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Toward more consistent pipe stress analysis Presented are some guidelines in applying stress intensification factors to piping weight loading and small branch connections. It is hoped this information will alleviate the controversy and lead to standardization LC, Peng, Consulting Engineer, Houston Ixy Metis nxstaw msroRy, 1955 is a monumental year. Ins that year the stress range concept was formally recog- ied by the Code for Pressure Piping? as the basis for rating Uerinal expansion stress. Although the code ren expanded and clarified aver the years, there are stifi unsettled arguments regarding application of the code in certain areas. Tywo areas where inconsistencies still, exist are stress intensification factors for weight and thse stesely fondings and stress intensification factors for small branch connections. ‘These areas will explored along, with suggestions for applying the code. © Stress intensification factor for woight and other steady loadings. The stress intensification factors given in the code are intended for flexibility analyses. No specific intensification factor for weight and occasional loadings is mentioned in the Chemical Plant and Petro- eum Refinsry Piping Code.t Due to this tacit position of the code, piping designers are divided in actual prac tice, Some designers will apply the code stress intensficas tion Factors io all catogories of loads, while many other Gesigners tcncl to ignore the stress intensification factors muiplotely in steady lend analysis, One component acx ceptable to one designer can be rejected by others due to different opinions in the interpretation, Hyononannon Processive May 1979 © Small branch connections, The stress intensifica- tion factors given in the code for branch connections are derived from full size branch connections, These factors, although applicable to small branch connections, can become excrisively conservative for sinall connections on big pipes. Because of the apparent_overconscrvatism, designers offen ignore stress intensification factors at small branch connections. However, practices are never stent. For instance, it is ensy to sce that the stress tion due toa %-inch connection can be ignored in the analysis of 20.ich header, but for a 3einch cone nection, the factors to apply will differ among designers. Stress intensification factors given in the code for branch connections can be too conservative for small connections on large pipes 207 TOWARD MORE CONSISTENT PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS Fig, St hing a bar with 3 smati naio ‘These two examples are related to the application of stress intensification factors. Apply or not to apply very often means several times difference in the allowable loads, ‘These are determined solely by designers’ personal pri ferences and inclinations. A more consistent approach needs to be developed and adopted. STRESS iNTENSIFICATION When a structural member i siretched, stress in the main uniform section can norznally be caleulated by sim- ple formulas, but the stress in a locally notched or sti fened discontinuous section is either very complicated or impossible to calculate. For practical design purpose, stress at the discontinuous section is estimated by applying 2 stress intensification factor over the siress calculated at the main uniform section, ‘This stress intensification can be derived theoretically or determined by test. At a structural discontinuity, stress intensification can, be quite different for different types of loading, Big. 1 shows a long rectangular bar with a small hole iu che middte of the section. At Section A-A outside the influenice of end fixtures and the hole, the stress is-uniforinly tributed at a magnitude of S=F/(bt}. But at Section B-B, due to discontinuity in strain flow, the stress is un- evenly distributed. A maximum stress, Sua, of about three times the uniform sterss the edges of the hole. ‘The stress decreases very rapidly at points away from the edge of the hole. Theoretically, the hole has created a stress intensification fnctor of three, but its signifiéance is different for diferent materials. Por a brittle material such as glass, the hole will degrade the bar to one-thied its original strength because it fails 5 soon as the maximum stress reaches fellure stress. Piping materials, on the other hand, an: normally very ductile, rand 2 considerable ameunt of yielding takes ince before the member fails. With ductile materials the stress ine rensiication needs to be interpreted in two different categories, namely steady and cyclic. Steady loading. Under steady loading the highly tocal- ied stress concentration: will be redigtributed to the at Jaoent urea once the local stress reaches the yield point, Eventwally the load will spread evenly to the whole cross- section hefore the Dar falls "Phe innportant stress is the sibow 1 ier bene Equtvaent 4) bows Fig. 2—Equivelent elbows rodistributed stwess prior to the failure, Since the se distributed stress is casentially the averaye stress, the stress intensification factor for steady loading is es ee my Fi] (bya To = ai } which is entirely due to reduction of tke erow-sectional area, Cyclic loading, Under cyclic lowding the member fails dus to fatigue. Since the primary measure of fatigue faite tre is the local strain range per cycle, redistribution of stress due to plastic How is not very iniportain, Therefore the stress intensiReation factor Jor cyclic lending is ie Soup 2 which is the measure of the mmtsineuns focal stain. Siar is the maximum equivalent elastic sires futher than the actual stress. Elbow stress intensification factor. In piping stress analysis, the elbow sins intensification factor i particu larly Important not only because the elbow ednstitutes a major portion of the system but als ixcause it i the basis for deriving the stress intensification fietor for other component shapes. For instance, Markl succesfully used elbow analogy to correlate his fatigue test results on tees and initer fends, Using the eqnivalent elbows as shown in Fig. 2 and making adjestments for actuat crotch radi and thickness, a set of stress intensifieation factors was constructed using a single Rexibility characteristic para. meter, . A detailed discussion on elbow characteristics is denoficial in undessiandiag the werd of all components. « . ‘An clbow behaves very dillerently from a stiaiyht pipe in resisting bonding moments, When a straight pipe is bent, its erose-section remains cheular and stress itereases finearly-with distance [rom the neutrul axis, Hoavever, when ap elbow is beet as showa in hig. 3, the cross section deforms to an oval shape, This evaiization is doe to Joss rigidity at extreme Abers in the tangential to direction, and less energy being weeded for the elbow 10 assume an oval shupe tian to maintain a cirear cross section, Top and bottom portions of the pipe wall simply duekte in to escape froin carrying diet” proper share . sectlan ren. Congitaial ‘tresees Fig, 3Stress doformation of an elbow of the lad. The bending moment is resinted essentially by the shaded effective section, ‘The, magnus stress point is shifted from Point A to the effective exireme Point B. As the eross-scetion ovals, a loca bending stress is also produced around the circumference, ‘The maximura circumferential stress occurs at Point @ where the radius of curvature Is the smallest, Mathematically the maximum longitudinal stress and ciewmsferential stress can be calculated by using the following stress intensification factors: = owas . aon } inplane bending (3 Be = 1.001% We iSOphYS ‘The experimentally measured distributions of the longitadinal and circumferential stresses of a_$0-inch pipe elhow subject to in-plane bending’ are shown in Pig. Masimisn circumferential stress is normally greater than the maximum longitudinal suess, However, the nature of the tn stresses is quite different. The lengi- tudinal stress is a membrane stross working directly against he manent, wily the circumferential stress isn. skin bonding stress resulting from local deformation. outsplane beading {4} Code stress intensification factors. The stress in- tnsifcation factors given ia the cadet are intended for izeraal expansion and other displacement loads. The ature of thermat expansion foad is different from that of weight and other sustained Toads. Thermat expansion is self-limiting, {¢ is a strain controBed bading such that cover the strain reaches a paint large enough to com pomsate for the expansion, growth stops regardless of the actwl stress ceveloped in the system, Tt can not mally cause any structural damage in one single appl (ion, but aa cause fatigue failure through repeated ox. pansion and contraction cycles. ‘Therefore, for evaluating, final expansion, the strass intensifeation factor is de- lermined hy thr ritio of the steess causing faihure over a given amber of eyeles in a straight pipe to the stress causing fale at a component subject to an equal nutr- bor of stress aycles, Code stress intensification factors are suress intensification factors in which the loval pene strass is governing. Hyorocannon Processing May 1979 Theoretically these intensifications ure equal to the maximum stress intensification existing in any region and direction within a component, In an elbow, for instance, the circumferential stress intensification factors 1.80/4% and 150/k¥ for in-plane and out-of-plane bendings, ively, should be used. However, intensive fatigoe ious componcnts* have shown that by using unity as the fatigue life of girth welded or clamped pipe, the effective stress intensification factors of elbows in bending fatigue were about half the theoretical value, By dividing the theovetical factor by two, the code stress intensification factor for elbows is as fellows In-plane stres intensification factor i = 0.90/18" (3) Octofeplane stress intensifiention Sactor 75) 6) “The stress intensification factors for other components are derived by using elbow analogy correlated with test esalts, STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS FOR WEIGHT AND OCCASIONAL LOADS No stress intensification facior is explicitly stated in the Chemical Plant and’ Petroleam Refinery Piping Code for weight and occasional fonds. Weight and wind are ustained Ioadings, They are not self-limiting, and always reqqire a static equilibrium between the stress developed in the componcat and the load applied. Once yield point ox collapse load is reached, the component will fail rogardleis of the amount of deformation that has occurred. ‘Therefore, the stress to be considered in weight and other sustained Toadings should possess the following charac teristios: W The stress is in a dincetion directly agninst the loading. Oniy the stresses acting npuinst the load ate Inadlacarrying stresses D> ‘The stveas is the average stress weress Ue wall thick- ness. ‘The average stiess is actually the remaining stress ‘available for external equilibrium alter the fteyaal mu tual cancellation. Theory and experiment indicate the same code stress intensification factors intended for flexibility analysis should be used in weight, occasional and other sustained load analyses 209 TOWARD MORE CONSISTENT PIPE STRESS “ee iS Tnhesent roundenouse streseatrain cure of the neti ot which flattuns the joad-deflection curve at an eu BE stage Be STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS B FOR SMALL BRANCH CONNECTIONS B§_ The code stress intensifieation [actors Jor tees and AE y branch connections were derived from full-sized bra 8 conneetions. In applications wher the branch sine ch soualler than the ra ze, application of these fasors es 4 be geesdy too conservative Alehovgl ase No. 53 G which wat subsequent incorporated in the oxi, peo: vided some relief to the brancl itsel, is dic) aothiny « as relieve the moment toad transfered through the run pine. Therefore, when it comes to the Se practice is co eompletely Tynore the vexy malt $ branches which ave defined eather arbitracily by indivie dual designers, Basically, the present eve re es that unifora sizes intensification factor be used for wonets acting boll u Uhrowgh thy brane and dough the ran. Bor educed outlet the section modulus used in cleterntining: branch Fig ¢Varston of stace stand tm siounfonrce of en ste «on or sale llevtise besa eliow with a SOrnch OD, OSts-Mnch wall anda dé-nch bend ¥ instead) of the actual thiekuess, “Vie effective brich redius. thickness, 1, 38 the loser of mus shiekwess, ‘T, anni Ue SS product of oat-of-plane stress istensilicutiva wad branch BY thickness Gy. In ather words, dhe sinese éstessibication Foon these ‘wo crtetia and referring #0 Fig. 4 je ean -g§ BUCA On rans wetion mnduhes scr be seccetl by on these we cuttin ad refering to Figs 4 i can Ee aeter of THT for mowvents aetrg through batch. These for weight and other sestained toads should be appronis 28 8 il no relaxation given to te moments canvied steaight mately equal to the fongitucinal stress intensification. The $y HouRE the run pipe higher intensification in the ciccuncerential direction is 8S Empirically, the stress intensifietion. factor for a 0s not important here, because it is not in the loading direc. ¥¥ol-pane bending moment applied te the branch pipe tion and has very seoall average stress fen bbe expressed ast Since the stress-raising factor in a girth weld will not = epstesins in significantly affect due load-casryiey capieity, the theore- oe ATC iry tical stress intensification. factors shanon ie Eqausions oe ee Sand 6 can be used direcdy wwen in Flerence 1 girth seuupt for the {z9/0)'2* enn, Ration 9 is as exter welded ype, Ry epaing Hato 3, 49 aud 6 kee, of cade eequinanants ‘Tho teow Ate? 3% is clear that the corte stress inteusification Tactors ean also #8 Oke code stress intensification factor wilh A= 0.535 be used for weight and other sustained loadings without — fr: welding lev and sv fort, and (1.72 is the ell losing much aces facior stipulated in Coxe Case No. 98, Fe aE RS at deductions wl e {Ta/T} factor hus been inetulel ie tie code hese are purely inatheitical deductions which net aig af vffective hanch wall Wickes, i ean be to be substantatat by experiaents. The stress intensifcae — Gefivion of tfective braces wall Yee. it a ton tcasure of a component subject to a sustained toads SW uPYEE lors ie equation. By yearauiging The eaiition, ing is its collapsing strength, Bolt and Greeustrest? have We Pave made substantial tests ia deterntining the collapse loads far elbows. Schroeder,’ on the ather hand, has done the % fame for branch eamecsions. Some of Acie te Peale are somimarized in Table 1. Pe elbow collapse momenss where i is the code strrss intensification: show in the table ace taken at the center of elbow — the effective thieksis. factor, Equation 10 are radier than at whe loading end of elbow edge as in used for moments acting tirmagh the Literate cited 6, The code stress intensification factors equation can serve ss « gvadlual transition from for the tested spocia) ees ace ealculated by assundoy a gaileis to sinall connections. square veinforciny, pad having « diagonal dimension the same as the throat dintcusion of the crotch sadivs, CONCLUSIONS From Table 1, Cis apparent that the stress Garvently there is ro explicie statement ithe Cea intensification factors sw eupresoated by Myf. are very Plant and Petroleum Piping Code evquiving Hse applica close to the code stwss invensifieation factows eyule loadin arger factor experiences: sustained fond analyses, Application of te isetons is by the stainlese stew! etbow sippeans ter be eaused by thi therefore determined by the desigs speeifieatinn: prepared Cieeuntaraaal eves Lengiudinal svess Ouines surtace 4 80 = se eurace Avwrage i Mi Sivazs Intenatontion tactor i Gb | | Hac mya nana cag ae ae I Bee TTT Tee oson ange 9, dooce smon te tI thickress TYP) a) Crfeh 0) ended for tian of siress intensification factor in weight anid nther . Vine sonnei TABLE 1—Collapse moments on efbows and tees i | Collapse monvents (in.-kip) Yield | ‘Test pieve | Straight pipe | — vats allan [none aecio] AE™ RE e Bin Seb 4 A obama ASTM A158 I Ba Inplane oven | 238 564 a4 ticket ign ae nse | epee GW, Suh AO UR IDNs ASTM AID! oO | Gukplane | sot] i) Gin, Sch. 8 UR elbow, “ASTM ATSB | Iplane epen - ~ Let Bin. Sch, 80 LR abo. ASTM AT05B Wplanecioce | a8 | cae Let ben. Sch. 80 LR elbow... ‘ASTM ATO5B Outplane | ee 182 1 Eoin Seb. #9 SRelbow.,. [ASTM ActeD invplane open ya | aa a 285 Gin, Sch €0 SK elbow. AST RCE | [ineplane cose | 175 ‘a7 “oe | 288 FS ihr Sie | a | Sein, Sch, 40 UR elbow. , ASTM A312 An-plane close WwW ate 36h 1a3in OD Oia. tee. Paustiwuc | 28a | Invplane B “as | kat 543. OD Ota. lee. ais | tate B a 13 by the owner or its agent. However, there are witlely divided opinions regarding the magnitude of the factors to be used. From the discussions presented in this article, appears that both theory and experiment have indicated the sarc code stress intensification factors intended for Aexibility analysis should also be wsed in weight, oc- asional and other sustained load analyses!” For branch connections, the code stress intensification factors were basically obtained from tests on full-sized ‘outlet eanneetions. In small-sized outlet connections, the code has provided some relief for snomenits acting through branchos but no relief is given for mouients acting throug): the straight runs. AKhough common practice is to ignore siness Intensiications at vary sual] branches, a guideline js needed for inakiog the decision, With the unresolved situation that exists, a designer's rather arbitrary decision About the author Lune-Cruan Peng is a consulting exgincer in Houston. He is currently a om astignmett at Pulinen Kellogg's WP Piping Mechanics Section where he in aes tworking on epeciad pancng support end see fron analyte Hs mre thas 18 pears vy? of experience unlutee pipe stress aly sis, spocifeation ome piping commiter 1 program development for Broun & Root, Bechtel Inc., Foster Whedler, Tai- twar Power Co. and many othere. Mr. Poog holds w Bas. equivalent in mechunicat engineering from ‘Paige’ Institute of Technology and an MS. in machonieat axginnaring from Kansus State Universtiy, He i a rege fatered engincer in Texas aad Catifornia and a member of ASME. Bie Peay ie advo the anther of several techwieut pipers and camper program. Hvonvcation Paccessive May 1979 can artifically make a component several times weaker oe stronger. This inconsistency can be greatly mitigated by multiplying the code stress intensifention factor with & gradual size reduction lactor (r4/1)°, This factor lias been adopied in the Power Piping Code" for certain ranch connections NOMENCLATURE, B= SieuséS, longitudinal sess intensiBeation factor ioae/S, cisursierantiat stress intensifeation faclor Maxim loagitudinal stress, ex ‘Maximum ciccurnferential tes, S=MZz, equivalent bending slrew developed ins straight pe of ideotieal ezossucetion, px Ai = Bending: moment, j0.1b, Seetign moduins of the pipe section, in? gr eharieteiaie T= Wall thickness of the pipe, in = Mean radiug of the pipe ctosssection, i. Sqr intensiention factor for branch eonnsetion ‘Mean radius of branch pipe, in, ‘Thickness of Drench pipe, Aawetiean ANSE BSL9%, "Chemat Hone ang, eeteeyta Rebiveey Piping” pb SEED by li Avieeas Seesy of Mecham MOL AGU, "Bangor Tests al Diping Coeoponiia,” Tease, ASME, Vad, Se. ese 11h MW. Kellgs Go. 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