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(;. Pe tre cca - ,\.

Savini

A TWO PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR VARJABLE S!'EED DRIVE

G.Petrecca, Polytechnic of Milan and Associate Professor


at the repartment o~ Electrical Engineering, Univer~ity
of Pavia, Italy
A.Savini, Department of Eloctrical Engineering, Univers!
ty of Pavia, Italy

smIM.\RY

The performance o~ a two phase center tapped induction


motor, supplied with variable voltage and frequency by
btatic converters, is described.
For operatiocs in a few horsepower range a two phase mo-
tor was chosen, instead o~ a three phase on .. , because of
the cheaper and simpler control system required.
The analysis of the inverter-motor system is performed by
moans of simplified equivalent circuits and a digital co~
puter ~imulation.
A good agreement was found between the predicted wave-
forms and the experimental ones.
Finally, torque/speed characteristics and efficiency dia-
grams are reported for steady state operation of the sys-
tem at constant power and at constant torque.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Diesel' Aufsatz beschr.. ibt die 'virkungsweise eines mit


Staenderwicklung mit Mittenanzapfung zwoiphasigen Indl~­
tionsmotors, durch statische Umformer eingespeist, die
eine Einspeisung mit veraenderlicher Spannung und Frequenz
geben.
Die Auswahl eines zweiphasigen Motors, besteht darin,dass
im Leistungsfeld einiger l<~' die Ansteuerung einfacher und
billiger ist, als die eines gleichwertigen dreiphasigen
~Iot ors.

Die tJirkuugsweise 'das I-:echselrichter-~;otor",ystems \lllI'de


durch vereinfachte Aequivalent-stromkreise mittels eines
numeriscben Recbner studiert.
Die Spannungs-und Stromwelleverlaufe, so berechnet, sind
mi t don ,aus Erfabrungen entnonm.enen verglicr.en .
.-\usserdem sinf die macbanischen Kermlinien und l-.'irkungs-
grade, fuel' die Normalwirkungsweise mit konstantem Vrehm£
mant und konstanter Leistung angegeben.

697
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

LIST OF "Y~1BOLS

R half stator winding resistan~e


RL equivalent rutor resistance referred to a half of
stator ,,-inding
R, series equivalent resistance of the commutating
branch
capacitar.ce of commutating capaeitor
inductance of the non ferromagnetic con:ml.ltating
branch inductor
inductance of the non ferromagnetic inductor bet-
WEen thyristors l and free-wheeling diodes' centers
motor equivalent inductance
d.c. supply voltage
Vl,V2= instantaneous motor voltage (a10, blo; Ct20, b20)
Vc instantaDeo~s voltage across commutating capacitor

i " i 2 = instantaneous currents flowing on each half stator


windings
instantaneous commutating current
d.c. supply current
inverter's operation frequency
stator windings r.m.s. voltage (a,b,;a2b2)
steady state output torque
n rotor speed
Pr,p output power, total losses
T) motor efficiency
t time

INTRODUCTION

Electrical variable speed drives with static converters


are profitably used in a wide range of industrial and
domestic applications. D.c. drives have been used more
frequently up to now because of their simple speed cor.-
trol system, which allows a wide speed range at constant
torque or constant power.
Nevertheless, a.c. drives with thyristor inverters are
becoming usual and appear as an economical and technical
alternative to d.c. ones /3/.

In this paper a variahle voltage and frequency thyristor


system to drive a two phase induction motor is described.
This motor has been chosen in order to reduce the ratio
between converters and motor price, if compared with a
three phase drive giving the same output power, in the
fractional to several horsepower range.
Studies have been carried out both experimentally and
theoretically, by using a computer simulation which

698
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

predicts the inverter operation, especially at locked


rotor operation. Results o~ these studies can be applied
to the inverter design.

DESCRIPTION OF THE POWER CIRCUIT

In figure , the a.c. drive circuit is shown, which con-


sists of three parts: (i) a single phase half-controlled
bridge,(ii) a L-C filter, (iii) a two phase parallel ca-
pacitor-commutated inverter directly oscillating on the
motor windings.

Peculiarities of this drive are briefly described as fol-


low~ :
- the center tapped two phase inductior. motor replaces
the cent er tapped transformer, typical of such an in-
verter and acts as a transformer and a motor as well.
Thus each stator phase needs a winding which can be obtai
ned from two sections (alo,b,o; a2o,b2o) tightly coupled-
and composed of two groups of conductors placed in the
same slots around the stator.
The air gap a:oids the residual ~lux and makes the star-
ting easier;
- each section conducts only half a cycle. In this way,
the real currents tend to be unidirectional while the
motor m.m.f e is inverting.
An improved thermal capacity of the motor and good per-
~ormances for discontinuos runnings make up for a low
copper utilization /6/,/7/.

INVERTER OPERATION ANALYSIS

In order to describe the inverter steady-state operation


only one phase is considered and a half-cycle is divided
into six time intervals. Simpli~ied equivalent circuits
are given for each time interval /,/,/4/,/5/.

The assumptions, on which approximations are based, are


listed below:
- the semiconductors are ideal, with no resistance in the
forward direction and no conductivity in the reverse d!
rection, and with no inductance or capacitance;
all values of resistance, inductance and capacitance are
eoncentrated in ideal components with linear charac-
teristics;
the d.c. voltage is constant, without ripple;
the load is a center tapped two phase motor with locked
rotor. Half phase windings are tightly coupled, so that

699
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

Ql
+
Cl
~
...
.&J
~
Ql
~

IV ...
0
~
C

-
0
U

"'
.c. Ld

Figure 1 Drive basic circuit: half-controlled rectifier


bridge,L-C filter,inverter and two phase motor.

R R

V, _V2
_
'1 - 12
'·1 ~---
.. fOO~OO TOO~~~OOb 1i i
11 V, V2
== 1:1

2
a, 0 1

Figure :2 One phase motor equivalent circuit.

700
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

leakage reactances are neglected. No-load losses are


disregarded and the exciting current is not considered.
The motor equivalent circuit is shown in figure 2.
These assumptions lead to simplified equivalent circuits.

The outcomes of these studies can be applied to the real


system, pointing out the effects of the various components
on the system performance.

The six time intervalS are chosen, in connection with the


semiconductors ~orking state, by analyzing theoretical
currents waveforms ( i " i 2 ,i c ; see figu~. Simplified
circuits and linear differential equations are given for
each of the intervals and solved by means of the Runge-
Kutta method with the aid of a digital computer. The final
values of the first interval are the initial ones for the
second, etc.

expanded time scale real time scale

t,
Ito
Figure 3:Simplified theoretic~l waveforms of i " i 2 ,i c •
Interval' (to-t,; ~e figure 4). This interval starts
when SCR2, opposite to SCR' which is conducting, is gated.
Capacitor C, is charged to a maximum value and starts to
discharge into the path ABC. The interval ends when i c •
which changes sinusoidally, becomes equal to i,. Refer-
ring to figure 4, the equations are
d'J.
d
E+v,-Ld dt = 0 (,) v,+v = 0 (2)
2
di
-!.
c, ( t
i dt-v (t )+L __
c c O , dt
c+ R i
, c
o (3) i
d
=i +i
, 2
(4) •
o
di di
v , = -Ri +R i
, L L
+L
L
--1
dt (5 ) v =Ri +R i +L ~
2 2 L L L dt
(6) •

701
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

A
E
.-
D::
U i-j
(J) , c j~\
C
Id ~ E .-
l.L.
0
U
le-I, (J')
C
Figure 4: Equivalent circuit
during the interval , ict 0 ld

5a)

E .-
.- D::
l.L. U
0 (J)

I,
Id ici, ld

5b) 5c)
Figure 5: Equivalent circuits during the interval 2
a)=b)+c) (by superposition theorem)

702
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

Interval 2 (t -t ; see figure Sa). Capacitor C is still


o ° t1 h e 2 excess of the commutat1ng
d 1SC h arg1ng: ° ° 1
1mpulse current
i c over current i 1 flows through Ld and the feedback dio-
de DF1, following the path ABCDF. Interval 2 ends when i c
falls back down again to i 1 • During this interval the fOE
ward drop on DFl and on Ld works as inverse voltage across
SCRl and turns it off, if the interval is longer than the
turn-off time of the controlled rectifier /2/. The equa-
tions are derived by using superposition theorem (see fi-
gures 5b, 5c) they are
did
E+v,-L d ~ = 0 (7); v 1 +v = 0 (8) ; i =i +i
2 d 1 2
t di d(i -i )
1 c 1
C
1
f i dt-v (t )+R i +L
c
t 1
c 1 1 c 1 dt
c + L
d dt
o ( 10).

Interval) (t -t); see figure 6). SCRl is turned off.


2
Currents il and i 2 start to decay; interval) ends when
i 2 =0. At once D2 stops conducting. Referring to figure 6,
the equations are :
t di di did
E+v -R i _2
1 1 1 C dt 1 c
f __
1 i dt+v (t )-L --_l_L
2 ldt d
dt o
1 t
di 2
d
E-v 2 -Ld dt o (12 ) i =i +i ( 1)).
d 1 2

Interval 4 (t)-t 4 I see figure 7). Current i 2 is negative


and flows through the feedback diode DF2. Current i 1
starts to decay and becomes zero at the end of the inter-
val.Capacitor Cl is now charged to the maximum value,RefeE
ring to figure 7, the equations are:
di di_1
_
E+v -R i _ -J.. 1
i 1dt+v c (t))-L 1 dt -Ld dt o ( 14);
1 1 1 Cl

E-v = 0 (16).
2

Interval S (t~-ts; see figure 8). Current i 2 is still flo-


wing through diode DF2. The interval ends when i 2 becomes
zero. At once DF2 stops conducting. Referring to figure 8,
the equation is :

E-v = 0 ( 17)
2

Interval 6 (t S-t6; see figure 9). Current i 2 , now positi-


ve, flows through SCR2 and D2. Interval ends when SCRl is

703
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

E E

N
Id U.
o
Id

Figure 6: Equivalent cirr.uit Figure 7: Equivalent circuit


during the interval J. during the interval. h.

E E
DF2

Figure 8: Equivalent circuit Figure 9: Equivalent circuit


during the interval 5, during the interval 6.

704
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

gated and a new half cycle starts. Referring to figure 9,


the equation is:
di
2
E-v -L ~ = 0 (18)
2 d

EXPERIMENTAL TESTS

The tested motor is a standard squirrel cage one, designed


for single phase sinusoidal supply. It was rated at 110 V,
3,5 A, 500 W, 50 Hz, 32~, 1450 r.p.m., with two phase
windings with two parallelled sections each.
Converter circuits are similar to those sho'in in figure 1,
with C =5 t"F, L = 40I"'H, Ld = 190 rH.
1 1
The nominal flux has been valued by equalizing the sinu-
soidal voltage average value and that of the square theo-
retical inverter voltage. It results as follows:
(2/TI)~110=99 V; thus similar magnetic utilization is ob-
tained, in inverter operation, with roughly a 100 V d.c.
voltage.
In order to determine the motor de-rating when fed by in-
verter, many heating tests have been done, which show a
de-rating value of about 25 %.
This drive has been tested in a wide constant torque or
constant-horsepower range, and experimental results are
reported below:
- at nominal flux and constant torque from 10 Hz to 50 Hz
(see figure 10). Runnings at lower frequencies without
appreciable troubles can also be obtained;
- at constant d.c. voltage and at constant power from
50 Hz to 145 Hz (see figure 11).
The upper frequency limit was imposed only by mechanical
limits.For each of these diagrams, different r.m.s.values
of half stator phase voltage, from no-load running to
breakdown torque, are also reported. 2
Breakdown torques vary with the frequency roughly as t/f ,
according to the theory for sinusoidal supply. This means
that harmonic torques effects are insiguificant.
Locke rotor torques have been measured in the whole pre=
vious frequency range and show better motor performances
than with variable voltage and frequency sinusoidal supply.
~lotor efficiency at different operations are reported in
figure 12. Notice that maximum efficiency with sinusoidal
supply is 61% at 360 W output power.

705
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

Q.3 If< .... ....


* • •
i *• • • 50Hz90V *
81-13
: * 30Hz13V
*
• •
64-55 •
E
Cl
O. ?

10Hz45V
*
~
31-28 * • • • *
CII
;:, ...
...
f:T

....o • • • ...
....o:; o.1
E
- • 50V
* IsH.
38 -33
• 40Hz80V
• .
1&65
* • • • ~

o
o 500 1000 1500
motor speed rev Imin
Figure 10: Torque/speed characteristics, at constant
torque running.

0.2
75Hz
88-71

100Hz
~
89-82

CII
;.. 0.1
...
. 125 Hz 145Hz
• *
....o ~ •
8&81 86-81
... * * ~

....oo ~ * ••
• * ••
E • ~
* ••
o *
1500 2500 3500 4500
motor speed rev/mi n
Figure 11: Torque/speed characteristics at constant
power running.

706
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

o.6
*" *" •
*" *"• 50Hz• 90V
*" •
,.
o
125Hz 90V • • • •30Hz 73V
>.
u
c
CIl
*" • •
-u

';; 0.2
~

....o
o

E
o
o 100 200 300
motor output power W
Fig. 12: ~otor efficiency at various runnings.

60 1'1< ~

a * *b

N 40
:J:
>.
u
c
CIl
::J
tT
* *
-
~ 20

* *
* *
o
o 40 80 120
voltage V
Figure 13: Half stator winding r.m.s. voltage (a) and d.c.
supply voltage (b) versus frequency at 0,3 kgm
breakdown torque.

707
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

These tests point out the connection between half phase mo-
tor voltage r.m.s. value (V) and frequency and also betwoen
d:c. voltage (E) and frequenc), at constant torque equal to
the breakdown value (see figure lJ). At low fl'equencies, as
expected, the ratio V/f is not constant, because the resi-
stive drop value reaches that of the e.m.f.

Photographs of the most important waveform5 for the sy~tem


are shown in figure 14.

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL I'IAVEFORJvIS ANALYSIS

Only for locked rotor operatior., curl'ent and voltage theo-


retical waveforms are compared ~ith the experimental ones.
Computations has been done by using the following measured
parameter values for the motor equivalent circuit shown in
figure 2: H=4Q (100°C), R =1,7Q(1000C),LL=II,5 mHo
L
Computed and experimental waveforms are reported in figurfs
15-18 at £=100 Hz and E=56 V from a d.c. supply. The inver-
ter circuit paramElter values are the following: Cl =5!l F,
L 1 =40!lH, L o'40 flH.
d
A good agreement is found between computed and experimental
waveforms during the commutation intervals and tt.e whole
cycle.

CONCLt'SIONS

The previously described drive seems to be very interesting


both from the technical and economical point of view,in the
whole range from fractiocal to several horsepower.

Constant torque or constant-horsepower operations in a wide


range of speed and frequency (5-50 Hz at constant torque;
50-150 Hz at constant power) mElet any requirement in the
field of industrial utilizations.
The cost of this electronic Elquipment, though limited by
the choice of a two phase drive, is still larger than the
one of the d.c. drive which should be equivalent. On the
contrary, the cost of an a.c. motor is much lower than the
d.c. one with the same output power especially for totally
enclosed machines.
Anyway, the opportunity of cr-oosing an a.c. drive has to ce
examined in connection with objective needs.

The inverter design can be easily obtained by using the


previously mentioned digital computer program.

It is worth mentioning the possibility of driving induction


motors at higher frequency and consequently at higher speed
in order to reduce their weight and size.

708
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

a) b)

Figure 14: Motor voltage v +v (a) and current i (b) at


1 2 L
E=89V; 50 HZ; 0,2 kgm; 1370 r.p.m.
20
15
I SAl 10
I (Al

'~/LJ
5

V
----- -----..j

·2ms -5
-10
a) 0 2 4 6 8 10
(ms)
a)
10
5
CV) ' ..
0+-------
5
10
0246810
(ms)
b) b)
Figure 15: Experimental wa= Figure 16: Computed waveforms
veformE i (a)i ,(b)v ) ((a)i 0_ ,(b)v 1) during a
2 1
during a cy<;le. cycle, versus time,

709
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

40r---i.--:-.--rI-;-~
30 - l~; . "1
20 --1
(A) . !
10 .__ --j
'.
O,---+-_.---+-_~-,-+-_l----J
o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
(,uS)
a) a)
15 r------r-.----~-~---,

10

/'
O,OSOms
-- SA I 5
/ . (A)
0+---------------1
-5 ~- . - ,
- 0- --0-------
.
-1 0 1---+-_'1-'_._.1-'_._..--_1--
1 -+----1
o 100(,uS) 200 300

b) b)

-----.-------r--...--.- ---,-- .... - ~

200

100
(V)
0+----------
-100
" .
-200 -

o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


(/tS)
c) c)

Figure 17: Experimental wa= Figure 18: Computed waveforms


veforms ((a)i ,(b)i , ((a)i ,(b)i ,(c)v ) du
(c)v ) duringCinter~ ring ~nterv~ls 1,~,J,4
vals cl, 2, , J, ·'t • versus time.

710
G.Petrecca - A.Savini

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank Prof.Mario Puglisi, Director of


the Electrical Department in Pavia, for contributing to the
succes of this work and Mr.Giovanni Bonifacini, technician,
for the help he gave in builriing the control electronic
equipment.

This work has been carried out, at the University of Pavia,


with the financial support of C.N.R.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

/1/ B.D.Bedfort, R.G.Hoft: Principles of inverter circuits,


Wiley, New York, 1964.
/2/ W.Mc~lurray: SCR inverter commutated by an auxiliary
impulse, "IEEE TransaEltioD on communication and elec-
tronics", vol.8J,no 75,pp.824-829, November 1964.
/J/ P.G.Mesniaeff: Solid-state adjustable-frequency a.c.
drives, "Control Engineering",vol.18, n Oll, November
1971.
/4/ Tsueno Kume, R.Hoft: Thyristor DC switch inverter,
"IEEE Transaction on industry applications", vol. IA-8,
nO J, pp. 257-268, May/June 1972.
/5/ R.Youn, R.G.Hoft: J60 Hz complementary impulse commu-
tated inverter, "IEEE Transactions on industry appli-
cations", vol. IA-8,n04, pp.454-~60, July/August 1972.
/6/ E.Campanarl, G.Petr"Jcca: Azinnamonto tramite invurter
di un m0t~re asincrono per piccoli veicoli urbani.
"Rendiconti AEI", "'Ii1ano, 5ept./Oct. 197J.
/7/ G.Petrecca: Researcb on an a.c. drive for an electric
city car, "Third International Electric Yehiche Sym-
posium", Washington, 19-21/2/1974.

711