Toward More Consistent Pipe Stress Analysis
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Toward More Consistent Pipe Stress Analysis
Copyright:
Attribution NonCommercial (BYNC)
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Als PDF, TXT herunterladen oder online auf Scribd lesen
Toward more consistent
pipe stress analysis
Presented are some guidelines in applying stress
intensification factors to piping weight loading and small
branch connections. It is hoped this information will
alleviate the controversy and lead to standardization
LC, Peng, Consulting Engineer, Houston
Ixy Metis nxstaw msroRy, 1955 is a monumental year.
Ins that year the stress range concept was formally recog
ied by the Code for Pressure Piping? as the basis for
rating Uerinal expansion stress. Although the code
ren expanded and clarified aver the years, there
are stifi unsettled arguments regarding application of the
code in certain areas. Tywo areas where inconsistencies still,
exist are stress intensification factors for weight and
thse stesely fondings and stress intensification factors
for small branch connections. ‘These areas will explored
along, with suggestions for applying the code.
© Stress intensification factor for woight and other
steady loadings. The stress intensification factors given
in the code are intended for flexibility analyses. No
specific intensification factor for weight and occasional
loadings is mentioned in the Chemical Plant and Petro
eum Refinsry Piping Code.t Due to this tacit position
of the code, piping designers are divided in actual prac
tice, Some designers will apply the code stress intensficas
tion Factors io all catogories of loads, while many other
Gesigners tcncl to ignore the stress intensification factors
muiplotely in steady lend analysis, One component acx
ceptable to one designer can be rejected by others due
to different opinions in the interpretation,
Hyononannon Processive
May 1979
© Small branch connections, The stress intensifica
tion factors given in the code for branch connections are
derived from full size branch connections, These factors,
although applicable to small branch connections, can
become excrisively conservative for sinall connections on
big pipes. Because of the apparent_overconscrvatism,
designers offen ignore stress intensification factors at
small branch connections. However, practices are never
stent. For instance, it is ensy to sce that the stress
tion due toa %inch connection can be ignored
in the analysis of 20.ich header, but for a 3einch cone
nection, the factors to apply will differ among designers.
Stress intensification factors
given in the code for branch
connections can be too
conservative for small
connections on large pipes
207TOWARD MORE CONSISTENT PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS
Fig, St
hing a bar with 3 smati naio
‘These two examples are related to the application of
stress intensification factors. Apply or not to apply very
often means several times difference in the allowable loads,
‘These are determined solely by designers’ personal pri
ferences and inclinations. A more consistent approach
needs to be developed and adopted.
STRESS iNTENSIFICATION
When a structural member i siretched, stress in the
main uniform section can norznally be caleulated by sim
ple formulas, but the stress in a locally notched or sti
fened discontinuous section is either very complicated or
impossible to calculate. For practical design purpose,
stress at the discontinuous section is estimated by applying
2 stress intensification factor over the siress calculated
at the main uniform section, ‘This stress intensification
can be derived theoretically or determined by test.
At a structural discontinuity, stress intensification can,
be quite different for different types of loading, Big. 1
shows a long rectangular bar with a small hole iu che
middte of the section. At Section AA outside the influenice
of end fixtures and the hole, the stress isuniforinly
tributed at a magnitude of S=F/(bt}. But at Section
BB, due to discontinuity in strain flow, the stress is un
evenly distributed. A maximum stress, Sua, of about three
times the uniform sterss occurs.at the edges of the hole.
‘The stress decreases very rapidly at points away from the
edge of the hole. Theoretically, the hole has created a
stress intensification fnctor of three, but its signifiéance
is different for diferent materials.
Por a brittle material such as glass, the hole will degrade
the bar to onethied its original strength because it fails
5 soon as the maximum stress reaches fellure stress. Piping
materials, on the other hand, an: normally very ductile,
rand 2 considerable ameunt of yielding takes ince before
the member fails. With ductile materials the stress ine
rensiication needs to be interpreted in two different
categories, namely steady and cyclic.
Steady loading. Under steady loading the highly tocal
ied stress concentration: will be redigtributed to the at
Jaoent urea once the local stress reaches the yield point,
Eventwally the load will spread evenly to the whole cross
section hefore the Dar falls "Phe innportant stress is the
sibow 1 ier bene
Equtvaent
4) bows
Fig. 2—Equivelent elbows
rodistributed stwess prior to the failure, Since the se
distributed stress is casentially the averaye stress, the stress
intensification factor for steady loading is
es ee my
Fi] (bya To = ai }
which is entirely due to reduction of tke erowsectional
area,
Cyclic loading, Under cyclic lowding the member fails
dus to fatigue. Since the primary measure of fatigue faite
tre is the local strain range per cycle, redistribution of
stress due to plastic How is not very iniportain, Therefore
the stress intensiReation factor Jor cyclic lending is
ie Soup 2
which is the measure of the mmtsineuns focal stain. Siar
is the maximum equivalent elastic sires futher than the
actual stress.
Elbow stress intensification factor. In piping stress
analysis, the elbow sins intensification factor i particu
larly Important not only because the elbow ednstitutes a
major portion of the system but als ixcause it i the
basis for deriving the stress intensification fietor for other
component shapes. For instance, Markl succesfully used
elbow analogy to correlate his fatigue test results on tees
and initer fends, Using the eqnivalent elbows as shown
in Fig. 2 and making adjestments for actuat crotch radi
and thickness, a set of stress intensifieation factors was
constructed using a single Rexibility characteristic para.
meter, . A detailed discussion on elbow characteristics
is denoficial in undessiandiag the werd of all
components. « .
‘An clbow behaves very dillerently from a stiaiyht pipe
in resisting bonding moments, When a straight pipe is
bent, its erosesection remains cheular and stress itereases
finearlywith distance [rom the neutrul axis, Hoavever,
when ap elbow is beet as showa in hig. 3, the cross
section deforms to an oval shape, This evaiization is doe
to Joss rigidity at extreme Abers in the tangential to
direction, and less energy being weeded for the elbow 10
assume an oval shupe tian to maintain a cirear cross
section, Top and bottom portions of the pipe wall simply
duekte in to escape froin carrying diet” proper share. sectlan ren. Congitaial
‘tresees
Fig, 3Stress doformation of an elbow
of the lad. The bending moment is resinted essentially
by the shaded effective section, ‘The, magnus stress
point is shifted from Point A to the effective exireme
Point B. As the erossscetion ovals, a loca bending stress
is also produced around the circumference, ‘The maximura
circumferential stress occurs at Point @ where the radius
of curvature Is the smallest,
Mathematically the maximum longitudinal stress and
ciewmsferential stress can be calculated by using the
following stress intensification factors:
= owas .
aon } inplane bending (3
Be = 1.001%
We iSOphYS
‘The experimentally measured distributions of the
longitadinal and circumferential stresses of a_$0inch
pipe elhow subject to inplane bending’ are shown in
Pig. Masimisn circumferential stress is normally greater
than the maximum longitudinal suess, However, the
nature of the tn stresses is quite different. The lengi
tudinal stress is a membrane stross working directly against
he manent, wily the circumferential stress isn. skin
bonding stress resulting from local deformation.
outsplane beading {4}
Code stress intensification factors. The stress in
tnsifcation factors given ia the cadet are intended for
izeraal expansion and other displacement loads. The
ature of thermat expansion foad is different from that
of weight and other sustained Toads. Thermat expansion
is selflimiting, {¢ is a strain controBed bading such that
cover the strain reaches a paint large enough to com
pomsate for the expansion, growth stops regardless of
the actwl stress ceveloped in the system, Tt can not
mally cause any structural damage in one single appl
(ion, but aa cause fatigue failure through repeated ox.
pansion and contraction cycles. ‘Therefore, for evaluating,
final expansion, the strass intensifeation factor is de
lermined hy thr ritio of the steess causing faihure over a
given amber of eyeles in a straight pipe to the stress
causing fale at a component subject to an equal nutr
bor of stress aycles, Code stress intensification factors are
suress intensification factors in which
the loval pene strass is governing.
Hyorocannon Processing May 1979
Theoretically these intensifications ure equal to the
maximum stress intensification existing in any region and
direction within a component, In an elbow, for instance,
the circumferential stress intensification factors 1.80/4%
and 150/k¥ for inplane and outofplane bendings,
ively, should be used. However, intensive fatigoe
ious componcnts* have shown that by using
unity as the fatigue life of girth welded or clamped pipe,
the effective stress intensification factors of elbows in
bending fatigue were about half the theoretical value,
By dividing the theovetical factor by two, the code stress
intensification factor for elbows is as fellows
Inplane stres intensification factor
i = 0.90/18" (3)
Octofeplane stress intensifiention Sactor
75) 6)
“The stress intensification factors for other components are
derived by using elbow analogy correlated with test
esalts,
STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS
FOR WEIGHT AND OCCASIONAL LOADS
No stress intensification facior is explicitly stated in
the Chemical Plant and’ Petroleam Refinery Piping Code
for weight and occasional fonds. Weight and wind are
ustained Ioadings, They are not selflimiting, and always
reqqire a static equilibrium between the stress developed
in the componcat and the load applied. Once yield point
ox collapse load is reached, the component will fail
rogardleis of the amount of deformation that has occurred.
‘Therefore, the stress to be considered in weight and other
sustained Toadings should possess the following charac
teristios:
W The stress is in a dincetion directly agninst the
loading. Oniy the stresses acting npuinst the load ate
Inadlacarrying stresses
D> ‘The stveas is the average stress weress Ue wall thick
ness. ‘The average stiess is actually the remaining stress
‘available for external equilibrium alter the fteyaal mu
tual cancellation.
Theory and experiment indicate
the same code stress
intensification factors intended
for flexibility analysis should
be used in weight, occasional and
other sustained load analyses
209TOWARD MORE CONSISTENT PIPE STRESS “ee iS
Tnhesent roundenouse streseatrain cure of the neti
ot which flattuns the joaddeflection curve at an eu
BE stage
Be STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS
B FOR SMALL BRANCH CONNECTIONS
B§_ The code stress intensifieation [actors Jor tees and
AE y branch connections were derived from fullsized bra
8 conneetions. In applications wher the branch sine ch
soualler than the ra ze, application of these fasors es
4 be geesdy too conservative Alehovgl ase No. 53
G which wat subsequent incorporated in the oxi, peo:
vided some relief to the brancl itsel, is dic) aothiny «
as relieve the moment toad transfered through the run
pine. Therefore, when it comes to the
Se practice is co eompletely Tynore the vexy malt
$ branches which ave defined eather arbitracily by indivie
dual designers,
Basically, the present eve re es that unifora sizes
intensification factor be used for wonets acting boll
u Uhrowgh thy brane and dough the ran. Bor educed
outlet the section modulus used in cleterntining: branch
Fig ¢Varston of stace stand tm siounfonrce of en ste «on or sale llevtise besa
eliow with a SOrnch OD, OStsMnch wall anda dénch bend ¥ instead) of the actual thiekuess, “Vie effective brich
redius. thickness, 1, 38 the loser of mus shiekwess, ‘T, anni Ue
SS product of oatofplane stress istensilicutiva wad branch
BY thickness Gy. In ather words, dhe sinese éstessibication
Foon these ‘wo crtetia and referring #0 Fig. 4 je ean g§ BUCA On rans wetion mnduhes scr be seccetl by
on these we cuttin ad refering to Figs 4 i can Ee aeter of THT for mowvents aetrg through batch. These
for weight and other sestained toads should be appronis 28 8 il no relaxation given to te moments canvied steaight
mately equal to the fongitucinal stress intensification. The $y HouRE the run pipe
higher intensification in the ciccuncerential direction is 8S Empirically, the stress intensifietion. factor for a 0s
not important here, because it is not in the loading direc. ¥¥olpane bending moment applied te the branch pipe
tion and has very seoall average stress fen bbe expressed ast
Since the stressraising factor in a girth weld will not = epstesins in
significantly affect due loadcasryiey capieity, the theore oe ATC iry
tical stress intensification. factors shanon ie Eqausions oe ee
Sand 6 can be used direcdy wwen in Flerence 1 girth seuupt for the {z9/0)'2* enn, Ration 9 is as exter
welded ype, Ry epaing Hato 3, 49 aud 6 kee, of cade eequinanants ‘Tho teow Ate? 3%
is clear that the corte stress inteusification Tactors ean also #8 Oke code stress intensification factor wilh A= 0.535
be used for weight and other sustained loadings without — fr: welding lev and sv fort, and (1.72 is the ell
losing much aces facior stipulated in Coxe Case No. 98,
Fe aE RS at deductions wl e {Ta/T} factor hus been inetulel ie tie code
hese are purely inatheitical deductions which net aig af vffective hanch wall Wickes, i ean be
to be substantatat by experiaents. The stress intensifcae — Gefivion of tfective braces wall Yee. it a
ton tcasure of a component subject to a sustained toads SW uPYEE lors ie equation. By yearauiging The eaiition,
ing is its collapsing strength, Bolt and Greeustrest? have We Pave
made substantial tests ia deterntining the collapse loads
far elbows. Schroeder,’ on the ather hand, has done the %
fame for branch eamecsions. Some of Acie te Peale
are somimarized in Table 1. Pe elbow collapse momenss where i is the code strrss intensification:
show in the table ace taken at the center of elbow — the effective thieksis. factor, Equation 10
are radier than at whe loading end of elbow edge as in used for moments acting tirmagh the
Literate cited 6, The code stress intensification factors equation can serve ss « gvadlual transition from
for the tested spocia) ees ace ealculated by assundoy a gaileis to sinall connections.
square veinforciny, pad having « diagonal dimension the
same as the throat dintcusion of the crotch sadivs, CONCLUSIONS
From Table 1, Cis apparent that the stress Garvently there is ro explicie statement ithe Cea
intensification factors sw eupresoated by Myf. are very Plant and Petroleum Piping Code evquiving Hse applica
close to the code stwss invensifieation factows
eyule loadin arger factor experiences: sustained fond analyses, Application of te isetons is
by the stainlese stew! etbow sippeans ter be eaused by thi therefore determined by the desigs speeifieatinn: prepared
Cieeuntaraaal eves Lengiudinal svess
Ouines surtace
4 80
= se eurace
Avwrage
i
Mi
Sivazs Intenatontion tactor
i Gb


Hac
mya
nana
cag ae ae I Bee TTT Tee
oson ange 9, dooce
smon te
tI thickress
TYP) a)
Crfeh
0)
ended for tian of siress intensification factor in weight anid nther
. Vine sonneiTABLE 1—Collapse moments on efbows and tees
i  Collapse monvents (in.kip)
Yield  ‘Test pieve  Straight pipe 
— vats allan [none aecio] AE™ RE e
Bin Seb 4 A obama ASTM A158 I Ba Inplane oven  238 564 a4
ticket ign ae nse  epee
GW, Suh AO UR IDNs ASTM AID! oO  Gukplane  sot] i)
Gin, Sch. 8 UR elbow, “ASTM ATSB  Iplane epen  ~ Let
Bin. Sch, 80 LR abo. ASTM AT05B Wplanecioce  a8  cae Let
ben. Sch. 80 LR elbow... ‘ASTM ATO5B Outplane  ee 182 1
Eoin Seb. #9 SRelbow.,. [ASTM ActeD invplane open ya  aa a 285
Gin, Sch €0 SK elbow. AST RCE  [ineplane cose  175 ‘a7 “oe  288
FS ihr Sie  a 
Sein, Sch, 40 UR elbow. , ASTM A312 Anplane close WwW ate 36h
1a3in OD Oia. tee. Paustiwuc  28a  Invplane B “as  kat
543. OD Ota. lee. ais  tate B a 13
by the owner or its agent. However, there are witlely
divided opinions regarding the magnitude of the factors
to be used. From the discussions presented in this article,
appears that both theory and experiment have indicated
the sarc code stress intensification factors intended for
Aexibility analysis should also be wsed in weight, oc
asional and other sustained load analyses!”
For branch connections, the code stress intensification
factors were basically obtained from tests on fullsized
‘outlet eanneetions. In smallsized outlet connections, the
code has provided some relief for snomenits acting through
branchos but no relief is given for mouients acting throug):
the straight runs. AKhough common practice is to ignore
siness Intensiications at vary sual] branches, a guideline
js needed for inakiog the decision, With the unresolved
situation that exists, a designer's rather arbitrary decision
About the author
LuneCruan Peng is a consulting
exgincer in Houston. He is currently
a om astignmett at Pulinen Kellogg's
WP Piping Mechanics Section where he in
aes tworking on epeciad pancng support end
see fron analyte Hs mre thas 18 pears
vy? of experience unlutee pipe stress aly
sis, spocifeation ome piping commiter
1 program development for Broun &
Root, Bechtel Inc., Foster Whedler, Tai
twar Power Co. and many othere. Mr.
Poog holds w Bas. equivalent in mechunicat engineering from
‘Paige’ Institute of Technology and an MS. in machonieat
axginnaring from Kansus State Universtiy, He i a rege
fatered engincer in Texas aad Catifornia and a member of
ASME. Bie Peay ie advo the anther of several techwieut
pipers and camper program.
Hvonvcation Paccessive May 1979
can artifically make a component several times weaker
oe stronger. This inconsistency can be greatly mitigated by
multiplying the code stress intensifention factor with &
gradual size reduction lactor (r4/1)°, This factor lias
been adopied in the Power Piping Code" for certain
ranch connections
NOMENCLATURE,
B= SieuséS, longitudinal sess intensiBeation factor
ioae/S, cisursierantiat stress intensifeation faclor
Maxim loagitudinal stress, ex
‘Maximum ciccurnferential tes,
S=MZz, equivalent bending slrew developed ins straight
pe of ideotieal ezossucetion, px
Ai = Bending: moment, j0.1b,
Seetign moduins of the pipe section, in?
gr eharieteiaie
T= Wall thickness of the pipe, in
= Mean radiug of the pipe ctosssection, i.
Sqr intensiention factor for branch eonnsetion
‘Mean radius of branch pipe, in,
‘Thickness of Drench pipe,
Aawetiean
ANSE BSL9%, "Chemat Hone ang, eeteeyta Rebiveey Piping” pb
SEED by li Avieeas Seesy of Mecham
MOL AGU, "Bangor Tests al Diping Coeoponiia,” Tease, ASME,
Vad, Se. ese
11h MW. Kellgs Go. "Deiat of Bping Sytem," second efian, 136
"Rotate Gy ang Grom, Hie uf Iutepal Prepare, 0
Flext sal Stee Yotensbeaigy Facer of Cursed Pie or Welding
Hise ah BRE a
Skate Si aE amd Cechnrety Wy Moy “Papectal De
Bebe cape” Be” ein REE
o,f Seonil sud, Goa, Amis Tey
fei da Smt, has et Star, au Bate
EER Oe GN Reha abe Sete Be
+S, Me ged Redbone Sarno of Sie eth
seta Badr eed inal tet Poti re
BRL nT gt) iste Bptye alae be bein Sey
zu
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