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S. R. Atmuri R. S. Thallam ,D.W.Gerlach, T.G.Lundquist D.A. Selin

Teshmont Consultants Inc. Salt River Project Arizona Public Service Company
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix, Arizona

Shunt reactors are generally provided on long EHV transmission (4)Single pole reclosing: In addition to the above described
lines to limit overvoltages during line energization and load overvoltages, a phenomena also closely related with the
rejection. The reactors are typically rated to compensate about application of neutral reactots is single pole reclosing. Single
50 to 90% of the line shunt capacitance. Although they limit pole reclosing times of the order of one second require the
overvoltages under the above conditions, the shunt reactors secondary arc currents of about 20A rms. To limit secondary
could increase the voltage induced onto the de-energized line arc current to 20A on a 500 kV line the length has to be
conductors, due to resonance, from the energized conductors of restricted to about 50 miles. Thus, for longer line lengths
the same circuit or another circuit on the same right of way, as means of limiting the secondary arc current to this value are
explained below: necessary.

(1)Induced voltages on a de-energized circuit: A shunt The above described overvoltages have resulted in equipment
compensated de-energized c:ircuit running on the same right of damage.
way with an energized circuit is subjected to high induced
voltages due to parallel resonance. The commonly adopted A properly sized neutral reactor connected between the shunt
shunt compensation levels lead to zero-sequence resonance reactor neutral and ground, reduces the above mentioned
between the shunt reactor and the line capacitance. overvoltages and the secondary arc current on shunt
compensated EHV lines.
(2)Induced voltages during stuck breaker condition: High
overvoltages could occur on the de-energized conductor(s) of a This paper demonstrates these applications of a neutral reactor
three-phase circuit due to series resonance on shunt compensated with particular reference to the planned 243 mile long Mead-
lines. One and two de-energized conductors result due to stuck Phoenix 500 kV line runnjng parallel to the existing Mead-
breakers while energizing and de-energizing the circuit Liberty 345 kV line in the south westem U.S.A. The Mead-
respectively. One phase open condition also occurs on three- Phoenix line is planned for 70% shunt compensation through
phase lines operating with single-pole reclosing feature. two line connected reactors, 183 MVAr at each end; and 70%
series compensation with 35% at each end.
(3)Line energization voltages: Higher than normal energization
overvoltages could occur on a shunt compensated three-phase In addition to its applications a procedure for sizing, rating and
line if it is running parallel to an already energized circuit. The protection of the neutral reactor is also described.
line undergoing energization has zero-sequence voltages induced
onto it and in this respect it is like closing onto trapped charge,
but of fundamental frequency rather than a dc trapped charge.


S. R. Atmuri R. S.Thallam,D. W. Gerlach,T. G. Lundquist D.A. Selin

Teshmont Consultants Inc. Salt River Project Arizona Public Service Company
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix, Arizona

Abstract - This paper examines the applications of a neutral Mead-Phoenix 500 KV Line
reactor in limiting resonance overvoltages induced on de-
energized conductors due to parallel energized circuits and stuck The planned 243 mile Mead-Phoenix 500 kV line interconnects
breaker conditions. These applications are demonstrated the Westwing substation near Phoenix, Arizona and the Mead
through the planned 243 mile long Mead-Phoenix 500 kV line station in southern Nevada, forming part of the transmission
running on the same right of way as the existing Mead-Liberty system interconnecting Arizona with Los Angeles, California.
345 kV line. Reducing the secondary arc current during single This line runs parallel, on the same right of way, to the existing
pole reclosing is also examined. In addition to its applications, Mead-Liberty 345 kV line for a length of 205 miles. It also mns
a procedure for sizing, rating and protection of the neutral parallel to the Westwing - Palo Verde 500 kV double circuit line
reactor is explained. for 19 miles (Fig. 1). The Mead-Phoenix 500 kV line is
planned for 70 % shunt compensation through two line connected
Key words: neutral reactor, shunt compensation, stuck breaker, reactors, 183 Mvar at each end; and 70% series compensation
resonance of EHV lines, line energization with 35% at each end. The shunt reactors are single phase

Shunt reactors are generally provided on long EHV transmission

lines to limit overvoltages during the line energization, load
rejection and under light load conditions. The reactors are
typically rated to compensate 50 to 90% of the line shunt
capacitance. Although they limit overvoltages under the above
conditions, the shunt reactors could actually increase the
voltages induced onto the de-energized line conductors, due to
resonance from the energized conductors of the same circuit or
another circuit on the same right of way. These overvoltages
could be limited by means of a reactor, termed a neutral
reactor, connected between the shunt reactor neutral and ground.
The neutral reactors can also be applied to reduce secondary arc
currents during single pole reclosing on EHV systems as
demonstrated by its application up to 765 kV [l, 2, 31.

There is not much published information regarding the

application of neutral reactors to reduce overvoltages due to Figure 1. Mead-Phoenix Line with Parallel Lines
resonance. It is the intent of this paper to examine several
aspects of the application of a neutral reactor. These
applications are shown with particular reference to the planned
243 mile long Mead-Phoenix 500 kV line running parallel to the Induced Voltages on a De-energized Circuit
existing Mead-Liberty 345 kV line in the southwestern United
States. The phenomena of induced voltages, due to electrostatic and
electromagnetic coupling, on a shunt compensated de-energized
circuit from a parallel energized circuit is documented in the
literature [4,61. The de-energized circuit may be subjected to
overvoltages due to parallel resonance between the reactor and
the line capacitance. The occurrence of parallel resonance is
defined by the de-energized circuit parameters and the value of
induced voltages are determined by the mutual coupling with the
energized circuit. Analytical expressions, ignoring the
electromagnetic coupling, are derived for calculating the shunt
reactor size that results in resonance under fault and no fault
conditions. The reactor impedance value that results in zero-
sequence resonance (that could be influenced by a neutral

--+- wlo neutral
reactor), for a fully transposed line, for the case of no fault is
given below [5, 61.

with neutral

wLp + 30L" = -
w(Cm + 2Cab)

OL, = --1


LP inductance of the phase reactor equipment. However, special precautions have to be taken by
L : inductance of the neutral reactor the line crew during maintenance on the "de-energized" line.
Caa : self capacitance of the de-energized line
Also, ground switches shall be capable of extinguishing the high
Cab : inter-phase capacitance of the de-energized
shorting currents that result from the induced voltages .
L O zero sequence inductance of shunt
compensation Insertion of a 350 0 neutral reactor eliminates the zero-sequence
zero sequence capacitance of the line resonance and only about 0.04 pu voltages are induced
irrespective of the shunt reactor size, (Figure 2).
If the shunt compensation is about 70 % of the positive sequence
capacitance of the line, it results in resonance at fundamental Induced Voltages During Stuck Breaker Conditions
frequency in zero-sequence mode, if there were no neutral
reactor (assuming that positive sequence capacitance of the line EHV breakers are usually designed to operate with single pole
is 140% of the zero sequence capacitance). Insertion of a mechanisms. It is possible that due to mechanical differences
neutral reactor shifts this resonance point and thus avoids or defects that all three poles may not operate simultaneously or
possible high induced voltages. one of them could get stuck.

The steady-state induced voltages on the de-energized Mead- One phase could be left open with the other two phases
Westwing 500 kV line were calculated by varying the shunt energized during stuck breaker condition while energizing the
compensation by f 10% from its nominal value of 183 Mvar line or a single pole open condition arises while performing
and are shown in Figure 2. These values were calculated with single pole reclosing. Similarly, two phases could be left open
450 MW flow on the 345 kV line, using the Electromagnetic with the other phase energized during line de-energization. In
Transients Program (EMTP). The presence of the resonance
such cases, paralleI combination of the shunt reactor and the line
peak and the influence of the neutral reactor is quite evident in
shunt capacitance in series with the inter-phase capacitance
these simulations. The simulations were performed with shunt
reactors connected to the line side as well as bus side of the forms a series resonant circuit. These conditions could result in
series capacitors, however, Figure 2 shows the results with the series resonance on shunt compensated lines with attendant
planned arrangement of reactors connected on the line side. The overvoltages and their detrimental effects on the connected
series compensation decreases the value of the capacitance in equipment. Such high voltages also could occur during non-
parallel with the shunt reactor, and thus the Mvar value of the simultaneous pole operation.
reactor producing a resonance decreases correspondingly when
it is placed on the bus side of the series capacitors. Thus for The relations for series resonance are given in equations (3) and
the Mead-Phoenix line the resonance value shifts from 178 Mvar (4) [7]. With a typical ratio of 1.4 between C, and CO,
with reactors on line side to 172 Mvar if they are placed on the fundamental frequency resonance according to (3) and (4) could
bus side. occur with 80% to 90% of shunt compensation if the shunt
reactor zero-sequence reactance is equal to its positive-sequence
At the nominal size of the shunt reactor (183 Mvar) the induced reactance. Here again, a neutral reactor can be selected to shift
voltages on the 500 kV are below 0.5 pu irrespective of the the resonance point and avoid high voltages on the open phases.
location of the shunt reactors with respect to the series
capacitors. However, the value could reach upto about 0.80 pu The steady state fundamental frequency voltages in pu on the
if the manufacturing tolerance of the reactor (k2.5%) is taken open circuited phases are given by equations (5) and (6) [7]:
into consideration. These values are not critical for the 500 kV

of reactor saturation, corona losses and surge arresters could
one phase open condition: lower these values.

- +1 - = oc, + 2.oc, (3) The voltages on the open phases calculated with 350ohm
oL0 4 neutral reactor are also shown in Figure 3. These values are
nvo p h e open condition: low (less than 15%) compared to the no neutral reactor case.

2 Line Energization Voltages

- + -2- = 2.0c0 + oc, (4)
Line energization overvoltages will generally be higher if an
where: already energized line exists on the same right-of-way as the line
Lo and COare as &Bned abow being energized. This is due to the induced voltage that exists
L,: podtive-sequence inductrmce of shwtt conpenration on the line (prior to energization) as described in earlier. If the
C,: pc*Firive-sequence capacitance of the line line energization switching operation occurs at the instant that
the induced voltage is of opposite polarity to the energization
voltage, the resulting transient will be greater. This is similar
to the line switching condition of closing into a trapped charge
One phase open condition:
which is known to result in high overvoltages, except in this
1 case the pre-energization line voltage is of fundamental
voc = -
2 +3p frequency rather than dc trapped charge.
h phases open condition: The induced voltages on the shunt compensated line (prior to
voc - -
+ 3p
energization) are zero-sequence in nature and their values
depend upon the amount of compensation and the mutual
coupling as explained above. Here again, the induced voltages
Where and hence the energization voltages can be reduced substantially
by means of a neutral reactor.

1.8 -


1 w/o arrester, w/o neutral reactor

i 2 with arrester. w/o neutral reactor

3 w/o arrester, with neutral reactor

4 with arrester, with neutral reacto

Fig. 3 Voltages on Open Phases During Stuck Breaker 1.2

The steady-state voltages on the open phases were calculated by Distance From Mead (Miles)
varying the shunt compensation by f 10% from its nominal
value of 183 Mvar for the Med-Phoenix 500 kV line using
EMTP and are shown in Figure 3 with reactors on the line side. Fig. 4 Line Voltage Profiles During Energization
The values calculated using equations (5) and (6) agree closely
with those obtained from the EMTP simulation. The voltages The effect of a neutral reactor on energization voltages was
on the one phase open conditions are below about 0.7 pu. evaluated for the Mead-Phoenix 500 kV line. Figure 4 shows
However, the voltages on the two phase open condition could the mean voltage profiles along the line with shunt reactors
reach 1.3 to 1.6 pu if the tolerance in the reactor value is taken connected at both ends with and without 420 kV surge arresters
into consideration. It may be recognized that the representation at Westwing and Mead. These two base cases were run with

and without the neutral reactor. The voltage profiles were extended to allow arc extinction before reclosing the open-phase
calculated with 100 statistical runs using EMTP. Neutral breakers.
reactors reduce energization overvoltages significantly. This is
important, because it was decided earlier to install breakers Among several factors that influence secondary arc extinction,
without pre-insertion resistors, and rely on surge arresters to the amplitude of the secondary arc current and the rate of rise
limit line energization overvoltages. Neutral reactors reduce of recovery voltage play a dominant part. The secondary arc
these overvoltages even lower. current increases with line voltage and with line length.
Experimental and field tests indicate that secondary arc currents
Voltage profile plots of these cases indicated that Phase B of up to about 20A rms allow reclosing in about one second.
voltages were always substantially higher than other phase
voltages. An 80 km line length results in secondary arc current of 20A
A, B , end C aR bu:: sldc VOhAgCS rms for a 500 k V line [l]. For longer line lengths, means of
limiting the Secondary arc current are necessary. The use of a
neutral reactor has been found to be an effective means of
limiting secondary arc current. The shunt reactors compensate
the line positive sequence capacitance to limit overvoltages
during light load and load rejection conditions, whereas the
neutral reactor compensates the line interphase capacitance to
reduce the secondary arc current when one phase is opened.

An "optimum" size neutral reactor, as defined by equation (7)

[ 11 would completely eliminate the capacitively induced
secondary arc current for a fault at the middle of a continually
transposed line.
Fig. 5 Bus and Line Side Voltages Across Breaker
Figure 5 shows the bus side and line side voltages across the
open breaker at Mead without neutral reactors installed. The
three line side voltages are all in phase (zero sequence) with a -
- 3 4
magnitude of about 0.3 pu. Note that the line side voltages are dab
nearly 180" out of phase ,with Phase B bus side voltage. As a
result, the transient on Phase B is much higher than on other However, it does not completely eliminate the secondary arc
phases. Calculation shows that in steady state, Phase B has a current for faults at other locations along the line. Past
1.44 pu voltage difference across the breaker compared with experience indicates that even a wide variation from the optimal
1.03 pu for Phase A and 0.8 pu for Phase C. These differences value does reduce the secondary arc current and recovery
are due to the induced zero sequence voltage on the unenergized voltage to acceptable values.
It is not planned to use single pole reclosing on the Mead-
The voltage difference across the breaker for the individual Phoenix 500 kV line. Hence the effect of a neutral reactor on
phases are 1.04, 1.02 arid 1.07 pu for Phases A, B and C secondary arc currents was not studied for this purpose.
respectively with 350 n neutral reactor and the energization However, studies on other projects have shown that neutral
voltages between the three phases are not substantially different. reactor values in the range of 300 to 500 fl are quite effective.
Single Pole Reclosing Size, Duty and Protection of Neutral Reactor
Single pole reclosing is applied on transmission lines up to 765 As discussed in previous sections, there is wide degree of
kV to maintain or increase stability margin during single-line-to- latitude in the ohmic value of the neutral reactor in reducing the
ground faults. About 70 to 80% of the ground faults are induced voltages, the main consideration being to detune the
temporary in nature. These faults can be cleared by opening the resonance condition. In such cases, the required insulation level
faulted phase of the line rather than all three phases. This of the neutral reactor itself and the shunt reactor may be the
method enhances system stability especially with single radial deciding factor. A value in the range of 200 to 400 n is
lines. reasonable .
Opening the breakers on the faulted phase at both ends of the On the Mead-Phoenix 500 kV line induced voltages and currents
line does not necessarily guarantee arc extinction, even if it through the neutral reactor were calculated by varying the size
were a temporary arcing fault, because the other two unfaulted of the neutral reactor from 150 fl to 450 n in steps of 50 It. A
phases feed into the fault through electrostatic and 350 neutral reactor resulted in the lowest Mvar rating of the
electromagnetic coupling. Hence, the 'dead-time' has to be reactor itself, and thus this value was selected.

Current Rating results of the EMTP studies.

If the impedance of the three phases of the shunt reactors are When detailed simulations are not available, a reasonable BIL
not exactly equal, there will be a current flowing through the for the neutral reactor may be based on the ratio of the
neutral reactor during normal operation without a fault. The impedances of the shunt reactor and the neutral reactor, as
magnitude of the current is related to the degree of unbalance of shown in equation (9).
the shunt reactor impedances and the system voltage unbalance.
The continuous current flow (I,) through the neutral reactor
under this condition can be calculated from equation (8):
neutral reactor B E = - = XI 1
shunt reactor B E XI + XR 1 + XJXm (9)

v, v, where
(1 + - -)

I n =VI-
z* %
( 1 + - 1+ - + -1)
5 1
(8) XI = shunt reactor per-phase reactance
Xn = neutral reactor reactance
22 5 %
Equation (9) results in a vlaue of 292 kV BIL for this
application, compared to the selected value of 250 kV based on
where detailed simulations. It may be noted that the 250 kV BIL has
only a marginal effect on the cost of the shunt reactor compared
VI, V, and V, are the phase-to-neutral voltages to the 150 kV BIL that would have been provided if there were
of the three phases no neutral reactor. Discussions with shunt reactor manufacturer
indicated that a value higher than 250 kV would result in a
Z,, Z, and Z, are the corresponding impedances of the substantial cost increase. Hence the 250 kV BIL for the neutral
shunt reactors reactor was finally selected.
Zn = impedance of the neutral reactor
Table 1
Voltage Cumnt
ocv) (4
Induced from 345 kV line
Two shunt reactors in service 5 13
One shunt reactor in service (estimated) 8 23
z.' =
- Stuck breaker conditions
Zl Two shunt reactors in service - transient (crest) 125 400
- steady-state 50 144
One shunt reactor in service - transient (crest) 120 420
- steady-state 57 163
A larger reactor continuous current rating may be required, if
there exists another parallel line in the same right-of-way. For 500 kV SLG fault - transient (crest) 80 350
stuck breaker conditions, a short-time current rating (of the
Recommended Rating
order of 10 seconds) may be required. Similarly, a transient
rating may be required for line fault conditions. These ratings Continuous rating 17.5 50
m a y be calculated using EMTP for the particular system 10-second rating 70 200
configuration. Insulation class 35
BIL (crest) 250
The calculated ratings, through EMTP simulations, under the
above mentioned conditions for the Mead-Phoenix 500 kV line
are shown in Table 1. Based on these simulations, current
ratings of 50A continuous and 200A short term rating (10 sec)
were selected with 35 kV class insulation, see Table 1.
Protection of Neutral Reactor
Ituulation Level
Neutral reactor experiences high currents and overvoltages
during unbalanced faults in the line. Most severe are the faults
The BIL and insulation class of the neutral reactor (and the
at the shunt reactor bus, at the open end of an open-ended line.
neutral of the main shunt reactors) can be selected based on the

Both single-line-to-ground (SLG) faults and two-phase-to- this can be upto 15 cycles duration. To determine the duty on
ground faults were investigated, but it was found that SLG the arrester, case 4 (Line open at Mead, Fault at Mead reactor
faults impose the most severe duty. The purpose of these bus) was studied with 72 kV rating surge arrester connected
investigations is to optimize the surge arrester protection and across the neutral reactor.
insulation coordination for the neutral reactor. Arresters at
Westwing and Mead 500 kV buses were modeled. Series Reactor current, voltage, and the arrester current and energy
capacitors in the Mead-Phoenix line with parallel MOV were are shown in Figure 6.
also modeled, but they will be bypassed for internal faults
(faults in the Mead-Phoenix line). Faults were applied both at I (IW, I

the instant of 500 kV bus voltage zero and voltage maximum.

However, fault at the instant of voltage zero causes higher
currents in the neutral reactor. Fault duration was 5 cycles.
Results for SLG faults for different conditions are shown in
Table 2.

Table 2

Case System Fault Neutral Reactor n i

Location Current Voltage I 'Rh

1 Normal westwing 408A 82kV

2 L/O at Westwing Westwing 600A 124kV

3 Normal Mead 520A 91 kV

4 L/OatMead Mead 630A 139kV

L/O = Line open

Figure 6. Reactor and Arrester Duty for fault at Mead
Neutral reactor current and voltage for case 4 are shown in
Figure 5. The arrester limits the voltage across the neutral reactor. The
arrester at Mead neutral reactor experiences peak current of 92
I amperes, and energy of 104 kJ for a five cycleduration fault.
Even with 15 cycle fault duration, the energy discharged
through the arrester is far below the rated energy capability of
72 kV arrester. With 8 kJkV rating, the arrester capability is
576 kJ. The energy discharged through the arrester is low
because of the large impedance of the main reactor (400 ohms)
and the line between the neutral reactor arrester and the source
voltage. Even with small current in the arrester, the voltage
across the neutral reactor will be reduced due to the drop in the
main reactor impedance and the line.

Figure 5 Neutral Reactor Current and Voltage for Fault at The reactor BIL was chosen as 250 kV, which gave a
Mead protection margin of 48 9%.

Arrester Selection and Duty CONCLUSIONS

Based on the temporary overvoltage requirement (70 kV rms This paper has demonstrated that by means of neutral reactors,
for 10 seconds), a 72 kV duty cycle rated arrester was chosen induced voltages on the de-energized conductors of shunt
for protection of the neutral reactor. Fault studies shown in compensated EHV lines due to parallel energized circuit and
Table 2, indicated voltages with 139 kV peak can exist until during stuck breaker conditions can be significantly reduced.
the line is tripped by line: protection. With back-up clearing, These aspects were shown with particular reference to the

planned 243 mile long Mead-Phoenix 500 kV line running S. Rao Atmuri (SM'86) Obtained his B.Eng. degree from the O s d a
University, Hyderabad, India in 1967 and D.Eng. degree from Sir George
parallel to the existing Mead-Liberty 345 kV line. Williams University (now part of Concordia University) Montreal in 1974. He
worked for Bhilai Steel Ltd., Bhilai, India from 1967 to 1970 and Monenco
The same neutral reactor can also reduce the secondary arc Consultants from 1976 to 1980 in the power system studies division. Since
current during single pole reclosing and thus reduces the 1980 he has been with Teshmont Consultants Inc. (an associate company of
Monenco Consultants), Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada where he specializes in
reclosing time. This aspect is also reviewed. planning and design of EHV AC and HVDC transmission systems.

In addition to its applications a procedure for sizing, rating and Rao S. Thallam (SM '80) is presently Senior Principal Engineer, Power
protection of the neutral reactor was also described. System Analysis Division, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona. He is
responsible for conducting harmonics, overvoltages, and insulation
coordination studies, and for specification of static var control, and series
ACKNOWLEDGMENT compensation systems. He has published more than 25 papers on static relays,
HVDC transmission, harmonics and surge arresters, and was awarded a US
The authors thank V. Burtnyk, Teshmont Consultants Inc. for patent in 1982. He is the author of a chapter for The Electrical Engineering
Handbook, published by the CRC Press. He is a member of the IEEE Surge
his valuable comments on the final manuscript. Protective Devices Committee and chairman of the "Bibliography"
subcommittee of the Surge Protective Devices Committee.
Dennis W.Cerlach (M) earned his BSEE from the University of Nebraska in
1976 and his ME in Electric Power Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic
E.W. ambark, wSuppress.on of Ground-~aultArcs on Institute in 1979. He is currently the manager of the Power System Analysis
switched EHV Lines by Shunt Department of the Salt River Project. The department's primary responsibility
IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, V O PAS-
~ is to develop plans for the company's transmission and distribution system.
83, March 1964, pp. 285-290. Mr. Gerlach is a registered professional engineer in Arizona.

Douglas A. Selin (M '85) was born in Madison, Wisconsin. He received his

N. Knudsen, "Single-phase Switching of Transmission BSEE in 1983 from Brigham Young University and an ME degree from
Lines Using Reactors for Extinction of the Secondary Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1984. In 1984 he joined Arizona Public
Arc", CIGRE 1962 Session, Paris, Paper No. 33-10. Service Company where ,his responsibilities include subsynchronous
resonance problem analysis and simulation of power system dynamics and
transients. Mr. Selin has co-authored several papers and is a registered
H.N. Scherer et al, "Single Phase Switching Tests on 765 professional engineer in Arizona and a member of Tau Beta Pi and Eta Kappa
kV and 750 kV Transmission Lines", IEEE Trans. on Nu.
Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-104, No. 6,
June 1985, pp. 1537-48 Thomas G. Lundquist (SM '89) received BSEE from the University of
Arizona in 1972. He worked for Westinghouse Electric Corporation from
1972 to 1984. He joined Salt River Project in 1984 and is presently a Senior
M.H.Hesse and D.D. Wilson, "Near Resonant Coupling Principal Engineer in the Power System Engineering department. Work
on EHV Circuits: I1 - Methods of Analysis", IEEE Trans. assignment involve special projects involving EHV equipment. He is a
registered professional engineer in Arizona, and a member of ASTM.
on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS 87, No. 2,
Feb. 1968, pp. 326-334.

A.S. Rao and C.S. Cook, Discussion on "Effects of Faults

and Shunt Reactor Parameters on Parallel Resonance",
IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems,
Vol.PAS-100, No. 2, Feb. 1981, pp. 572-84.

J.J La Forest, et al, "Resonant Voltages on Reactor

Compensated Extra-High-Voltage Lines", IEEE Trans.
Vol. PAS-91, NOV. 1972, pp. 2528-36.

F. Ilicito, E. Cinieri, A. Divita, "Overvoltages Due to

Open-Phase Occurrence in Reactor Compensated EHV
Lines" IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems,
Vol PAS-103, No. 3, March 1984, pp. 474-482.