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• GEING – Krebs und Kiefer International and others

ltd. - Skopje

Environmental impact assessment report for the open


coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Skopje,
August, 2006

adress: Borka Taleski 24, tel/fax 3132 369, 3109 795, 3298 679, 3220 471
e-mail: geing@geing.com.mk geing@mol.com.mk, Web:www.geing.com.mk
Tech. No. GPG_015_04/2006

Environmental impact assessment report for the open


coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Manager of Design department,

Frosina Ilievska
Manager,

Zanina Dimitrievska

Skopje,
August, 2006

Geing Krebs und Kiefer International and others


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Background ........................................................................................................ 1
1.2 Objectives.......................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Scope of work..................................................................................................... 2

2 MACEDONIAN ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AND POLICIES ......................... 4


2.1 Legislation .......................................................................................................... 4
2.2 Policy .................................................................................................................. 7
2.3 Expropriation and compensation...................................................................... 9
2.3.1 Expropriated land for the needs of the open pit mine “Brod-Gneotino” .. 10
2.4 Non governmental organizations and local inhabitant opinion .................... 11
2.5 Categorization of the impact on the environment ......................................... 11

3 ANALYSES OF ALTERNATIVES ............................................................................. 12

4 TECHNICAL PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS ............................................................18


4.1 Technology of exploitation ........................................................................ 19
4.1.1 Reserves of coal and its quality ................................................................... 20
4.1.2 Technology of exploitation, external and internal waste disposal ............ 21
4.1.2.1 Ancillary infrastructure .............................................................................. 26
4.2 Previous performance of the existing mine Suvodol .................................... 28

5 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE DATA


5.1 Geographical location and communication ................................................... 29
5.2 Climate and ambient air quality....................................................................... 32
5.2.1 Climate characteristics of the Pelagonija valley ......................................... 32
5.2.2 Ambient Air Quality....................................................................................... 39
5.3 Geology and hydrology ................................................................................... 47
5.3.1 Soils ............................................................................................................... 47
5.3.2 Hydro geological characteristics and groundwater.................................... 48
5.3.2.1 Groundwater in aquifer environments with intergranular porous of the
litho logical units.................................................................................................... 48
5.3.2.2 Groundwater in aquifer environments in neogene complex ................... 48
5.3.2.3 Groundwater in aquifer environments with crack porous....................... 49
5.3.2.4 Obtained results from all hydro geological investigations ..................... 49
5.3.3 Hydrological conditions and surface water................................................. 51
5.3.3.1 Quality of the water in Crna Reka.............................................................. 54
5.3.3.2 Treating and monitoring of the water from the TPP Bitola...................... 57
5.4 Landscape characteristic ................................................................................ 59
5.4.1 Mine surrounding Flora and Fauna.............................................................. 59
5.4.2 Flora and Fauna on the mining site ............................................................. 60
5.5 Determined limit values of noise..................................................................... 61
5.5.1 Determined limited values of vibration ........................................................ 63
5.6 Structure of the inhabitat regions, sociological and cultural parameters of
the area ................................................................................................................... 63
5.7 Cultural and historical inheritance.................................................................. 64

6 IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND


PRESENTATION OF MITIGATION MESAURES ......................................................... 65
6.1 Impacts on the relief ........................................................................................ 65
6.2 Impact on the geology and soils ..................................................................... 65
6.2.1 Description of the expected impacts emissions especially on geological
composition and groundwater .............................................................................. 65
6.3 Impact on surface water .................................................................................. 67
6.4 Impact on the air .............................................................................................. 68
6.5 Mining impact on biodiversity and mitigation measures .............................. 69
6.5.1 Mitigation and restoration measures after exploatation............................. 71
6.6 Socio - economic impact ................................................................................. 71
6.7 Noise and vibration impact.............................................................................. 72
6.7.1 Assessment of the noise and vibration impact in the open pit mine Brod –
Gneotino and its surrounding ............................................................................... 72
6.8 Recultivation and revitalization of the region covered by mining activities of
open pit mine “Brod-Gneotino” ............................................................................ 74
6.9 Major accidents, fires and explosions ............................................................ 77
6.9.1 Possible sources of fires, explosions and its impact on the environment............. 77
6.9.2 Measures for decreasing of harmfull influences: fires and explosions .... 78
6.9.3 Planinng of protection, rescue and help of TTP Bitola ..............................78
6.9.4 Services for protection rescue and help of TTP Bitola............................... 79
6.9.5 Qualifying and training for protection, rescue and help to the workers in
the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino.......................................................................... 79
6.9.6 Occupational health and safety.................................................................... 80
6.10 Synopsis on the assesment of impacts on the environment ...................... 80

7 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN .............................................................. 84


7.1 Environmental Management Plan objective ................................................... 84
7.2 Environmental Management Plan Implementation ........................................ 84
7.3 The Environmental Action Plan....................................................................... 85
7.3.1 Draft Mitigation Plan ..................................................................................... 85
7.3.1.1 Management and Training ......................................................................... 85
7.3.2 Recommendations for a Monitoring Plan .................................................... 86
7.3.2.1 Scope of Monitoring Work ......................................................................... 86
7.3.2.2 Summary of Monitoring Issues ................................................................. 86
7.4 Operation Monitoring and Management ......................................................... 87
7.4.1 Noise .............................................................................................................. 87
7.4.2 Vegetation...................................................................................................... 87
7.4.3 Mitigation and Enhancement Measures ...................................................... 88
7.4.4 Monitoring of water ....................................................................................... 88
7.4.5 Assessment of Impacts ................................................................................ 88
7.5 Action Plan for realization the suggested measures for Environmental
Protection ............................................................................................................... 89

8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................................... 91


FIGURE CONTENT

CHAPTER 3 - ANALYSES OF ALTERNATIVES...............................................................13

Figure 3.1 Mine”Suvodol” .................................................................................... 13


Figure 3.2 Mine”Oslomej - West” .......................................................................... 14
Figure 3.3 Region of Bitola with communication network .................................. 15

CHAPTER 4 - TECHNICAL PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS............................................. 18

Figure 4.1 Existing Suvodol mine ......................................................................... 18


Figure 4.2 Technological scheme of exploitation ................................................ 22
Figure 4.3 Excavation on the Brod-Gneotino with dragline ................................ 23
Figure 4.4 Road from mine Suvodol to the Brod-Gneotino................................. 24
Figure 4.5 External Disposal- Suvodol mine ........................................................ 25
Figure 4.6 Ancillary infrastructures in the TPP and in the mine Suvodol .......... 27

CHAPTER 5 - ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE DATA ........ 29

Figure 5.1 Location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino ................................... 29


Figure 5.2 Three-dimensional presentation of the location of the open pit mine
Brod-Gneotino ....................................................................................................... 30
Figure 5.3 the location of TPP “Bitola” and the Brod-Gneotino and Zivojno
depositories............................................................................................................ 31
Figure 5.4 Network of meteorological and hydrology stations in Bitola region.............. 32
Figure 5.5 Monitoring Station in Bitola ................................................................ 33
Figure 5.6 Average monthly temperatures (•C) for period of 1996-2005 in the
Bitola monitoring station ....................................................................................... 34
Figure 5.7 Average monthly and annual rainfalls in (mm) in m.s Bitola............. 35
Figure 5.8 Monthly Mean Relative humidity at Monitoring Station Bitola .......... 36
Figure 5.9 Monthly Sum of Sunshine Duration at MS Bitola ............................... 37
Figure 5.10 Rose of wind-Bitola, for the period 1951-1980 ................................. 38
Figure 5.11 Content of 24 hour concentration of SO2 in the Pelagonija plain .... 39
Figure 5.12 24-hour concentration of the SO2 – Frequency distribution............ 40
Figure 5.13 Content of 24-hour concentration of Black Smoke in the Pelagonija
valley....................................................................................................................... 41
Figure 5.14 Maximum monthly concentration of smoke .................................... 41
Figure 5.15 24 hour concentration of the Black Smoke – Frequency distribution .......... 42
Figure 5.16 Maximum monthly concentration of NO2 ......................................... 43
Figure 5.17 Content of 24 hour concentration of NO2 in the Pelagonija valley .. 43
Figure 5.18 24 hour concentration of the NO2 – Frequency distribution............ 44
Figure 5.19 Crna Reka............................................................................................ 51
Figure 5.20 Minimal monthly flow and minimal flow per year at the hydrological
station Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000............................................................ 52
Figure 5.21 Maximum monthly flow and maximum flow per year at the
hydrological station Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000...................................... 53
Figure 5.22 Average monthly flow and average flow per year at the hydrological
station Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000............................................................ 54
Figure 5.23 the monitoring station Skocivir - Crna Reka .................................... 56
Figure 5.24 the area of the proposed open pit mine Brod-Gneotino .................. 59
CHAPTER 6 - IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
AND PRESENTATION OF MITIGATION MESAURES ................................................ 65

Figure 6.1 the location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino and its surrounding .......... 72
TABLE CONTENT
CHAPTER 3 - ANALYSES OF ALTERNATIVES............................................................... 13

Table No. 3.1 Exploitable coal reserves in region close to the TPP Bitola ........ 14

CHAPTER 4 - TECHNICAL PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS ................................................. 18

Table No. 4.1 Basic technical characteristics of the equipment used in Suvodol .......... 19
Table No. 4.2 Available Lignite Reserves in the Bitola Area ............................... 20
Table No. 4.3 Quality Characteristics of Lignite from the Pelagonian Basin ..... 21
Table No. 4.4 Coal quality of the ore body Brod- Gneotino................................. 21

CHAPTER 5 - ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE DATA ........ 29

Table No. 5.1 Average monthly temperature (•C) for period of 1996-2005 in m.s
Bitola....................................................................................................................... 34
Table No. 5.2 Average monthly and annual rainfall in (mm) in m.s Bitola ........ 35
Table No. 5.3 Daily Mean Relative Humidity at Main Meteorological Station:
Bitola (in %) ............................................................................................................ 36
Table No. 5.4 Daily sunshine duration at main meteorological station Bitola................. 37
Table No. 5.5 Numerical dates of the speed of the wind and direction (in ‰) and
(m/s) for Bitola 1951-1980 ..................................................................................... 38
Table No. 5.6 Hard particles (dust) emission and pollutant substances from
Block II and III......................................................................................................... 46
Table No. 5.7 Hydro chemical characteristics of surface and ground waters in
roof aquifer, taken from the research boreholes realized during the 2000/2001
year ......................................................................................................................... 49
Table No. 5.8 Physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the
open pit mine Brod-Gneotino................................................................................ 50
Table No. 5.9 Minimal monthly flow of Crna Reka at the hydrological station
Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000 ........................................................................ 52
Table No. 5.10 Maximum monthly flow of Crna Reka at the hydrological station
Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000 ........................................................................ 53
Table No. 5.11 Average monthly flow of Crna Reka at the hydrological station
Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000 ........................................................................ 54
Table No. 5.12 the limited values, maximum allowed values or concentrations of
organoleptic indexes ............................................................................................. 55
Table No. 5.13 the limited values, maximum allowed values or concentrations
for acidification ..................................................................................................... 55
Table No. 5.14 the limited values, maximum allowed values or concentrations
for oxygen regime .................................................................................................. 56
Table No. 5.15 the limited values or concentrations of the indexes of
eutrophication ........................................................................................................ 56
Table No. 5.16 Physical-chemical analyzes of the waste water in TPP Bitola
analyzed on 10.04.2006 year.................................................................................. 57
Table No. 5.17 Threatened bird species in the area of proposed open pit mine ............. 61
Table No. 5.18 Permitted levels of noise emitted from the equipment............... 62
Table No. 5.19 Permitted level of noise ................................................................ 62
Table No. 5.20 The structure of the inhabitants in Brod and Gneotino villages.............. 64
CHAPTER 6 - IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
AND PRESENTATION OF MITIGATION MESAURES ................................................ 65

Table No. 6.1 Source of noise .............................................................................. 73

CHAPTER 7 - ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ......................................... 84

Table No. 7.1 Action plan for realization of the suggested measures for
environmental protection of open pit mine Brod-Gneotino – capital investments
and operative expenses......................................................................................... 89
Table No. 7.2 The numbers 01, 02, 03... Are marking the periods (phases)
starting from the beginning of the mine activities of the open pit mine, until the
moment of closing (the end of exploitation) ........................................................ 90
REFERENCES

LAW REGULATION IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA - NOISE, VIBRATION


DAMAGES AND ACCIDENT

1. Law for nature protection (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No. 67/04 and
14/06 year);
2. Law on the environment (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.53 /05 and
81/05 year);
3. Law for Urban and Physical Planning (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia
No.51 /05 year);
4. Law for construction (building) (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.51/05
year);
5. Law for protection and rescue (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.36 /04
and 49/04 year);
6. Law for fire extinguishing (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.67/04
year);
7 Law for protection of harmful noise (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.27
/84 year);
8. Law for noise in the environment/ 2006 year - proposal;
9 Law for cultural heritage (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.20 /04 year);
10. Regulation for determination of the projects and criterions on which is established
the needs for implementation on the procedure for environmental impact assessment
(Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.74 /05 year);
11. Ordinance for standards and rate for settlement on the space (Official Gazette of
Republic of Macedonia No.02 /02 and 50/03 year);
12. Ordinance for standards and rates for design of the objects (Official Gazette of
Republic of Macedonia No.69 /99; 102/00 and 02/02 year);
13. Ordinance for determination of the number, sorts and maintenance on the manual
and transport of fire extinguishing devises(Official Gazette of Republic of
Macedonia No.15 /87 and 20/87 year);
14. Physical plan of Republic of Macedonia 2000-2020year;
15. NEAP -1996 year and NEAP-2000 year;
16. Law for storage and protection of burning liquids and gases (Official Gazette of
Republic of Macedonia No.15/76;51/88;19/90 and 12/93 year);
17. Ordinance for building plant for burning liquids, storage and pouring into the burning
liquids (Official Gazette of SFRJ No.22 /71 and 23/71 year);
18. Decision about determination in witch cases and under witch circumstances is
disturbed the peace life on the inhabitance of harmful noise (Official Gazette of
Republic of Macedonia No.64/93 year);
19. Ordinance for technical measures and conditions about noise protection on the
premises (Official Gazette of SFRJ No.35/70 year);
20. Ordinance for general measures and normative for noise protection in the work
premises (Official Gazette of SFRJ No.29/71 year);
21. Law for protection at working place (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia
No.12/98; 21/98; 33/00 and 29/02 year);
22. Ordinance foe general measures and protection at work, for working and ancillary
areas (Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia and SRM No.31 /98; 36/89;
33/93);
23. Standards: MKS, Z.CO …
24. EU REGULATIVE
Directives: 2002/49/EC; 10/157/EEC; 84/533EEC, 92/23/EEC; 1999/101/EC;
2000/14/ EC; 2002/44/EC; 2003/10/EC; 96/82/EC; 96/082/EEC

LITERATURE

1. Detailed mine design for opening and exploitation of the open pit mine Brod-
Gneotino, Book I, General concept for opening, exploitation and develop on the open
pit mine Brod –Gneotino, RI Pove and Geing-Skopje, 2006.
2. Study for Brod-Gneotino-about biodiversity;
-Study for biodiversity in Republic of Macedonia, MEPP;
-Action plan of biodiversity in Republic of Macedonia, MEEP;
-National Environmental Action Plan in Republic of Macedonia-NEAP, MEEP;
-Flora in Republic of Macedonia- K.Micevski;
-Biogeography-Dragan Kolcakovski;
-Study for assessment of the high-tension power impact Bitola-Greece boundary
Farmahem;
3. Ministry or the Environment-Finland:
-Noise Abatement Act-1987
-Noise Abatement Decree-1988
-Council of State Decision on noise level guidelines-1992
4. World Bank Environment, Health and Safety Guidelines-1995
5. Bruel & Kjaer: Urban Noise-2005
6. Noise tribune -2005
7. EPA-Biodiversity and mining;
8. Report for hydro geological investigations on the open pit mine “Brod-Gneotino”
during 2004-2005 year, January 2004 year;
10. Fusibility study for opening and exploitation on the open pit mine “Brod-Gneotino”
during 2004-2005;
11. Environment protection-2004
12. Detailed mine project open pit mine “Suvodol”-II phase of exploitation
- Technical project for fire protection on the premises and equipment
- Technical project of special measures for protection at work-1987 year
13. Revised Ecological- Technological project for the TPP “Bitola”- Bitola- book I mine
“Suvodol”-Skopje 2000.
14. State automatic monitoring system for air quality of ambient air- monthly report may
2006 (Ministry of Environment and Physical planning).
Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

The coal is the main energy resource in the Republic of Macedonia. It covers 82% of the
electricity production in the country. The remaining 18% of the needs are covered by
hydropower and import of electricity from other neighbouring countries. Renewable energy does
not play an important role in Macedonia to date.
There are two thermal power plants in Macedonia: TPP Bitola and TPP Oslomej. TPP
Bitola supplies 70% of the electricity needs of Republic of Macedonia. The rest 12% is covered
by the TPP Oslomej.
TPP Bitola contains three thermal blocks Bitola 1, Bitola 2, Bitola 3 with installed capacity
of 225 MW each, or total installed capacity of 675 MW. The total annual production of electricity
of TPP Bitola is 4.300 GWh for which 6.300.000 tones of coal are to be provided from the open
pit mine Suvodol. The existing remaining reserves of Suvodol mine are about 42 million tones of
coal, which allows operation in the following 6-7 years. Therefore, concrete measures for finding
the new coal reserves have to be taken.
Possible sources are:
• opening a new coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino
• Under coal stratum series (which exists as part within the borders of the existing mine
Suvodol, but is located deeper, at 10-50 m below the present site line and the main coal
stratum layer).
• Coal reserves close to village Zivojno
Estimated exploitation reserves of the open coal pit mine Brod-Gneotino are about
40.000.000 tones which will be exploited with other resources in the next period of 16 years.
Because the conditions of coal exploitation are specific, for current supply of 6.300.000
tones it will be necessary all three coal pit mines to work parallel.
In the Main mine design for Brod - Gneotino is defined a conception for future coal
exploitation till year 2026, as follows:
• from the coal pit mine "Brod - Gneotino" 2.000.000 tones/year
• from coal pit mine "Suvodol" 1.300.000 tones/year
• from coal pit mine "UCS Suvodol" (under coal stratum) 3.000.000 tones/year
With this the annual level for supplying 6.300.000 tones of coal necessary for the TPP
Bitola (TE Bitola 1, 2 and 3) can be reached.
For reaching this level it is necessary to start as soon as possible with the exploitation of
Brod - Gneotino and than USC Suvodol.
According to the Main mine design for Brod - Gneotino from the starting of excavation
(excavation of overburden) to reaching the level for coal exploitation 2-3 years are necessary.
Because of that it is very important to start the exploitation of Brod - Gneotino as soon as
possible.

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

1.2 OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to assess possible environmental impact of the open pit mine
Brod-Gneotino, and to propose mitigation measures for avoiding or minimizing all impacts. The
activities which have to be taken during the exploitation of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino will
have positive and negative impacts on the surrounding area. As a possible negative impacts to
the environment are:
-impact on air
-impact on water
-impact on geology, hydrogeology and soils
-impact on flora and fauna
-impact on landscape
-socio-economic impact
These impacts must be taken into consideration during the process of commission,
exploitation and after decommission. Many of these effects can be avoided, or at least greatly
reduced and minimised by careful project planning, choice of appropriate mining technology,
choice of appropriate mining equipment and careful ongoing operation. Mitigation measures for
minimisation of the negative impacts will be taken also. Permanent control and check on the
registered parameters in the existing meteorological and hydrological stations have to be done
continuously. Monitoring of the proposed mitigation measures will be established for regular
control of their positive effects.
On the other hand this new open pit mine will have significant positive social influence on
the surrounding region. New jobs and employments will increase the social and financial stability
of the inhabitants from the surrounding villages and the town of Bitola.
Also it is very important to point out the significant meaning of the coal mine Brod-
Gneotino for the whole electric power system in Macedonia.

1.3 SCOPE OF WORK


The process of preparation of the EIA Study for the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino has
started with the prospecting of the location and collecting the information from the TPP Bitola.
This has been performed by carrying out interviews with technical and environmental experts
from TPP Bitola and the Electricity Generation Company ELEM to collect data, viewpoints,
opinion and to clarify the relevant laws and the legal basis with respect to the environmental
aspects of the project.
The interviews were carried out with the authorities from ELEM and TPP BItola:
- Stojko Mojancevski, Manager for Production in ELEM;
- Blagoja Petrovski, Chief Manager Engineer for Environmental issues and protection
during work in TPP Bitola;
- Pece Stafilov, Manager of the geodetic sector in TPP BItola;
- Vasko Stojanovski, Chief Manager-Engineer for the new open pit coal mine Brod-
Gneotino (previous chief manager of Suvodol mine);
The public opinion has also been taken into consideration.

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

During the work, detailed site investigation was performed for getting the clear picture of
the existing biodiversity, existing land use and socio economic conditions of the population that
live in the surrounding area and etc.
All existing data and technical documentation for the technology process, proposed
equipment and performed site investigation works were used as a base for the preparation of
this EIA Study.
Elaborates for hydro geological investigation works performed in the period from year 2001
to 2003 were used. Analyzes of the geological characteristics of the excavated material and
quality and quantity of the ground water are given in them.
Hydrological parameters and parameters for the quality of Crna Reka on the hydrological
station Skocivir were used for analyze the existing quality of the water in Crna Reka. Also hydro
meteorological parameters from the Hydro meteorological station Bitola were used in order of
analysing the precipitations, wind, temperature and etc. All these previous mentioned data were
obtained from the Hydrometeorological Institute, the official authorized institute in the Republic
of Macedonia.
For the technology process and the process of excavation in the new open coal pit mine
Brod-Gneotino the existing experience and technology process that is already use in the open
pit mine Suvodol was used.
During the preparation of this EIA Study we had very close cooperation with the technical
staff and authorities from ELEM and REK Bitola. Also, several meetings with the local authorities
and local population were held.

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

2. MACEDONIAN ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AND POLICIES


2.1 LEGISLATION
The intention of this section is to give a brief general description of the policy of the local
authorities regarding environmental protection on national, regional and local levels.

Macedonian legal framework

The following law, acts and ordinances were identified as relevant for the environmental
topics embraced in this study:

Ambient air quality law (Official gazette of Republic of Macedonia 67/2004)

In the ambient air quality law (Official gazette 67/2004) margins of tolerance, limited
values, target values, upper and lower estimated levels for each pollutant substances are
regulated. This law is harmonized with EU Framework directive 96/62/EC.This law provides the
base for determination of the limited values for ambient air quality and limits for alarming, limited
values of exhaust emission gases ant vapor from stationary sources, limited values of exhaust
emission gases from portable sources and contents of pollutant substances in the fuel.
The Ministry of Ecology and Physical Planning has worked out ordinance of limited
values for ambient air quality, margins of tolerance, limits for alarming, which was brought at the
end of the first quarter in 2005 year. Preparation of ordinance for evaluation of ambient air
quality is in procedure.
Sub legal acts are harmonized with EU Framework directive for air quality 96/62/EC, and also
with directives 99/30/EC, 80/779/EEC, 85/203/EEC, 82/884/EC, 92/72/EEC, 2002/3/EC, and
2000/69EC.

Law on water (Official gazette of Republic of Macedonia 4/1998, 19/00)

Law on water (Official gazette 4/1998, 19/00) is the legal base for protection and water
management in the Republic of Macedonia. With this law are arranged the ways of the water
utilization, water protection from dangerous pollution, financing of the water management
activities, concession, trans-boundary water and other questions wish are significant for water
utilization.
In year 2003 was prepared the new Law on water which includes the all aspect of the
management: utilization and allocation of the recourses, protection and pollution control,
protection from harmful impact on the water and maintenance planning and water management.
This is prepared in the framework of the PHARE SOP 99 Program.
In the proposed law are implemented the requirements for management of water
recourses determined in the following directives:
- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.2000/60/EEC for framework policy
on the community in the water area.
- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.98 /83/EEC for quality of the water
which is used for consumption.
- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.76 /160/EEC for quality of the
water which is used for swimming.
- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.91 /271/EEC for waste water
treatment.

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.86 /278/EEC for environment
protection especially in the land when the slag is used in the agriculture.
- Directive on the European Parliament and Council No.98 /676/EEC for water protection
of pollution provoked by nitrate in the agriculture sources.

Law on noise

In Republic of Macedonia noise control is regulated with several laws and sub law acts.
According to Government programs in Republic of Macedonia for approaching the national
legislatives toward EU legislative and Action Plan for European partnership, it is predicted
putting into force Law on noise for which the MoEPP is in charge.
In the law EU directive 2002/2004/EC will be included.
This Law on noise and its sub laws for noise control, with standards for planning shall be
put into force at the end of 2006 year.

Law on transportation of dangerous substances (Official gazette SFRJ 27/90, 45/90 and
Official gazette RM 12/93)

In Republic of Macedonia, the transportation of dangerous substances is performed


according to decree on the Law on transportation of dangerous substances (Official gazette
SFRJ 27/90, 45/90 and Official gazette RM 12/93).
With this law are determined the conditions for transport of dangerous substances, and
effects connected with this (preparation of minerals for transport, transport, packaging, load and
unload).

Law on nature protection (Official gazette 67/04)

With this law is given a new dimension about biodiversity. This law includes species
protection, habitat, and ecosystems, and provides the conditions under which are awarded the
rights for performing all activities in management and protection, to bring plans for management
with protected area and annual programs for nature protection, which have to be harmonized
with Nation Plan in the Republic of Macedonia. Also gives bases for preparation National
Strategy for nature protection. In this law are included Directive 2004/35/EU.

Law on mineral recourses (Official gazette RM No.18/99 and 29/02)

According the Law on mineral recourses (Official gazette RM No.18/99 and 29/02) the
articles which are related for this project are described in:
- Excavation field -Article 46, Article 50,
- Approval for mine performance object-Article 52, Article 53, Article 54
- Technical revision and approval for uses on the mine objects-Article 56, Article 57,
Article 58, Article 50
- Approval for exploitation-Article 61, Article 62, Article 63, Article 64,
- Concession for detail geological investigation and mineral recourses exploitation
Annex IV
- Mine measurement and mine plans Annex V
- Measures for work protection Annex VI
- Supervision-Annex-VII

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Law on waste material (Official gazette PM No 68/04, 71.04)

With this law is arranged the way and the conditions of collecting, transporting, treatment
and disposal of the waste on the landfill, maintenance of the landfills and recycling of the waste.
In this Law are harmonized the following Directives:
- Council’s Directive on waste (75/442)
- Council’s Directive on waste oils (75/439; 87/101)
- Council’s Directive on landfills (91/31)
- Council’s Directive on incineration of waste (2000/76)

Law on construction (Official gazette No.51/05)

In this law are determined the basic requirements of construction, the rights and the
obligations of the participants in construction, project documentation, building site, usages,
maintenance.

Law on energetic (Official gazette No.63/06)

With this law are arranged: goals of the energetic policy and the way of its implementation,
energetic activities and the manner of regulation the energetic activities, construction of
energetic objects, the scope of the work of the Regulatory commission for energetic, electricity
energy markets, natural gases markets, condition for accomplishing energetic efficiency and
promotion of restorable energy sources usage, and other question important for energetic.

Law for expropriation (Official gazette No.33/95)

With this law is arranged the expropriation on the property and the rights which result from
the land, buildings, and other object (real estate) because of the object construction and
performing other works of public interest, determination of the public interest and determination
of the compensation for expropriated real estate.

Occupational Health and Safety Acts

The Ministry of Labor issued an ordinance for Protection at Work (PAW), Official Gazette
of RM 13/98.
The law includes:
- General measures;
- Measures for protection at work;
- Obligations of the employer (planning and organizing of PAW);
- Periodic reviews and inspection of tools and conditions for work;
- Health examinations for the employers;
- Rights and obligations of the employers;
- Personal protection devices for the workers for health protection.

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Law on Environment (Official gazette RM No 53/05)

Law on environment is the essential law which takes care of all medium in the
environment and also includes essential global questions.
Republic of Macedonia, like other Central and East European countries, has started a
transformation process towards market economy. As part of the economic development
program, the Government has prepared a National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) and
Local Ecological Action Plan (LEAP) with the support of the World Bank. The NEAP I from 2003
is amended with NEAP II from2005.
The Contents of the National Environmental Action Plan II are described in Article 63 of
the Law on environment.
The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning has been the key agency involved in
the preparation of the NEAP together with the industry, municipalities, private sector
organizations, research institutions and the public and non-governmental organizations. The
policies and actions are consistent with the “Environmental Action Programmed for Central and
Eastern Europe” (EAP), the document adopted at the Ministerial Conference in Lucerne in 1993.
This law has implemented requirements which result from the following International
instruments ratified by the Republic of Macedonia:
- The convention of Environment Impact assessment in a Transboundary context
(Espoo convention).
- Convention on Access to information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and
Access to Justice in Environmental Maters (Argus Convention).

More important EU Directives which are harmonized with the law are:
- Directive 96/61/EC on integrated pollution prevention and control;
- Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazard involving
dangerous substances;
- Directive 2003/35/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on public access
to environment information and repealing Council Directive 90/313 EEC;
MoEPP is responsible for issuing the Integrated Ecological Permission A. In the Republic
of Macedonia already starts the process of implementation the system of Integrated Prevention
and Pollution Control (IPPC) with harmonization of the EU Directive 96/61/EC.The procedure for
obtaining ecological permission is described in Article 97 of the Law on environment. The
content of the ecological permission is described in Article 107 of the Law on environment.

2.2 POLICY

The State Environmental Inspectorate is responsible for control the implementation of the
Law and other acts of the environment.
The Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning is completely authorized for the
monitoring on the environment. In the Law on the environment is foreseen nomination of
Municipality environmental inspectors for better control on the environmental in the
municipalities.
The Ministry of the Environment and Physical Planning and its inspectors are authorized
for water management, waste management, nature protection and air quality control also.
Some articles for the responsibilities of the MoEPP and Environmental inspectors are
given below:

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Article 31

At the level of the Republic of Macedonia, the Ministry of Environment shall carry out
continuous measurement and monitoring of changes and states of the quality of air, water,
protected special natural resources, as well as levels of noise, ionizing and non-ionizing
radiation and other types of changes and states in the environment.
Measurements and monitoring of changes and states referred to in paragraph 1 of this
Article shall also be carried out by scientific expert organizations registered for the activities
related to the environment and nature protection and promotion, authorized by the Minister of
Environment. They shall be obliged to submit the data immediately to the Ministry of
Environment.
The type of monitoring, methodology and parameters of measurement and monitoring of
changes and states of the quality of air, water and soil, protected special natural resources, as
well as levels of noise, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation shall be specified by the Minister of
Environment.

Article 42

During the supervision of the implementation of measures of protecting the air against
pollution, the inspector shall be obliged to specify whether:

1. The polluter has provided pre-requisites for reducing pollution to the level
allowed, in accordance with technical-technological standards concerning
equipment and technology used and with legal norms;
2. In cases of exceeding extreme levels of emissions and emissions allowed, the
pollutant has taken the necessary technical and technological measures;
3. The pollutant has carried out prescribed emission measuring procedures and
whether it keeps records of the measurement procedures already conducted;
4. Monitoring systems have been functioning well;

Article 43

In supervising the implementation of measures to protect water against pollution, the


inspector shall be obliged to specify whether:

1. The users of the source of pollution, have provided pre-requisites for reducing
pollution down to the level prescribed i.e. allowed;
2. In cases of exceeding the allowed level of quantities of hazardous substances in
technological and sanitary waters or when there is an increased temperature of
technical waters, the entity possessing or the user has taken prescribed
technical-technological measures;
3. The users have conducted the necessary measurement procedures on the
quality of waste water prior to its release into natural recipients (rivers, lakes,
soil);
4. Legal communities and individuals, regularly and within terms specified, submit
relevant reports and data to the Ministry of Environment;
5. Monitoring systems have been functioning well.

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Article 49

In conducting their work, inspectors shall be authorised to:

- Give orders for eliminating adverse effects resulting from environment and nature
pollution or degradation and returning original conditions thereof, within a specified term;
- Cause cessation of the work of legal entities and individuals due to harmful activities that
cause environment and nature pollution or degradation, regardless of whether they
possess the relevant approvals and consents provided for by the law;
- Prohibit the work and utilization of and to seal off working premises, equipment,
appliances and devices causing adverse effects or failing to fulfil the prescribed
conditions;
- Temporarily confiscate equipment, devices and appliances representing sources of
environment and nature pollution or degradation, in case of elimination of defects, or a
final decision by a competent court; and
- Determine shorter term for recultivation within the term specified in Article 17 of this Law.

The inspector shall participate in the technical review of investment projects with regard to
aspects related to environment and nature protection.

Article 50

Legal communities and individuals that perform activity shall be obliged to provide
conditions for uninterrupted execution of the supervisory inspection, and provide true and
accurate data, information, samples and other materials as required by the inspector free of
charge.
The Suvodol Mine and TPP Bitola are regularly monitored by the MoEPP and the
Environmental inspectors which means that the open pit coal mine Brod–Gneotino will be also
monitored on the same way.
Monitoring on the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino will be performed on the way which is
described in the Law on Environment.

2.3 EXPROPRIATION AND COMPENSATION


In accordance with the Law for Expropriation, there is a Department for expropriation in
TPP Bitola, which is concerned with the process of expropriation of the mine land. The
procedure for expropriation for the land of Brod-Gneotino is being done according to the existing
one in Suvodol mine.
So far there haven’t been any problems with the substitution for the expropriated land. It
will be done gradually and it will be defined according to the land profile (agricultural, forestry
and other; cadastre class of the land, climate factor and economical circumstances). The people
whose land is expropriated are satisfied with the process of expropriation. With the expropriation
they have material benefit.
The open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino is extended at a surface of 4,795,241 m2. From
that area 80% is public property and 20 % private property, with exactly determined parcels and
theirs ownership. The private property will be expropriated according to The Law for
Expropriation and compensation which was announced in July 1995, in the “Official Gazette of
Republic of Macedonia” No. 13/95. Because the process of expropriation will be done gradually
the total number of the parcels and the total number of the people whose land will be
expropriated is not determined yet.

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With this Law, the expropriation of the private property and the rights which result from it
for the concerned people are organized.
The compensation will be done through the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of
Macedonia.

Procedure for expropriation

There are maps with cadastre parcels and data for the property of the parcels which will
be included with the expropriation line. After that the Report for expropriation is working out in
which the property list number, data of the parcel owner and address are shown. Also the data
for the soil category of the parcels and the cadastre cultures (agriculture or forest) planted on
the parcels foreseen for expropriation are defined. In addition geodetic base is prepared with
expropriation line in proportion of 1:2500 or 1:1000 and it is presented in the Report for
expropriation.
The Report for expropriation is being certificated from the municipality organ, authorized
for the geodetic works with the following note:" the current condition of this list is identical with
the condition in the cadastre department” (Official gazette 24/75).
Based on the data given in the Report for expropriation Ministry of Financial will prepare
certificate in which total amount for compensation will be defined. According that certificate the
land owners will be compensated.
As far as the land in state property, the user rights of the owner which in the moment
handles with it, will be cancelled and the same will be given of permanent or temporal usage to
the new user.

2.3.1 Expropriated land for the needs of the open pit coal mine “Brod-Gneotino”

The total surface of the open pit mine, which has to be expropriated, is:
- 4.795.241 m2.
For the first phase-opening from south to north (approximately in accordance to profile
11), which will be developed during 5 years includes surface, to be expropriated of:
- 1.909.196 m2.
The second phase-profile11 to north includes a surface of:
- 2.886.045 m2
So far, according to the data from TPP Bitola, at the surface of the open pit coal mine, the
expropriation is done on small surface, of:
- 241.882 m2,
So that for expropriation is left:
- 4.553.359 m2.
The surface which has to be expropriated for the external waste dump I is:
- 684.547 m2.
The surface which has to be expropriated for the south external waste dump is:
- 354.752 m2.
The total surface which has to be expropriated for the external waste dump I is:
- 1.039.299 m2.

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The total surface which has to be expropriated for external waste dump II is:
- 928.115 m2.

2.4 NON GOVERMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND


LOCAL INHABITANT OPINION

The local inhabitants are introduced with the operations and impacts of the mine and the
TPP Bitola, from the beginning of theirs work. Since 1990 till now, have been organized several
meetings (annual meetings), where the inhabitants are made familiar with the plans of
monitoring, safety measures and working process of the mine Suvodol and the TPP Bitola.
There is close cooperation between the authorities from TPP Bitola and the local inhabitants,
and open presentation of the monitored parameters, which are in the frame of the Maximal
Permitted Concentrations.
On 14.07.2006 was organized meeting between representatives from ELEM and TPP
“Bitola” and inhabitants from village ”Tepavci”. During the meeting was discussed about the
activities connected with the opening of the open–pit mine Brod-Gneotino. Also was presented
conception for development and connection of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino with the existing
mine Suvodol.
During the meeting was concluded that the local inhabitants have no complaints about the
opening of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino. ELEM and TPP Bitola will continue to help with the
reconstruction of the roads, building small accumulations, and taking care for the other needs of
the surrounding villages in accordance with the possibilities. Also was taken into consideration
the fact that with the start of the operation in the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino about 700 people
will be employed. General conclusion from the meeting was that with the opening of the mine
the local inhabitant would have some benefit.
The description on minutes of meeting is given in Appendix 1.
Several ecological NGO’s in the region are interested in the environmental protection of
the area. The most active groups are from Bitola. The Thermal Power Plant Bitola, mine
Suvodol and foreseen open pit mine Brod-Gneotino causes impact to the environment and
human health, and this is very often topics of tribunes on different levels. The NGO”Molika” very
often makes questionnaires in order to estimate public opinion and their awareness about the
problem of the environmental pollution.

2.5 CATEGORIZATION OF THE IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

The below mentioned categorization of the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino is done on
the basis of the Law of Construction (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No.51/2005):

1. The specification, purpose, complexity and technological circumstances

- The open pit mine as a construction is of high priority for the Republic of
Macedonia and belongs to category I

(According to the Regulation for specific determination of constructions and according to


separate categories of construction - Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia No.
107/2005, article 30).

2. Construction projects for which it is an obligation to conduct action for the evaluation of
impacts on the environment.

- As a construction the open pit mine needs integrated ecological license

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(Addition I, paragraph 16 with sections 2 and 8 from the Regulation for the determination of
projects and for the criteria on which basis the need to conduct action for the evaluation of
the Impacts on the Environment are determined – Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia,
No.74/05.).

3. Technological (production) processes which can have impacts on the environment

- The open pit mine is a construction class I for which a zone of sanitary protection
larger than 1200 m is necessary and to become green wider than 50 m.

(The classification is according to the Regulation for standard and normative for organization
of the area, article 46, 47, 48- Official Gazette of Republic of Macedonia 02/2002, 50/2003).

4. Damages and accidents - fires, depending on technological processes

- the open pit mine as a construction belongs to category K2

(The categorization is according to the Regulation for Technical normative for hydrant net for
fire extinguishing, article 14- Official Gazette of SFRJ No. 30/1991).

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3. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

As already discussed in the chapter 1 (Introduction), from the total electricity production in
Macedonia 82% are provided by the thermal power plants TPP Bitola and TPP Oslomej. These
plants use coal as fuel. From this production, TPP Bitola provides 70% and TPP Oslomej 12%
of electricity. The rest of the country’s electric power needs are provided by hydroelectric power
stations and by electricity imports. The current installed capacity for production of electricity from
the hydro power plants in Macedonia is ~ 464.2 MW, which corresponds to ~ 15% of total
supply. From the total production of electricity, there is ~ 10% energy lost during transportation
per year, while 5-15 % of the electricity is imported.
The TPP Bitola is supplied with coal from the open pit mine Suvodol. Current coal
reserves in the open pit mine Suvodol are 42.000.000 tones of coal. Taking into considering that
for current annual production of electric power in TPP Bitola 6.300.000 tones of coal are
necessary (the three thermal blocks Bitola 1, Bitola 2 and Bitola 3 have an installed capacity of
3 x 225 MW = 675 MW), the current coal reserves are enough to feed TPP Bitola for the
following 6 to 7 years.
Some 10 to 50 m below the coal layer being exploited today in the Suvodol mine a
secondary coal layer was found (located in the center part of the mine Suvodol), called Bottom
fascia segment of coal series in o.p. Suvodol.
The Figure 3.1below presents the open pit mine Suvodol.

Figure 3.1 Mine”Suvodol”

The installed capacity of the thermal power plant “TPP Oslomej” is 125 MW. To provide
the planned annual electricity production about 1.000.000 tones of coal that is provided from the
mine Oslomej - West are needed. The current coal reserves in the mine Oslomej - West are
about 9.000.000 tones of coal, which are enough for the thermal power plant to operate in the
next 8-9 years.

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The following Figure 3.2 presents the open pit mine Oslomej - West.

Figure 3.2 Mine”Oslomej - West”

Because the current coal reserves are sufficient for the country’s electricity production only
for the next years (6-7 years for TPP Bitola and 8-9 years for TPP Oslomej) AD ELEM analyzed
additional possibilities to use other resources.

In 2002 a Study for lignite supply of TPP Bitola was carried out (December 2002, as a
part of the PHARE Program for investment possibilities in the energetic sector in the Republic of
Macedonia). Besides the use of coal as fuel, the Study analyzed the possible use of alternative
fuels like crude oil, crude oil in combination with natural gas and natural gas only).
In region close to the TPP Bitola the following exploitable coal reserves were found (see
Table 3.1):

Table No. 3.1 Exploitable coal reserves in region close to the TPP Bitola
Mine Coal reserves (t)
o.p. ”Suvodol” (at the moment is exploited) 42.000.000
Bottom fascia segment of coal series in o.p. ”Suvodol” 50.000.000
o.p. ”Brod – Gneotino” 40.000.000
”Zivojno” (probably it will be underground exploitation) 69.000.000
Total reserves 201.000.000

As mentioned above and taking into consideration the estimated current coal reserves in
open pit mine Suvodol and the region, AD ELEM is making efforts to open new open pit coal
mines.

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In the mentioned study for lignite supply of TPP Bitola, the alternatives for the usage of
crude oil, combination of crude oil with natural gas and the usage of natural gas only are
analyzed. The scenarios for these alternatives have been analyzed taking into consideration the
parallel usage of coal and other substances (crude oil and natural gas). These analyses are
presented as Appendix 2.
In addition, it must be mentioned that the above presented alternatives for TPP Bitola ask
for large investments for the necessary modifications in the TPP itself. Especially large
investments are necessary for the construction and installation of a transport system for these
substances to the TPP (additional construction of a railway or construction of a gas pipe). As a
conclusion of the above mentioned discussion on alternatives for the TPP of Bitola it was
decided that the best solution for continuation of the operation of the thermal power plant Bitola
for the next ~ 20 years is the utilization of the current reserves of coal from the foreseen
mines”Brod-Gneotino” and Bottom fascia segment of coal series in o.p. Suvodol”.
The exploitation method for these two mines is predicted to be with open pit mine
exploitation. Also for the close future in purpose of additional coal exploitation the opening of the
coal mine ”Zivojno” is planed (which will probably be an underground exploitation). The
qualitative characteristics of the coal from these mines are similar in quality. They can be used
as fuel in the Thermal Power Plants without any modifications of the plant.
The following Figure 3.3 presents the coal deposits with the communication network of
power lines, roads and railways close to TPP Bitola.

TS Skopje
KI

vo
C

bro
EV
PJE

Du
O
SKO

TS
400 KV
400 KV
pje
-Sko

Mariovo
itola

a"
v. G. Aglarci i tol
ay B

"B v. Meglenci
EK
railw

R
OH TS-Bitola 2 TPP "Bitola 1,2,3"
RID TS-Bitola 1
400/110 KV 3×225 MW
150/110/35 KV v. D. Orehovo
mine
v. Novaci TS-Suvodol "S uvodol" v. Paralovo
110/6 KV
v. Logovardi
or
ag
Dr

TS-Bitola 3
r.

110/10 KV v. Ribarci
BITOLA 110 KV

TS-Brod-Gneotino v. Skocivir
110/6 KV
mine
v. Gneotino
"Brod-Gneotino"

150 KV v. Brod

river Crna

v. Medjitlija "Zivojno"
mine
LERIN

v. Zivojno

0 5 10 15 20 GREECE
Scale (km)

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Figure 3.3 Region of Bitola with communication network


Besides the use of the coal from the existing reserves in the Republic of Macedonia, an
additional alternative can be the import of coal from Greece.
However, this coal contains much higher amounts of sulfur 1-1.5% (for comparison: the
coal from the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino contains 0.6% sulfur). Additionally, the price for
transport of the coal to TPP Bitola is high. Due to that reason, this alternative was rejected.
Taking into account the above mentioned possible alternatives, the final decision for AD
ELEM is to open the coal mines of Brod-Gneotino and bottom fascia segment of coal series
(which is part of the existing mine Suvodol). Taking into consideration the conditions for coal
exploitation from these mines and to satisfy the current supplying needs of 6.300.000 t of
coal/year for TPP Bitola it is necessary to have parallel operation of all the three mines. The
conception of exploitation is defined with the following coal quantities:
- from open pit mine ”Brod-Gneotino” 2.000.000 t coal per year;
- from existing mine ”Suvodol” 1.300.000 t coal per year;
- from the Bottom fascia segment of coal series in open pit mine Suvodol 3.000.000 t coal
per year;
The above mentioned action plan for coal exploitation makes sure that the TPP Bitola will
be supplied with the necessary quantities of coal till the year 2026.
Besides the use of coal as basic raw materiel for the TPP and the water in the HPP, in
Macedonia the use of renewable energy is considered as well, such as exploitation of wind and
solar energy. It is hereby mentioned that for the utilization of these potential energy resources
considerable financial investments are needed. However, studies have already been carried out
in 2005 to install a certain capacity of wind energy in the Republic of Macedonia. In the studies
are determined regions in Macedonia where the constant needed frequency of wind is given and
the wind strength is constantly high enough as well. In the forthcoming years, AD ELEM will
probably proceed with the installation of wind power for current production. A couple of years
ago the government of Macedonia has included the use of renewable energy in its current
national energy policy. ELEM has recently taken up the use of renewable energy in its own
energy policy as well.
Nevertheless, the installation and construction of these alternative energy capacities will
not replace the main fuel, which is to date coal. The capacities for electrical energy production in
TPP Bitola will remain on coal. This can be change in future times.
Although Macedonia has around 250 sunshine days per year, the installation of solar
energy is actually not foreseen for ELEM as this exploitation needs high investments. Till now,
this alternative is considered to be only a private one. Private houses as well as public houses
and hotels can be equipped with solar energy, but this is not an alternative for coal.
In Macedonia, a certain capacity of energy production is covered by geo-thermal energy
as well. The capacities today are in the range of lower percentage (~6-8%) of the total energy
production in Macedonia.
As it can be seen from the above mentioned alternatives, the Brod-Gneotino project is of
very high importance for the Macedonian energy market as:
- The necessary feed of TPP Bitola with fuel can be achieved only with exploitation of coal
from Brod-Gneotino and the deeper coal layers in the existing Suvodol mine.
- Alternative fuels (gas or mineral oils) need high additional investments in transport
capacities and change of TPP Bitola burners.
- Geo-thermal power is used only for hothouse production and the usage is local. The
geothermal energy is not used as electrical energy.
- Import of additional energy from neighbouring countries is limited due to the limited net
capacities of the national current net.

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- Renewable energy is to date not an alternative to replace coal as fuel but can have its
market in the future (wind energy for the national current network and solar energy on private
basis).

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4. TECHNICAL PROJECT DESCRIPTION

The production of the thermo power plant “Bitola”, which has a capacity of 3x225 MW,
depends mainly on the remaining reserves for exploitation in the existing open coal pit mine
“Suvodol”. Research carried out on 26. 07. 2003 shows that there were over 57.834.417 tons of
coal left for exploitation, but there are approximately 40.000.000 tons to date. The reduction of
coal is as result of ongoing exploitation of the open pit coal mine.
The ELEM AD Program” Power plant in the Republic of Macedonia”-Skopje, predicts that
the coal reserves will be sufficient until 2012. Due to this, proper activities for the opening and
exploitation of new coal reserves near the existing open coal pit mine “Suvodol” were
undertaken. The most potential location was found out to be “Brod-Gneotino” and part of a new
coal series in the open coal pit mine of “Suvodol”.

Figure 4.1 Existing Suvodol mine

It was decided to open and to activate a new mine “Brod-Gneotino” and for that purpose it
was necessary to prepare a Mine Project Design with all the necessary elements and objects.
One of the most important aspects of discontinuing application of mine technological activities
connected with opening, exploitation and for stability of open pit mines are draining and
protection the mine from surface and underground water and environmental protection
To have as far as possible complete picture about these problems, a proper evaluation
and reinterpretation as well as analyses of the hydrological, hydro-geological characteristics and
base line conditions of the open pit mine were done.
The location of the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino (exploitation field) has a form of foot.
Its axis is with direction from northwest to south east. The middle length of the exploitation field,
in direction of excavation fronts is ~ 3.5 km. The width of this field is:
- ~0.9 km south
- ~1.7 km in the middle
- ~1.5km north part

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The bottom of the lowest part is determined at ~ 550 m. above sea level, and the highest
spot, at the contours of the exploitation field is determined at ~ 700 m. above sea level.
According to the height above sea level at the bottom and the ending contours, the exploitation
field at the excavation site represents space field depression, with high difference of ~150 m.
The whole surface of the excavation site, to finishing contours of the exploitation field is
~471 ha (4.795.241 m2) and the surface of the contour of the mine is ~260 ha. For the delay
places of the barren soil spaces with surface of ~144 ha (for I) and ~76ha (for II) are foreseen.
According to “rose of winds” at this location the wind from the north direction is dominant
and predominant.
At wider area, on which the location of the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino is, there are
certain number of line of communications/traffic roads, which connect the rural places between
themselves, also with open pit Suvodol and the city of Bitola.
In dependence of the terrain circumstances the allowed speed of motor vehicles on this
lines of communications are:
- road from II class 60-80km/h
- road from III class 50-80km/h
- road from IV class 30-80km/h
These conditions are relevant during evaluation of the influence of the noise in the working
and natural environment, at the area where the open pit coal mines Brod-Gneotino is located.

4.1 TECHNOLOGY OF EXPLOITATION


The technology of exploitation in the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino will be the same
as in the Suvodol mine. Part of the equipment which will be used in the new open pit coal mine
Brod-Gneotino will be from Suvodol, the other equipment will be provided from MAN Takraf. List
of the new equipment is given in the Appendix 3.
The exploitation of the coal mine Suvodol started in 1977 with the excavation of the barren
soil, and in the middle of 1982 the excavation of coal.
The coal layer with an average thickness of 19.8 m is located at a depth of 30 - 100 m.
The technological process of exploitation in the open pit mine of Suvodol is based on the classic
continuous technology of excavation, transportation and delay of the cover layer (with the barren
soil). 3 ECR systems (dredging machine, conveyer belt, and delayer) are in use and on the
basis of the characteristics of the available mechanization and geometry of the excavation site;
all analyses for the vertical line of the floors and the dynamics of the excavation are made (such
information was taken from the history of running the mine Suvodol and the TPP Bitola).
The annual capacity of excavation of coal from the Suvodol mine is 6.500.000 t of coal.

Table No. 4.1 Basic technical characteristics of the equipment used in Suvodol
Location Novaci, Bitola
Number of units 3
Type of fuel coal
Year when work started 1982/1984/1988
Steam boiler
Type P-65
Production ZIO-Podoljsk, Russia
Capacity 700 t/h
Steam turbine
Type K-210-130-3
Production LMZ, Russia

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Power 225 MW
Generator
Type TBB-200-2A
Production Elektrosila, Russia
Power 247 MVA
Cooling tower 3
Dredging machines
Type SRs- 2000
Number of units 2
Theoretical capacity 6000 m3/h
Type SRs- 1300
Number of units 1
Theoretical capacity 4000 m3/h
Type SRs- 630
Number of units 2
Theoretical capacity 1200 t/h
Type Ku- 300
Number of units 1
Theoretical capacity 2200 t/h

Pressing installations
Number 2
Capacity 1250 t/h

4.1.1 Reserves of coal and its quality

The calculation of exploitation of coal reserves is carried out by a method of transversal


parallel profiles, and the reserves are as shown by category in the following table below.
The remaining economically recoverable lignite reserves of Suvodol mine are considered
not to be sufficient to provide enough lignite for the operation of TPP Bitola after the
rehabilitation, more so, in case a fourth thermal power unit is constructed. However, in the
greater area of TPP Bitola there are additional lignite deposits, which are located in Macedonia,
south of the country and on the Greek territory. Therefore, in order to assess the feasibility of
TPP Bitola fuel supply alternatives the following lignite resources must be taken into account:
• The deeper lignite seams of Suvodol Mine, which are currently not under exploitation.
The total reserves of those seams are estimated to be 30 million tons and the distance from
TPP Bitola is 2 km.
• The Brod-Gneotino deposit, which is located 14 km from Bitola TPP and has reserves of
43 million tons of lower quality compared to that produced at the Suvodol Mine.
• The Zivojno deposit, which is located 20 km from TPP Bitola and has reserves of 69
million tons of higher quality lignite compared to that produced at the Suvodol Mine.
The available lignite reserves and their quality characteristics are presented in Tables 4.2
and 4.3.

Table No. 4.2 Available Lignite Reserves in the Bitola Area

Mine/Deposit Exploitable Reserves Remaining Reserves (*)


Suvodol - 40 Million Tons
D.U.S. 30 Million Tons (**)
Brod-Gneotino 43 Million Tons (**)

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Zivojno 69 Million Tons (**)


Total: 182 Million Tons
(*) : Starting at 1.1. 2002
(**) : Not yet under exploitation

Table No. 4.3 Quality Characteristics of Lignite from the Pelagonian Basin

Suvodol Brod-Gneotino Zivojno


Ash % 11.56 – 16.09 13.63 – 18.16 14.48 – 14.52
Total Sulphur % 0.62 – 0.89 0.72 – 0.88 0.85 – 1.57
LCV (kJ/kg) 7760 - 7381 6.868 - 9.883 12731 - 13904

The coal quality of the ore body "Brod-Gneotino" is determined by performing chemical
analysis, from the type of complete technical analyses, elementary analysis, analysis on
composition and melting point of ashes, by making a petrographical analysis and technological
examinations.

Table No. 4.4 Coal quality of the ore body Brod- Gneotino
sum of reserves coal's average composition by reserves
(ton) block categorization
Total caloric
moisture Ash value
(%) content kJ/kg
(%)
14.692.609 51,16 16,52 6727
A
14.546.962 48,69 18,06 7153
B
29.239.571 49,93 17,29 6939
A+B
5.084.014 48,75 14,16 8660
C1
34.323.585 49,75 16,82 7194
A+B+C1

4.1.2 Technology of exploitation, external and internal waste disposal


The Main mining project for "Brod-Gneotino" is made according the existing
documentation for: officially verified "Elaborate of classification and categorization of coal
reserves from the Brod-Gneotino, year 2001", as well as the other available documentation for
geological, hydro-geological and geo-mechanical characteristics of the project location.
The total length of the exploitation field on the contours of the final slopes in the direction
of the excavation fronts is approximately 3.4 km, and the width varies from 0.9 km in the south,
1.7 km in the central and 1.5 km in the northern part. The complete area coverage of the open
pit following the final contour is approximately 4.795.241 m2.
According to the geotechnical and hydro geological characteristic on the project area, in
the Main mining project is defined technology of excavation. There is annual schedule of

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excavation to the final contours on the exploitation field, and the defined location for the external
and internal waste disposals.
The technology which will be used in a mining is: continuous ECR (Excavator – Conveyor
belts – Transporters) technology:
- excavation of material and coal by bucket wheel excavator,
- transport of the material and coal from excavator to the reclaimer by conveyor belts,
- Material is disposed with reclaimer.
There are two defined external waste material dumps: Waste Disposal I and Waste
Disposal II, one for each ECR system (continuous Excavator-belt Conveyor-Reclaimer ECR I
and II). External waste material dumps are situated near the open pit on non-agricultural soil.
During the period of exploitation, the excavation will be done by continuous technology, for
some parts of the mining the excavation will be done with dragline, and sometimes with dredge
and transported with truck. There will be no needs for blasting.
For the purpose of excavation, for soil material it will be used bucket wheel excavator type
SRs-2000 for the ECR I system, two bucket wheel excavators type SRs-1050 for the ECR II and
ECR III. For the coal excavation, two bucket excavators type SRs-1150 and one SRs-323 will be
used. For excavation of some parts in mining, two dragline excavators will be used, type ESh-
10/70 (with capacity of 10m3) and ESh-6/45 (with capacity of 6m3) for discontinuous excavation,
in the parts inaccessible for the bucket wheel excavators. The technological scheme of
exploitation is shown at the following figure:

E{10

SRs(H) 2000
B=1800
ET-I

I BTO Hmax=40m SRs(H) 1050 BRs 1800 E{10


B=1600

B=1600
ET-II

SRs(H) 1150 BRs 1800

EU-II
Hmax=40m

Figure 4.2 Technological scheme of exploitation


The disposal material will be carried out by a reclaimer type ZP-6600 and A2RsB-5500. In
the beginning of the exploitation, the disposal material will be transport at the external waste
disposals (for the maximum period of 6 year). After these time period, the disposal will be done
in internal located area (to the place where the coal previously will be excavated).
At the external waste disposals will be disposed total quantity of 69.100.000 m3 mass for a
period of 6 years (ECR I) and 4 years (ECR II system). After this, the waste will be disposed
within the previously excavated area, by forming an internal waste disposal with total amount of
225.760.104 m3 masses.
The continuous technology of excavation (machinery) is running on electrical power.
On the next picture is shown present excavation condition at the mining Brod-Gneotino.
On the straight direction can be seen transformer substation for mining Brod-Gneotino and
existing mining Suvodol.

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Figure 4.3 Excavation on the Brod-Gneotino with dragline

Within the technological process of exploitation, beside the basic mining and transport
equipment, it’s necessary to include appropriate auxiliary equipment:
- bulldozers – one for each excavator and reclaimer;
- turn-o-dozers – for moving the conveyor belts;
- dredgers for excavation;
- hydraulic excavators (dredgers), class 2m3 – for digging and cleaning the main and
auxiliary water canals;
- trucks and jeeps;
The auxiliary equipment is mostly equipped with combustion engines.
Roads will be built for transport of people and stuff in the mining. The roads are predicted
for all ECR systems, and also to the waste disposals. The existing mining Suvodol is connected
with mining Brod-Gneotino with unpaved road.
The roads will be built of local material, and for prevention of dust (when the vehicle is
moving), the roads will be permanently sprayed with water (especially in summer).
On the next Figure 4.4 is shown road from the mine Suvodol to Brod-Gneotino and part of
project area.

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Figure 4.4 Road from mine Suvodol to the Brod-Gneotino

All above mentioned excavators run on electrical power, meaning that these excavators
are environmentally friendly, because not causing damage upon the environment.
The negative impact on the environment from the exploitation might be at the point of
excavation, where wheel buckets are playing main role in crushing and separating the material
from the compact mass, and thus creating tiny particles of dust emitted in the air. Where this
dust goes, depends on the weather conditions (winds and moisture). It’s predictable that major
part of the dust will be settling down in the nearest area, namely the open pit itself, whilst the
impact at the wider environment would be minimal. In certain periods of the year (summer
months), for dust suppression water fogs will be used to protect the air from pollution.
The transport of the waste material and coal is carried out by conveyor belts. These
conveyors run on electrical power. They will be placed from the excavation point to the waste
disposing point. The negative impact from them would be the separation of airborne dust at the
collection points, or the emission of dust from the conveyor belt itself - if there is a very strong
wind; but strong winds are not typical for the site of the open pit Brod-Gneotino. Best way to
prevent dust separation at the collection (reception) points is to isolate (enclose) them.
The coal transport from “Brod-Gneotino” to the reception point at the thermo-plant TPP
“Bitola” is carried out by a system of conveyor belts in full length of approximately 10 km. But
because this conveyor belt goes across an arable land, in order to prevent dust emissions, it will
be fully covered (closed).
The waste disposal will be carried out by a reclaimer type ZP-6600 and A2RsB-5500, both
driven by electrical power, which is good feature - from the aspects of ecology. In the beginning
of the exploitation, the waste disposal is done at the external waste disposals, located in a non-
arable land. So, these are the best location for the external disposals.
External disposal on Suvodol mine is shown on Figure 4.5

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Figure 4.5 External Disposal- Suvodol mine


As best alternatives for external disposal from aspect of near surrounding of the mine and
from environmental aspect is precisely that surface because agriculture land are not occupied.
Because in the near surrounding of the external disposals there are not inhabitant places,
the negative influence will not reflect on humans, so the disposals will not cause certain
sociological problems.
At the external waste disposals will be disposed total quantity of 69.100.000 m3 mass for a
period of 6 years (ECR I) and 4 years (ECR II system). After this, the waste will start to be
disposed within the previously excavated area, by forming an internal waste disposal (total
amount of 225.760.104 m3 masses).
From ecological point of view, disposing the waste material within the open pit is more
acceptable, because that way a lot of surrounding land is spared from devastation by covering it
with waste material, and to some extents, the excavated area recovers its previous shape.
The material which is disposed is contained mainly from two kinds of materials: quarter
sediments (sand, clay, dust).
At the end of the exploitation, one part of the mine, which will not be filled with the internal
disposal, will be in a form of a pit, for which there will be not enough material for fulfilling. That
pit will be fulfilled with water from the ground waters, naturally. The naturally fulfilled pit with
water will form a lake which will be possible to use later for tourism and fisheries.
For the time of exploitation, a selective excavation of the humus material is also carried
out and disposed at a humus disposal, and to keep it there till exploitation time is finished, in
order to re-use later, for biological reclamation of the excavated site.
With ending the process of active exploitation and waste material disposing, comes the
stage for technical reclamation. This includes levelling of the finishing surfaces and smoothing
the bench slopes.
After the surface levelling, comes the stage of applying the humus layer and commence of
biological reclamation, by use of complex melioration measures in order to improve chemical
and mechanical features of the ground layer. Biological reclamation will be carried out by

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planting trees and grass, and some agro-cultural plants on the smoother terrain. The process of
reclamation and revitalization will recover trapped land and will tribute in returning in its previous
state.
The recultivation is developed in the Project for Recultivation, revitalization and physical
planning- project in progress.
The auxiliary equipment is mostly equipped with combustion engines and it’s a source of
bad exhaust fumes. Air pollution caused by the fumes of the combustion engines is local and
limited only to the working area, that is, in the zones with larger concentration of these kind of
mechanization.

4.1.3 Ancillary infrastructure

The Figure 4.6, below shows the ancillary infrastructure in the TPP Bitola and in the mine
Suvodol. The infrastructure for the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino is foreseen as in the
Suvodol mine.

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In Steam Power Plant:


In the mine:
1. Bus station 1. Bus station
2. Doorman’s booth 2. Doorman’ booth
3. Management hut in TPP 3. Additional workshop
4. Cooling tower 4. Oil warehouse
5. Restaurant 5. Restaurant
6. Management building 6. Management building
7. Workshop 6. Central workshop
8. Main plant object 7. Garage and services
9. Pump station 8. Warehouse
10. Station for electrolyze 9. Oil station
11. Chemical preparation of water 10. Fixing linen with crane
12. Starting boiler room 11. Major dispatcher
13. Crude oil station 12. Transformer station
14. Dressing room 13. Plant for crumbling
15. Hut for accommodation 14. Coil deposit for wider uses
16. Chimney 15. Coil deposit for TPP
17. Oblique bridge for coal 16. Dredge
18. Fixing linen with crane 17. Delaying machine
19. Warehouse 18. Combine machine
20. Transformer station 400/110 19. Lane for coil
[kV] 20. Lane for barren soil
21. Hut for spare part 21. Lane for ash and slime
22. Tansportation system for ash 22. Plant (reversible )station
and gross
23. Ambulance
24. Investments
25. Pit for neutralization
26. Fire protection for transformer

Figure 4.6 Ancillary infrastructures in the TPP Bitola and in the mine Suvodol

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4.2 PREVIOUS PERFORMANCE OF THE EXISTING MINE SUVODOL


The ELEM Company is managing with TPP Bitola and the existing open pit coal mine
Suvodol successfully. The previous experiences gained in the existing Suvodol mine will be
applied in the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino.
Because of the long term experience of ELEM in the field of coal mining (managing with
TPP Bitola and the existing mine Suvodol for 30 years) and their successful handling with the
environmental and socio-economic issues, the same methodology will be applied in the open pit
coal mine Brod-Gneotino.
In TPP Bitola monitoring of the air emission and imission is carried out. New equipment for
monitoring and filtration of the air will be installed in the future. At the moment the specialized
company “Technolab”- Skopje is carrying out the monitoring of the present conditions.
The expropriation and compensation in the existing mine Suvodol was carried out without
any problem. Because of that the same procedure will be applied in Brod-Gneotino.
The local inhabitants are closely introduced and familiar with the managing of the TPP
Bitola and the existing mine Suvodol and do not have any complaints.
In each chapter is shortly described the previous performance with the existing mine
Suvodol or the TPP Bitola.

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5. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE DATA

5.1 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND COMMUNICATION


The open pit mine of Brod-Gneotino is located in the south-eastern part of the Pelagonija
valley around 19 km southeast from Bitola, near the border with Greece, (see Figure 5.1).

Figure 5.1 Location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino


It covers the south-western part of Mountain Selechka, or 10 km south from the open pit
mine of Suvodol, between the villages Gneotino and Dolno Egri to the west and the village Brod
and the river Crna to the south. The open pit mine is located at 570-650 m above sea level and
covers total surface of 4.795.241 m2.
The open pit mine is connected to villages in the local area by passable country village
roads and to Bitola mine. It is connected to Suvodol with an asphalt road of category II, which
makes the normal functioning of transportation possible.
A three-dimensional presentation of the location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino is
shown in Figure 5.2.

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Figure 5.2 Three-dimensional presentation of the location of the open pit mine
Brod-Gneotino
The following are the coordinates of the nearest villages to the open pit mine Brod-
Gneotino, Brod and Gneotino and their distance from the nearest villages.
Gneotino coordinates:
Latitude: 40•59’00’’ N
Longitude: 21•29’0’’E
Distance of the village Gneotino form the village Novaci is 6.9 km, Medzitlija 7.0 km,
Gorno Egri 4.0 km.
Brod coordinates:
Latitude: 40•57’00’’N
Longitude: 21•34’00’’E
Distance of the village Brod from Zivojno is 6.2 km, Novo Selo-6.7 km, Germijan 4.6 km.

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REK”Bitola”
Suvodol open pit
§

Brod-Gneotino
deposition

Zivojno
MACEDONIA
deposition

GREECE

Figure 5.3 Location of TPP “Bitola” and of the Brod- Gneotino and Zivojno depositories

The Figure 5.3 shows the location of TPP “Bitola” and the Brod-Gneotino and Zivojno
depositories.

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5.2 CLIMATE AND AMBIENT AIR QUALITY


5.2.1 Climate characteristics of the Pelagonija valley

Figure 5.4 Network of meteorological and hydrology stations in Bitola region

From left to right in the Figure 5.4, the following monitoring stations are located in BItola
region:
- Climatologically station
- Rainfall station
- Water meter
- Limnigraph
- Histogram of average precipitation

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Figure 5.5 Monitoring Station in Bitola

On the Figure above the monitoring station in Bitola is given with the following coordinates:
- longitude:21• 21’ 23’’
- latitude: 41• 02’ 24’’
- altitude (m): 586
Pelagonija valley is located in the southern part of the country. The climate characteristics
in this area are temperate continental with slight influence from the Mediterranean climate. The
Hydrological Institute follows the climatic and meteorological conditions in the Republic of
Macedonia and the following information are from their sources.
Climate in this region is characterized with wet winter period with snow cover of 5-63 cm,
mostly from December until March and a dry, hot summer period with temperatures higher than
40•C.
The microclimate is not monitored, so it can not be presented.
Average annual rainfalls are 560-600 mm. The period with low temperature (less then -
10•C) is relatively short, which means that exploitation is possible throughout the year.

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Table No. 5.1 Average monthly temperature (•C) for period of 1996-2005 in m.s Bitola
Month 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
1 1.3 2.5 2.1 0.1 -6.8 3.2 -5.2 2.9 -1.2 0.6
2 1.7 2.9 3.5 0.0 1.9 3.8 5.3 -1.8 2.2 -2.5
3 2.8 4.2 3.9 6.6 5.2 11.8 8.9 5.2 6.9 5.8
4 10.0 6.4 13.1 11.6 13.0 10.5 10.4 8.7 12.0 11.4
5 17.0 17.1 14.9 16.9 17.2 16.5 16.0 18.4 14.1 17.4
6 20.8 22.7 21.5 20.6 20.4 20.9 21.3 21.8 19.8 19.4
7 22.4 23.0 23.7 22.0 24.2 24.2 23.4 24.0 22.4 23.2
8 22.0 19.8 23.6 23.0 22.9 23.8 21.1 23.8 21.7 21.7
9 15.1 16.9 16.8 18.0 17.5 18.5 15.6 16.2 17.5 18.2
10 10.5 8.8 12.1 12.8 11.9 14.0 11.9 12.8 13.8 11.6
11 7.5 6.2 5.0 6.5 9.3 5.9 7.1 7.5 6.1 4.9
12 3.1 2.5 -1.9 3.6 -2.9 -5.4 2.5 1.0 3.0 1.8
Average/year 11.2 11.1 11.5 11.8 11.6 12.3 11.5 11.7 11.5 11.1

12.4
12.2
12
11.8
11.6
11.4
11.2
11
10.8
10.6
10.4
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Figure 5.6 Average monthly temperatures (•C) for period of 1996-2005 in the Bitola
monitoring station

From the Table No.5.1, the average monthly temperature is the highest in July and
August, 2001. In comparison with the surrounding region, the temperatures are slightly lower
because of the closeness of Pelister Mountain. The Figure 5.6 is made on basis of average
monthly t•C in the period of 1996-2005.

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Table No. 5.2 Average monthly and annual rainfall in (mm) in m.s Bitola
Month
/year
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII
1996 50,7 69,7 49,9 32,3 71,6 15,1 30,0 48,5 111,8 46,4 62,0 91,0 679,0
1997 19,2 38,8 41,5 50,6 27,2 14,8 27,9 43,9 11,0 157,5 49,7 67,1 549,2
1998 25,1 62,8 18,4 20,4 84,0 22,5 24,2 22,2 67,4 61,1 157,4 68,0 633,5
1999 76,8 51,5 78,4 35,5 14,2 88,5 56,5 6,3 54,5 36,0 149,7 65,1 713,0
2000 23,4 59,8 60,6 17,8 53,4 14,7 8,9 4,4 19,4 91,3 29,5 19,3 402,5
2001 40,9 27,2 6,0 81,3 61,3 6,1 17,6 29,7 16,2 1,3 26,2 80,3 394,1
2002 39,8 13,8 84,5 64,8 129,8 9,2 74,8 45,8 122,4 86,1 17,4 175,4 863,8
2003 105,2 42,6 18,5 65,3 65,5 21,3 4,9 29,7 26,8 132,1 25,6 71,8 609,3
2004 76,6 22,4 28,8 83,3 69,1 94,6 35,6 43,6 64,3 38,1 86,9 58,4 701,7
2005 74,1 79,7 58,7 17,9 64,7 30,0 12,9 38,7 27,0 40,4 74,8 130,1 649,0

1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Figure 5.7 Average monthly and annual rainfalls in (mm) in m.s Bitola
According to the Table No.5.2, the highest quantity of rainfall is in June and December in
2002 and because of that was the wettest year, during that period (1996-2005).
According to the Figure 5.7, the driest year was 2000 and 2001, with average rainfall of
400 mm. The average quantity of rainfall during the period 1996-2005 was 650 mm.

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Table No. 5.3 Daily Mean Relative Humidity at Main Meteorological Station: Bitola
(in %)
Daily Mean Relative Humidity at Main Meteorological Station: Bitola (in %)
2001 2002
Day
February March April May June July August September October November December January
01 90 75 82 82 45 56 48 52 67 59 86 83
02 90 57 72 55 66 90 48 71 61 47 77 80
03 71 31 52 46 52 70 49 64 57 49 82 76
04 85 42 44 42 36 67 46 50 53 56 85 65
05 78 61 46 48 35 45 44 84 58 51 93 87
06 68 97 73 86 39 47 43 56 52 52 81 83
07 80 96 61 85 80 59 63 44 60 69 84 85
08 71 66 72 90 55 40 51 52 63 66 73 81
09 72 56 96 82 42 32 49 51 61 56 80 90
10 87 69 95 79 36 37 47 48 61 70 81 94
11 76 62 81 67 34 53 60 47 59 73 86 96
12 67 55 82 72 46 46 89 52 58 51 88 96
13 75 56 83 62 68 46 62 54 57 62 96 99
14 63 57 56 63 50 60 52 50 60 88 96 97
15 55 53 80 43 48 60 59 55 64 78 96 96
16 64 53 66 43 45 40 53 53 59 87 97 89
17 66 57 65 52 44 45 49 54 58 63 92 99
18 60 39 58 55 42 38 51 47 62 75 83 98
19 41 58 74 54 48 45 47 58 59 81 83 94
20 59 56 68 55 61 41 48 51 58 72 88 99
21 67 65 71 70 67 47 58 61 53 66 89 100
22 58 64 65 52 50 50 70 58 46 66 89 93
23 95 58 56 58 41 62 75 63 60 81 69 90
24 64 49 35 78 46 52 79 52 59 66 98 99
25 52 47 45 81 52 45 69 48 77 43 97 100
26 70 26 47 75 49 46 64 51 69 47 93 99
27 56 52 57 83 47 47 58 59 73 75 95 100
28 71 45 58 54 44 52 52 63 65 87 87 88
29 83 58 43 57 48 44 55 62 89 96 90
30 77 69 61 69 47 45 51 55 65 74 98
31 80 52 69 64 57 90 97
Monthly
Average 70 59 66 63 50 51 56 55 60 66 87 92
Multiannual
Average 78 71 65 65 60 56 57 64 72 79 83 83

Monthly Mean Relative Humidity at MS Bitola


100

80

60
%
40

20

0
July
May

June
April
March

August

October

January
November

December
February

September

Monthly mean values (II.2001-II.2002) Multiannual average of monthly mean values (1961-90)

Figure 5.8 Monthly Mean Relative Humidity at Monitoring Station Bitola

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Table 5.4 Daily Sunshine Duration at Main Meteorological Station: Bitola in hours

Daily Sunshine Duration at Main Meteorological Station: Bitola in hours


2001 2002
Day
February March April May June July August September October November December January
01 0,0 0,2 0,0 3,3 13,5 8,8 9,7 10,1 2,1 6,7 0,0 0,6
02 0,0 4,5 6,1 11,8 8,3 0,0 11,6 3,3 9,1 7,1 0,0 8,1
03 8,0 6,2 10,6 12,2 10,3 5,2 11,4 6,8 9,6 2,6 1,4 3,8
04 8,4 5,2 10,8 11,0 12,8 8,9 11,7 11,0 7,9 0,2 0,0 6,8
05 8,0 2,1 10,1 9,3 13,8 13,8 11,6 4,1 9,5 6,2 0,0 5,6
06 8,1 0,0 7,3 0,0 14,5 12,2 11,5 9,9 8,2 7,1 0,0 2,0
07 8,3 0,0 10,6 0,0 7,7 10,2 5,5 10,0 9,6 4,8 0,0 4,7
08 8,2 9,4 3,6 3,6 13,5 8,1 10,9 10,4 9,0 7,8 0,0 2,5
09 8,6 7,6 0,0 3,6 14,1 13,8 10,8 7,9 9,5 4,0 0,0 4,8
10 1,5 1,7 0,0 3,3 14,1 11,8 10,9 9,9 8,8 1,7 4,9 4,2
11 0,0 8,5 1,7 8,8 12,8 8,5 7,1 9,9 5,8 4,7 0,0 1,9
12 6,5 9,5 3,7 7,3 12,8 13,8 0,0 10,0 9,2 5,4 0,0 0,0
13 8,3 7,0 6,0 0,2 6,0 10,7 5,0 10,5 9,3 2,3 0,0 0,0
14 8,1 6,4 3,9 10,8 8,8 7,9 9,3 10,5 8,6 0,0 0,0 0,0
15 2,2 9,5 0,0 11,6 14,3 10,1 9,1 6,7 9,3 0,0 0,0 0,0
16 9,4 9,6 8,0 12,2 14,2 12,8 6,7 8,4 9,2 2,6 0,0 1,9
17 9,4 5,1 8,0 12,5 13,5 7,0 10,4 8,4 9,0 7,4 0,0 0,0
18 6,0 6,8 8,9 4,3 12,8 14,0 8,9 6,9 8,5 6,7 1,0 0,0
19 8,1 3,2 5,5 5,5 10,4 13,9 9,7 6,2 6,5 0,0 3,3 0,0
20 7,5 7,4 5,3 8,4 6,1 12,2 9,6 10,0 9,1 2,3 0,0 0,0
21 7,2 7,6 2,4 0,4 3,5 9,7 8,5 5,0 4,8 8,3 0,0 0,0
22 7,8 8,2 2,7 5,2 13,3 10,5 7,3 9,0 7,5 6,9 0,9 5,3
23 3,4 9,4 3,2 4,9 14,3 6,5 7,3 9,5 8,9 1,0 1,9 3,4
24 4,0 10,0 13,3 4,7 13,4 11,7 6,6 8,8 6,3 2,5 0,0 0,0
25 2,9 0,7 11,9 7,5 13,8 13,0 10,6 8,4 0,0 8,0 3,4 0,0
26 1,4 0,0 10,9 6,6 13,6 12,8 9,2 7,4 0,8 8,2 0,0 0,0
27 5,6 5,2 11,0 4,2 13,2 10,2 10,6 2,3 8,5 8,3 1,0 0,0
28 7,0 10,4 6,4 12,4 12,5 10,6 11,2 8,5 8,3 0,0 0,0 7,6
29 6,1 9,2 8,7 9,4 12,2 10,2 9,7 7,6 0,0 1,4 6,1
30 0,9 8,4 12,6 7,3 11,4 8,3 9,2 7,2 5,2 3,2 5,1
31 0,0 14,0 1,3 8,2 5,5 3,8 3,7
Monthly
Sum 163,9 168,4 189,5 220,9 348,6 313,6 279,4 248,7 233,2 128,0 26,2 78,1
Multi
annual
Sum 106,9 155,2 199,2 250,5 291,3 334,0 312,2 241,0 176,5 111,1 75,9 81,1

Monthly Sum of Sunshine Duration at MS Bitola


400

300
hours

200

100

0
May

July
June
April
March

August

October

January
February

November

December
September

Monthly sumvalues (II.2001-II.2002) Multiannual average of monthly sum values (1961-90)

Figure 5.9 Monthly Sum of Sunshine Duration at MS Bitola

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Wind
In Bitola, the most frequent winds are the north winds behind the winds coming from South
direction.
The wind usually blows from north with frequency of 189‰ and speed 1.9 m/s. It is much
less present from the East and southwest, with a frequency of 2.2‰ and 4.1‰) and speed 1.6
m/s and 2.0 m/s. The data for wind-spread out is numerically shown in Table No.5.5, and
graphically on Figure 5.10.
The annual highest speed of wind for the monitored period is V=2.7 m/s (south direction).

Table No. 5.5 Numerical dates of the speed of the wind and direction (in ‰) and (m/s) for
Bitola 1951-1980

Direction N NE E SE S SW W NW S (silence)
Frequency (‰). 189 63 22 68 134 41 61 83 338
Speed (m/s) 1.9 1.9 1.6 2.2 2.7 2.0 2.6 2.0 -

Figure 5.10 Rose of wind-Bitola, for the period 1951-1980

The attached wind rose presents the conclusion that Pelagonia features very strong winds
in comparison to other regions in Macedonia (Valandovo, Gevgelija, Ovce Pole etc.), and low
frequency of still periods without winds. The wind rose is the same for the period from 1980-
2010.

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

5.2.2 Ambient Air Quality

The measuring spots are monitoring station Bitola, because is in the near surrounding of
the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino, and the village Kremenica, because is near the border with
Greece. (to determine if there is transboundary pollution). Appendix 4 shows the net of the
automatic monitoring stations for air quality in the Republic of Macedonia. In the Appendix 5,
table for the parameters- temperature, humidity, wind direction, wind speed, pressure and global
radiation from Bitola monitoring station for May 2006 are given.

Sulphur Dioxide

The results from the measurements and examinations of the 24 hour SO2 concentrations
on all three measuring spots of the Hydrometeorological Institute network are shown below.
Figure 5.11 shows the concentrations of SO2 measured during a period of 1 year on the
measuring spots MS Bitola, v.Dedebalce and v.Kremenica. As shown, the concentration of SO2
during this period is continuously below the Maximum Permitted Concentrations (MPC: 150
•g/m3; Air Quality Standard of The Republic of Macedonia), that is, its value was 125 •g/m3 (Air
Quality Standard of EU). It is also evident that the concentrations of SO2 at MS Bitola are
somewhat higher than the ones measured at village Dedebalce and v. Kremenica.

90.0
µg/m 3 SO 2
Air Quality Standards:
80.0 FYR of Macedonia = 150 µg/m 3
EU = 125 µg/m 3

70.0

60.0

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
01,02,2001
09,02,2001
17,02,2001
25,02,2001
05,03,2001
13,03,2001
21,03,2001
29,03,2001
06,04,2001
14,04,2001
22,04,2001
30,04,2001
08,05,2001
16,05,2001
24,05,2001
01,06,2001
09,06,2001
17,06,2001
25,06,2001
03,07,2001
11,07,2001
19,07,2001
27,07,2001
04,08,2001
12,08,2001
20,08,2001
28,08,2001
05,09,2001
13,09,2001
21,09,2001
29,09,2001
07,10,2001
15,10,2001
23,10,2001
31,10,2001
08,11,2001
16,11,2001
24,11,2001
02,12,2001
10,12,2001
18,12,2001
26,12,2001
03,01,2002
11,01,2002
19,01,2002
27,01,2002

MS Bitola v. Dedebalce v. Kremenica

Figure 5.11 Content of 24 hour concentration of SO2 in the Pelagonija plain

The minimum monthly concentration of SO2 at MS Bitola is varying between 4.14 mg/m3
(in august 2001) and 15.33 mg/m3 (in January 2002), whereas at v.Dedebalce is varying
between 8.32 mg/m3 (in April 2001) and 14.78 mg/m3 (in June 2001). In v.Kremenica, the
minimal values oscillate between 6.40 mg/m3 (in March 2001) and 13.10 mg/m3 (in January
2002).
The highest concentration of SO2 measured at MS Bitola varies between 21.03 mg/m3 (in
July 2001) and 82.39 mg/m3 (in January 2002), whereas at v.Dedebalce, this scale is lower and
encompasses values between 12.63 mg/m3 (in March 2001) and 56.61 mg/m3 (in October
2001). At the measuring spot of village Kremenica, the highest measured concentrations vary
Geing Krebs und Kiefer International and others 39
Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

between 17.28 mg/m3 (in March 2001) and 53.86 mg/m3 (in December 2001). The average
monthly concentration of SO2 at MS Bitola is somewhat higher than at the other measuring
spots and it varies between 13.19 mg/m3 (in July 2001) and 30•g/m3 (in January 2002).
It should be especially emphasized that from December 16, 2001 to January 15, 2002,
after intensive falls and when the weather condition in the valley have been stabile and with no
wind and low temperatures the concentrations of SO2 are significantly higher (at MS Bitola and
v.Kremenica) compared to its values during the rest of the year.
The Figure 5.12 shows that during 60-80% of the days in the examination period, on all
three measuring spots the measured SO2 values have been 10-20 mg/m3. The diagram
evidently shows that the percentage of days with higher concentration of SO2 is very small.

00,00-10,00

10,01-20,00

20,01-30,00

30,01-40,00

40,01-50,00
SO2 Classis of Concentration

50,01-60,00

60,01-70,00

70,01-80,00

80,01-90,00

90,01-100,00

100,01-110,00

110,01-120,00

120,01-130,00 EU Standards = 125 µg/m3


130,01-140,00

140.01-150.00
FYR of Macedonian Standards = 150 µg/m3 %

100.0 10.0 1.0 0.1

Ms Bitola v.Dedebalce v. Kremenica

Figure 5.12 24-hour concentration of the SO2 – Frequency distribution

Black Smoke

The results from the measurements and examinations of the 24 hour SO2 concentrations
on all three measuring spots of the Hydrometeorological Institute network are shown below.
The Figure 5.13 shows the concentrations of smoke, measured during one year of
examination period on the measuring spots: MS Bitola, v.Dedebalce and v.Kremenica. It shows
that the concentration of smoke at MS Bitola, during the period between October 2001 and
January 2002, is often higher than the maximum permitted 50 •g/m3 (Air Quality Standard of the
Republic of Macedonia). At the v.Dedebalce, only on three occasions (only three days), the
maximum permitted values have been exceed, whereas at v. Kremenica the concentrations of
smoke are continuously lower than the maximum permitted values.

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

140.0
µg/m3 Black Smoke

120.0

100.0

80.0

60.0
Air Quality Standards :
FYR of Macedonia = 50 µg/m 3
40.0

20.0

0.0
01,02,2001
09,02,2001
17,02,2001
25,02,2001
05,03,2001
13,03,2001
21,03,2001
29,03,2001
06,04,2001
14,04,2001
22,04,2001
30,04,2001
08,05,2001
16,05,2001
24,05,2001
01,06,2001
09,06,2001
17,06,2001
25,06,2001
03,07,2001
11,07,2001
19,07,2001
27,07,2001
04,08,2001
12,08,2001
20,08,2001
28,08,2001
05,09,2001
13,09,2001
21,09,2001
29,09,2001
07,10,2001
15,10,2001
23,10,2001
31,10,2001
08,11,2001
16,11,2001
24,11,2001
02,12,2001
10,12,2001
18,12,2001
26,12,2001
03,01,2002
11,01,2002
19,01,2002
27,01,2002
MS Bitola v. Dedebalce v. Kremenica

Figure 5.13 Content of 24-hour concentration of Black Smoke in the Pelagonija valley

The minimum monthly concentration of smoke at MS Bitola oscillates between 0.00 •g/m3
(in June 2001) and 12.79 •g/m3 (in January 2002), whereas at v.Dedebalce it varies between
1.08 •g/m3 (in June 2001) and 10.03 •g/m3 (in January 2002). The minimal values in village
Kremenica oscillate between 0.00 •g/m3 (in February 2001) and 5.54 •g/m3 (in January 2002).
MAXIMUM MONTHLY CONCENTRATION OF SMOKE

140,00
µg/m3 Smoke

120,00

100,00

80,00

60,00

40,00

20,00

0,00
February 2001 March April May June July August September October November December January 2002

MS Bitola v. Dedebalce v. Kremenica

Figure 5.14 Maximum monthly concentration of smoke

According to the Figure 5.14, the highest concentration of smoke measured at MS Bitola
varies between 12.18 •g/m3 (in May 2001) and 121.66 •g/m3 (in January 2002); whereas at
v.Dedebalce this scale is lower and its limits are between 11.91 •g/m3 (in March 2001) and
71.20 •g/m3 (in January 2002). The highest concentrations measured at v.Kremenica vary
between 4.78 •g/m3 (in June 2001) and 39.02 •g/m3 (in January 2002).
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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

The average monthly concentrations of smoke at MS Bitola are somewhat higher than
those measured on the other measuring spots, and it oscillates between 4.30 •g/m3 (in June
2001) and 50.63 •g/m3 (in January 2002).
The Figure 5.15 shows the percentage of days with certain concentration of smoke
(frequent distribution). It also shows that 9.05% of the days in the examination period exceed the
maximum permitted concentration at MS Bitola, while at v.Dedebalce this percent is very small –
only 1.16%.

00,00-10,00

10,01-20,00

20,01-30,00

30,01-40,00

40,01-50,00
Smoke Classis of Concentration

50,01-60,00 FYR of Macedonian Standards = 50 µg/m3

60,01-70,00

70,01-80,00

80,01-90,00

90,01-100,00

100,01-110,00

110,01-120,00

120,01-130,00

130,01-140,00
%
140.01-150.00

100.00 10.00 1.00 0.10

Ms Bitola v. Dedebalce v. Kremenica

Figure 5.15 24 hour concentration of the Black Smoke – Frequency distribution

Nitrogen Dioxide

The results from the measuring and examinations of the 24 hour NO2 concentrations on all
three measuring spots of the Hydrometeorological Institute network are shown below.
The Figure 5.16 shows the concentration of NO2, measured during one year examination
period at the measuring spots MS (monitoring station) Bitola, v.Dedebalce and v.Kremenica.
The diagram shows that the concentration of NO2 during the examination period on all three
measuring spots is below Maximum Permitted Concentration (MPC) of 85 •g/m3 (Air Quality
Standard of the Republic of Macedonia), more exactly, 150 •g/m3 (Air Quality Standard of EU).
The minimum monthly concentration values of NO2 at MS Bitola are between 0.00 •g/m3
(in May 2001) and 5.48 •g/m3 (in January 2002), whereas at the v.Dedebalce it varies between
0.00 •g/m3 (in May 2001) and 2.86 •g/m3 (in August 2001). In v.Kremenica, the lower values
oscillate between 1.07 •g/m3 (in March and April 2001) and 3.39 •g/m3 (in January 2002).

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

MAXIMUM MONTHLY CONCENTRATION OF NO2

30,00
µg/m3 NO2

25,00

20,00 y = 0.3161x2 - 2.7377x + 10.311


R2 = 0.9213

15,00

y = 0.1191x2 - 1.1813x + 6.7863


10,00
R 2 = 0.8095

5,00

0,00
February 2001 March April May MS Bitola
June July v. DedebalceSeptember
August October November December January 2002
v. Kremenica Poly. (MS Bitola)
Poly. (v. Dedebalce)

Figure 5.16 Maximum monthly concentration of NO2

The highest concentration of NO2 measured at monitoring station- Bitola varies between
4.36 •g/m3 (in April 2001) and 25.09 •g/m3 (in January 2002); whereas at v.Dedebalce this
scale is lower and its values oscillate between 3.24 •g/m3 (in June 2001) and 9.49 •g/m3 (in
December 2001). The highest measured concentration at the measuring spot v.Kremenica
varies between 2.55 •g/m3 (in April and May 2001) and 11.13 •/m3 (in January 2002).

30.0
µg/m3 NO2 Air Quality Standards :
FYR of Macedonia = 85 µg/m 3
EU = 150 µg/m
3

25.0

20.0

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0
01,02,2001
09,02,2001
17,02,2001
25,02,2001
05,03,2001
13,03,2001
21,03,2001
29,03,2001
06,04,2001
14,04,2001
22,04,2001
30,04,2001
08,05,2001
16,05,2001
24,05,2001
01,06,2001
09,06,2001
17,06,2001
25,06,2001
03,07,2001
11,07,2001
19,07,2001
27,07,2001
04,08,2001
12,08,2001
20,08,2001
28,08,2001
05,09,2001
13,09,2001
21,09,2001
29,09,2001
07,10,2001
15,10,2001
23,10,2001
31,10,2001
08,11,2001
16,11,2001
24,11,2001
02,12,2001
10,12,2001
18,12,2001
26,12,2001
03,01,2002
11,01,2002
19,01,2002
27,01,2002

MS Bitola v. Dedebalce v. Kremenica

Figure 5.17 Content of 24 hour concentration of NO2 in the Pelagonija valley

According to the Figure 5.17, the average monthly concentration of NO2 at MS Bitola is
somewhat higher than those measured on the other measuring spots, and it varies between
2.47 •g/m3 (in April 2001) and 12.49 •g/m3 (in January 2002).

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

00,00-02,00

02,01-04,00

04,01-06,00

06,01-08,00

08,01-10,00

NO2 Classis of Concentration


10,01-12,00

12,01-14,00

14,01-16,00

16,01-18,00

18,01-20,00

20,01-22,00

22,01-24,00

24,01-26,00

26,01-28,00 EU Standards = 150 µg/m3


%
28.01-30.00 FYR of Macedonian Standards = 85 µg/m3

100.00 10.00 1.00 0.10

Ms Bitola v.Dedebalce v.Kremenica

Figure 5.18 24 hour concentration of the NO2 – Frequency distribution

In the monitoring station of Bitola, measurements for NOx are not carried out.
* Appendix 6- MPC Maximum permitted concentrations (EU, Macedonian and WHO
standards) and data from the TPP Bitola for air emission.

Data of the analyses of the air pollution in the TPP Bitola

In the Appendix 6 are enclosed tables for the emission of SO2, CO2, NOx and hard
particles compared with MPC from the TPP Bitola (block II and III).
Based on the data from the measuring and analysis made of the polluted substances
emission in the air for May 2006 and having in mind the technological process of coal
combusting and the system for dust suppression in the TPP Bitola, the following is concluded:
• The results and analysis shows that in accordance with the “Regulation for MPC and
quantity” (Official Gazette of S.R. Macedonia No.3/90), the average concentrations of
emission of dust in Block I and III overreach the permitted levels and are not in the
frame of the projected values of the electro filter for concentrations of hard particles.
The analysis of the smoke gases shows that the measured values are in the permitted
values except for the concentrations of SO2. But it should be mentioned that the
emission of SO2 is in correlation with the coal quantity.
• The emission of CO is in the permitted value which shows that there is good regime of
coal combustion in the boiler.
• According the data for concentration of dust and smoke, and taking into consideration
volume flows of the exhausted gases, calculations of the emitted quality from Block I
and II in TPP Bitola are carried out.
The results revealed that in TPP Bitola are emitted the following substances:

• Block II

• 1.075.725, 75 [m n 3/h] exhausted gases


• 163.02 [kg/h] hard particles (dust)
• 16.84 [kg/h] carbon monoxide
• 2.343,98 [kg/h] sulphur dioxide
• 411,26 [kg/h] nitrogen oxide

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

• Block III

• 1.119.509.41 [m n 3/h] exhausted gases


• 167.41 [kg/h] hard particles (dust)
• 23.47 [kg/h] carbon monoxide
• 2.798.03 [kg/h] sulfur dioxide
• 433.96 [kg/h] nitrogen oxides
According the legal regulative for this kind of objects it is recommended monthly
monitoring of emission of pollutant substances in the air.
In TPP Bitola, equipment for monitoring and measurement of air pollutants has been
installed. Supplying and installation of new equipment is in procedure. All examinations are
carried out with aim to meet the Law norms. There are everyday examinations, while monthly
reports are sent to The Ministry of Environmental and Physical Planning
There should be installed system for desulphuration.
Average calculated concentration and total quantity emission of pollutants in TPP Bitola
are given in Table 5.6.
There are reports from the Service for technical security in TPP Bitola for 2006, given in
the Appendix 7.

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

Table No. 5.6 Hard particles (dust) emission and pollutant substances from Block II and Block III

3) 3
Average concentration (mg/mn MPC (mg/mn ) Quantity emision (kg/h)
Volume flow of
Monitoring spot 3
gases (mn /h)
Hard Hard Hard
CO SO2 NOx CO SO2 NOx CO SO2 NOx
particles particles particles

Canal
144,83 20,00 2.454,00 391,00 608.339,51 88,10 12,17 1.492,89 237,86
down
Block II 50 250 400 400
Canal
160,30 10,00 1.821,00 371,00 467.386,24 74,92 4,67 851,11 173,40
up

Block II Total 151,55 15,66 2.179,00 382,31 50 250 400 400 1.075.725,75 163,02 16,84 2.343,98 411,26

Canal
144,36 23,00 2.798,00 380,00 549.928,67 79,39 12,65 1.538,70 208,97
down
Block III 50 250 400 400
Canal
154,54 19,00 2.527,00 395,00 569.580,74 88,02 10,82 1.439,33 224,98
up

Block III
149,54 20,96 2.660,10 387,63 50 250 400 400 1.119.509,41 167,41 23,47 2.978,03 433,96
Total

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

5.3 GEOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY


5.3.1 Soils
As an integrated part of the Pelagonia tertiary basin, the deposit of "Brod-Gneotino" has
characteristics, which are specific to the sedimentary environment of the basin.
The part of the investigated site is composed of Precambrian crystallized rocks and
Cenozoic (tertiary and quaternary) sediments.

Precambrian complex

This complex is the oldest segment in this part of the area. It is the base of the main part
of the terrain. It is represented by a series of gneisses, micaschistes, amphibolites and
amphibolites schist’s, and massive medium to high granular grandiosities.
Cenozoic, within the parts of the whole area of the investigated terrain, is consists of
tertiary (Neogene’s sediments) and quaternary sediments.

Neogene (Ng)

These segments are spread in the investigated area and generally in the Pelagonia basin.
It was formed partly of medium and partly of upper Pliocene sediments (Pl2, 3). These
sediments are situated above the Precambrian rocks (gneisses and micaschistes), and they are
represented by basic fascia (bottom facial), productive coal formation and roof sedimentary
complex.
• Basic (bottom) fascia
Basic facial segment, with a depth of more than 100 m, consists of grey – green sands
with different granulation, gravels and clays, which are characterized by fascia superseding in
horizontal and vertical directions.
• Productive coal formation
The productive coal formation is a heterogenic sediment complex. It is consists of fascia of
different gray–green granulated salty sands and many coal layers. The depth of coal layers is
from 7.8m borehole15-X to 222.8 m borehole B-216 with thickness from several decimeters to
121.3m (borehole Lb-II2).The fascia of the different granulated silty sands is characterized by
lamination chats, interstratifications between coal layers. This fascia can be registered in the
roof part.
• Roof sedimentary complex
The roof sediment complex is situated directly on the roof segment of the coal formation,
and it is represented by Pliocene fascias of: silty, fine granulated to medium granulated sands,
and alveoli – marlstone and quaternary sediment complex.

Quarter (Q)

These sediments are situated above the Pliocene sediment complex. They are registered
in overwhelming amounts and they consist of diluvia – proluvial and alluvial sediments.
Diluvia – proluvial sediments (d – pr) are represented by clayed – sandy lithological units.
They are with red – brown colure.
The alluvial deposits are represented by different granulated sands and gravels, and they
are situated in the southern and western parts of the open mine and around the water flow of the
Crna Reka.

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Environmental impact assessment report for the open coal pit mine Brod – Gneotino

5.3.2 Hydro geological characteristics and groundwater

According to the geological construction, structural and hydro-geological characteristics of


the rocks, in parts of the coal deposit and ambient terrain, the following water environments
exist:
• aquifer environments with granular porous;
• aquifer environments with crack porous;
• aquifer environments in neogene complex and
• Condition waterless parts of the terrain.
According to the hydrodynamic characteristics, and hydro dynamical conditions, which are
registered in these water environments, exist the following segments:
• Aquifers with free level of groundwater and
• Aquifers with level of groundwater with pressure (artesian and sub artesian aquifers).

5.3.2.1 Groundwater in aquifer environments with intergranular porous of the litho logical
units

The groundwater in this aquifer is characterized by free level and it is in direct correlation
with rainfall precipitation. The geological border of this aquifer is defined and these are clay
stones. The groundwater level is registered in interval from 3.5m-33.00m.The mightiness of this
aquifer is from 5-15m. Water direction is from north-northwest to south-southeast. The hydraulic
gradient is too low. The coefficient of filtration is from nx10-4 to nx10-5m/s, hydraulic gradient is
from 0.007-0.15, and the water velocity is from 6x10-3 m/day to 0.194 m/day.
The feeding of these water surroundings is from the atmospheric rainfall precipitation
groundwater which flows from aquifers with crack porosity in the zones on the contacts. They
are located on the bigger hypsometric level. The feeding from Crna Reka in aquifer
environments in alluvial sediments is in the southern part of the deposit.

5.3.2.2 Groundwater in aquifer environments in neogene complex

This type of aquifer is registered in this part of the field. In the open pit, coal mine of "Brod
– Gneotino", several water horizons have been registered: roof aquifer, first lamination aquifer,
second lamination aquifer and bottom aquifer.
The roof aquifer is characterized with depth from 5-10 m, water flow direction is from east
to southwest, the coefficient of filtration is k=nx10-4- 10-5 m/s.
First lamination aquifer is characterized with depth to 100m, with average mightiness to
5m,sybartesian pressures 0.40-0.50 bar, water direction is from east to west, with coefficient of
filtration k=n x10-4 m/s.
The second lamination aquifer is characterized with average mightiness to 6m,
coefficient of filtration k=5x10-5 m/s, hydraulic gradient i=0.015, and the velocity of groundwater
is V=0.13 m/day.
The bottom aquifer is characterized with depth more than 100m,average mightiness to
5m, average coefficient of filtration k=nx10-5 m/s, hydraulic gradient i=0.02, and water velocity is
V=0.115 m/day.
The feeding of the aquifers in the neogene complex is done from:
• Rains

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• Groundwater which comes from water environment with crack porosity, situated on the
bigger hypsometric level and
• Infiltration of the groundwater in water environment in diluvia, proluvial and alluvial
sediments.

5.3.2.3 Groundwater in aquifer environments with crack porous

The water environments of this aquifer are characterized by free levels of groundwater.
The feeding is done from atmospheric rains. The drainage is with springs and outflow of
groundwater in water environment with intergranular porosity.
During the mining these aquifer will be regulated and permanently measured. With
pumping of the groundwater level of these aquifers will be more down. Static level of
groundwater, dynamic level, pumping and capacity will be carried out, according all hydro
geological investigations and examinations.

5.3.2.4 Obtained results from all hydro geological investigations

In the Table No.5.7 are presented the data of hydro chemical characteristic on the roof
aquifer, examined in the period of 2000/2001year.

Table No. 5.7 Hydro chemical characteristics of surface and ground waters in roof
aquifer, taken from the research boreholes realized during the 2000/2001 year

Parameters Unit Cut 8/VIII (K) 10/VIII (K) 12/VI1(K) 15/VI1 (K) 151/IX'(K) 161/IX(K) minimum average maximum
Residual
chlorine (mg/l) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
pH 8.320 8.320 6.420 8.490 6.120 6.700 7.530 6.120 7.414 8.490
eH (•S/cm) 697.600 531.000 488.700 451.300 1431.000 493.100 1314.000 451.300 772.386 1431.000
Nitrites like
nitrogen (mg/l)
Nitrates like
nitrogen (mg/l)
Chlorides (mg/l) 44.000 15.000 40.000 42.000 33.000 44.000 24.000 15.000 34.571 44.000
Sulphates (mg/l) 25.300 12.180 23.700 24.020 36.500 23.380 18.580 12.180 23.380 36.500
Iron (mg/l) 0.202 1.634 1.186 2.130 1.885 1.186 0.365 0.202 1.227 2.130
Manganese (mg/l) 0.007 0.264 0.087 0.219 0.198 0.620 0.119 0.007 0.216 0.620
Calcium (mg/l) 176.000 20.000 40.000 32.000 56.000 52.000 184.000 20.000 80.000 184.000
Magnesium (mg/l) 64.800 52.800 45.600 76.800 146.400 98.400 139.200 45.600 89.143 146.400
Total
o
hardness (dH ) 25.300 14.850 15.950 22.000 41.230 29.700 43.450 14.850 27.497 43.450
Carbonate
o
hardness (dH ) 12.990 7.820 10.250 11.010 32.600 16.050 36.400 7.820 18.160 36.400
Copper (mg/l) 0.004 0.013 0.013 0.009 0.001 0.004 0.003 0.001 0.007 0.013
Zinc (mg/l) 0.017 1.414 1.133 1.167 0.061 0.890 1.162 0.017 0.835 1.414
Lead (mg/l) 0.028 0.532 0.740 1.499 0.013 0.112 0.006 0.006 0.419 1.499
Cadmium (mg/l)
Cobalt (mg/l) 0.004 0.004 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.003 0.004
Nickel (mg/l) 0.009 0.009 0.010 0.012 0.012 0.004 0.006 0.004 0.009 0.012
Chromium
6+ (mg/l)
Chromium
total (mg/l) 0.014 0.005 0.005 0.010 0.014
Strontium (mg/l) 0.094 0.295 0.835 0.105 0.183 0.183 0.319 0.094 0.288 0.835
Potassium (mg/l) 37.140 26.320 41.610 46.510 87.170 49.770 98.470 26.320 55.284 98.470
Sodium (mg/l) 125.400 109.600 134.600 138.200 168.300 129.200 167.100 109.600 138.914 168.300
m-alcality (mg/l) 46.400 27.900 36.600 39.300 116.600 57.300 130.000 27.900 64.871 130.000
p-alcality (mg/l)

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Carbonates
(CO3 ) (mg/l)
Bicarbonates
(HCO3 ) (mg/l) 283.100 100.190 223.300 239.700 711.300 349.500 793.000 100.190 385.727 793.000
Total
mineralizatio
n (mg/l) 756.105 340.269 552.815 604.378 1241.023 749.249 1426.330 340.269 810.024 1426.330

*In the Appendix 8 are shown the tables that present the data of hydro chemical
characteristic on the first and second lamination aquifer and the bottom aquifer, examined in the
period of 2000/2001year. Detail analyses of these parameters are shown in the assessment
chapter.
The Table No.5.8 is summary of the Tables No.:5.7, and tables from the appendix 8, and
present the physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater from all aquifers in the
open pit mine Brod-Gneotino. These parameters are compared with the permitted
concentrations according to the World Bank Environment, health and safety guidelines.

Table No. 5.8 Physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the open pit
mine Brod-Gneotino

Concentration Permit
Parameter Unit concentration
From To according WBE1
Residual chlorine (mg/l) 0.000 0.000
pH 6.120 9.430 6-9
eH (mS/cm) 382.200 8005.000
Nitrates like nitrogen (mg/l) 0.008 0.008
Chlorides (mg/l) 15.000 1310.000
Sulphates (mg/l) 2.500 100.500
Iron (mg/l) 0.060 2.293 2.00
Manganese (mg/l) 0.007 0.620
Calcium (mg/l) 16.000 668.000
Magnesium (mg/l) 7.200 146.400
Total hardness (dHo) 8.400 145.200
Carbonate hardness (dHo) 7.820 184.900
Cooper (mg/l) 0.001 0.023 0.30
Zinc (mg/l) 0.017 1.414 1.00
Lead (mg/l) 0.006 0.590 0.60
Cadmium (mg/l) 0.000 0.000 0.10
Cobalt (mg/l) 0.001 0.010
Nickel (mg/l) 0.001 0.012 0.50
Chromium 6+ (mg/l) 0.000 0.000 0.05
Chromium total (mg/l) 0.001 0.014 1.00
Strontium (mg/l) 0.019 0.896
Potassium (mg/l) 26.320 218.540
Sodium (mg/l) 109.600 218.540
m-alkalinity (mg/l) 27.900 657.000
Bicarbonates (HCO3) (mg/l) 100.190 4007.000
Total mineralization (mg/l) 127.970 6172.190
1
WBE - World Bank Environment, health and safety guidelines
According to the analysis of the data for the quality of the groundwater, the following can
be concluded:
Water from the coal deposit, according to the physical – chemical and bacteriological
characteristics, can be used for technological necessities and for irrigation. It could be used as

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drinking water after processes of disinfection and other treatments for eliminating iron, zinc and
lead.
According to the final results, which are compared with permitted concentrations of WBE
(Table No.5.8), it can be concluded that the concentration of the measured parameters are
within the permitted levels.
The parameters of COD, TOC, BOD, phosphates, nitrates are not determined.
Here also should be mentioned that the water from Suvodol are not analyzed and are
discharged directly into Crna Reka.

5.3.3 Hydrological conditions and surface water

The open coal pit mine Brod-Gneotino belongs to the river basin of Crna Reka. The Crna
Reka with it′s tributaries belongs to the river basin of Reka Vardar, which flows into the Aegean
Sea. The riverbed of Crna Reka (Figure 5.17) was regulated in the 70-ies for the protection of
the local valleys against flooding.

Figure 5.19 Crna Reka

Current surface water Out of all the hydrological appearances, the most important is the
permanent surface current of Crna Reka, which flows south from the open pit coal mine Brod-
Gneotino. In this region of Crna Reka, there is hydrological station at Skocivir around 10 km east
from the mine.
The station Skocivir is in the Frame of establishing modern monitoring systems for the
surveillance of the quantity and quality of the surface water of Republic of Macedonia (RIMSYS″
River Monitoring System of Macedonia″, project).

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Table No. 5.9 Minimal monthly flow of Crna Reka at the hydrological station Skocivir, for
the period 1996-2000

MINIMAL FLOW:
Qmin.
3
No year I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII m /s

1 1995 3,80 9,80 8,82 12,20 12,80 2,84 2,68 2,60 3,40 9,60 4,75 7,74 2,60
2 1996 16,70 21,20 25,60 40,50 22,20 5,50 3,00 2,13 3,80 5,20 6,69 17,20 2,13
3 1997 16,70 13,80 16,00 21,20 13,30 4,00 2,68 2,84 2,68 2,68 9,00 10,80 2,68
4 1998 12,60 13,50 17,50 15,20 14,70 7,74 4,00 2,68 2,92 4,15 6,35 13,30 2,68
5 1999 13,30 20,00 36,00 47,90 13,80 6,52 3,80 2,84 2,60 3,60 4,15 12,60 2,60
6 2000 12,80 15,00 24,80 23,80 11,90 4,45 3,20 2,68 2,36 2,76 3,30 3,60 2,36
7 2001 4,99 5,33 4,44 4,44 5,72 2,45 2,00 2,00 2,40 2,71 3,00 2,30 2,00
8 2002 4,33 6,37 5,59 12,20 11,40 3,38 2,57 2,57 3,38 10,60 8,04 8,58 2,57
9 2003 38,00 29,90 21,70 28,50 21,10 10,10 4,00 4,10 3,92 3,92 8,39 8,39 3,92
10 2004 15,40 21,70 24,40 29,20 22,30 14,30 5,59 4,22 4,00 4,99 6,37 8,77 4,00

Qmin. 4,33 5,33 4,44 4,44 5,72 2,45 2,00 2,00 2,36 2,68 3,00 2,30 2,00

Minimal monthly flow Minimal flow per year

7,00 7,00

6,00 6,00

5,00 5,00

4,00 4,00

3,00 3,00

2,00 2,00

1,00 1,00

0,00 0,00
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Figure 5.20 Minimal monthly flow and minimal flow per year at the hydrological station
Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000

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Table No. 5.10 Maximum monthly flow of Crna Reka at the hydrological station Skocivir,
for the period 1996-2000

MAXIMUM FLOW:
Qmax
3
No. year I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII m /s

1 1995 31,00 43,20 29,50 36,00 23,80 6,86 5,05 3,90 2,92 4,00 6,35 12,40 43,20
2 1996 126,00 133,00 124,00 55,10 69,00 22,20 7,03 23,50 13,10 11,70 32,20 70,80 133,00
3 1997 48,60 19,10 31,80 39,50 80,70 13,80 6,18 5,20 4,15 11,50 20,00 59,50 80,70
4 1998 27,60 96,40 40,00 44,30 52,80 34,30 11,20 44,90 8,10 10,80 71,70 116,00 116,00
5 1999 148,00 208,00 100,00 90,20 63,40 14,50 11,90 8,82 8,10 11,00 50,70 52,10 208,00
6 2000 41,00 124,00 115,00 58,00 38,00 11,50 6,01 4,45 3,80 8,64 7,38 6,18 124,00
7 2001 8,96 8,77 8,58 18,40 18,40 5,46 3,06 3,56 3,74 3,29 4,10 5,20 18,40
8 2002 7,52 11,80 34,00 40,00 22,00 13,70 7,52 5,33 32,00 48,00 11,60 147,00 147,00
9 2003 111,00 93,00 29,50 59,40 42,80 24,40 12,20 6,84 5,10 23,50 14,90 23,80 111,00
10 2004 93,00 71,10 39,60 56,20 53,80 36,40 13,50 8,77 7,00 11,00 20,90 24,40 93,00

Qmax. 148,00 208,00 124,00 90,20 80,70 36,40 13,50 44,90 32,00 48,00 71,70 147,00 208,00

Maximum monthly flow Maximum flow per year

250,00 250,00

200,00 200,00

150,00 150,00

100,00 100,00

50,00 50,00

0,00 0,00
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Figure 5.21 Maximum monthly flow and maximum flow per year at the hydrological
station Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000

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Table No. 5.11 Average monthly flow of Crna Reka at the hydrological station Skocivir, for
the period 1996-2000

AVERAGE FLOW:
Qsr.
3
No. year I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII m /s
1 1995 10,91 13,03 10,77 15,4 19,9 7,948 4,266 4,964 6,34 9,511 7,618 26,59 11,44
2 1996 33,68 41,55 43,01 55,08 37,78 13,25 4,52 3,84 5,68 7,61 10,57 27,62 23,68
3 1997 26,78 15,02 18,90 29,01 32,04 8,82 3,49 3,62 3,14 5,52 12,22 26,75 15,44
4 1998 16,09 35,69 23,10 20,56 23,26 16,54 6,19 3,84 4,44 6,17 15,54 29,56 16,75
5 1999 33,43 54,66 57,25 61,55 32,50 10,38 6,24 3,84 4,33 5,02 18,59 17,85 25,47
6 2000 19,57 36,13 42,08 34,18 21,84 8,28 3,98 3,01 2,75 4,59 4,30 4,53 15,44
7 2001 5,63 7,03 6,50 12,33 8,53 3,56 2,43 2,33 2,70 2,99 3,23 3,47 5,06
8 2002 5,06 7,70 14,23 20,43 14,95 6,77 3,57 3,36 8,73 19,90 9,91 48,93 13,63
9 2003 70,61 46,29 25,67 38,40 29,35 15,37 5,94 5,05 4,37 8,96 11,27 11,59 22,74
10 2004 27,82 29,91 29,50 38,07 34,65 24,39 8,97 5,79 4,73 7,07 11,59 11,25 19,48

Qsr. 26,52 30,44 28,92 34,40 26,10 11,93 5,04 3,85 4,54 7,54 10,80 20,17 17,52

Average flow per year


Average monthly flow
40,00 30,00

35,00
25,00

30,00

20,00
25,00

20,00 15,00

15,00
10,00

10,00

5,00
5,00

0,00 0,00
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Figure 5.22 Average monthly flow and average flow per year at the hydrological station
Skocivir, for the period 1996-2000

5.3.3.1 Quality of the water in Crna Reka

The quality of the water of Crna Reka is monitored in Skocivir station. According to the
law, the quality of the water at Skocivir station is of class III. During the period of analysis, the 10
measurements that where taken revealed that the quality of the water at the station Skocivir is
proven to be of class V, which shows that legal requirements were exceeded. The National
Legal Requirements are presented in chapter 2. At station Skocivir, organoleptic parameters
show class II of the water.
The color of the water is of low turbidity to turbid. From the indexes of acidity, pH values
are of quality class I. The alkalinity in the station Skocivir is with values of class I-III, while values
downstream are of class I-II.

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From the indexes of the oxygen regime, at the monitoring station Skocivir: the dissolved
oxygen is proven to be more often in small concentrations (from 0.0-9.05 mg/) the saturation of
the water with oxygen (from 0.0-87.8% O2) and BOD5 with very high concentrations (from 10.50-
57.80mg/L O2) - values proved to be of class I-II.
The chemical consumption of oxygen COD is (4.96-24.80 mg/L O2). The dissolved oxygen
is permanently present with high contents (8.29-14.34 mg/L O2) - class I. The super saturation is
also permanent (81.7-152.6 % O2)-class IV-III, BOD5 (2.66-5.01 mg/L O2) class III-II. The
chemical consumption of oxygen is at values proven to be of class II.
The total dissolved substances have values of class I-II- Skocivir. The total suspended
substances have values of class I-I. From the 5 measured eutrophication indexes, it can be
stated that these parameters have values proven to be of class III (mesosaprobic α-β) at station
Skocivir.
The chemical indexes of fecal pollution: NH4 and NO3- are of values estimated at class III-
IV at station Skocivir. Downstream only the NO3- is of values estimated to be at class III-IV.
Microbiological parameters are not measured.
Above presented text is given in the Tables below:

Table No. 5.12 the limited values, maximum allowed values or concentrations of
organoleptic indexes

Index Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V m.s


Skocivir
1.Visible waste None None None None - -
substances
2. Visible color None None Low Turbid - -
turbidity
3.Suspended <10 10-30 30-60 60-100 >100 Between
substances mg/L IV and V
class
4.Noticible smell None None Low Turbidity - -
turbidity
5.True color <15 15-25 26-40 >40 >40 -
mg/L Pt
6.Turbidity NTU <0.5 0.5-1.0 1.1-3.0 >3.0 >3.0 -

Table No. 5.13 the limited values, maximum allowed values or concentrations for
acidification

Index Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V m.s


Skocivir
1.pH 6.5-8.5 6.5-6.3 6.3-6.0 6.0-5.3 <5.3 I class
2.Alcality mg/L >200 200-100 100-20 20-10 <10 From I-III
class

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Table No. 5.14 the limited values, maximum allowed values or concentrations for oxygen
regime

Index Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V m.s


Skocivir
1.Dissolwed >8.00 7.99-6.00 5.99-4.00 3.99-2.00 <1.99 From I-V
oxygen mg/L O2
2.BOD5 mg/L O2 <2.00 2.01-4.00 4.01-7.00 7.01-15.0 >15.01 V class
3.HOD, mg/L <2.50 2.51-5.00 5.01-10.0 10.01-20.0 >20.0 From I- V

Table No. 5.15 the limited values or concentrations of the indexes of eutrophication

Index Class I Class II Class III Class IV Class V m.s


Skocivir
1.Saprobic Oligosaprobic Mesosaprobic Mesosaprobic α− Polysaprobic III class
values β−α α−β Mesosaprobic
according poly
to
Liebmann
2.Biological Oligotropic Mesotropic Moderate- Eutrophic Hypertrophy III class
productivity tropic

*Values in the tables are from Official gazette of Macedonia - March 1999, No.18-pg.1165.

Figure 5.23 the monitoring station Skocivir - Crna Reka

* see Appendix 9- quality of the water in Crna Reka


Besides Crna Reka, there are no other significant water flows or drainage channels.

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5.3.3.2 Treating and monitoring of the water from the TPP Bitola

Monitoring of the water is done four times a year, especially before inflow into Crna Reka.

Table No. 5.16 Physical-chemical analyzes of the waste water in TPP Bitola
analyzed on 10.04.2006 year
Unit of Obtained
INDEX
measurement values
O
Total hardness dH 57,40
o
carbonate hardness dH 3,08
o
calcium hardness dH 11,20
Alkalinity -"m" mVal 1,1
-"p" mVal 0,00
Silicate-SIO2 mg/l 12
colloidal silicium acid mg/l
Dry residue on 105oS mg/l
filtrated water 1640
infiltrated water 1679
Calcinations residue on 600oS mg/l
filtrated water 1450
infiltrated water 1486
o
Calcinations loss on 600 C mg/l
filtrated water 190
infiltrated water 193
Suspended material mg/l
total 39
organic 3
inorganic

Unit of Obtained
INDEX
measurement values
Visible waste material mg/l
Color Rt-Co scale
Odor
rN value 7,62
Conductivity µS/cm 1600
HOD mg/l 48,8
KMnO4 mg/l 31,6
Suspended material mg/l 39
Dry residue of filtrated water mg/l 1640
Anion
Unit of Obtained
PARAMETARS
measurement values
-
Chlorine CL mg/l 7,5
2
Sulfate SO4 - mg/l 251
3-
Phosphate PO4 mg/l 0,04
Nitrite NO2-N mg/l 0,004

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Nitrate NO3-N mg/l 2,2


Total nitrogen mg/l 2
Phenols mg/l 0,13
Kation
Unit of Obtained
PARAMETARS
measurement values
Ammonia NH4+ mg/l 0,13
Calcium Ca2+ mg/l 80
Magnesium Mg2+ mg/l 200
Total iron mg/l 0,09
Manganese Mn2+ mg/l 0,59
Lead Pb2+ mg/l 0,77
Zinc Zn2+ mg/l 0,04
Nickel Ni2+ mg/l 0,2
Cooper Cu2+ mg/l 0,01
Cadmium Cd2+ mg/l 0,01
Chrome Cr3+;6+ mg/l 0,01
According to the final results, compared with promised concentrations of WBE (table
5.16, and Appendix 10), it can be concluded that the concentration of the measured parameters
are within the permitted levels. TPP “Bitola” has its own system for monitoring, which is carried
out every day for the chemical parameters. The results of the monitoring carried out are sent to
The Ministry of Environment. TPP “Bitola” is following the quality of ground water and measures
the level, with a piezometer every week.
TPP “Bitola” has its own monitoring system for surface and under ground water and
carries out stability control on parameters of the water, and especially controls the water intakes
at Crna Reka. Released water always corresponds with the category of the water in the river
where it is released.
There are two different types of outlet water which are released from the TPP “Bitola”.
The first type of water is chemically polluted. This water is collected in a reservoir. When
the reservoir is filled, its pH value is examined for defining future treatment of the water. This
water will be treated either with acid or base, depending on its current pH value. When the
treatment is finished, the water should have pH values between 6 and 9.
After this treatment, the water goes into the settlement. When the deposition from the
process of neutralization is finished, the water from the settlement can be used in two ways.
One way is to lead this water to a channel or to use it for sprinkling the ash during the
transport. In the TPP “Bitola” the second way is used up to 99%. Part of the water, which is
treated before is discharged into Crna Reka.

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5.4 GENERAL LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTIC

Figure 5.24 the area of the proposed open pit mine Brod-Gneotino
The area of the proposed open pit mine (see Figure 5.24) is composed of relatively hilly
plains. It is located southeast of the city of Bitola, near the villages Gneotino and Brod and the
watershed of Crna Reka. Crna Reka is a river with narrow riverbed and the major recipient for all
types of wastewater (from the mines and municipal wastewater). This ecosystem is under great
anthropogenic pressure. Due to that there is a permanent decrease of the river’s water quality*.
The vegetation near the Crna Reka is represented mostly by wild Almond perennial trees
(Amygdalus communis), which are short of leaves and some pear trees (Pyrus sp.). It is
intended to plant Robinia trees (Robina pseudoacacia) instead of Almond.
The landscape around the mining area is characterized by monoculture plantations and
parts with acres with scrubby hedges or Almond threes (Prunus amygdalus) at the boundaries.
The surrounding is characterized by grassy meadows. The rest of the natural vegetation is
mainly degraded (forests, grasslands, unrepresentative perennial shrub and weed vegetation).
The environment of the open pit mine is of low ecological value.
Because of agricultural activities and expansion of intensive and extensive agriculture, the
landscape has significantly changed. Northern from the TPP Bitola the most represented
agricultural activities concentrate on: maize (corn) (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and
other cereals.
In the Pelagonian Basin anthropogenic vegetation is strongly manifested in the agricultural
crops in the region, which include: grasslands, grains, maize, potatoes, sugarcane, sunflowers,
fruits and vegetables. This is the dominant vegetation in this area. There are also plantations of
industrial plants like: tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris
subsp.saccharifera) and grain plantations (maize, wheat, barley (Hordeum Vulgare) etc).

5.4.1 Mine Surrounding Flora and Fauna

There are no protected areas within the area of the foreseen open pit mine or within its
near surrounding. The closest national natural park is Pelister, which is located at 700-2601
meters above sea level and is in the west of the project area.

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The natural vegetation in the surrounding area is consisted of sparse to dense mixed
coniferous forests and mixed deciduous and coniferous forests. This is the dominant vegetation
in the mountainous region, which belongs to two bio-geographical sub-regions: the
Mediterranean and the European.
In the sub-Mediterranean region are found: Verbascum macedonicum (in the IUCN 1997
Red List of Threatened Plants it is shown as Rare species**), Verbascum herzogii and Cytisus
lupinofolius.
Characteristic fauna for the sub-Mediterranean continental province is: Parus
lugabris, Merops apiaster, Dendocopus syriacus, Steptopelia decaocta etc., and reptiles are
represented by: Lizard (Lacerta viridis), Terrestrial Turtle (Testudo hermanii), Vipera
ammodytes, Elaphe Situla etc.
In the mountainous region, the middle European forest province is characterized by
climate zone vegetation of mountain beech forest (Fagetum montanum Em), with dominance
of Fagus moesiaca. The shrub flora is significantly developed and the growing flora is
represented just by shadow flora.
The endangered forest vegetation in Suvodol mine, is Juglando-Aesculetum
hippocastani*.

*BSAP – 2004 – Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of the Republic of Macedonia – MoEPP –
2004
**CSB – 2003 – Country Study for Biodiversity of the Republic of Macedonia – MoEPP – 2003 –
First National Report
Characteristic fauna for this province is:
− Amphibian and Reptiles represented by: Vipera berus and Bufo bufo
− Mammals are represented by: Ursus arctos, Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) and
− Birds are represented by: Parus ater, Tetrao Urogalus
The reduction of some fauna species in the mountainous region is increasing as a result of
the anthropogenic factor (intensive forests exploitation): bear, wolf and wild boars can be found
only in the denser forests, but fox and rabbit are often found in the forest region.

5.4.2 Flora and Fauna on the mining site

The site is covered with grassy vegetation, wild flowers and with only few shrubs and
trees: Some species of leguminous, Poa violacea, Berberis vulgaris, Larkspur (Consolida
regalis), Klamath Weed or Goat Weed (Hypericum perforatum).
Fauna on the mining site is represented by invertebrate species: Coleptera, Lepidoptera,
Arachnoidea, Nematoda. Vertebrata species are represented by:
− Amphibians (Amphibia) and Reptiles (Reptilia) (Terrestrial turtle – Testudo
hermanii; Lizard – Lacerta viridis, Elaphe Situla, Vipera berus, Vipera ammodytes,Bufo
bufo etc)
− Aves (Aves) (Sparrow – Passer domesticus, Merops apiaster, Dendocopus
syriacus, Steptopelia decaocta, Parus afer, Parus lugubris, Tetrao urogalus etc) and
− Mammals (Mammalia ) (Hedgehog (Erinaceus sp.), Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris).
On the project site there are no protected, threatened or rear reptiles, mammals, birds or
insects.
The following table is in accordance with the table that shows Threatened Bird Species in
the Republic of Macedonia. Threatened species means species evaluated as: E - Endangered

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and V - Vulnerable. If the European Threat status is provisional, it is indicated between


brackets.**
This Table 5.17 shows the possible threatened bird species in the area of proposed open
pit mine.

Table No. 5.17 Threatened bird species in the area of proposed open pit mine

No. Scientific Name Macedonian English Common European IUCN


Common Name Name Threat Category
1. Alauda arvensis Polska Chuchuliga Skylark V
2. Anas acuta Patka Lastovicharka Pin Tail V
3. Anthus campestris Polska Trepetlivka Tawny Pipit V
4. Aquila heliaca Carski Orel; Orel Imperial Eagle E
Krstash
5. Ardea purpurea Purpurna Chapja Purple Heron V
6. Ardeola ralloides Grivesta Chapja; Squacco Heron V
Zholta Chapja
7. Ciconia ciconia Bel Shtrk White Stork V
8. Circus cyaneus Polska Eja Hen Harrier V
9. Coturnix coturnix Potpoloshka Quail V
10. Emberizia hortulana Polska Strnarka Ortolan Bunting (V)
11. Hippolais pallida Sivo-maslinest Olivaceous Warbler (V)
Grmushar
12. Ixobrychus minutus Mal Voden Bik Little Bittern (V)
13. Lanius senator Crvenoglavo Svrache Woodchat Shrike V
14. Perdix perdix Erebica Polka Grey Partridge V

*SEE APPENDIX 11- LANDSCAPE AND BIODIVERSITY ON SITE

5.5 DETERMINED LIMIT VALUES OF NOISE


The current condition with the noise in Republic of Macedonia, is tried to be regulated with
putting into force proper Legal Regulative. The proposal Law on Noise is in a procedure for
adoption. This law is coordinated with the EU Regulative.
The noise in the environment is regulated with the Law of work protection. The vibrations
are not regulated with regulation.
In the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino the noise is produced and emitted from the machines,
installations, equipment, and other means, which are intended for providing good working
conditions for coal exploitation.
In Republic of Macedonia equipment for coal surface exploitation is not produced.
Because of that, the limited values for levels of noise for that kind of equipment, according the
EU Directive 2000/14/EC from 03.01.2006 will be mentioned.

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Table No. 5.18 Permitted levels of noise emitted from the equipment

Equipment dB

Compaction machines 105


Tracked:dozers,loaders, excavator-loaders 103
Wheeled:dozers, loaders, excavator-
loaders, 101
dumpers, graders, mobile
cranes
compaction machines
Excavators, construction winches, motor
hoes 93
Hand-held concrete-breakers and picks 105
Tower cranes 105
Welding and power generators 105
Compressors 97

* Source: Directive2000/14/EC
According to the Ordinance of measures and normative for protection from work in the
working offices, the limited values in dB (A) are determined:
A. Noise emitted from machines, tools, with which the workers handled,
B. Noise emitted from tools with which the workers do not handled,
C. Noise which is produced unnatural sources (ventilation or air conditioning, nearby
production, industrial activity, road traffic etc.

Table No 5.19 Permitted levels of noise

Limited values in dB(A) A B C


Physical work, without demand for mental tension and notice of the surroundings 90 84 80
Physical work, directed to precise and concentration, temporary following and control
of the surrounding with hearing, managing with transport device 80 74 70
Work that is being done after often voice commands and acoustical signals, work that 70 64
demands permanent following of the surrounding with hearing, routine work from
mostly mental character

Routine work from mostly mental character, which demands concentration 70 64 55

Mental work , directed towards control of work of group of people, which need mostly 60 50
physical work, work that needs concentration or direct communication with telephone
Mental work , directed towards control of work of group of people, which does mostly 55 45
mental work, work that demands concentration, direct communication with phone
speaking
Mental work, which requires big concentration, excluding from surrounding, precise 40

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psychomotorics or communication with group of people


Mental work, as producing conception, work connected with great responsibility, 35
communication for agreement with group of people

*Source: Ordinance of measures and normative for work protection of noise in working
premises

All above mentioned activities, conditions and situations will be present during the
exploitation of the coal of the exploitation area in the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino.
From above written, it could be seen that the highest permitted level of noise in the
working surrounding (limited level), as protection of damage for the sense of hearing, a value of
90 dB (A) is determined. The allowed time of disposition of noise, during exposition on the
highest permitted level of noise from 90dB (A) is determined as an 8 hour day exposition. This
value is foreseen in the Technical project for special measures for protection during work (1987)
during the designing of the II phase of production of the open pit mine “Suvodol” of TPP “Bitola”.

5.5.1 Determined limited values of vibration

In the area of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino as a result of the exploitation equipment
will be emitted vibration. Besides the fact that there is no legislative in the Republic of
Macedonia, the emitted vibration in this area deserved attention.
The vibration can have impact on the workers health. In Republic of Macedonia there is no
regulative for protection of vibrations in the working environment. Because of that, here, as
necessary for apply some regulations from the EU-Directive 2002/44/EC will be pointed.
Because of that is very important to be mentioned exposes of some parts or all body of the
workers on the vibration.
* Appendix 12- NOISE AND VIBRATIONS-EXPECTED FROM “MAN- Takraf”

5.6 STRUCTURE OF THE INHABITAT REGIONS, SOCIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL


PARAMETERS OF THE AREA
There are private properties present throughout the region. These are not entirely
segregated from industrial activities. Dwelling types vary from multi-story apartment buildings in
the City of Bitola to one- family homes in villages.
There are frequently green areas associated with dwellings. Virtually all single family
homes have green areas.
The zone in which the open pit coal mines of Suvodol and Brod-Gneotino are located is
very poorly populated.
The structure of the inhabitants in Brod and Gneotino villages is given in the Table 5.19.

Table No. 5.20 The structure of the inhabitants in Brod and Gneotino villages

Brod Gneotino Project Area


Population density 57 32 None
House hold 25 13 None
Houses 60 22 None
Inhabitants on the Only in the mine circle
project area

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Number of Around 700 employees


inhabitants

The area where the opening of the coal pit mine Brod- Gneotino is planned is between the
villages Brod (municipality Bac) and Gneotino (municipality Novaci) and is not inhabited at all, so
there is not any need for dislocation of these inhabited places.
Because the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino is located in the municipality of Novaci and
the village Novaci is in the nearest surrounding of the mine-6.9 km from the village Gneotino, the
number of it inhabitants will be mentioned. From the whole registered population in the
municipality of Novaci, 96.5% of the inhabitants are present in the place of usual residence.3%
of the population is absent elsewhere in the Republic of Macedonia, in order to work, attending
school etc.2.0%, in order to work, attending school are abroad.
Although the conditions are not very good, the main activity of the local inhabitants before
the excavation started is agriculture and cattle rising.

5.7 CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL INHERITANCE

The territory of the Republic of Macedonia has throughout the historical periods always
been a cross roads of very important communications because of its characteristic geographical
location. That is why a one of a kind presence of different civilization cultures is observable. All
of them, starting from the Neolith, left features and traces from its existence, in form of rich
inheritance, with exceptional cultural, historical, artistic and other values.
Pedological region is very important and a rich area with that kind of content.
The opening of the open mining coal pit Brod-Gneotino will not cause any need and will
not cause any conditions for the destruction of the existence of goods of cultural and
historical inheritance.
According to this, the existing conditions suggest, that the scope of works and production
processes of the open coal pit mine Brod-Gneotino, can't affect any consolidated and
registered species of cultural and historical inheritance.

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6. IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS


AND PRESENTATION OF MITIGATION MESAURES

6.1 IMPACTS ON THE RELIEF


Relief changes have a multi functional and multi dimensional impact on the scooped
region.
Active excavation of the overlaying soil to reach the coal layer could replace huge ground
massive and cause permanent changes to the countryside.
Mine action will cause changes to the natural relief due to the excavation and external and
internal disposal of the overburden soil (disposal sites). In the case of Brod Gneotino, the bigger
quantity of the overburden will be returned to the excavated hole, the ‘internal disposal’. The
external disposal sites I and II (see Appendix 13) will be used for delaying of the overburden
from the beginning. The disposal of large amounts of overburden results in the creation of a new
‘hilly’ relief.
For the exploitation of coal from the open pit mine of “Brod-Gneotino” barren soil-
overburden must be taken away to •n average depth of 50-80 m (the cover layer on the coal)
which causes changes in the morphology of the soil structure. During this process, natural and
biologically reproductive soils will be changed into new, artificially made soils.
According to the technology of excavation used, a total of 69.100.000 m3 of overburden
will be disposed in external disposal sites, and 225.760.104 m3 of overburden will be disposed in
the internal disposal site. One part of the digging hole will stay in the form of an open pit, which
will be later filled with water from precipitation.
The measures which are foreseen for relief changes are described more in detail in the
chapter of restoration.

6.2 IMPACT ON THE GEOLOGY AND SOILS


6.2.1 Description of the expected impacts emissions especially on geological
composition and groundwater
Soil

The potential negative influence of mining activities on the soil structure (not on the
geology) is reflected in the transformation of the geomorphology in the area and around the
deposit and new formations during the process of the excavation. In these processes, reverse
and mixture to the litho-logical units can be expected. The layers on the bottom parts may be
relocated to the surface and the surface layers may be relocated to the bottom parts.
With disposal of the excavated material in the external landfill the orography and
stratigraphical characteristic of the field will be changed. During the disposal processes, the
pliocene layers of the deeper parts will be situated above surface quarternary sediments.
After completion of the exploitation a big depression will be formed (in part of internal
waste disposal ), and changes to the stratigraphy of the litho logical parts can be expected.
With aim the stratigraphical position of the litho logical parts on the soil to be protected are
preferable the overburden to be disposed separately.
Separately disposal on the overburden must be carried out to the external and the internal
disposal landfills. This way of separately disposal on the overburden gives chance the possible
mixing between the layers to be minimized.
With aim the mixing between layers to be minimized is recommended the roof layers to be
disposed on the bottom and above it to be disposed the humus cover.

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The returning on the excavated soil (after the process of excavation) on the previous state
will be done successfully if the disposal on the overburden is made on the proper way.
Before starting the excavation of the topsoil, all indications for a possible previous
contamination should be explored and registered. In the regions where the open pit mine is
located there is no industrial zone, therefore industrial contamination is not registered. Because
in this area the land is used for agriculture purposes (crops, wine origin), there is possibility for
some pesticide pollutants. In case the topsoil is polluted, it must be disposed separately in an
external deposit segment. Such a special disposal site for polluted topsoil is projected and
located in the west part of the mine “Brod – Gneotino”. Also during coal exploitation in the open
pit mine Brod-Gneotino will be important to be carried out observation.
The characteristics of the external and internal disposal are described in the chapter 4.
The ways how the surface of the deposits will be restored is described in the chapter 6.13.

Groundwater

With aim the quality of the coal to be protected and the process of excavation to be much
easier it is recommended to drain the location where the exploitation will be done.
During the process of exploitation the drain will be carried out with wells, drainage
channels and pumps. During this process the level of the groundwater will be brought down.
Also this will be reached with proper canalization of the groundwater and its discharge into Crna
Reka.
With removing of the hydro insulator layers (clay stones, clays and coal) there is possibility
for groundwater pollution as a result of infiltration of some pollutant substances. Because the
coal layers will be exposed on the atmospheric impacts (rainfall precipitation, snow), there is
possibility for increasing the concentration of the sulphates in the groundwater. This possibility of
groundwater pollution should be assessed during the process of the excavation and after the
excavation.
When the process of the excavation is finished, in the open hole will be formed artificial
lake. In this lake there is possibility for mixing between groundwater and precipitation.
The returning of the layers excavated before into the previous hole is very important,
because on that way will be avoided mixing between different aquifer.
The results of the quality of the ground water before starting the process of the excavation
and exploitation are given in the Baseline data chapter.
According to the parameters of the groundwater quality which were carried out before can
be concluded that all the parameters are in the limits of the maximum permitted concentration.
The ground water from the different aquifer has high conductivity values from 382.2.-
8002.00 µS/cm which is fixed by high concentrations of sodium (Na=109.6-218.54 mg/l),
potassium (K=26.32-218.54 mg/l), calcium (Ca=16-668 mg/l) and magnesium (Mg=7.2-146.4
mg/l). The concentrations of heavy metals are quite low. The concentration of the iron is
Fe=0.06-2.293 mg/l and permitted concentration according to WBE is 2.00 mg/l. The
concentration of the Cu 0.001-0.023 mg/l, the MPC according to WBE is 0.30 mg/l. The
concentration of the Zn 0.017-1.414 mg/l, the MPC according to WBE is 1mg/l. The
concentration of the Pb is 0.006-0.590 mg/l and MPC is 0.6 mg/l. Also the presents of the Ni
and total Cr are in the maximum permitted concentration. The value of pH is from 6.12-9.43. The
MPC according to WBE is from 6-9. The analyses revealed that no treatment is necessary
prior to discharge to the Crna Reka.
The quantity of the groundwater which will be pumped is estimated at approximately
500 l/sec. The flow of the river will be increased by discharging of this water.
This river belongs to class II or III, in dependence of the quantitative parameters. Because
the pumped water is chemically clean, the water quality in Crna Reka will be improved.

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During the exploitation of the mine, permanent measures (of quantitative and qualitative
aspect) will be carried out, and this will be one segment in general monitoring system.

6.3 IMPACT ON SURFACE WATER

Generally, the influence from mine activities on surface water is given through the change
of water quality.
In the process of excavation of mineral raw material through surface exploitation, comes
to creation of big open surfaces and exposition of some hyper reactive minerals.
Most often these are the sulphide minerals, as for example pyrite which often appears in
significant concentrations in coal. When these minerals will come in touch with water, oxidation
of S (sulphate) can occur, which can increase the acidity of the water. Because of the increased
level of acidity, the concentration of iron and other metals in the water increases also.
The recent open surfaces are more often exposed on erosion, as a result of what comes
to significant increasing of the concentration of hard particles.
These and similar appearances directly influence the water quality and the living world in
it. As a result of acidity increase, the concentration of metals and sediment comes to reduction
of the oxygen in the water, reducing its transparency and block of basic processes of exchange
of materials in the water ecosystem.
Because of the connection between the water ecosystems, and in dependence of
concentration of damages, the pollution can spread and affect waters in a wider area, which
significantly overreaches the limits of mine activities. In the case of Crna Reka, no
transboundary effects are expected, because it flows into river Vardar which flows into the
Aegean Sea.
Moreover, because of the specific role of water in the whole ecosystem, every negative
change of the water quality is manifested with degradation and violence of the whole ecosystem.
For protection of the water (precipitation) which will flow into Crna Reka, drainage
channels are foreseen. This will reduce the contact of the precipitation water with the coal and
the process of acidification from the mine to minimum.
According the Technical documentation for the open pit mine Brod- Gneotino, the drainage
channels are foreseen.
There are two kinds of drainage channels:
- drainage channels- periphery channels, for precipitation
- drainage channels- floor channels, for precipitation and ground water
Precipitation which directly falls on the excavation site washes mineral particles from the
surface or ground soil and enters into the river directly without any treatment. Although this is a
natural process it is recommended to construct drainage channels.
The drainage channels- periphery channels for precipitation will be build around the mine
to collect the precipitation water. The water that will be collected in these drainage channels is
released directly into Crna Reka, without any treatment.
The drainage channels- floor channels are built into the mine. These drainage channels
will collect the water (precipitation and ground water) into settlement lake-central water collector.
The settlement lake has double role, to provide more efficient working of the pumps and at the
same time to do mechanical purification of the water. After sedimentation of the collected water
in the settlement lake, the treated water from the upper levels will be pumped into Crna Reka.
It is proposed to monitor the waters that are pumped from the settlement. At that way
fulfilling quality of the water is reached, from the aspect of their mechanical cleanliness. It is

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proposed to monitor the waters that are pumped from the settlement for chemical parameters. If
the class of the water from the settlement lake overreaches II class (The class of Crna Reka,
according the Regulation for Categorization of Water “Official Gazette of R. Macedonia”
no.18/99) it is recommended to treat the water for reaching the proper class for the chemical
parameters.
Also in The Technical documentation of the open pit mine Brod- Gneotino it is proposed
that these channels will be cleaned from sediments, which may deposit.
Because there won’t be any chemical pollution from the mine, there won’t be any need for
chemical treatment of the water from the mine.

6.4 IMPACT ON THE AIR

There are mainly two kinds of air pollution resulting from open pit mining:
- exhaust gases from transportation vehicles (CO, NOx, hydrocarbons, lead)
- generation of particles (dust) from coal excavation, it’s transportation and storage of the
overburden.
CO is known as a gas that when in contact with hemoglobin forms carboxy-hemoglobin,
which is very stable compound. The result is that the transport of oxygen in the blood by
hemoglobin will be reduced. The affinity of CO to react with hemoglobin is 240 times higher than
the reaction with O2. The concentration of 60-120 ppm CO in the blood causes anemia.
The increased concentration of CO can result in reduction of working ability of the truck
drivers. The generation of CO results from incomplete combustion of fuel.
The total amount of CO gases depends on the number of vehicles, on the frequency of
truck movements and kind of fuel which will be used.
The nitrogen gases in concentrations between 10 to 20 ppm irritate the membrane of the
upper parts of the breathing organs. That can result in a higher risk of asthma, can cause allergy
and other diseases on breathing organs.
In the exhausting gasses of motor vehicles from the total amount of nitrogen oxides, the
NO is with concentration of 90-99%.
The NO2 irritates the breathing organs and causes cough and is exhausting the organism.
Because of its acid nature it makes visible changes on skin. In water is very good soluble and
form the nitric acid.
Dust particles can cause changes in the breathable organs. Particles with a size below
0.45 µm can enter into the lung and affect the alveolus. In worst cases asbestosis can occur. In
case of adsorption of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the
surface of the dust particles these compounds can be transported into the alveolus. They then
can be transported by active transport into the blood and in worst case cancer can occur.
Around 2 years ago a regulation was put in force in Macedonia to replace leaded fuel by
un-leaded fuel. Since that time no leaded fuel is on the Macedonian market available. Human
intoxications are therefore today most unlikely. However, since the regulation was put in force
few times ago lead residues might be determined in higher concentration at the border of the
roads. In Brod-Gneotino open pit mine mainly diesel fuel will be used that does not contain any
lead. However, incineration of diesel in trucks may result in generation of soot particles that can
be transported into the lung’s alveolar system when the particle size is below 0.45 µm (see
above).
Besides the possible negative influence on humans, the air pollution can have impacts on
the surrounding (increase of the acidity of the land and water, reducing the activities of micro-
organisms and reducing the mineralization of the nitrogen). The latter is not expected on Brod

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Gneotino open pit mine as the activities are restricted and only few trucks will be in use.
Nevertheless, the coal exploited from the mine will be incinerated in the TPP Bitola and will
contribute to air pollution due to generation of dust, NOx and SO2 gases. As the coal exploited
from has a relatively good quality and contains only 0.5 to 0.6 % of Sulphur the emission of SO2
will be in the range of the permitted levels and the immission as well. For more detailed
information on the emission of air pollution due to incineration of the coal refer to chapter
“Baseline Data”.
Concerning exposure of workers in the mine it seems not to be necessary to demand
protection equipment. The use of high quality fuel, modern truck and machine park with reduced
emissions of the above mentioned compounds and the installation of soot and fine particle filters
before the mufflers will be sufficient protection measures against possible intoxications of
workers. In addition it should be mentioned that mostly the workers are working on open space
where most of the exhaust gases will be rapidly diluted.
The process of excavation is another way the air could be polluted. The main problem
from excavation is dust emission. High dust generation is expected only when the dry top soil
and dry overburden is excavated. The deeper overburden, due to its contain of groundwater has
a water content of around 60 % and the coal of around 50 % of humidity. Due to this fact the
excavation of wet overburden and coal will only slightly contribute to dust generation.
In the process of excavation of dry overburden the creation of dust particles results from
crushing and separating the material from the compact mass. Some part of those particles
deposit very quickly in the mine circle. Those particles are of higher size, but the particles which
are smaller expanse in greater area.
The usage of contemporary systems for dust suppression (with aero-mechanical foam) is
possible to protect the air from pollution. The aero-mechanical foam is biodegradable.
The workers are protected by wearing masks.
The transport of the coal is done by conveyor belts, running on electrical power, so there
won’t be any exhausting gases. The whole length of the conveyor belts (10km, from the
excavation site to the reception point of TPP Bitola) will be covered, so there won’t be particle
dispersing.
The aero- mechanical foam will be used in the process of waste disposing to prevent dust
emissions.
To avoid dust emissions on the trial and road system during dry season the roads are
watered using a water-releasing-truck.
In conclusion it can be stated that the impacts on air pollution during excavation of
overburden and its deposition and during excavation of coal and its transport are only low.

6.5 MINING IMPACT ON BIODIVERSITY AND MITIGATION MEASURES

In southwestern Macedonia, a mining sector is represented by the extraction of coal. The


main activities causing negative impacts on biodiversity are: the opening of new mines,
excavation (as the proposed open pit mine) and pollution caused by wastewater from the
flotation process and from slag piles.
In many cases the facts of land degradation, land fragmentation, biodiversity lost and
many others permanent negative impacts, which are very difficult to restore, or not to restore at
all, are not taken into consideration.
To resolve this situation it is feasible to respect the national legislation for environmental
and natural protection as well as international regulation concerning these issues.
Regarding the existence of other mining activities in the area special attention should be
dedicated to the regulation of the processes of water erosion and the pollution of the surface
waters and water bodies from suspended particles (turbidity). The purpose is to avoid the

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possible negative consequences on the regime of existing water flows in the surrounding, on the
water quality and on the aquatic flora and fauna.
All impacts on the environment from the new open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino (soil,
surface and ground water, air) reflect on the biodiversity. Because of that, all impacts are
presented briefly, to see the impact on the biodiversity.
As it is mentioned in chapter 6 ‘impact assessment on the surface water’, significant
concentrations of sulphide compounds can be found in the coal. If these materials come in touch
with water, the S (sulphide) will be oxidized to sulphate, which can increase the acidity of water.
This can directly influence the water quality and the species living in it as well. Additional
oxidation processes (e.g. of heavy metals) can led to reduction of the oxygen in the water,
reducing its transparency and block of basic processes of exchange of materials in the water
ecosystem (Crna Reka).
In the zone of the pumping of ground waters the north and east part of the mine, it is
expected that from the pumping, the water level will decrease. That will effect on the surfaces in
the near area (150-200m). The land where it is expected that the water level from ground water
will reduce, will be expropriated, as protection zone.
The decrease of the groundwater level in the south due to excavation and pump off of
groundwater can (but must not) result in an increased groundwater flow velocity from the north
to south. This possible lost or reduction of the capacity of the upper aquifer could have negative
impacts on the biodiversity northern from the project area, and other flora, due to reduced
availability of water in the soil. On these parts there is no significant agriculture land, but
however these surfaces are planned to be expropriated, by ELEM.
In conclusion to all mentioned above, there will not be any chemical pollution from the
mine, there will not be any need for chemical treatment of the water from the mine. The Crna
River belongs to class II to III (it depends on the quantitative parameters). Because the pumped
water is chemically not polluted the water quality in Crna Reka will be improved, and the aquatic
world in it, as well (at least at the inlet and some meters down-flow).
It was mentioned in chapter 6 that air pollution can have impacts on the living world and
the surrounding as well (increase of the acidity of the land and water, reducing the activities of
microorganisms and reducing the mineralization of the nitrogen). The latter is not expected on
Brod Gneotino open pit mine as the activities are restricted and only few trucks will be in use.
The transport of the coal is done by conveyor belts, running on electrical power, so there won’t
be any exhausting gases resulting from transport activities. In conclusion, exhaust gases from
vehicles and other machinery are expected to be in a normal range of such activities and no
special increase is expected during the exploitation of the mine. The values expected from the
incineration of coal from Brod-Gneotino are most probably below standard values.
The layers of the solids above the coal to be exploited and the geomorphology of the
solids in the project will be completely destroyed. This means that the flora on the project
(mainly grassy, some flowers and few trees) will be destroyed too and the fauna will migrate into
the similar environment besides the project area. However, on the other hand, the area is - due
to its restricted flora and fauna - only of low ecological value, so the impact will not be
significant.
The species that will migrate:
- Because of noise and vibrations (anthropogenic factor): the terrestrial turtle-Testudo hermanii,
Lacerta viridis, Elaphe situla, Vipera berus, from birds: Merops apiaster, Parus afer, from the
mammals: Scirus vulgaris and Erinaceus sp.
All of above mentioned species will be affected from the mining.

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6.5.1 Mitigation and restoration measures after exploitation:

The proper restoration measures will ensure that the near by landscape will not be
damaged and rehabilitated in a sustainable manner. Restoration (including reforestation) is a
complex procedure by which the renovation of the reproductive abilities of damaged fields or the
organization of new contents for the needs of the regional population or state are attained
through using mining, land reclamation, agro-technical, hydro-technical and other measures. In
open-cut operations, land rehabilitation measures should generally progress simultaneously with
the mine's development.
During the exploitation, excavated humus will be deported to a special terminal for humus
and that will create conditions for biological restoration. Biological restoration will be done with
reforestation and planting of grass on some parts and of agricultural plants in the plain parts.
Plantations of different types of trees may be set up on the mild slopes: maple, willow, linden in
combination with grassing. There will be some 160.000 to 200.000 trees planted every year,
especially black locust. On the parts with bigger slopes additional measures for the protection of
the slopes from erosion will be used, like covering them with biodegradable blankets (geo-
textiles) which will protect the slopes during dry periods, and at the same time keep necessary
humidity for the plants. Biodegradable blankets are made from straw and coconut palm which
make the stable growth of vegetation possible. The biodegradable blankets also make growth of
vegetation on very limited humus layers possible, which is very important because humus
excavation is not sufficient to cover all the predicted areas for restoration to a depth of 40-50 m.
The captured land will be restored by the restoration and revitalization process and will certainly
create space that will embellish the natural landscape.

6.6 SOCIO - ECONOMIC IMPACT

It is internationally recognized that the construction and the presence of the adequate
infrastructure capacities promote economic development.
A large number of the population in the Bitola region work in the thermal power plant
“Bitola”.
The benefit of the construction phase and the operating phase of the open pit mine Brod-
Gneotino will be presented with opportunity for new employments, around 700 employees.
This economic activity is a key to the preservation of the existing employment
opportunities.
The impacts from the mine operation are only local. Because in the surrounding area of
the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino there are old ruined houses in the nearest village Brod (2 km
from the mine), there won’t be any need for resettlement.
Measures which are foreseen to reduce the health impact are described in proper
chapters, but are only for the workers in the mine. For the population in the surrounding area
(like Brod, Gneotino and Zivojno - the nearest villages) it is foreseen that there will not be
negative health impact because:
- the transport lengths will be closed, water fogs will be used during the process of
excavation of dry overburden, so there won’t be pollution from dust particles;
The opening of the mine will not be only local contribution of standard increase, but it will
contribute in the budget of Macedonia as well.

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Figure 6.1 The location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino and its surrounding

6.7 NOISE AND VIBRATION IMPACT


6.7.1 Assessment of the noise and vibration impact in the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino
and its surrounding
During the process of construction and exploitation in the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino,
the noise and vibration emission will appear. The intensity of this emission depends on the kind
of the activity which will be carried out and of the equipment which will be used.
The possible impact of noise and vibration according to the activity in the mine should be
expected in two territorial places:
• The first one is the location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino itself
• The second one is the wider region around this location

The cumulative level of the noise strength of all sources in the exploitation area during 8
hours working day of 24 hours is the total emitted noise in the working environment. This noise
is absorbed in the exploited area because of:
- the terrain depression, will be with height difference of 150m,
- the big open space from ~471 ha of the exploitation area,
- the covering longitudinal axis of the open pit with the direction of the predominant and
dominant wind, in direction of the openness of Crna Reka.

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The present of noise and vibration is similar during the process of construction and
exploitation in the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino.
As sources of noise and vibration in the working environment where the open pit mine is
located are: portable and stationary machines equipment and installations that produce noise
and vibration.
The equipment which will be used in the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino will be supplied
from MAN TAKRAF GmbH Germany, the renowned manufacturer of the mechanical equipment
for open coal mining. The characteristic of the equipment are described in Appendix 3.
According to this characteristics can be concluded that with usage of this equipment, the noise
and vibration emission can be reduced.
One old excavator from existing Suvodol mine will be shifted to Brod-Gneotino mine. This
old excavator does not have any sound protection. Impacts of noise are only expected for the
workers working in the pit close to the excavators. The workers during the work close to this
machine must definitely use protection equipment. The means for self-protection are given in
appendix 12.
The new excavator that will be delivered for Brod-Gneotino mine will reduce the noise
emissions. It must be decided on-site and from running conditions of the machine if protection
equipment will be necessary or not.
During the working time, the workers will accept the noise as unpleasant feeling. If the
workers are exposed with a continuous noise impact, there is possibility of causing health
problems. The most present health diseases are: anxiety, insomnia, heart and neurological
disturbance, and professional disease as trinitis and hipakusia.
The workers must be equipped with noise protection equipment. The equipments which
are recommended are: hearing protectors (ear plug and ear muffs)-appendix 12.
The most exposed workers on the vibration are the ones whose work is in the cabin or in
the workstation, workers which handle or rule the mechanized equipment.
The vibration will be felt through some parts of the body or the entire body. Exposition of
the workers on mechanical vibration could cause diseases on the bone-muscular structure,
angioneurotical and heart diseases.
The equipment which will be used for vibration protection is: well adopted seats and
gloves protecting against Hand-Arm vibration transmittion)-appendix 12.
The impact of noise to the surrounding environment and especially to the villages of Brod
and Gneotino is expected to be low. No special mitigation measures are most probably
necessary as the wind direction is in most cases not in the direction of the villages and the
villages are located in a distance of few kilometres from the mine.

Table No.6.1 Source of noise

dB
noise from leaf of the trees 20
night silence 30
quiet street at night 40
day silence 45
quiet street day 55
quiet garden 30
quiet bedroom-night 20 30
normal talk 40 60
quiet living room 30 40

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interior of restaurant with many


guests 65 75
interior of business room 60 65
traveling vehicle in moving 81
separate travelling vehicle 60
heavy trucks in moving on highway 90
alarm siren at 3 meters 140
noisy street with intensive traffic 70 80
circular saw 100 104
pneumatic hammer 90 100

*Source: Noise Tribune -2005


*appendix 12.

6.8 RECULTIVATION AND REVITALIZATION OF THE REGION COVERED BY


MINING ACTIVITIES OF OPEN PIT MINE “BROD-GNEOTINO”

Restoration (including reforestation) is a complex procedure by which the renovation of the


reproductive abilities of damaged fields or the organization of new contents for the needs of the
regional population or state are attained through using mining, land reclamation, agro-technical,
hydro-technical and other measures. Restoration is performed by mining companies and it can
be completed as a part of the procedure of a technology of the exploitation work or it is
performed separately.
Restoration is composed of three procedures that can be performed one after another or
temporarily: technical (mining) restoration, re-organization of the area and biological restoration.
The method of cultivation depends on: purpose of the restoration, condition of the mining
works, available technical and financial means etc.
Technical restoration includes preparation of the terrain for further activities of the
preparation of the place and biological restoration - rough and fine forming of the outside and
inside landfill and remaining post-exploitation area. Usually, it includes also: removal of the
surface (humus) soil layer and its transportation to the landfill or place constructed for that
purpose, placing it over the prepared area and fine leveling.
Biological restoration includes a whole sequence of activities which include examinations
of pedalogistic values of the created mixture (last layer and the layer under the surface) of soil
with the purpose of restoration of the soil fertility, eco- system and landscape values of the area.
By obtaining information on the terrain structure and biological values of the layers that are
excavated, a final soil structure can be programmed with the purpose of exploiting the area of
the project of restoration.
Mine tasks for restoration and revitalization of the region, undertaken after the mining
activities of the open pit mine of Brod- Gneotino are determined for the following purposes:
- Restoration of the excavation field;
- Restoration of exploitation field for protection of environment and nature with the aim of
establishing ecological quality entirety, most of all as high quality ornithological places;
- Restoration of economic valorization of the soil, or raising the productivity of agriculture
and forestry products.
- Filling the hole with water in a natural way will be done after the end of the exploitation.
Other measures towards the regulation of water levels, regime of hesitate and other hydrology

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parameters will be undertaken. The accumulation will have roles that are more functional in the
existence of the perspective region, like irrigation of the fertile soil, sports and possible economy
fishing, and also possibility for recreation and tourism. By filling the hole with water expensive
measures for long lasting drying of the excavated gap will be avoided, thus reducing the
expenses for technical and biological restoration on the excavated gap and also leading to a
positive impact in the hydrological system in the area around the zone of the open coal pit mine.
- During the exploitation, excavated humus will be deported to a special terminal for
humus, and that will create conditions for biological restoration. When the removal of the
overburden soil in external and internal disposal places is ended, conditions for technical
restoration will be present i.e. land leveling and mitigation of the partially leveled slopes. The
greater use of a bulldozer will be necessary for that purpose. There might be need of Special
terrace-tractors on some slopes.
After rough and fine settlement of the surface, the process of humus depositions and
biology restoration begins.
Biological restoration will be done with reforestation and planting of grass on some parts
and of agricultural plants in the plain parts. Plantations of different types of trees may be set up
on the mild slopes: maple, willow, linden in combination with grassing. There will be 160.000-
200.000 trees planted every year, especially black locust. On the parts with bigger slopes,
additional measures for the protection of the slopes from erosion will be used, like covering them
with biodegradable blankets which will protect the slopes during dry periods, and at the same
time keep necessary humidity for the plants. Biodegradable blankets are made from straw and
coconut palm which make the stable growth of vegetation possible. The biodegradable blankets
also make growth of vegetation on very limited humus layers possible, which is very important
because humus excavation is not sufficient to cover all the predicted areas for restoration to a
depth of 40-50 cm. The captured land will undergo restoration and revitalization process and will
certainly create space that will embellish the natural landscape.
In TPP Bitola, there is a plan for ground restoration.
Due to the complexity of this problem and its interference with the predicted technological
operations of the mine, approximate calculations of the expenses for these operations are
practically impossible. The intensity of these operations makes them relatively expensive. World
experience shows that the price of costs of these operations covers a relatively large part of the
total expenses for the working of one open pit. Due to these reasons it is recommended that in
the phase of designing, a project is prepared with which all aspects concerning the future
purpose of the devastated area will be covered, as well as the arrangement of space, and all
technical (mining and agronomical) and biological measures necessary for accomplishing the
planned goals. In that project detailed analyses of the economical parameters of the operation of
and restoration of the mine, will be done, and its impact on the total economy of mine
exploitation will be determined as well.
The process of restoration on the terrain for the foreseen open pit mine Brod-Gneotino is
consisted of the following phases:
- Selective excavation on the humus layer from 20-30 cm;
- Restorations on the terrain and its selective deposit;
- Restorations on the surface
The restoration on the terrain i.e. on the surface of the external disposal places, internal
disposal places, and also on the final slope on the excavation site will be performed successfully
with accordance to the dynamic progress on the excavation (total surface is ~480 ha).
In accordance with the operational dynamic in the open pit mine “Brod-Gneotino” the
following periods could be secluded:
- 1-6 year- period of external depositing;
- 5-7 year- period of beginning of the internal deposit;
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- 8-9 year- period of including the III ECR system.


- After the 7-8th year the work could start, after restoration on the terrain on the external
deposit places with total surface ~220 ha;
- After 9-10 years, the works could begin after restoration on the part of the internal
restoration, i.e. the part of the final slope on the excavation site nearly 70 ha.
Recultivation on the restoration surfaces on the external i.e. internal deposit place could
start parallel with the restoration, or after period of minimum 1-2 years, i.e. in our case after 9-10
years.
- The process of restoration is consisted of preliminary classification of recultivated land
and to which class it belongs:
I Classification
A- Layer which could be used for agriculture;
B- Layer for foresting
C- Sterile layers
II Classification-assessment of the land quality
I- very good for agriculture
II-usable for agriculture
III-middle –for foresting
IV-bad –can become green
V-very bad
The process of restoration will be consisted of the following phases:
a. Spreading of the previously selected deposited humus on the surfaces of the foreseen
parcel for restoration
b. Pedagogical maps and analyses on the restoration land
c. Defining the way for improving of the land i.e. the received material after accomplished
restoration on the terrain, and on basis to its purposes:
- for agriculture
- for foresting
- make green
- way for using the depression

The forthcoming investigation and design

With starting the process of restoration at the some time the process on the current
investigation and design will start:
- Production of detail pedagogical maps;
- Establishing experimental parcel for checking the suggested measures for restoration;
- Production of appropriate elaborates for the ways of purpose of the restoration land.

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6.9 MAJOR ACCIDENT, FIRES AND EXPLOISONS

6.9.1 Possible sources of fires, explosions and its impact on the environment
In the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino during the phases of construction and exploitation,
there are some possibilities fires and explosions to be appeared.
In the location of the mine Brod-Gneotino will be placed machines, liquid fuels, oil,
technical gases and other necessary materials.
Due to improper handling with the machines and inflammable materials and not applying
the obligated preventive measures the fires and explosions may occur.
During the period of coal exploitation in the open pit mine Brod - Gneotino, there are
possibilities to have damages in shape of fires and rarely in explosions shapes.
The possible sources of fires and explosions are:
- Inflammable liquids and gases;
- Explosive coal dust;
- Explosive materials;
- Granulated coal;
- Presence of different inflammable materials;
- Unexpected falls of the electro-energetic power;
- Atmosphere electrostatic discharging;
- Big mechanical destructions of the equipment etc.;
Taking into consideration the fact that coal humidity is approximately 50-60 %, the
possibility of coal explosion is neglected. Also there are possibility of explosion and burning of
the flying coal dust during the dry period.
From aerosols and gaseous combustion products, according to the meteorological
conditions, it's possible meaningful disturbance of the ambient air quality. Under air impact, this
pollution may be spread up outside of the exploited field, but to be spread very quickly.
Through possible coal dust explosion it's possible diffusing of larger solid particles as
well.
The most used efficient compounds for fire extinguishing are: water, chemical and air
foam, dry powder, CO2, and agents similar to halogens and their substitutes. These agents can
be used for prevention if some risk appears.
For rotor dredging machines and other sensitive and expensive equipment, the possibility
for automatic and semiautomatic fire extinguishing should be predicted.
For extinguishing and prevention against other possible kinds of fires, mobile and fire
extinguishing equipment, should be used. With them, according the fire class, the proper agents
for fire extinguish will be applied.
If the fires of bigger dimension will appear in the o.p Brod-Gneotino, like burning of the
rubber elements, and other materials that originate smoke during the burning, the air pollution is
possible in the near area of the location.
Because the villages are located 3-5 km distance from the mining location and in it lives
only few people (poorly inhabited), it can not be expected a significant influence of the
environment by this type of pollution.
All activities which can provoke damages and accident with proper storage of the burning
materials and monitoring of the activities can be avoided.

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Because of existence of efficient integrated internal intervention system: forces, devices


and activities, from appeared fires and explosions it is not expected appearing of bigger damage
consequences, for the workers and for the working process, in the working environment of the
open pit mine Brod - Gneotino.

6.9.2 Measures for decreasing of harmful influences: fires and explosions

Decreasing of damage influences:


The measures for decreasing impact of fires and explosions in the open pit mine Brod-
Gneotino location should be provided with designing of necessary technical-technological plan.
According to the Law on protection and rescue, Law on construction and the Regulations
for standards and table of norms for objects designing should be prepared special Project for fire
protection, as an integral part of The Basic Project for Construction. It should be summarized
predictions for activities and procedures of technical protective, organizational, educational and
operative character, which should be harmonized. The ELEM and the TPP Bitola are obliged to
work out this project. The project will be worked out by the authority company which is familiar
with this type of accidents.
According to the regulated contents, in it should be prepared categorization and
classification of the risks with detail analyses and calculations. In the project also will be
predicted the necessary measures and activities for prevention, rescue and help.

6.9.3 Planning of protection, rescue and help in TPP-Bitola


According to the current legal obligations (Law on protection and rescue), the
Management of the ELEM-TPP Bitola is obligated to provide intended Internal Plan for
unexpected situations, which includes measures for protection and rescue from damages and
accidents. This obligation, according to the Law on Environment, will be valid from 01.01.2008.
The TPP and open pit mine Suvodol presents integral technical-technological part. The
open pit mine Brod-Gneotino should be containing part of it as well. Because the open pit mine
Brod-Gneotino will be part of ELEM-TPP the Internal Plan for protection and rescue should be
worked out.
The Plan is carried out on the base of risk estimation which present qualitative and
quantitative analyses of possible risk of occurrence of damages and accidents.
With this plan, the possibilities to organize and conduct efficient protection, rescue and
help will be provided.
The content of the plan is to perform:
- Discover of the possible dangers;
- Reduction and prevention of damages and accidents;
- Determination of the participants and intervention procedure for protection
and rescue;
- Consequences elimination;
- Training and qualification for protection rescue and help;
The Internal Plan for unexpected situation also will include:
- Monitoring and control and following of the conditions (current, working,
and preventive);
- Static evidence and reporting;
- Alarming and intervention management;

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6.9.4 Services for protection rescue and help in TPP-Bitola


According to the technical project for fire protection in the objects and devices in the open
pit mine Suvodol (1987- II phase of exploitation) the service for protection, rescue and help is
foreseen. Also with the technical project for Brod-Gneotino will be defined all activity for
protection, rescue and help.
The location of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino is at a short distance of 10km from the
permanent open pit of Suvodol. The Professional fire extinguishing unit stationed at the open pit
mine of Suvodol can be counted upon for help.
The professional fire extinguishing unit includes the following structure:
- administrator for protection of fire 1
- commander 1
- fireman and drivers 24
It is foreseen that 6 firemen (drivers) will be on duty in every working shift.
Having in mind the fact that coal will be exploited at both locations at the same time, it is
recommended that one more fire extinguishing vehicle–auto cistern with water and one field
vehicle with trailer are purchased for quick transportation and intervention. At the same time,
there is a necessity to make available an additional arrangement of 8 firemen (in 2 shifts).
Apart from the issued personal equipment for every fireman other mobile and stationary
equipment, devices and means for extinguishing fires and for protection rescue and help during
damages and accidents is used. This equipment includes: fire extinguishing vehicle, (water,
foam, dry dust), motor pump and devise for breathing.
The fireman will carry out the function of so called “fire extinguishing guard” on the location
of the open pit mine Brod –Gneotino. They will work during the process of construction and the
process of exploitation. This recommendation will be implemented during the preparation of the
integrated Internal emergency plan–Plan for protection and rescue for ELEM – TPP Bitola.

6.9.5 Qualifying and training for protection, rescue and help to the workers in the
open pit mine Brod-Gneotino

In accordance with the Law on protection and rescue, it is determined that the sector for
protection, rescue and help in ELEM – TPP Bitola prepares and carries out a plan and program
for qualifying and training of all staff. This obligation is related and aimed to the workers in the
open coal pit mine Brod-Gneotino.
The qualification and training is performed according to a teaching plan and programs for
basic, additional and specialized training.
The aim of this training is:
1. To make the workers familiar with the dangers, the measures and the steps for
secure accommodation, handling and usage of potential harmful and dangerous materials;
2. Make the workers gain knowledge of the environmental aspects, human health
and work protection including prevention from damages and accidents, as well as the basic
steps for self protection.
3. Introduction of efficient methods and procedures for permanent monitoring of the
dangerous substances in the working places.

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6.9.6 Occupational health and safety

The professional firemen have to be mentally and physically healthy and they are obliged
to undergo occasional routine health checks.
There are two first-aid stations on the complex, which are working in two shifts. Medical
examination of the workers is done two times per year. There is special attention paid to
women’s’ health and the workers who are exposed to a higher risk level.

6.10 SYNOPSIS ON THE ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT


In the present chapter possible impacts on the environment were identified as well as
assessed. As a result it can be pointed out that some impacts of minor risks for the environment
and only few impacts of medium risk for the environment exist. These impacts are discussed in
the present paragraph in a summarised manner.
The open pit mine ‘Suvodol’ close to the city of Bitola is under running condition since
approximately 25 years. The new project of the open pit mine ‘Brod-Gneotino’ can be
considered as a continuation of the mining activities in the region. The project area is situated in
a distance of some 8 km south from the existing Suvodol mine and is located between the
villages of Brod in the east and Gneotino in the west. Approximately 1 km in the south the Crna
Reka flows. For the different environmental and social fields and compartments the following
can be concluded and stated:
Water
The new Brod-Gneotino mine will be completely administrated from the TPP (REK) Bitola.
No administrative buildings are foreseen on the area of Brod-Gneotino mine. Sanitary
wastewater will therefore not occur.
The trucks, cars and other mobile machinery will mainly be cleaned in TPP Bitola as well.
Cleaning water resulting from these activities will for that reason occur on Brod-Gneotino mine
only in small quantities. The cleaning water resulting from rinsing of vehicles etc. is up to date
treated in TPP Bitola (e.g. oil trap, see also chap. 5) before discharged by pipe to the Crna
Reka. Analyses results from the cleaning water show that the concentrations of most of the
analysed parameters are far below discharge values given by World Bank (see analyses results
presented in chap. 5 and appendix 10 as well). One parameter of concern could be the content
of phosphates that is determined in the range of 0.3 to 0.5 mg/l. The risk of eutrophication of
receiving waters - if stagnant or with reduced flow velocity - can not be excluded. The
conductivity of these cleaning waters is relatively high (~1000 µS/cm) as well, which is
confirmed by the dry residue value (~600 mg/l). It should be discussed if there is any possibility
to mix these waters with other wastewater or surface water to dilute the concentrations of the
parameters of concern. However, the groundwater shows a high conductivity as well. It is
supposed that groundwater which is foreseen to be discharged is used as cleaning water. This
would explain the high conductivity.
The groundwater from the four different aquifers (roof aquifer, 1st and 2nd lamination
aquifer and bottom aquifer) found on the project area shows quite good quality as well (see also
chap. 5 and analyses results in appendix 8). The groundwater is characterised by relatively high
conductivity values (average ~ 600 to 800 µS/cm) which is fixed by high concentrations of
sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The concentrations of heavy metals are quite low
and out of any concern. The same is valid for nitrogen and phosphorous compounds. There are
no objections to discharge this groundwater untreated to the Crna Reka once the mine will be
exploited. Moreover, the surface water of the Crna Reka shows a quite low water quality as can
be seen from physico-chemical analyses (see also chap. 5 and results of analyses presented in
appendix 9). A clear influence of industrial wastewater (elevated concentrations of heavy metals,
particularly Zn, Ni, and Cu)) and municipal wastewater (elevated concentrations of N- and P-
compounds) can not be overseen (esp. for analyses carried out in 2005). On the date of the site
visit (July 26, 2006) the flow velocity of the river was estimated to be only some few
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centimetres/s (nearly stagnant). Smells and bad odours (H2S) as well as gas bubbles occurred.
These are clear signs for semi-anaerobic conditions of the water. This is confirmed by chemical
analyses that point out O2-saturation mainly below 50%. Receiving ‘fresh’ and non-polluted
groundwater from the mines Suvodol and Brod-Gneotino would most probably result in an
increase the River’s quality.
A drainage system will be installed around the border of the open pit mine to avoid influx of
surface water resulting from heavy precipitation.
Air and noise
The dust emissions resulting from excavation of soil and coal are not severe as the water
content is around 50 to 60 %. To avoid dust emissions on mine access roads it is foreseen that
they are watered during dry periods. Dust emissions generated close to the excavators will be
precipitated with water fogs. Exhaust gases from vehicles and other machinery are expected to
be in a normal range of such activities and no special increase is expected during exploitation of
the mine. In case it is necessary all workers will be equipped with particular protection
equipment. An impact of dust/exhaust gas emissions on the near surroundings can occur only
on windy days. However, no settlements are located close to the Brod-Gneotino pit mine. The
nearest village (Brod) is in a distance of ~1.5 km from the mine. An impact is therefore not
expected.
As previously mentioned, the sulphur content of the coal is nearly the same as the one
excavated from the existing Suvodol mine (~0.5 to 0.6 %). The expected emissions of SO2 when
incinerating coal from Brod-Gneotino mine in TPP Bitola will therefore be in the range of the
ones resulting from incineration of coal from Suvodol. The emissions of incineration gases can
be taken as a secondary impact of the mine. To date the emissions are in the range of around
1600 kg/h (March 2006) and 2600 kg/h (February 2006) while the immissions measured in
Gneotino (2005) are in the range of 1 to 10 µg/m³. The annual arithmetic mean given by WB
standard for open pit mines in the outside of the property boundary is 100 µg/m³. The immission
value of the German Directive on Air Pollution (TA Luft) presents a limiting value for SO2 of 20
µ/m³ (year and winter). The values expected from the incineration of coal from Brod-Gneotino
are most probably below these standard values as they did not exceed ~10 µ/m³ in recent years.
Noise emissions will be reduced due to the use of new excavators that are sound-
deadened.
Solid waste
Besides the expected huge amounts of overburden no other solid wastes are expected to
be generated from the mining activities in Brod-Gneotino.
Soil and geomorphology
The layers of the upper soils above the coal to be exploited and the geomorphology of the
soils in the project will be completely destroyed during excavation. However, this is a regular
process in open pit mining worldwide. The excavated soil will de disposed besides the mine and
partly used as refilling material when closing the mine after exploitation of the coal. Proper
restoration measures will ensure that the near by landscape will not be damaged and
rehabilitated in a sustainable manner. It could be of interest to segregate the upper soil from the
soil layers below the upper layer and dispose it separately as this upper soil is the fertile soil
layer. This fertile upper soil, in which biodegradation processes take place, can again be used
after re-filling of the pit as cover soil to ensure fertility of the soil for the re-development of fauna
or agricultural activities.
Although the destruction of the geomorphology is a severe impact of the mining activity in
Brod-Gneotino it is still not avoidable in open pit mining and can not be regarded as a serious
impact.

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Landscape
The landscape will definitely change when staring excavation of over laying soil and coal
due to deposit of overburden in heaps and due to creation of a huge and deep pit. However, this
is normal procedure of open pit mines as well. Even after end of exploitation of coal and
restoration, the landscape will probably be different from the one before starting the exploitation.
Deposit heaps will remain and a pond or small lake will be created. This change of landscape –
even if huge - is acceptable taking into consideration the existing slight hilly environment of the
excavation area.
Biodiversity
As can be seen from the photos attached in appendix 11 the flora of the project area
consists mainly of grass, some flowers (5-6 species were found during the walk-through in July
2006) and few trees. Only very few bushes were found on the area. Some fruit tress older than
30 years which are nearly dead were found on the area as well. Butterflies, grasshoppers, other
insects, some species of birds and some turtles were also found. Foxes, rabbits, snakes can be
expected. However, the environment around the project area is very similar to the environment
on the project area. A lost of biodiversity (flora and fauna) is not expected due to this fact. The
flora is similar to the one besides the project area or it is nearly the same flora. The fauna will
migrate into the similar environment besides the project area. Strong adverse negative impacts
on the biodiversity are most probably unlikely. The area is – due to its restricted flora and fauna
– only of low ecological value.
Agriculture
No agricultural activities were found on the project area (July 2006). However, agricultural
activities can not be excluded. Intensive agricultural activities were found in a distance of some
1.5 to 2 km northern from the project area. The landscape’s profile shows a slight negative slope
(gradient) from north to south. The groundwater flow is therefore expected to be in this direction
(north to south) as well (flow direction to the Crna Reka). A strong sink of the groundwater level
in the south due to excavation and pump off of groundwater can (but must not) result in an
increased groundwater flow velocity from north to south. It can therefore be possible that the
upper soil north from the project area can suffer of a reduced water table as the upper aquifer
can (but must not) drop. The lost or reduction of the capacity of the upper aquifer can have
negative impacts on the agriculture (and other flora) due to reduced availability of water in the
soil. This assumption should be investigated.
Socio-economical impacts
The area shows no settlements. No inhabitants must be re-settled. The distance to the
closest village (Brod) is around 1.5 to 2 km. A pass through carried out in July 2006 revealed in
the fact that nearly 50 % of the houses are to date unoccupied. The foreseen activities in Brod-
Gneotino open pit mine will create new job opportunities which can be taken as a positive
impact to stabilise the economical structure of the region. Access roads and roads to Bitola will
be paved, which results in better access to the city of Bitola for the inhabitants living in the
villages south of the city.

In conclusion it can be stated, that


- the area of the project is mainly of relatively low ecological value and the
environment of the project area (the mine itself) is very similar to the environment
besides the project area.
- the current environmental situation of the region around the project area will not
receive strong negative lasting effects resulting from the activities of the planned open pit
mine of Brod-Gneotino. The current environmental situation will most probably not
adversely be changed.

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Taking into consideration the outcome of the present chapter, strong adverse negative
impacts on the environment are most unlikely, besides the change of the landscape in an
acceptable manner and the destruction of the geomorphology of the soil layers. Possible
depression of groundwater north from the project area remains to be investigated.
The above mentioned results in the statement that only little objections are present to
carry out open pit mining in Brod-Gneotino, particularly when compared to impacts resulting
from open pit copper mines of Chuquicamata/Atacama Desert in northern Chile, Rio Tinto
copper mine in Palabora/South Africa, Udachny diamond mine in Siberia/Russia (which is the
world’s largest open pit mine) and open pit brown coal mines in Germany (Leipzig, Tagebau
Profen; Bonn-Aachen, Rhein Braun).

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7. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN


Environmental Management Plans (EMP) describes the processes that an enterprise will
follow to maximize its compliance and minimize harm to the environment. These plans also help
an organization map its progress toward achieving continual improvements. An example format
for an EMP that ELEM could follow as well is presented in appendix- The Draft Report for
Implementation of an Environmental Management System. The EMP must be prepared by
ELEM Company as the owner of the open pit mine Brod-Gneotino. In the following chapter and
sub-chapter an orientation is presented on which items such an EMP can be based. In addition,
recommendations for detailed measures are presented as well.

7.1 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN OBJECTIVE

The following section presents an outline of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
for the project. The main objective of the EMP is to ensure the acceptability of design,
construction practices and operation with respect to identified impacts and the realization of
mitigation measures as described in the previous chapters. The EMP points out procedures and
practices, which should be implemented during development activities, construction and the
future operation of the mining project as well as after closing of the mine. The EMP details as far
as possible at the present stage that mitigation, monitoring measures and institutional
responsibilities should be taken during project implementation.
The EMP is an essential tool, facilitating that the mitigation measures outlined in the
impact assessment are reflected in the detailed project design and operation management
schedules. The timing, frequency and duration of mitigation measures must be specified at
appropriate time in the planning process in an implementation schedule, showing links with the
overall project implementation plan. The EMP provides recommendations and an outline of the
actions needed. Specific mitigation measures have been described in the representative
assessment chapters. The responsible Environmental Inspector has to be familiar with the EIA
report on hand as well. The responsible Environmental Inspector is from the Ministry of
Environment and is located in the city of Bitola, according with the hierarchy of the ministry of
Environment.
ELEM names an Environmental Responsible which reports directly to the directorate. He
is responsible for the application of the environmental management plan and in this function he
keeps contact with the national authorities.
The ELEM Company operates according to the current Macedonian legislation for
satisfying the Environmental standards. Procedure for implementation of certificate ISO 14001
standard is in progress. With it ELEM will implement its current working on higher level,
according the International standards for Environment

7.2 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

To ensure the effective implementation of the EMP, an Environmental Responsible in


ELEM or a private environmental company will be charged to undertake a program of
environmental supervision and monitoring (self control). This work is done in close cooperation
with the Environmental Inspector located in the Environmental Directorate in Bitola City. The
Environmental Inspector is part of the public authority i.e. The Ministry of Environment and
Physical Planning and is one of the State Inspectors. The EI – by Law - is responsible to monitor
if the recommended mitigation measures are carried out properly and in accordance with the
Environmental Laws in Macedonia, which are in accordance with the EU Directives (public
control).

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The key responsibility will be to ensure that the environmental management measures,
controls and specifications are properly implemented as per the terms and conditions of the
approvals and permits. Non-compliance with the clauses by the contractor should be penalized.
Penalties should be previously determined. The penalties are normally given by Law or Directive
and are not negotiable.
The financial penalty goes to the Fund of Environment, part of the Ministry of Environment
and Physical Planning. From those finances other environmental projects are funded.

7.3 THE ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION PLAN

The following sub-chapter outlines a proposal for an environmental action plan for the
commissioning and operation of surface lignite mines in the Bitola area, including a:
• draft mitigation plan
• proposal for an environmental management plan and
• recommendations for a monitoring plan.

7.3.1 Draft Mitigation Plan

Environmental concerns and potential impacts have been identified in chapter 6 for the
surface mine project based on an environmental overview and an assessment.
The mitigation plan will summarize the management plan’s protection measures and
specifications for the environment.
The proposed mitigation measures include:
• Development of general procedures for the exploration and pre-development phase,
the commissioning and operating phase and the post mining land use phase.
• Detailed environmental status review and development of technical feasibility studies
for minimizing environmental impacts.
• Based upon the above mentioned review, recommendations for technical
improvements should be made.
• Review of existing environmental protection procedures and development of
supplementary procedures concerning existing and future mine operations. The
optimal solution to this would be the development and implementation of an
Environmental Management System, including systematic environmental audits, with
the goal of rationalizing environmental measures. Audits will be carried out by ELEM
* See Table 7.2. “Period of planning, operation and functional apply of measures” for
functional apply of measures proposed in the Assessment chapter.

7.3.1.1 Management and Training

The base of safe mining operations, i.e., protection of workers, the general public and the
environment, are adequate regulations with a competent inspection staff and effective
regulations and enforcement. Adequate training in equipment operation and ongoing intensive
safety programs are essential to minimize accidental injuries and/or fatalities. The training will be
for fire-fighting protection. There should be trainings for protection during work and for operation
with the new machinery as well. All trainings will be for the workers in the mine. It was
mentioned that in Suvodol open pit mine in the last 10 years no strong injuries occurred due to
permanent training of the staff and obligatory use of personal safety equipment.

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7.3.2 Recommendations for a Monitoring Plan

The monitoring plan should be presented to the environmental advisory committee, before
the project starts. The plan should reflect a design of and a framework for:
• Supervision of environmental mitigation measures and establishment of control means
and plans for the implementation of mitigation measures proposed and agreed upon.
• Monitoring of activities for the registration of residual impacts.
• Evaluation of preliminary and final effects of the environmental action plan and
undertaking the necessary adjustments.
• On the basis of the monitoring results the proposed mitigation must be adapted.
The plan should include technical specifications of the project, all proposed and evaluated
environmental mitigation measures and a time schedule for supervision, inspection, and
monitoring activities.
The success of the proposed mitigation measures will be monitored according to the
public opinion for environmental and socio- economic issues.
The deliverables from the environmental supervisory part of the project will be the
monitoring plan including a monitoring manual.

7.3.2.1 Scope of Monitoring Work

The following components are the minimum to be included in the monitoring:


• Control and evaluation of mitigation measures during the project’s application. Un-
warned site inspection during commission and the operation phase must be carried out
periodically by the EI and or ELEM’s Environmental Responsible.
• Establishment of monitoring stations and procedures for the collection, analysis,
registration and reporting of environmentally essential parameters during the
operational lifetime of the mines. These parameters for the different environmental
compartments are presented and discussed in chapter 5 and 6 of the present study.
• The Hydro-meteorological station in Bitola will monitor the hydro and meteorological
parameters, which are sent to the main hydro meteorological station in Skopje. The
hydro-meteorological station in Bitola is part of the monitoring system in Macedonia.
These parameters are continuously monitored (see chap. 5/6 as well).
• Air quality is measured as emissions and immissions in the monitoring station in Bitola.
The latter data are sent to the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning;
• Water quality for the Crna Reka is continuously monitored in the monitoring station
Skocivir, down-stream of Brod-Gneotino mine. The groundwater and the precipitation
water will be monitored by the TPP “Bitola” before discharge to the Crna Reka. This is
to date routine procedure in existing Suvodol open pit mine.
• The monitoring of the socio-economic issues will be done from questionnaires of the
public opinion. The questionnaires will be performed by local NGO’s.

7.3.2.2 Summary of Monitoring Issues


At (Brod-Gneotino) surface mine standards should be set and monitoring may be required
for
- air quality (particulates and equipment emissions),
- groundwater (drawdown),
- wastewater to be discharged into the river,

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- seismic (blast) vibrations,


- pit wall slope and stability,
- surface water flow and quality (especially sediment),
- mine drainage,
- sanitary wastes,
- identification and separate disposal of non economic mineral material encountered in
mining,
- management and disposal of hazardous wastes, and
- radioactivity levels at workings and project boundaries,
- socio- economic impacts.
Reclamation requirements and monitoring include restoration of land surface (drainage,
slope, and stability), regeneration (cover, type and vigor), groundwater (recovery, quality), and
surface water quality.
In situ operation monitoring requirements include perimeter monitoring wells (especially
down gradient), input/output of leachate, well tests (pressure, proper sealing), and visual checks
for leachate spills or leaks (pipelines, transfer points, and storage tanks).
Reclamation monitoring includes an analysis of return flushing or neutralizing solutions,
verifying proper removal and/or sealing of wells, and periodic testing of perimeter monitoring
wells. Aboveground heap leach operations have additional requirements, such as visual
checking of pile slopes and toe for leakage, down gradient surface water sampling, and
reclamation of pile after flushing and/or neutralizing (slope and vegetative cover).
At processing operations, monitoring requirements should include the following: air quality
at stacks, on-site and facility boundaries, quantity and quality of water discharge, and noise
levels both on-site and at facility boundaries.

7.4 OPERATION MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT

Environmental management during operation of the new project in general will comprise of
the monitoring of efficiency of the measures implemented in the open coal pit mine design and
monitoring of operational emissions and effluents from the open coal pit mine.

7.4.1 Noise

Noise levels shall be monitored to verify compliance with noise standards after opening the
new open pit coal mine. Monitoring points shall focus on residential areas. Monitoring shall be
repeated depending on number of machines and traffic growth. If noise standards are exceeded
in the future, mitigation measures shall be considered at the identified locations. The noise level
at the working places must be continuously monitored as well to avoid harmful frequencies and
noise levels for the exposed workers.

7.4.2 Vegetation

The growth development, condition and general appearance of the vegetation planted
(new planted and existing vegetation) outside the borders of the open pit coal mine, shall be
monitored. Impacts on the existing vegetation should be monitored. Trimming of hedges and
trees, moving and nurture of vegetation shall be carried out where required. Watering in the first
two years during the dry season is needed to prevent later replacement. The significance of this
measure is that the trees which will be planted will grow bigger root net and will accommodate

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on the terrain. Where initial plantings will not be successful, replacement plantings shall be
carried out. The trees for re-planting are planned at the end of the project (recultivation).
Vegetation in the vicinity of the mine (e.g. grass, bushes etc.) potentially accumulates
pollutants, heavy meals etc., from mine operations. That depends on the operation volume and
distance to the mine. Therefore it is a recommended practice to leave green cut on site. The
green matter should not be used as fodder for farming animals, and neither should it be
stockpiled for locally composting (this may cause problems with untreated compost leakage
waters and the use of the quality and further use of the compost cannot be controlled).

7.4.3 Mitigation and Enhancement Measures

The assessment for each environmental field always considers feasible mitigation
measures. The assessment chapter of the present study is structured in a way that after each
assessment part, specific mitigation measures are described which are tailored to the needs of
the project. These measures will be effective for the enhancement of the project and the
specifications will ensure that the design project, construction and operation of the project will
be in an environmentally acceptable manner and compliant with Macedonian and European
Union regulations and standards.

7.4.4 Monitoring of water

The following water sources should be monitored to guarantee an acceptable quality


before discharge to surface water or storage in basins for other future use.
- groundwater to be discharged into the Crna Reka,
- wastewater resulting from rinsing activities of the machines and trucks to discharged into the
Crna Reka.
- water quality of the Crna Reka (as a possible indirect impact on the environment).

In addition, and as mentioned in the assessment chapter, the groundwater streams and
depth in the northern part of Brod-Gneotino mine must be monitored to make sure that the
groundwater level will not sink to a deep level and affect negative on the biodiversity in that
region (running dry of the upper groundwater aquifer).

7.4.5 Assessment of Impacts

The prediction of impacts is based on quantitative and/or qualitative analyses of the


potential environmental impacts from the Project. The analyses will cover all types of relevant
impacts. The assessment of the impacts includes temporary and permanent impacts. Mitigation
measures to avoid or reduce, remedy and/or compensate adverse impacts on the environment
are set out. The assessments have been based (in chapter 6) on published information, on
mechanisms and sensitivity, as well as on experience from other projects and preformed field
work. As far as legal requirements are formulated these have been considered. The
assessment of the impacts considers existing threshold limits (e.g. noise, water and ambient air
quality) (in chapter 5). The chapter on Flora and Fauna considers the different protection
categories as stipulated at a national (e.g. Red List) and European level (Bird and Habitat
Directive). Whereas for other environmental factors, the proposed mitigation measures tailored
for the project will reduce the impacts to environmentally acceptable levels and represent the
status of good EIA practise.

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7.5 ACTION PLAN FOR REALIZATION THE SUGGESTED MEASURES FOR


ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Essential for the efficiency of all measures is their planning and operation in an adequate
and coordinative manner. In contributing towards that, proposal action plan have been made,
which should direct future activities, and ease their realization. In extension of a note, a time
schedule (dynamics) has been made for the foreseen activities, as well as an approximate
budget (schedule of expenses) necessary for realization of the foreseen measures. Because of
the need for specific expert knowledge in the beginning phase of the realization of the action
plan, the usage of services from scientific institutions, specialized consultant firms etc. with
expert knowledge in this area is necessary. Their services should accelerate and affect the
processes of planning and operate the proposed measures.

Table No. 7.1 Action plan for realization of the suggested measures for environmental
protection of open pit mine Brod-Gneotino – capital investments and operative expenses
No Activity Capital investments Operative expenses
EUR/Year
1. Introducing the Operative Measures 100.000 EUR none
(best management system)
2. Measures for Water protection 200.000 EUR 20.000-40.000EUR
3. Restoration and Recultivation no estimation no estimation
4. Measures for reduction of dust from 70.000 EUR 80.000 EUR
spot and line sources
5. Measures for reduction of the dust 100.000 EUR 50.000 EUR
from surface sources

These calculations were made according the “Feasibility study for the beginning of opening and
exploitation of the open pit coal mine Brod-Gneotino (2004-2005)”.

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Table No. 7.2 The numbers 01, 02, 03... Are marking the periods (phases) starting from the beginning of the mine activities of the open
pit mine, until the moment of closing (the end of exploitation)

Period of planning, operation and functional apply of measures


Activity Phase of design 01 02 03 04 ...till the moment of closing
Introducing the Operative Measures --------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ --------------------------------------------------------
(best management system) ----------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ --------
Measures for Water protection --------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ --------------------------------------------------------
----------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ --------
Restoration and Recultivation --------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ---------------------------------
----------------- ------ ------ ------ ------
Measures for reduction of dust from spot and line --------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ --------------------------------------------------------
sources ----------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ --------
Measures for reduction of the dust from surface sources --------------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ --------------------------------------------------------
----------------- ------ ------ ------ ------ --------

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8. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The environmental impact of the mining activities on Brod-Gneotino site is significant but
not crucial. As mentioned before the environment of the open pit mine is of little ecological
value, but however, there is a need of some environment protection measures.
The approach to solve possible problems and impacts should be comprehensive and
systematic and should take into account the fact that the separate parts of the eco system are
connected and linked with each other. That means that if one problem is mitigated, than it will
cause positive influence to some aspects of the other impacts (for ex. If the emissions are
reduced this can reduce bird migration as well).
The control of pollution by using the best available management system for minimal
negative impacts on the environment should be in accordance with economical necessities of
the open coal pit mine. This can be achieved by:
• Engaging experts to prepare ‘The Manual of Environmental Regulations’
and establishing regulations for equipment usage and maintenance;
• Optimisation of the time, disposition schedule and the intensity of the
mining activities;
• Preparing measures for the control of working processes and conform to
designed parameters and regulations (for ex. control of the emission of gases by air
monitoring, controlled disposal of the overburden and dust etc.)
Special attention should be dedicated to solve possible impacts of air pollution by dust
emitted from the technology process in the open pit mine, transportation of coal, access roads
and all destabilized areas (working sections, landfills for waste soil etc), as proposed in the
chapter 6. However, it is expected that dust emissions will probably not affect housing areas in
the village of Brod, which is located in a distance of some 2 km from the open pit mine.
The new excavator that will be working on the mine is sound - deadened for decreasing
noise emissions (see also specifications of the new excavator presented in appendix 3).
Nevertheless, one old excavator will be transferred from the existing Suvodol mine to the open
pit mine of Brod-Gneotino. This old excavator is not sound deadened. It is therefore
recommended to use that old excavator only in parts of the mine that are as far away from
residential areas as possible to reduce possible impacts of noise on these living areas.
The quality of the groundwater, which will be discharged into the Crna Reka, shows that
the water has good quality. Because of that, there is no recommendation for any treatment.
As presented in the assessment chapter, it is recommended for the surface waters to
monitor the quality of the water collected in the settlement lake. In case it is necessary,
chemical treatment of the water shall be performed.
It is recommended as well to dedicate particular attention to measures for the rehabilitation
and restoration of the open pit mine once exploitation is finished. It is necessary to carry out a
complete Technical Project for the recultivation of the entire devastated zone, which will
determine the dynamic of delaying of the overburden. The Technical Project for recultivation will
be carried out in subsequent parts. The measures will include technical and biological parts of
the planned restoration. The restoration can be performed in accordance with plans that are
mentioned in the “land territory arranging process” .These restoration plans are presented in the
sub-chapter for 6.8 of the present study. Following these plans the restoration will not be
significant financial burden for the mining enterprise.
The target of restoration is not only to repair the damaged area or putting it back into a
bearing condition, but also to improve the quality of area. The post exploitation area could be
used for: recreation, tourism, plant and later exploitation of wood, water accumulation to use it
for irrigation purposes etc.
The basic goal of the restoration should not be to get financial profit from such activities
(profit is gained with exploitation with the useful mineral raw). The main goal is to reconstruct a
more natural environment (rehabilitation of flora and fauna).

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It is a binding obligation that all proposed mitigation measures that are presented in
chapter 6 must be carried out according to the Macedonian National Legislative mentioned in
chapter 2. For that purpose the Environmental Inspector will be commissioned by the Ministry of
Environment and Physical Planning (see chapter 7 as well). In case the Inspection transfers the
obligations to the mining enterprise and is only controlling the works, that will result in a
completely wrong way of working of the governmental bodies, because it is only coming to the
fact of satisfying the form- participating of the municipalities and governmental bodies. Carrying
out part of work from physical planning through help from the mining enterprise, is the only way
to achieve the target with united forces.
The mining enterprise should and must insist from The Ministry of Environment and
Physical Planning to perform these activities in parallel (technical restoration and area
arrangement as well as biological restoration) as part of the physical planning of the Republic.
From environmental point of view, coal mining has two important factors in its favour. It
makes only temporary use of the land and does not produce toxic chemical wastes. By applying
carefully pre-planned exploitation, implementation of pollution control measures, monitoring of
the effects of mining activities and the later rehabilitating of the mine areas, the coal industry
minimizes the impacts of its activities on the neighbouring community, the surrounding
environment and on long- term land capability.

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APPENDIX

Appendix 1 Minutes of meeting with the local inhabitants

Appendix 2 Analyzes of alternatives-Scenarios of exploitation of


local reserves (from Phare study)

Appendix 3 List of the new equipment from MAN Takraf

Appendix 4 The net of the automatic monitoring station for the air
quality in Macedonia

Appendix 5 Table for the parameters-temperature, humidity, wind


direction, wind speed, pressure and global radiation
from Bitola monitoring station for May 2006

Appendix 6 Tables with data from air quality of TPP Bitola (Block II,
Block III)

Appendix 7 Tables with data from the service for technical security
for air emission

Appendix 8 Table of hydro chemical characteristic on the first and


second lamination aquifer and bottom aquifer examined
in the period of 2000/2001 from the mine Brod- Gneotino

Appendix 9 Water quality in Crna Reka- Monitoring station Skocivir

Appendix 10 Water quality data from TPP Bitola

Appendix 11 Figures from the Landscape and Biodiversity on site

Appendix 12 Figures for self-protection means for noise, vibration


and hand-palm protection

Appendix 13 Scheme of the Ministry of the Environment and Physical


Planning and Environmental Management Plan from
ELEM

Appendix 14 Check list

Appendix 15 Figure- Open pit mine Brod- Gneotino