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Air

Data Sheet Page 1/3

AIR
There are two sections to this data sheet about Air. Section 1 looks at the properties, composition and
behaviour of air and the way in which your plants respond to atmospheric conditions. Section 2 is a brief
overview of how to set-up an air exchange system for your grow room using a Klimavator Fan Speed
Controller.
Section 1. What is air?
Air, generally termed 'atmosphere' is the gaseous envelope surrounding this planet. It is composed mostly
of a mixture of gases but also contains solid and liquid particles. The two main catagories are:
Non Variable components Variable components
Oxygen 21% Carbon Dioxide 0.03% variable
Nitrogen 78% Water (vapour, liquid)
Other gases like: Argon, Neon, Krypton, Hydrogen, Dust, Smoke, Smells.
Xenon, Radon in very small amounts.
Oxygen and Nitrogen constitute 99% percent of the air and as such the laws of physics affect them as they
do any other gas or liquid. This means there is a direct relationship between temperature, pressure, volume
and density. Any change in one means a corresponding change in all the others. The change is always the
same and predictable. By understanding the relationships between each of these factors and the effect that
atmospheric changes have on plants, we can better optimize growing conditions and improve the growing
environment.
The relationship between temperature, pressure, volume and density.
When air is heated its volume increases (it expands) and its density decreases and thus there is a fall in
pressure. Humidity decreases in this instance.
Conversely when air is cooled its volume decreases and it's density increases and thus there is an increase
in pressure. Humidity increases in this instance.
- humidity
+ temperature
- humidity + volume
+ temperature - density
+ volume - pressure
- density
- pressure Contraction through cooling

Expansion through heating

Air

Air

Key:
- down
+ up

Order Freephone: 0800 328 1339

www.growell.co.uk Shop/Technical line: 01675 443950


© 2003 GroWell Hydroponics & Plant Lighting Ltd. All rights reserved. GroWell have taken all reasonable care in preparation of this information but make no warrantees as to the accuracy or completeness of the information and cannot
be held responsible for any resultant effects of using this information on any person or thing including plants or equipment. We reserve the right to change or correct product specifications, prices, errors and omissions without prior
notification. We accept no responsibility for any such changes, errors or omissions. Use of these instructions is solely at the customers discretion and risk.
Air - Data Sheet page2/3

Moisture in the air.


When we use high output lights, a lot of heat is created. As we know, increasing the temperature of the air
in the grow room makes the air expand, but if that expanding parcel of air has a specific amount of water in
it then when it expands it's Relative Humidity will decrease making the air dry. This makes good air
exchange essential to maintain the optimum relative humidity for plant growth.
Conversely, when a parcel of air is cooled it contracts while still containing the same amount of moisture,
the relative humidity of the air would increase. If cooling continues the air will eventually reach the dewpoint
temperature, at which point the air becomes totally saturated and visible moisture droplets start to form.
This is why sometimes you get condensation in your grow room after the lights go off and the room cools.
Again, good air exchange can minimize the effects of changes in humidity on your plants. The
downloadable version of this article includes an illustration that shows how the expansion and contraction of
the air in your grow room affects the relative humidity.
It is relatively easy to control your humidity by installing a good air exchange system in your grow room. Try
to use input air for your grow room from an inside source where temperatures are friendly, this will help
avoid environmental problems. Using cold input air from outside during colder months can cause dry rooms
when lights are on and wet rooms when lights are off.
= invisible moisture
droplet
AIR AIR EXPANDED AIR CONTRACTED

heat - temperature
- volume
+ relative humidity

cooling

+ temperature
+ volume
- relative humidity

In all 3 examples, the water This expanded air still has This contracted air still has
content of the air remains the the same amount of moisture the same amount of moisture
same (in this case represented but in a larger area (volume), but in a smaller area
by 9 droplets) therefore relative humidity (volume), therefore relative
(RH) has decreased. humidity (RH) has increased.
If you cool the air to 100%
RH then visible moisture
droplets will form.

Order Freephone: 0800 328 1339

www.growell.co.uk Shop/Technical line: 01675 443950


© 2003 GroWell Hydroponics & Plant Lighting Ltd. All rights reserved. GroWell have taken all reasonable care in preparation of this information but make no warrantees as to the accuracy or completeness of the information and cannot
be held responsible for any resultant effects of using this information on any person or thing including plants or equipment. We reserve the right to change or correct product specifications, prices, errors and omissions without prior
notification. We accept no responsibility for any such changes, errors or omissions. Use of these instructions is solely at the customers discretion and risk.
Air - Data Sheet page3/3

Carbon Dioxide.
A variable component which is essential for photosynthesis and vital to the success of your indoor crop. In
the controlled environment of the grow room, we can increase levels with a CO2 vapour release bottle and
release kit. Normal atmospheric levels are around 350ppm. Air inside a lived in home can be as high as
800ppm just from people breathing. Another good reason to use input air to your grow room from indoors.
Good CO2 levels are important as the plant leaves, through a process of photosynthesis, use light to
combine CO2 and H2O to make carbohydrate (food). This means good air exchange is needed to keep
levels up.
Conclusions
If we were to think about it logically (bearing in mind the effect heat (light) has on the air), the best way of
maintaining the optimum growth conditions that we want in our grow room is to bring air into the room as
close to the desired temperature and humidity as possible. We also want to get it in and out of there as
quickly and practically possible on a continual basis. This allows for small changes in the properties and
composition of the air in the grow room, keeping temperatures and humidity within normal levels and
avoiding extremes. It would also be important to keep the air exchange going when the light goes off, to
avoid over humidity or condensation during this period as the air cools.
Section 2. The simple method of air exchange control with KlimaVator
The Klimavator Fan Speed Controller is a brand new piece of GroWell equipment that has made
temperature and fan speed control much easier for the indoor gardener. It is capable of controlling the
speed of both an input and extractor fan of any size (right up to our largest Acoustic Fans) with a built in
temperature override. This means that you can specify two fan speed controlling factors. First you specify
your “idling” speeds for your two fans (the speed at which you need them to turn over normally to maintain
air exchange). Then you set a maximum temperature that you do not want your grow room to exceed.
What then happens is that when your grow room temperature gets above the specified point, both of your
fans will “kick-in” at their full speed and reduce your temperature below the set point. Once your
temperature is under control, you fans will revert back to their “idling” speeds.
Klimavator Operation
1 Set the desired temperature via the KlimaVator control panel.
2 After power is applied the fan idling speeds can be set via the front panel controls. One speed
control for each fan (input and output)
3 As soon as the specified temperature is reached, the two fans will increase to full speed until the
temperature falls back below the set point.
4 Fan speeds will then revert back to their idle speeds.
Note:
The input fan is usually slightly smaller than the output fan.This works well as a general principle, ensuring
no odours are pushed out of the room, but instead all sucked out the filter. Also, there is usually extra
ducting and filters on the output end of your extraction system and the flow rate of the extractor may be
affected a few percent The input fans are not normally affected in this way as there is not usually any
ducting invloved.
Anyhow this method works well, ideally use an input fan with between 0% to 30% less flow rate than your
extractor fan and don't seal the area so any extra air needed into the room can come in through holes or
gaps. This method also helps keep control of humidity levels with lots of healthy transpiring plants.

Order Freephone: 0800 328 1339

www.growell.co.uk Shop/Technical line: 01675 443950


© 2003 GroWell Hydroponics & Plant Lighting Ltd. All rights reserved. GroWell have taken all reasonable care in preparation of this information but make no warrantees as to the accuracy or completeness of the information and cannot
be held responsible for any resultant effects of using this information on any person or thing including plants or equipment. We reserve the right to change or correct product specifications, prices, errors and omissions without prior
notification. We accept no responsibility for any such changes, errors or omissions. Use of these instructions is solely at the customers discretion and risk.