.
For ex. In most Arab countries the thumbs up gestures is
considered to be offensive while in the west. It is considered sign of
good luck. Most of the Asian cultures for ex. are less incline to show
kinesics while southern and European use it far more.
2. Proximics : (Distance between person)
Proximics refers to the way in which people maintain a
physical distance from one another. People from low contexts
culture have tendency to keep a greater distance that people from
high context culture. But it does not apply south East Asian culture.
Which are high context people however preferring to maintain a
large distance of each others.
For ex. The Chinese find shaking hands is highly
uncomfortable while Northern European Countries interpret the tap
on the soldiers. German keep a larger personal space along them
approximately 6 inches more than North Americans do.
3. Appearance :
In the most Western societies suits and formal attire reflects
profession alism but this is not the case in all societies. In Arab
societies, ‘Ghutra’ might be preferred. A suit is required for business
purpose represent civilize behaviour.
4. Posture :
Postures means standing seating etc. The way one sits or
stands when interpreted together with other non-verbal behaviour
may lead to confusion in inter cultural sitting.
5. Eye Contact :
The use of eyes the process of communication is called as
‘oculesics’ in most western cultures direct eye contract symbolizes
listening and attention while it is seen as unfavourable.
For ex. Various (western) Asian Culture.
The interpretation of the length of eye contact also varies from
culture to culture. While eye contact may be aggressive in some
culture may be understood as being uninterested in others.
6. Paralanguage :
Paralanguage is also one of the subject to cross cultural
interpretation.
Ex. Talking to loud is interpreted as being aggressive or as a
sign of uncultured behaviour similarly the British may have speaking
softly, might be interpreted as secretive by Americans the speed of
talking also varies from culture to culture.
7. Symbolism :
Symbols and other forms of passive non-verbal common
interpreted in different ways in different cultures. In Chinese culture
symbolism is important with colors and numbers having special
meaning ouring the Chinese new year money should be given in
red envelops. Red is a lucky colour. Pink, yellow represents
happiness and the no-8 is the luckiest no. the color black and white
and blue and the no. 4 are associated with funerals / death Blue
stands for warmth in Holland represent death in Iran.
Coldness in Sweden and purity in India. Thus same colour
may have different meaning in different cultures numerical
symbolism is also treated differently in different cultures.
For ex. 13 no. is often associated with badluck in Christian culture
while in jewish.

Corporate Etiquettes :
1. Gift Giving etiquette in China :
Gift giving is an accepted customs in China but gift should not
be without a good reason. Gifts are to be given in pairs as the
Chinese ways of life gives importance to hormony. When a
business gifts is given may be considered bad manners. In China
cash as a gift should to be avoided and one should not be to thifty
while selecting a gift.
2. Gift Giving etiquette in Japan :
In Japan gift giving etiquette is an important aspect of
business etiquette. Expensive gift are common in Japan, but the act
of gifting is more important than the actual gift. While giving a gift to
a group it has to be ensured that all the members are present.
Individuals gifts give have been only for private. Giving a gift at the
end of business visit is normally appreciated in Japan.
3. Gift giving etiquette in Saudi Arebia :
In Saudi Arabia gift are give in intimate friends. The gifts may
be open in public and they should be of high quality. Gold and
Silver are not acceptable as a gift for men. Only the right hand has
to be use to give the gifts.
4. Gift giving in etiquette in Singapore :
In Singapore peoples may refuse the gift at first. So as not to
appear the greedy, when they accept the gift. One should express
happiness that they have accepted it. The country has strict rules
against bribery and govt. officials are not aloud to accept gift in any
form. Some of the appropriate gift chocolate from the home country.
5. Gift giving etiquettes in Italy :
In Italy the gifts given should be of prestigious brand and at
the same time small and not very expensive. Craft, wine from the
own country etc. are good choices. The gift should not be wrapped
in black and gold paper as these colors are associated with
mourning while purple color is associated with bad luck.
6. Gift giving in etiquette in Russia :
Russians like receiving and giving gifts. In expensive gift
should be avoided and it would be appropriate to have and gifts by
visiting the country. Flowers are to be gifted in add no buying vine,
chocolate, etc. are appreciated gifts.
7. Gift giving in etiquette in U. S. :
In the united states business gift are usually given after a deal
is finalized and gift are normally open immediately, those items that
get from the home country are the best gifts. The popular gift is
appreciated in the united state taking some one but for dinner or
any entertainment.
8. Gift giving etiquette in Brazil :
The Brazil gift should not be expensive as they may be
considered as brieps and may cause embracement. It is not
necessary to give gifts at the first meeting, and the persons can be
invited out for the dinner and this opportunity can be used to know
his/her tastes and preferences. A relaxed atmosphere is the best
time to give a gift in Brazilian.

SWOT Analysis :
SWOT anaylysis is one of the prime steps in strategic mngt.
Swot analysis is an acronym for strength, weakness opportunites
and threats. It is on extremely useful tool for understanding and
decision making for all sorts of situations in business. SWOT
analysis is also useful in business planning strategic planning,
competition, evaluation and soon. In other words, it is helpful in
drawing conclusions and action on those conclusion.
SWOT analysis of the Bangalore branch electric calmaker .

Reva :
Strengths :
1. Indians first and only battery operate electric car for city drive,
for those eco-conscious citizen who have a strong desire to
save blue planet.
2. Cheapest among electric operated cars in the worth with
unbeatable running costs as low as 40 per km.
3. Slim look comfortable driving small turner redious and easy
parking ideal for Bangalore roads.
4. Eyeing on global market already 600 Reva solh in London
and looking for market in other geographic areas in Europe.
5. Plans to expand production capacity release new models and
under take promotional activities.
6. Developed in 2005, a proto type of a two-seat roadster called
Reva NXG batteries linsteal of the conventional lean a
batteries.
Weakness :
1. Reva is underpowered when compared to a regular car.
2. Reva is overpriced at Rs. 2.5 lakhs particularly because
Maruti 800 with A C is cheaper.
3. Reva can carry 2 adults and 2 kids but Maruti 800 can carry
and adults with kids being stuffen in.
4. At Interab of 80 k.m. Reva needs changing and charging
points are not available an all roads.
5. Initially time and money was spent on technology and getting
the product right. Initial investment of 25 million mainly went
developing proto types. No funds were left for publicity and
branch building activities.
6. In last four years till end 2005 Reva sold only 1800 numbers
against a target of 6000 per anum.
7. Solely dependent on electric can unlike major global palyer
like GM, Toyoto and Forward.
Opportunities :
1. Lots of scope in a new world volts, amps and walts replace
bhp, rpm and exhaust times.
2. Tremendous potential for export and to ramp up production
volumes as Reva’s competitors price in 2 – 3 times higher in
Europe and North America.
3. Several sulosidis and conleniom have been extending to this
segment in UK sales and roan taxes are exempted so also
Palikir and congestim fees are waive.
4. Reva did enjoy a Rs. 1 lakh subsidy initially but was
discontinued later.
5. Reva still enjoys benefits like a lower excise duty of 8%
against 16% applicable to petrol and diesel tats.
Threats :
1. Several big player have already launched or have plans to
launch electric cars, posing entry barrier to penetrate overseas
markets. Pointer chryster has recently launched the electric version
of in city can called SMART.
The French auto major Axion has also launched in version of
similar car. GM, Nissan and Mitsubishi have announced that they
would be launched electric vehicles.
Reva’s target market house professional and college going
youth are not impressed by the car.

Cross-cultural Communication :
In a multicultural business environment, communication is
very crucial and can cause various misunderstanding if not handled
properly. Culture can result in mistakes that may confuse or even
offend the people with whom the organization intends to
communicate signs and language has different meaning in different
countries. The ‘OK’ symbol for instance has different meanings in
different countries. It symbolizes worthlessness in frame and money
in Japan it is, therefore, important to know the language, habits,
norms and etiquette of a country before doing business. Following
are the features to considered.
1. Objective :
Objectives of business communication are reaching an
agreement, signing a contract and solving a business related
problem managers have to thoroughly consider whether their
objectives are realistic in business environment what is considered
as a reasonable objective in one culture may not be considered
realistic in another culture. e.g. In the U. S. people usually believe
the they themselves are responsible for their destiny. In an Islamic
country, their may not be the case. In there countries people usually
tend to believe that it is God’s will and not human effort that
determines the outcome of something.
2. Style of Communication :
The right style of communication is important in business
interaction and it depends a lot on the culture of region. The
communication style depends partly on whether the addresses
make a high or low contribution in the communication process. In
culture in which there is more of a democrative style of functioning
the communication style can be more participative. In many African
countries tribes are more important than family or the country
knowing whether a culture is individualistic or collective helps a lot
in understanding what kinds of style of communication has to be
adopted.
3. Integrity :
Effectiveness of communication also depends a lot on the
integnity of the persons who are involved in the process of
communication. Some factors which determine the integrity of a
person include personal image or status, individual’s capability and
credibility. Image reflects how much a person wants to look like
another person and it varies to a great extent across cultures. For
eg. In UK a person from the upper class may get certain advantage
over a person from other classes. In Islamic countries, a man may
get more privileges than a women while in Asian countries like
Japan and Korea, an elderly person may get more advantages than
a younger one. In south America, family status is a factor which
gives credibility to a person.
4. Message :
Effective cross-cultural communication requires a manager to
present the message in a way that suits the other culture. eg.
standard paper size used in one country may be different from that
used in other country and this has to be kept in mind while sending
written message to managers of other cultures such issues may
have a significant effect on business. Even while giving
presentations there may be dissimilarities across culture.
e.g. the length of the presentation visual aids used and time
taken for the presentation may vary across cultures. In some
cultures the manage has to directly communicate in straight forward
manner while in others communicated in indirectly, while concluding
the discussion. The cultures of countries like Germany,
Switzerland’s and the US prefer direct communication over indirect
communication, while in countries like China and Japan indirect
communication in given more importance.
5. Language Barriers :
Language creates potential problem to manager’s intending to
enter foreign market. Some of the common language problems
across cultures occurs due to the differences in tones and
semantics. Tone can be formal or informal people in some cultures
may use a very informal tone of communication while people in
other cultures may use a very formal tone.
Topic – 3 International Relations

Introduction :
The term international was used for the first time by Jeremy
Bentham is 18th century with regard the lows of nations.
Consequently the term international relations were used to define
the official relations between sovereign state. There are broadly two
views regarding the meaning of international relations. Those who
take narrow view a the international relations include only the
official relations conducted by the authorized leaders of the state.

Policies of WTO
WTO is permanent institution. It is established in the year
1995 to serve its own purpose. Its activities are full and permanent.
Its rules are applicable to trade in marchandis and trade in services
and trade in related aspects of intellectual property. Its agreements
are almost multilateral. Its dispute settlement system was fast and
automatic.
The major policies of WTO are as under :
1. Agreement on agriculture :
Agreement on agriculture provides a framework for the long
term reform of agricultural trade and domestic policies over the
years to come, with, with the objective of introducing increased
market orientation in agricultural trade. It provides for commitments
in the area of market allen, domestic support and export
competition. The members have to transform their non-tariff barriers
like quotas into equivalent tariff measures.
2. Agreement on Manufactured Goods :
With respect to manufactured goods other then textiles ,
the developed countries agreed to reduce their tariffs by 40% to an
average of 3.8% from the UR level of 6.3%
3. Agreement on TRIMS :
The Agreement on trade related investment measures
(TRIMS) calls introducing national treatment of foreign investments
and removed of quantitative restrictions. It identities 5 investments
which are inconsistent with the GATT provisions on according to
nominal treatment and on general elimination of qualitative
restriction.
4. Agreement on TRIPS :
Agreements of trade related intellectual property rights sets
out the minimum standards of protection to be adopted by the
parties in respect of
i) copyrights ii) trade marks iii) geographical indications iv) industrial
designs v) patents vi) layouts vii) trades serest and the enforcement
for there.
5. Agreement on services :
The general agreement on trade in services provides a
multilateral framework of principles and services which should
govern trade in service under conditions of transparency and
progressive liberalization.
6. Dispute Settlement Body :
The dispute settlement body set up under WTO seeks to
provide security and predictability to the multilateral trading system.
It has now been made mandatory to settle dispute within 19 months

Function of WTO :
There are different functions of WTO
1. To lay down the subsequent code of conduct for aiming to
reduce the tariff barriers.
2. To provide the institutional framework for the administrative.
3. To provide the structure of administration.
4. To facilate the implementation.
5. Administration and fulfillment of the objectives.
6. To ensure the implementation of substitute code.
7. To act as a forum for the negotiation between the traders for
liberalization.
8. To co-operate with IMF and WB
9. To settle the trade related disputes.
10. WTO oversees the national trade policies of member
governemt.
Objective of WTO :
1. To ensure the reduction of tariffs.
2. To eliminate and discriminate the treatment of international
trade.
3. To facilate the higher standard of living.
4. Full employment.
5. Crowing the volume of real income and effective demand.
6. Increase in the production.
7. Trade in goods and services of member countries.
8. To make a positive effect to ensure the developing coutries.
9. Optimum use of resources.
10. To promote and integrate the durable trading system.
11. Multiple trading.
12. Effective demand.
Parle-G
Company Profile

About Parle
Parle Products has been India's largest manufacturer of
biscuits and confectionery, for almost 80 years. Makers of the
world's largest selling biscuit, Parle-G, and a host of other very
popular brands, the Parle name symbolizes quality, nutrition and
great taste. With a reach spanning even the remotest villages of
India, the company has definitely come a very long way since its
inception.
Many of the Parle products - biscuits or confectioneries, are
market leaders in their category and have won acclaim at the
Monde Selection, since 1971. With a 40% share of the total biscuit
market and a 15% share of the total confectionary market in India ,
Parle has grown to become a multi-million dollar company. While to
consumers it's a beacon of faith and trust, competitors look upon
Parle as an example of marketing brilliance.

History of the company


In 1929 a small company by the name of Parle products
emerged in British dominated India. The intent was to spread joy
and cheer to children and adults alike, all over the country with its
sweets and candies. The company knew that it wouldn’t be an easy
task, but they decided to take the brave step. A small factory was
set up in the suburbs of Mumbai, to manufacture sweets and
toffees. A decade later it was upgraded to manufacture biscuits as
well. Since then, the Parle name has grown in all directions, won
international fame and has been sweetening people's lives all over
India and abroad.
Apart from the factories in Mumbai and Bangalore Parle also
has factories in Bahadurgarh in Haryana and Neemrana in
Rajasthan, which are the largest biscuit and confectionery plants in
the country. Additionally, Parle Products also has 7 manufacturing
units and 51 manufacturing units on contract.
India is the second largest producer of biscuits in the world
after the U.S.A. but still the per capita consumption is only 2.3
kg/year of developed countries. As per the latest survey done by
N.C.A.E.R 49 biscuits are consumed in rural areas. The penetration
of biscuits into households stands at an average of 83.2% with the
rural penetration at 77% and urban penetration at 88%. Biscuits are
reserved for the small-scale sector but there are strong possibilities
of the industry being deserved in line with the government policy of
liberalization. The net effect thus would be greater choice for the
consumer as well as a check on the costs. The country production
of the biscuits during 2004-05 was 18.6 Lac tons of which 1/2 were
manufactured by the organized sector. The industry turn over was
5322.7 Crores of which organized sector contributed 2519.3 crores.

GROWTH AND PRESENT STATUS OF THE INDUSTRY


Biscuit industry in India in the organized sector produces
around 60% of the total production, the balance 40% being
contributed by the unorganized bakeries. The industry consists of
two large scale manufacturers, around 50 medium scale brands
and small scale units ranging up to 2500 units in the country, as at
2000- 01. The unorganized sector is estimated to have
approximately 30,000 small & tiny bakeries across the country. The
annual turnover of the organized sector of the biscuit manufacturers
(as at 2001-02) is Rs. 4,350 crores.
In terms of volume biscuit production by the organized
segment in 2001-02 is estimated at 1.30 million tonnes. The major
Brands of biscuits are - Brittania, Parle Bakeman, Priya Gold, Elite,
Cremica, Dukes, Anupam, Horlicks, Craze, Nezone, besides
various regional/State brands. The annual production of biscuit in
the organized sector continues to be predominantly in the small and
medium sale sector before and after dereservation.
The annual production was around 7.4 Lakh tonnes in 1997-
98 In the next five years, biscuit production witnessed an annual
growth of 10% to12%, up to 1999-2000.
The annual Growth showed a decline of 3.5% in 2000-01,
mainly due to 100% hike in Central Excise Duty (from 9% to 16%).
Production in the year 2001-02 increased very marginally by 2.75%
where in 2002-03 the growth is around 3%. However the average
utilization of installed capacity by biscuit manufacturers in the
country has been a dismal 60% over the last decade up to 2001-02.
Biscuit can he broadly categorized into the following segments:
 Glucose 44%
 Marie 13%
 Cream 10%
 Crackers 13%
 Milk 12%
 Others 8%.
As regards the consumption pattern is concerned. surveys
and estimates by industry from time to time indicate the average
consumption scenario in the four Zones have been more or less
close to each other, as below:
 Northern States: 28%
 Southern States: 24%
 Western States: 25%
 Eastern States: 23%
Biscuit Production According to the production figures of
members available upto the calendar year 2003, the total
production was 625000 tonnes as against 475000 tonnes in the
previous year. The production of biscuit for the last 11 years is as
under:
Year production Year production
1993 - 167750 1994 - 180526
1995 - 202567 1996 - 222371
1997 - 362000 1998 - 400000
1999 - 425000 2000 - 450000
2001 - 465000 2002 - 475000
2003 - 625000
Current status of the Indian snack & biscuits industry…
Biscuits contribute Rs 8,000 crore to the FMCG industry and
provide a vast opportunity for growth, s the per capita consumption
of biscuits is less than 2.1 kg in our country, as compared to more
than 10 kg in the US, UK and Europe and above 4.25 kg in South
East Asian countries. China has a per capita consumption of 1.90
kg, while in the case of Japan it is estimated at 7.5 kg. Higher
disposable incomes and the willingness of consumers to try new
brands have attracted a number of players to the biscuits industry,
both, at the national & local level and generated intense activity in
the marketplace. The branded market grew around 15-16 per cent
last year. Commodity inflation continues to have a significant impact
on input cost and this inflationary pressure has put industry profits
under pressure. The major Brands of biscuits are - Brittania, Parle
Bakeman, Priya Gold, Cremica, Dukes, Anupam, Horlicks, Craze,
Nezone, besides various regional/State brands.
Future of the industry
The bakery industry consumes agricultural produce adding to
the income of farmers. This is a direct contribution of the industry
towards improving the agricultural sector and strengthening the
rural economy. The industry also provides direct & indirect
employment, locally as well as nationally.
The industry faces serious challenges. Rapid increase in the
cost of major inputs such as wheat flour, sugar, oil, packaging
material, fuel, power, transportation, etc, has made a dent in the
viability of the industry. Added to this is the heavy burden of
taxation, which is making it difficult for the organised biscuits
industry to operate at an optimum level. Biscuits attract VAT at 12.5
per cent - like chocolates, confectionery and ice cream that cater to
a much smaller and relatively more affluent consumer base. Other
categories with lesser nutritional value like potato chips, jams,
jellies,sweets, savouries, namkeens, etc, attract less or no VAT at
all. Biscuits deserve parity with tea, coffee and other basic food
products that are liable to VAT at 4 per cent instead of being subject
to VAT at 12.5 per cent applicable to delicacies. This is restricting
the growth of the industry, utilization of agricultural produce and
therefore, larger revenues for the govern-ment. To create a level
playing field for an industry that is serving a large base of the
population both economically and from a nutrition & health angle,
there is a need to reduce VAT on biscuits from 12.5 to 4 per cent.

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION


ORIGIN OF THE ORGANIZATION
A cream colored yellow stripped wrapper with a cute baby
photo containing 10 – 12 biscuits with the company’s name printed
in Red and you know these are Parle G biscuits. Times changed,
variety of biscuits did come and go but nothing has changed with
these biscuits. Yes, the size of their packing has definitely changed
but for the consumers good as these are money savers pack. The
Parle name conjures up fond memories across the length and
breadth of the country. After all, since 1929 the people of India have
been growing up on Parle biscuits & sweets. Initially a small factory
was set up in the suburbs of Mumbai city, to manufacture sweets
and toffees. The year was 1929 and the market was dominated by
famous international brands that were imported freely. Despite the
odds and unequal competition, this company called Parle Products,
survived and succeeded, by adhering to high quality and
improvising from time to time.
A decade later, in 1939, Parle Products began manufacturing
biscuits, in addition to sweets and toffees. Having already
established a reputation for quality, the Parle brand name grew in
strength with this diversification. Parle Glucose and Parle Monaco
were the first brand of biscuits to be introduced, which later went to
become leading names for great taste and quality. For around 75
years, Parle have been manufacturing quality biscuits and
confectionery Products. Over the years Parle has grown to become
a multi million-dollar company with many of the products as market
leaders in their category. The recent introduction of Hide & Seek
chocolate chip biscuits is a product of innovation and caters to a
new taste, being India’s first ever chocolate-chip biscuits.
All Parle products are manufactured under most hygiene
conditions. Great care is exercised in the selection and quality
control of raw material and standards ensured at every stage of the
manufacturing process. Parle products have 4 manufacturing units
for biscuits and confectionaries at Mumbai, Haryana, Rajasthan and
Karnataka. It also has 14 manufacturing units for confectionaries,
on contract. All these factories are located at strategic locations, so
as to ensure a constant output & easy distribution. Today, Parle
enjoy a 40% share of the total biscuits market and a 15% share of
the total confectionaries market, in India. The marketing mix of
Parle for this project has been studied from the point to point view
of Parle biscuits; mainly Parle-G and Parle Hide & Seek.

PARLE G – THE EVOLUTION


Has been a strong household name across India. The great
taste, high nutrition, and the international quality, makes Parle-g a
winner. No wonder, it’s the undisputed leader in the biscuit category
for decades. It is consumed by people of all ages, from the rich to
the poor, living in cities & in villages. While some have it for
breakfast, for others it is a complete wholesome meal. For some it’s
the best accompaniment for chai, while for some it’s a way of
getting charged whenever they are low on energy. Because of this,
Parle-G is the world’s largest selling brand of biscuits. Launched in
the year 1939, it was one of the first brands of Parle products. It
was called Parle Glucose Biscuits mainly to cute that it was a
glucose biscuit. It was manufactured at the Mumbai factory, Vile
Parle and sold in units of half and quarter pound packs. The
incredible demand led Parle to introduce the brand in special
branded packs and in larger festive tin packs. By the year 1949,
Parle Glucose biscuits were available not just in Mumbai but also
across the state.
It was also sold in parts of North India. The early 50s
produced over 150 tones of biscuits produced in the Mumbai
factory. Looking at the success of Parle-G, a lot of other me-too
brands were introduced in the market and these brands had names
that were similar to Parle Glucose Biscuits so that if not by anything
else, the consumer would err in picking the brand. This forced Parle
to change the name from Parle Glucose Biscuits to Parle-G.
Originally packed in the wax paper pack, today it is available in a
contemporary, premium BOPP pack with attractive side fins. The
new airtight pack helps to keep the biscuits fresh and tastier for a
longer period.
Parle-G was the only biscuit brand that was always in short
supply. It was heading towards becoming an all-time great brand of
biscuit. Parle-G started being advertised in the 80’s. It was
advertised mainly through press ads. The communication spoke
about the basic benefits of energy and nutrition. In 1989, Parle-G its
released its Dadaji commercial, which went on to become one of
the most popular commercial for Parle-G. The commercial was run
for a period of 6 years.
Parle-G grew bigger by the minute. Be it the packs sold, the
areas covered or the number of consumers. It became a part of the
daily lives of many Indians. It wasn’t a biscuit any more. It had
become an icon. The next level of communication associated the
brand with the positive values of life Like honesty sharing and
caring. In the year 1997, Parle-G sponsored the tele-serial of the
Indian superhero, Shaktimaan that went on to become a huge
success. The personality of the superhero matched the overall
superb benefits of the brand. Parle extended this association with
Shaktimaan and gave away a lot of merchandise of Shaktimaan,
which was supported by POS and press communication. The
children just could not get enough of Parle-G and Shaktimaan.
In the year 2002, it was decided to bring the brand to the child
who is a major consumer. A national level promo – ‘Parle-G Mera
Sapna Sach Hoga’ was run for a period of 6 months. The promo
was all about fulfilling the dreams of children. There were over 5
lakhs responses and of that, over 300 dreams were fulfilled.
Dreams that were fulfilled ranged from trips to Disneyland at Paris &
Singapore; free ride on a chartered plane; 20 scholarships worth Rs
50,000; a special coaching etc… The year 2002 will go down as a
special year in Parle-G’s advertising history. A year that saw the
birth of G-Man – a new ambassador for Parle-G. Not just a hero but
also a superhero that saves the entire world, especially children
from all the evil forces. A campaign that is not just new to the
audiences but one that involves a completely new way of execution
that is loved by children all over the world-Animation.
To make the brand much more interesting and exciting with
children, it was decided to launch a premium version of Parle-G
called Parle-G Magix in the year 2002. Parle–G Magix is available
in two tastes. The year 2002 also witnessed the launch of Parle-G
Milk Shakti, which was the nourishing combination of milk and
honey, especially launched for the southern market. 2.2) Growth
and development of the organization Over the years, Parle has
grown to become a multi-million US Dollar company. Today, Parle
enjoys a 40% share of the total biscuit market and a 15% share of
the total confectionary market, in India. The Parle Biscuit brands,
such as, Parle- G, Monaco and Krackjack and confectionery
brands, such as, Melody, Poppins, Mango bite and Kismi, enjoy a
strong imagery and appeal amongst consumers. Then the Parle
representatives includes the production officer and the operation’s
head made students exposed to the production unit followed by the
manufacturing unit and packaging.
The extensive distribution network, built over the years, is a
major strength for Parle Products. Parle biscuits & sweets are
available to consumers, even in the most remote places and in the
smallest of villages with a population of just 500. The Parle
marketing philosophy emphasizes catering to the masses. We
constantly endeavor at designing products that provide nutrition &
fun to the common man. Most Parle offerings are in the low & mid-
range price segments. This is based on our cultivated
understanding of the Indian consumer psyche. The value-formoney
positioning helps generate large sales volumes for the products.
However, Parle Products also manufactures a variety of premium
products for the upmarket, urban consumers. And in this way,
caters a range of products to a variety of consumers. In nutshell,
the Parle name conjures up fond memories across the length and
breadth of the country.
Functional Departments of the Organization
• Marketing Department
• Finance Department
• HR & Personnel Department
• Production Department
• Engineering Department
• Quality Department
• R & D Department
• Sales & Dispatch Department

Parle-G
products
for over 65 years, Parle G has been
a part of the lives of every Indian.
From the snow capped mountains
in the north to the sultry towns in the
south, from freneticcities to laid
back villages, Parle G has
nourished, strengthened and
delightedmillions. Filled with the
goodness of milk and wheat, Parle
G is not just a treat for the taste
buds, but a source of strength for both body and mind. Tear over a
packet of Parle G to experience what has nourished Generations of
Indians since last sixty five years, making it truly Hindustan Ki
Taakat. Various people have various reasons to consume it, some
consume it for the value it offers while others consume it for sheer
taste, For some it is a meal substitute for others it is a tasty healthy
nourishing snack. Patronised by millions for all this qualities, it is
much more than just a biscuit brand. Little wonder than why is it the
Largest selling Biscuit brand in the World.
Pack Sizes available:
19 G, 44 G, 44 G, 66 G, 93.5 G, 231.5 G, 346.5 G, 400 G, 462 G,
576.5 G, 935 G (Packed), 935 G (Loose)

1. Krackjack crispy creams


Krackjack Crispy Creams is a delicious
combination of crispyness of Krackjack
and sweetness of cream biscuit. The
classic sweet and salty taste gets laced with a sweet & sour lime
flavor in the cream sandwiched between
2. Krackjack biscuits.
A mouth watering delicious combination!
Packet Size 90G
3. Krackjack Cookies (new)
Krackjack - The original sweet and salty biscuit is one of the most
loved biscuits in the country. It’s not just a biscuit, it’s the taste of
relationships captured in a biscuit. A little sweet and a little salty
crafted in such a delicate and delicious balance, you can never get
enough of it. Have it anytime you like with anything you like.
Packet Sizes available: 75 G, 120 G, 240 G
4. Monaco
Share the company of great taste anytime, anywhere with Monaco.
A light crispybiscuit sprinkled with salt, Monaco
adds a namkeen twist to life’s ordinary moments.
Pack Sizes available: 75 G, 120 G, 240 G
5. Milk Shakti
From boy-next-door to Super Boy, no that’s
not the plot for the next Hollywood blockbuster
it’s the effect of Milk Shakti. The Shakti of milk
fortified with the goodness of honey, a zabardast
combo that even ace batsman Dhoni swears by. So get that cape
out and head straight to for a pack of Milk Shakti today.
Packet Sizes available: 75 G, 150 G
6. Creams
Orange Tickle your senses with Parle
Orange Kream – The tangy orange
cream between two scrumptious
biscuits makes for a real treat. Age
no bar!
Packet Sizes available: 90 G, 180 G
7. PARLE 20-20
Parle presents 20-20 Cashew and butter cookies where every
cookie is baked to perfection to deliver the perfect taste and aroma.
A mouth-melting experience of premium cashews and rich butter in
every bite you take, Parle’s new 20-20 cookies promises a
combination of crunch and scrumptious delicacy.
Packet Sizes available: 75 G, 110 G, 225 G
8. Parle Marie Melody
Your favourite Marie biscuit, Parle Marie is now even more
exciting. It’s lighter. It’s crispier. And it’s tastier. Making it even more
appealing than before. So the next time you’re hanging out with
your buddies, just tear open a pack of Parle Marie. And immerse
yourself in an engaging conversation and an even more engaging
taste
Packet Sizes available: 88 G, 176 G, 347 G, 400 G
9. Hide and Seek Milano
The ingredients that go into making this prized
cookie are a well-guarded secret. What is the effect
it has on those who eat it? A cookie with a
reputation for romance. Indulge in the sinful taste of
Milano and everything that follows it.
Packet Sizes available: 65G, 100 G, 135 G
10. Namkin
A crispy cracker that adds a namkeen zing to
the usual biscuit. Goes well with a cup of tea, an
evening snack or an occasional namkeen thought.
Just bite in and let the rich golden texture melt in
your mouth.
Packet Sizes available: 75 G, 150 G
11. Digestive Marie
Digestive Marie will change your daily dipping and sipping
routine; making it more enjoyable and much healthier. With five
times more fibre than the regular Marie, you can actually see the
differences in Digestive Marie. With lower fat and calories than
other digestive biscuits, Digestive Marie helps you stay Active-Lite
all day. Yahi Marie, Sahi Marie!
Packet Sizes available: 25 G, 50 G, 100 G, 200 G
12. PARLE Confectioneries
Right from candies to toffees, the sweet 'n' treat category of
the Parle product range is a genuine treat for every snack lover.
This category can satisfy one's taste and at the same time create a
desire for more. These confectioneries are a sheer delight to the
taste buds and have a universal appeal. Parle Biscuits and
confectioneries, continue to spread happiness & joy among people
of all ages.
13. Melody
Caramel meets chocolate to yield an
outcome nothing less than delectable. arle
Melody comes with an irresistible layer of caramel
on the outside and a delightful chocolate filling within. Pop it in your
mouth and relish the unique experience. It won’t be too long before
you find yourself asking the age old question ‘Melody itni chocolaty
kyon hai?'
14. Orange Candy
Small. Oval. Orangee. We’ve kept it simple
with the Parle Orange candy. And for over 50
years this deceptively simple candy has kept the
taste buds of the entire nation in a flurry. The first
product to be launched from the House of Parle
and clearly, one that’s been a hit ever since.
15. Kaccha mango bite
The glider got copied and
became a jet plane.
Western hits got copied
and became Anu Malik songs. The typewriter got copied and
became a keyboard. Similarly, we have managed to copy the tangy
flavour of raw mangoes in a candy which is a little sour, a little
sweet and certainly a little mischievous. We call it Kaccha Mango
Bite. It truly is a ‘kacche aam ka copy’
16. Kismi TOFFEE
It’s everything that the Kismi Toffee Bar is, only
smaller. Wrapped in the distinct flavour of
elaichi (cardamom) this toffee is sure to send
your sweet tooth on a joyride.
17. Mango bite
Need a quick escape from everything ordinary? Just pop a
Mango Bite and dive into a tropical mango paradise. Sit back, roll it
around and enjoy one wave after another of juicy mango treats that
go on and on and on. Usage instruction: A juicy goli best enjoyed
Slowly.
18. KISMI GOLD (NEW)
Romantically sweet indulgence is what comes to the mind
while talking about the all time favourite Parle Kismi. After
romancing with everyone’s senses for over two decades, Parle
Kismi is now even better and even more romantic. With a perfect
blend of Caramel & Elaichi, the new Parle Kismi Gold is bound to
take romance to an entirely different level and make it more
irresistible than ever before. Have one to experience romance at its
best.
19. POPPINS
Give the orange to a friend and the mango to a stranger. Or try the
lemon for a neighbour and the strawberry for a teacher. Give the
black currant to the school bus driver and the pineapple to anyone
else you please. With so many flavours in each pack of Poppins,
you will have only one
20 PARLE Snacks
Salty, crunchy, chatpata and crispy caters to the bunch of
Parle snacks. You can now treat your loved ones with this yummy
lot. Parle snacks are a complete delight to the taste buds and can
create the desire for more and more. These snacks will not only
satisfy your tummy but will also sustain a feel in your mouth to
associate you with the bond of Parle.
21. BITES CHEESLLINGS
Like cheese? Then you'll just love the light crispy taste of
Monaco Bites Cheeslings. Tiny crispy squares dipped in cheese
that'll instantly melt in your mouth. Makes for a perfect snack
anytime, anywhere.
Pack sizes available: Cheesling - Jar - 175 G, 350 G
Cheesling Tin - 3.75 Kg
22. MUST BITTES (new)
Try as you might, you just can't resist the temptation of Musst
Bites. A snack pack with a dangerously addictive taste, Musst Bites
is the latest addition from the House of Parle. Available in a range
of flavours like chatpata chaat, mast masala, tangy tomato and
green spice, this snack is sure to keep you munching all day.
Pack sizes available: 30 G, 60 G
23. MUSST STIX
Variants:-
MASALA MUNCH
JAPANESE ZATKA
SAAMBAR SWEET
CHILLY CHATPATA CHAT
Pack sizes available:
35 G, 75 G
24. SIXER
Think Square is boring? Then what you need is a Sixer. This
six-sided, salted delight cuts out the boring from a biscuit. A unique
shape coupled with an equally unique crunchy, munchy, salty taste
that leaves you asking for more!
Pack sizes available: Sixer Jar - 200 G; Sixer Tin - 5 Kg
Market profile of the organization
It’s a brand that has held its price line at Rs 4 for 25 years
now -- the price was last raised in 1994 by 25 paise. So, it's not for
nothing that Parle-G is the world's largest-selling biscuit by
volumes. Parle is, of course, not doing it for charity. Soaring input
prices meant it opted for reducing the weight of the biscuit than
increasing the price -- first from 100 gm to 92.5 gm in January 2008,
and then to 88 gm in January this year -- in line with other biscuit-
makers and FMCG players. It has 1600 crore turnover.
Parle-G enjoys close to 70 per cent market share in the
glucose biscuit category and probably has the deepest reach. It
reaches 2.5 million outlets, including villages with a population of
500 people, on a par with Unilever's Lifebuoy, ITC's cigarettes or
mobile pre-paid cards. It reaches 2.5 million outlets, including
villages with a population of 500 people, on a par with Unilever's
Lifebuoy, ITC's cigarettes or mobile pre-paid cards. It's also one of
the few FMCG brands in the country, whose customers straddle
across income segments. The brand is estimated to be worth over
Rs 2,000 crore (Rs 20 billion), and contributes more than 50 per
cent of the company's turnover (Parle Products is an unlisted
company and its executives are not comfortable disclosing exact
numbers). Last fiscal, Parle had sales of Rs 3,500 crore (Rs 35
billion).
Competition has, of course, been trying to wean away
customers from Parle. Britannia relaunched its Glucose-D biscuit as
Tiger in 1995 and boasts of 17-18 per cent share, while ITC's Sun
feast glucose has captured 8-9 per cent, according to industry
sources. Even Levers had forayed into this segment in 2003 and
launched a glucose biscuit branded as Modern, after it acquired the
bakery business of Modern. There are strong regional brands,
including Priya Gold (west), Cremica (north) and Anmol (east).

Annual Production
The organized biscuit manufacturing industry‘s annual
production figures show YOY growth indicating rising consumption
pattern in India. Annual Production Figures in Million Metric Tonnes
The Retailers
Trade schemes:
These are undertaken by the company only for the hard selling
items e.g. Busicts and Snacks etc. for these the company raises the
margins by 2%, also schemes like good packaging incase of butter
and cheese is undertaken by the company. However this is only a
shortterm initiative to push the products of the company.
Glow boards:
The company puts up glow boards at the retailer and pays the
major portion of the cost.
Schedule of the salesmen:
They provide the retails with this schedule so the retailers can pre
estimate the quantities of the various products needed.
Infrastructure facilitation:
The company facilitates the retailers to buy beautiful stalls by
formulating an easy payment program and a commitment to buy
back the equipment at a reasonable price when the value of the
equipment has depreciated.

CONFLICTS AND CO-OPERATION AMONG CHANNEL MEMBERS


Conflicts
Ownership of assets:
Previously the company used to give the products on lease to the
retailers, when the company wanted the stuff back; the retailer
disagreed to comply and created issues of ownership.
Stocking issues:
The company doesn’t want the retailers to stock the competing
brand in the company leased stall, which at times s hard to manage
as retailers tend to do it often.
Replacement of products:
The deterioration in the product calls for fail in replacement by the
company this major issue of vertical conflict.
Credit policy:
Compared to the market, the company’s credit period is less that
specially incase of institutional sales is very important.
Packaging:
The channel members for easy storing demand a better quality of
packaging.

Replenishment:
The replenishment of the stocks is not prompt in case of Parle
cheese Biscuit and all hard selling items.
Margins:
The Company provides least margins to all the channel members.
For e.g. The retailer’s margin in case of butter is 8% as compared
to Britannia’s 12%

Co-operation among channel members


Parle quality circles:
The members of the local channel meet together every month
to share issues and the achievements of the channel members.
This is an ongoing activity facilitated by the company offices in
different locations; this enables the channel members to learn
together and reduces the horizontal conflicts among the WDs.
Pilot salesmen scheme:
To reduce the financial burden of the distributors this scheme
is run whereby half the cost of the salesmen is born by the
company and the rest half by the distributor
Scheduling of sales:
The WD’s provides Schedule of the distributor’s sales men to the
retailers so that the retailers can plan out and place the orders in
advance.
Agreement defining rights:
The company makes the distributors sign an agreement
where the areas of operation for each of the distributors are
defined, therefore avoiding any conflict amongst the distributors
regarding their areas of operation.
OBJECTIVES:-
In any research there are always two types of objectives
which differ with type of management. These two research
objectives are following……….
a) Management objective
b) Research objectives
Research objectives are always of two types i.e. primary research
objectives and secondary research objectives.
MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVE:-
Here the ultimate and sole objective of the management is to
satisfy the consumer with increased sales and for that they want to
know that what are the specific qualities and attributes of the
products which are critical for any consumer.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES:-
Primary research objective for any research team is always
single and is always based on the management objective.
Here the primary
research objective for the research team is
“ To determine the effective attributes of products which
affects the consumer buying behaviour “
Secondary research objectives are the descriptive form of
primary research objective or we can say that in this step primary
research objectives are broken down into secondary research
objectives. Here secondary research could be as follow…
a) Brand choice
b) Dealer choice
c) Purchase timing
d) Purchase quantity
Based on all these objectives a researcher can explore
consumer preference he can also illustrate the factors affecting
secondary objectives. Brand choice shows that based on what
factor a consumer makes his brand choice. These factors could be
qualities of products etc.
Dealer choice of a consumer explores that based on what
factors a consumer makes his dealer choice. Here regular
availability could be one of the important basis. Purchase timing
and purchase quantity explores that how much product should be
available to the dealer shop at a particular time.

Awards
Parle products have been shining with the golds and silvers
consistently at the Monde Selection ever since they were first
entered in 1971. Monde Selection is an international institute for
assessing the quality of foods and is currently the oldest and most
representative organization in the field of selecting quality foods
worldwide.
Product strategy
• Product mix
• Quality
• Consistency
• Brand : quality, health, taste
• Product life cycle
• Packaging and labeling
Packaging and Labeling
• Packaging :
• Wax coated packaging to bi-axially
• oriented polypropylene paper
• Packaging cost 10paise/unit
• Different sizes :
• 25gms, 44gms, 93.5gms, 231gms,
• 462gms, 577.5gms, 1kg

Labeling :
• Contents of product, nutrition facts,
• Feedback, packaging date
Pricing strategy
Appeal to all income groups Low and mid range price segments
Value for money Strict cost control at every point in supply Chain
International pricing Complete excise exemption for biscuits up to
50/kg

How Parle-G maintained its price of Rs.4.00 for the last 25 yrs?
low profit margin decrease in weight per biscuit Bulk purchase
of raw material Reduced wastage- 1% of the 115 tones Increased
productivity Availability in remote places available in Re 1,Rs 2, Rs
4 to Rs 25 packet 100g pack costing Rs 4 has net weight of 93.5g
from Jan’2008

PROCESS OF BISCUIT
PRODUCTION:-
· Raw Material testing · Mixing
· Moulding · Baking
· Cooling · Packaging

Conclusion :
“Parle-G Pvt. Limited” is one of the India’s oldest biscuits and
Confectionaries Company, Parle-G products includes Parle-G Hide and
seeks Parle-G krackjack etc. I like Parle-G products also I am using these
products and it helps to fit my health, so that I can take active part in every
field. A Parle-G biscuit in very useful for small children’s which give
them energy.
In simple words, “we come to conclusion that Parle-G is a multi
national company. No one company is as great as Parle-G Company. We
have also visited the Sinhgad Institute of Information Technology
Lonavala. They have arranged the guest lecturers and have given valuable
information regarding M.B.A. courses and other management courses.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reference Books :
1. International Business - P. Subbarao
2. Exporter Manual and Documentation - Nabhis Publication

3. Managerial Effectiveness - ICFAI


Magazines :
M. B. A. Preview – ICFI University Press
Websites :
1. www.parleproducts.com