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Table of contents

Part 1. Storage management concepts

Chapter 1. Introduction to IBM Tivoli Storage Manager


Chapter 2. Business requirements
Chapter 3. Architectural concepts
Chapter 4. Planning concepts

Part 2. Client architecture

Chapter 5. Client data movement methods


Chapter 6. Backup-archive client
Chapter 7. API client
Chapter 8. HSM solutions

Part 3. Server architecture

Chapter 9. Policy management


Chapter 10. Scheduling
Chapter 11. Data storage
Chapter 12. Managing users and security levels
Chapter 13. Licensing
Chapter 14. Enterprise Management
Chapter 15. High availability clustering
Chapter 16. Disaster Recovery Manager
Chapter 17. Reporting

Part 4. Complementary products

Chapter 18. IBM Tivoli Continuous Data Protection for Files


Chapter 19. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Databases
Chapter 20. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Mail
Chapter 21. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager solutions for mySAP
Chapter 22. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Applications
Chapter 23. Complementary products

Part 5. Appendixes

Appendix A. Planning and sizing worksheets

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PART 1
TIVOLI STORAGE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS

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Infrastructure management

For an organization's information technology, infrastructure management (IM) is


the management of essential operation components, such as policies, processes,
equipment, data, human resources, and external contacts, for overall effectiveness.
Infrastructure management is sometimes divided into categories of systems management,
network management, and storage management. Infrastructure management products are
available from a number of vendors including Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and Microsoft.

Among other purposes, infrastructure management seeks to:

• Reduce duplication of effort


• Ensure adherence to standards
• Enhance the flow of information throughout an information system
• Promote adaptability necessary for a changeable environment
• Ensure interoperability among organizational and external entities
• Maintain effective change management policies and practices

Although all business activities depend upon the infrastructure, planning and projects
to ensure its effective management are typically undervalued to the detriment of the
organization. According to IDC, a prominent research firm (cited in an article in
DMReview), investments in infrastructure management have the largest single impact on
an organization's revenue.

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager demo

Tivoli Storage Manager is a comprehensive data management solution that


combines maximum efficiency and reliability with minimal hassle. Our online demo will
show you why 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies agree.
Tivoli Storage Manager provides smart backups and quick restores. You'll have all the
options you need to manage data in the way that works best for you. Perform full or
incremental backups, even backup only new or changed files. By selecting the type of
backup that best meets your requirements, you'll reduce backup time, network traffic, and
storage requirements.
Tivoli Storage Manager increases productivity, enabling fewer workers to back up more
data in less time, and then move on to other tasks. Tivoli Storage Manager performs
financially, too. In fact, a sample of large IT firms using Tivoli Storage Manager showed
return-on-investment periods averaging around one year, and experienced an overall
potential benefit of up to 45 times their initial investment. Now that's money well spent.
But don't take our word for it. Take Tivoli Storage Manager for a test drive. We're sure
you'll like

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Abstract

Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse is a brand new product from Tivoli, which allows
customers to get cross application reports from various Tivoli and customer applications.
The infrastructure enables a set of extract, transform, and load (ETL) utilities to extract
and move data from Tivoli application data stores to a central data warehouse database.
This redbook gives a broad understanding of the Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse.
Some of the topics that are covered in this redbook are:
• Concepts behind the Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse
• Architecture and installation
• Tips for using the Report Interface
• Writing your own ETLs
• Best practices in creating data marts
• Integrating Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse with OLAP tools such as Brio,
Business Objects, and Cognos PowerPlay
• Implementing a multi-customer environment
• Operational considerations and troubleshooting

Most of the topics are explained using real customer implementations. We think that
this redbook will be a major reference for Tivoli specialists and customers who are
responsible for implementing Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse in a real environment
that way it handles.

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IBM TIVOLI STORAGE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS

Overview

• See how IBM Tivoli Storage Manager can improve your IT operations
• Learn how to protect your vital applications and data
• Understand all aspects of storage management

This IBM Redbook describes the features and functions of IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager. It introduces Tivoli Storage Management concepts for those new to storage
management, in general, and to IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, in particular.

This easy-to-follow guide gives a broad understanding of IBM Tivoli Storage


Manager software, the key technologies to know, and the solutions available to protect
your business. It offers a broad understanding of how IBM Tivoli Storage Manager will
work in heterogeneous environments including Windows, UNIX/Linux, OS/400, and
z/OS platforms, and with such mission-critcal applications as DB/2, Oracle, Lotus
Domino, Exchange, SAP, and many more.

The book introduces storage management software by explaining the concepts,


architecture, and systems management features of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager and
showing available complementary products. It will help you design solutions to protect
data holdings from losses ranging from those caused by user error to complete site
disasters.

Abstract

This IBM Redbook describes the features and functions of IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager. It introduces Tivoli Storage Management concepts for those new to storage
management, in general, and to IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, in particular.
This easy-to-follow guide gives a broad understanding of IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager software, the key technologies to know, and the solutions available to protect
your business. It offers a broad understanding of how IBM Tivoli Storage Manager will
work in heterogeneous environments including Windows, UNIX/Linux, OS/400, and
z/OS platforms, and with mission-critical applications such as DB/2, Oracle, Lotus
Domino, Exchange, SAP, and many more.
The book introduces storage management software by explaining the concepts,
architecture, and systems management features of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager and
showing available complementary products. It will help you design solutions to protect
data holdings from losses ranging from those caused by user error to complete site
disasters.

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Chapter 1.

Introduction to IBM Tivoli Storage Manager

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager is a full-function storage software product that


addresses the challenges of complex storage management across distributed
environments. It protects and manages a broad range of data, from the workstation to the
corporate server environment. More than 39 different operating platforms are supported;
all include a consistent graphical user interface (GUI). Tivoli Storage Manager provides:

• Centralized administration for data and storage management


• Efficient management of information growth
• High-speed automated server recovery
• Full compatibility with hundreds of storage devices, as well as LAN, WAN, and
SAN infrastructures
• Customized backup solutions for major groupware, enterprise resource planning
(ERP) applications, and database products

1.1. Features of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager protects an organization's data against hardware


failures and other errors by storing backup and archive copies of data in offline storage. It
can scale to protect hundreds of computers from laptops to mainframes, running a dozen
different operating systems, connected via the Internet, WANs, or LANs. The centralized
Web-based management, smart data move and store techniques, and comprehensive
policy-based automation work together to minimize data protection administration costs
and the impact on both computers and networks. Optional modules enable business-
critical applications that must run 24x7x365 to utilize IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
centralized data protection with no interruption to their service.

1.2.Progressive backup methodology

Saves time and disk space by backing up only new files and modified files. The
progressive backup feature uses its own relational database to track data wherever it is
stored, delivering direct one-step file restore. This eliminates the need for base-plus-
incrementals tapes, commonly used for restore procedures in other storage management
products.

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Chapter 2

Business requirements

In this chapter we discuss business requirements and the need to define them for
better understanding of your total storage management solution design. This chapter
gives you a view of the impact your solution will or will not have on your business.

Over time, as storage systems have evolved and customers have experienced
certain growth in their business, a common thread arises regardless of the industry. These
growing problems have been grouped into four categories. Regardless of the customer,
each business will at one time or another experience one, several, or all of these
problems.

2.1. Storage consolidation

In an environment comprised of distributed servers and fragmented storage,


storage capacity is often underutilized, and reallocating or reconfiguring storage
resources often causes both disruptions and downtime. How do you improve asset
utilization, lower operating costs by centralizing capital and people, and automatically
reallocate storage resources as your business needs dictate? IBM Storage Network
Solutions address consolidation needs with solutions for all sizes of enterprises, based on
the broad range of NAS, NAS Gateway, iSCSI and SAN products and services, and IBM
Tivoli Storage Management Software.

IBM Storage Network Solutions offer the following storage-consolidation


benefits:

2.2. Data sharing

In today's e-commerce-driven business climate, information is stockpiling at an


unprecedented pace. The challenge is to make this stored information available on
demand to anyone in an enterprise who needs it. How do you increase network response
time, improve hardware and software utilization, reduce data duplication, and improve
information availability and data currency? IBM Storage Network Solutions offer Tivoli
SANergy™, which enables sharing of SAN-based storage arrays, file systems, and files
across multiple systems simultaneously.

2.3. Data protection

As the value of strategic information rises, so does the value of fast, reliable
backup. How do you free up server cycles, offload your data network, provide mission-
critical backup/restore, and better utilize expensive storage resources? IBM meets critical
data protection requirements with complete IBM Storage Network Solutions for all sizes
of enterprises, based on the broad range of IBM NAS, NAS Gateway, iSCSI and SAN
products and services, and IBM Tivoli Storage Management Software.

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2.4. Disaster recovery

Losing access to a key division or enterprise data repository because of a disaster


can cost a business in both the short and long terms. When strategic information drives
success and business is conducted 24x7x365, any downtime can be costly. To design a
disaster tolerance-strategy with no single point of failure that can easily and flexibly
accommodate an evolving business, using IBM Storage Network Solutions presents a full
range of hardware, software, and services offerings to address disaster-tolerance needs.

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Chapter 3

Architectural concepts

This chapter gives a high-level technical introduction to IBM Tivoli Storage


Manager. It positions IBM Tivoli Storage Manager within the total IBM Tivoli Storage
Management Solution, provides an overview of its architecture, the base concepts, the
interfaces, and supported environments, and shows IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
interaction with other products of the IBM Tivoli Storage Management product set.

3.1. IBM Tivoli Storage Management Enterprise Solution

Data has become the key asset of companies and one of the most important
competitive differentiating factors. Temporary inaccessibility or, worse, the complete loss
of data has a huge financial impact and can even drive companies out of business. The
inability to manage data can limit a company's ability to grow. Storing, protecting, and
managing data growth has become one of the major challenges of today's businesses.

Based on this requirement, IBM defined its Information Integrity Initiative: "The
IBM Tivoli Storage Management Initiative provides an end-to-end software management
solution with proven methodologies to help customers link storage management policies
with key business practices, to enable them to use information to drive business, rather
than simply support it."

3.2. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager architecture

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager is implemented as a client-server software


application consisting of an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server software component,
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Backup-Archive client, and other complementary IBM
Tivoli and vendor software products.

3.2.1. Overview

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server software, illustrated in Figure 3-2 on page 31,
builds the data management backbone by:

Figure 3-2. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server

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3.3. Storage management

Applying the discipline of storage management, combined with the appropriate


technology and a well-crafted set of storage management best practices, can provide
significant business value by helping enterprises increase revenues and decrease costs.
This section discusses common approaches to storage management as well as best
practices that can be used to enhance the business value of both storage technology and
stored data. It also discusses the key functionality to consider when selecting a storage
management product.

3.3.1. Best practices

The following sections describe some common approaches to best practices in the
storage management area.

Introduction

The exploding growth of corporate data combined with the falling price of storage
has created both an opportunity and a challenge for ITmanagers. More-affordable storage
technology enables IT managers to buy more storage devices for rapidly increasing
volumes of corporate data, but managing these expanding storage networks becomes a
complex, resource-intensive task. In many organizations, storage management is
executed without strategy, reducing cost-effectiveness and efficiency.

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Applying the discipline of storage management, combined with the appropriate
technology and a well-crafted set of storage management best practices, can provide
significant business value by helping enterprises increase revenues and decrease costs.
This paper discusses common approaches to storage management as well as best
practices that can be used to enhance the business value of both storage technology and
stored data. It also discusses the key functionality to consider when selecting a storage
management product.

3.4. Conclusion

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager is a complete storage management solution that is


designed to use many components to handle individual circumstances and special needs.
As we move forward we will see that IBM Tivoli Storage Manager is uniquely designed
to provide a compete and full solution. As we all know, no one product will be able to
resolve every problem or handle every situation. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager is
constantly adding and filling in gaps and weakness with new features and add on
products to fulfill your storage management solution needs.

We move forward to planning and the importance of ensuring that your goals and
requirements are realistic and obtainable with the hardware, software, and resources at
your disposal.

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Chapter 4

Planning concepts

This chapter gives a view of some of the planning that is required for successful
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager implementation. It helps assess the business's requirements
and assists in planning for necessary resources.

4.1. Most important: planning

One of the things that makes IBM Tivoli Storage Manager such a great tool for
storage management is that it can be customized to fit business requirements, instead of
requiring a business to conform to its requirements.

A successful implementation of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager benefits


enormously from planning prior to attempting to set up the environment. The planning
for which equipment you will need such as hardware platform, size of processor, network
connectively and tape library should all be done prior to trying to make IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager work in an environment that may not be suitable.

4.2. Understanding the importance of your data

Most companies do not really understand their business needs when it comes to
backups and data storage. Almost everyone you speak to about backup and restores will
tell you that they make a full backup of everything every week and keep it for three or
four weeks, and during the week they make backups of changes and keep those until the
next full backup. This was call the grandfather, father, son method of backup rotation. It
required lots of time to complete, used lots of tapes, and was only as good as the person
who guessed at the requirements.

Your business needs vary based on many factors, including government


regulations, regional demands, and industry and competitive pressures. Backup and
restore needs vary from industry to industry, from division to division, and even from
department to department within the same company.

4.3. Planning for IBM Tivoli Storage Manager

In order to plan for IBM Tivoli Storage Manager in your environment you need to
understand your environment and how IBM Tivoli Storage Manager will be used in that
environment. Each component of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager has specific requirements
that relate to the overall planning of the solution. For example, the IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager database has to be planned out before allocation in order to ensure proper size
and performance considerations—keeping in mind that for each record or file that IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager backs up, 800 bytes of information are written to the database
about that file. You also should know that each copy of the backed-up file records an
additional 200 bytes of information into the database.

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Each IBM Tivoli Storage Manager component has unique properties to learn, and
as your experience with IBM Tivoli Storage Manager grows, so will your skill in
implementing a successful solution. Worksheets and planning checklists found in
Appendix A, "Planning and sizing worksheets" on page 421 can assist in your planning
efforts, as will the companion redbook, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Implementation
Guide, SG24-5416.

4.4. Top tips for a successful implementation

This section discusses tips and recommendations to use when implementing an


enterprise storage solution with IBM Tivoli Storage Manager. As the product of choice in
many companies for accomplishing efficient and effective enterprise-wide storage
solutions, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager is a very powerful tool with lots of flavors and
colors, bells and whistles, features and functions, so to a certain degree, it is complex.
While planning for this solution, you can circumvent some roadblocks to help save time
and avoid frustration:

1. Embrace the progressive incremental backup paradigm

• The architecture of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager and its progressive


incremental backup paradigm is unique. It is very important to understand
and use this powerful method.
• A misunderstanding would probably lead to implementing traditional
backup strategies that include weekly "full" backups even though little has
changed, represented by selective backups in IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager. Furthermore, this type of thinking leads to too much backed-up
data and, therefore, more IBM Tivoli Storage Manager database objects
than needed. This will increase the database unnecessarily and hinder IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager performance.
• More backup data than necessary leads to more tape usage than is actually
required. This will unnecessarily burden and/or complicate tape
management processes and tape vaulting.

2. Learn about IBM Tivoli Storage Manager functionality

• Common sense dictates the importance of understanding a product's


functionality in order to use it optimally. Especially for storage
management products such as IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, you need to
know what the different implemented commands affect.
• It is important to understand the differences between backup and archive
to avoid confusion about which to use.
• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager includes powerful functions for disaster
recovery management, including tape vaulting. Needless to say, these tape
volumes for disaster recovery should be kept off-site. Another common
mistake is overworking your backups—that is, backing up or archiving
everything on a system. You should outline your requirements for restore,

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retrieve, and disaster recovery to define the data that actually must be
backed up.

3. Leverage IBM Tivoli Storage Manager functionality

• Misunderstanding of functionality often leads to its misuse. Even though


IBM Tivoli Storage Manager offers a lot of functions and features, you
should not overuse them. Too often, an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
implementation contains too many definitions for domains, schedules,
storage pools, or device classes. This complicates administration and
operation. Knowing what your deliverable is will help you plan the end
result better.
• Collocation, for example, is an expedient feature, but if it is used on all
tape volumes it will waste tapes. Collocation will direct all data of a client
onto the same tape whenever possible, even if there are minimal amounts
of data to back up. Large volume tapes such as LTO can have huge
amounts of unused space if collocation is used too liberally. Moreover,
migration from disk to tape will extraordinarily increase tape mounts,
which may decelerate data processing. The same applies for direct backup
to tape. Direct backup to tape is only recommended when streaming a lot
of continuous data, so the tape drive doesn't have to rewind and reposition
its read head incessantly.
• Most IT environments include some special data processing applications
such as databases or mail servers. To support backup procedures for these
kinds of applications, you should use the additional data protection
modules offered by IBM Tivoli Storage Manager to prevent misusing the
common backup-archive client for these special data operations.

4. Carefully estimate backup performance

• Performance depends on various factors, including the IBM Tivoli Storage


Manager server and client hardware, network, attached storage devices,
and operating systems. When calculating the actual data processing
performance, each system included in the storage management
environment should be treated separately or in groups of similar system
types. Do not assume the same performance for every single system.
• If there is not a dedicated network for backup purposes, the actual network
bandwidth is shared between different systems with different applications.
For performance and time calculations, the real available network
bandwidth has to be figured out. Even when using separate networks there
are factors that decrease the theoretical network bandwidth, such as
protocol overhead.
• File level backup performance depends heavily on the current storage
device hardware, protocol, attachment, and file system type. Assuming
that all files will be processed at the same speed can lead to a
miscalculated result.

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5. Carefully estimate restore performance

• The performance considerations for backup also apply to restores. Most


restore requests will be processed through a tape device, so some
additional factors have to be considered, such as robotics and tape mount
delays, device read speed, and position delays.

6. Test restore in production situations

• In an enterprise storage management environment, backup and archive are


implemented toward a single purpose: restore. In case of a failure of any
kind, you want to be able to restore all of your lost data, so it is advisable
to test the individual implementation, and to test it in production
environment.
• Most test scenarios are only organized under lab conditions, not real-world
situations. This could lead to the incorrect assumption that your restore
procedures will work in any failure. In complex environments, data
relationship between different systems or applications also must be
considered. In case of failure, a misoriented or misordered restore
sequence would lead to an inconsistent data environment.
• Restore can cover a huge area of scenarios from single file to bare metal
restore. Disaster recovery strategies and methods have to be well-
considered, implemented, documented, and tested.
• Essentially, all procedures should be documented and revised regularly to
ensure their validity.

7. Train staff prior to implementation

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager is a powerful and complex product when it is


implemented and used by well-trained staff, so it is highly recommended
that the responsible personnel should be educated in IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager products before using them in a production environment.
• Skill in installing common software under specific operating systems and
knowledge about other backup products is good but will not suffice. Hasty
implementations will lead to wasted money, wasted time, frustration, and
even data loss, not to mention poor performance by the product.

8. Schedule and monitor daily housekeeping activities

• Once IBM Tivoli Storage Manager is implemented and set up, it must be
managed and maintained. Poor data and storage management practices
will compromise your business data. Even after executing backups, the
data, and therefore IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, has to be administered.
Some processes, such as tape vaulting, are daily processes that your
business relies on in case of a disaster.

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4.5. Conclusion

Understanding your customers, your environment, your business, your needs and
your requirements are key to success, in storage management as well as business in
general, and of course IBM Tivoli Storage Manager can help with your storage
management needs and requirements. You will need three things to achieve success:

• Realistic goals and objectives


• Understanding
• Planning

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PART 2
CLIENT ARCHITECTURE
In this part we discuss how the IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager client is used and how it functions in your backup
and recovery solution.

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Chapter 5

Backup and restore operations

This chapter discusses the different types of data movement operations that can be
performed by an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager client. We describe how data is extracted
from a dedicated client system, and look at state-of-the-art methodologies to move data
from systems within an enterprise environment to a storage server for backup or archive
purposes and back again for restore activities. These strategies are more topology-related,
and they detail the ways client-extracted data flows to the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
server for safekeeping.

We do not cover scenarios with local attached storage devices because these
implementations require a backup storage device for each system to be backed up.
Furthermore, the amount of time and effort for administrating this kind of approach can
be heavy. So we concentrate on enterprise-wide solutions with a more centric view on
network-based data movement for mission-critical data.

5.1. Operation types

It is important to understand IBM Tivoli Storage Manager options for client


backup and restore operations, as well as the characteristics of each of these operations
because each method may have an effect on backup and restore efficiency, retention
periods, portability, CPU utilization, connection time, and network utilization. Table 5-1
describes the various client backup and restore operations supported with IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager and lists description, usage, and restore options. IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager uses progressive incremental backup as its standard backup method.

Table 5-1. Summary of client backup and restore operations

Type of Description Usage Restore options


backup
operation
Progressive The standard method of Helps ensure complete, The user can restore
incremental backup used by the effective, policy-based only the version of the
backup IBM Tivoli Storage backup of data. file that is needed
Manager backup- Eliminates the need to (depending on the
archive client. The first, retransmit backup data retention parameters).
full backup of a client that has not been IBM Tivoli Storage
system is followed by changed during Manager does not need
incremental backups. successive backup to restore a base file
Incremental backup by operations. followed by incremental
date is also available. backups. This means
reduced time and fewer
No additional full tape mounts, as well as

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Table 5-1. Summary of client backup and restore operations

Type of Description Usage Restore options


backup
operation
less data transmitted
backups of a client are over the network.
required after the first
backup.
Selective Backup of files that are Enables users to protect The user can restore
backup selected by the user, a subset of their data only the version of the
regardless of whether independent of the file that is needed. IBM
the files have changed normal incremental Tivoli Storage Manager
since the last backup. backup process. does not need to restore
a base file followed by
incremental one. This
means reduced time,
fewer tape mounts, and
less data over the
network.
Adaptive Backs up only the parts Maintains backups of The base file plus a
subfile of a file that have data while minimizing maximum of one subfile
backup changed since the last connect time and data is restored to the client.
backup. The server transmission for the
stores the base file and backup of mobile and
subsequent subfiles (the remote users.
changed parts) that
depend on the base file. Applicable to clients on
The process works with Windows systems.
both the standard
progressive incremental
backup or with selective
backup.
Journal- Aids all types of Reduces the amount of Journal-based backup
based backups (progressive time required for has no effect on how
backup incremental backup, backup. The files files are restored; this
selective backup, eligible for backup are depends on the type of
adaptive subfile known before the backup performed.
backup) by basing the backup operation
backups on a list of begins. Applicable to
changed files. The list is clients on Windows NT
maintained on the client and Windows 2000
by the journal engine systems.

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Table 5-1. Summary of client backup and restore operations

Type of Description Usage Restore options


backup
operation
service of the IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager
backup-archive client.
Image Full volume backup. Allows backup of an The entire image is
backup Nondisruptive, online entire file system or restored.
backup is possible for raw volume as a single
Windows 2000 and object. Can be selected
Linux clients by using by backup-archive
the Tivoli Storage clients on UNIX and
Manager snapshot Windows systems.
function. Used by Windows
clients that are using
server-free data
movement.
Image Full volume backup that Used only for the The full image backup
backup with can be followed by image backups of NAS plus a maximum of one
differential subsequent differential file servers, performed differential backup are
backups backups. by using NDMP. restored.
NDMP An image backup for NAS filers may not Full image restore or file
backup NAS devices that allow third-party level restore is possible.
supports full and software, so an IBM Depending on the NAS
differential processing. Tivoli Storage Manager filer even new data
Regardless of the mode client could not be created after the last
the backup always installed. In this case, image backup can be
results in one single standardized NDMP merged with the restored
entity on the IBM protocol offers a image.
Tivoli Storage Manager possibility for making
server. backups.
Backup A backup method that Implements high- See 5.5, "Split-
using exploits the capabilities efficiency backup and mirror/point-in-time
hardware of IBM Enterprise recovery of business- copy backup" on page
snapshot Storage Server critical applications 78 for details.
capabilities FlashCopy and EMC while virtually
TimeFinder to make eliminating backup-
copies of volumes used related downtime or
by database servers. user disruption on the
IBM Tivoli Storage database server.

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Table 5-1. Summary of client backup and restore operations

Type of Description Usage Restore options


backup
operation
Manager uses the
volume copies to back
up the database
volumes.
Archive Creates a copy of files Use for maintaining The selected version of
and stores them for a copies of vital records the file is retrieved on
specific time. for legal or historical request.
purposes. If you
frequently create
archives for the same
data, consider using
instant archive (backup
sets) instead. Frequent
archive operations can
create a large amount
of metadata in the
server database
resulting in increased
database growth and
decreased performance
of expiration server
operations.
Instant Creates a backup set of Use when portability of Files are restored
archive the most recent versions the recovery media or directly from the backup
of the files for the rapid recovery of a set. The backup set
client, using files backup-archive client is resides on media that
already in server storage important. Also use for can be mounted on the
from earlier backup efficient archiving. client system, such as
operations. CD, tape drive, or file
system. The IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager server
does not have to be
contacted for the restore
process, so the network
and IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager server are not
used.

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Chapter 6

Backup-archive client

This chapter covers the main client concepts for performing backup and restore
operations. For more details about implementation, see IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
Implementation Guide, SG24-5416.

The backup-archive client is the software program that helps you protect information on
your workstation. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager enables you to submit and receive
information, to and from an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server, by controlling the
transmission back and forth. You use the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager backup-archive
client to maintain backup versions of a machine's files. Then you can recover older file
versions in the event that those files are lost or damaged.

6.1. What is a client?

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager is a client-server program. The client product, which
must be installed on the machine you want to back up, is responsible for sending and
receiving data to and from the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server.

The backup-archive client has two distinct features:

6.2. Client components

Each client has two major components that help you protect your important data:

• Software components: These are the software programs and customization


files that you must have in place to use IBM Tivoli Storage Manager. The
most important of these are the client interfaces. Each interface is designed
so that you can perform all client operations from the one that best suits
your needs. For successful interaction with the server, you must configure
some basic parameters in a client options file.
• Operation components: When you use the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
interface to back up or archive a file, it sends a copy of the file and its
associated attributes to the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server. The IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager client can perform two types of operations to send
data to its designated server: backups and archives. Although these have
different purposes, you can think of them as the alternatives that you have
to better control how data must be saved.

• All client processing is controlled and secure. A client can restore or


retrieve their own files, or the files that they have been authorized to

22
restore by the owner. Whenever a client communicates with the server, it
starts a new session. The IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server tracks
sessions and each client activity.

6.3. Multi-session and transaction concepts

The IBM Tivoli Storage Manager clients use various internal techniques to
improve performance. In this section we describe the multi-session capabilities and client
transaction concepts.

6.3.1. Multi-session

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager exploits the multithreading capabilities of modern


operating systems by transparently initiating multiple backup-archive or restore/retrieve
sessions on the client where necessary for rapid processing and data transfers between the
client and the server.

The underlying multithreading model IBM Tivoli Storage Manager uses is called
"Producer-Consumer" or "Reader-Writer" model. This model usually involves two basic
types of threads (seen in Figure 6-7 on page 94):

6.4. Backup

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager can perform backups of both files and raw logical
volumes. When backing up files, the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server database keeps
a list of all files and their attributes (time, date, size, access control lists, extended
attributes). At each file backup operation, this list is compared to the current file system
on the client workstation to determine new, deleted, and changed files. Raw logical
volumes are treated as separate entities, and the management class policy is applied to the
entire image as a whole. There is no tracking of individual files in an image backup; that
is, it is treated as a separate object. More details on image and raw logical volume backup
are given in 6.6, "Backup set" on page 124.

During backup, the client first establishes a session with the IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager server. After that, it sends the data using the transaction controls as explained in
6.3.2, "Transaction" on page 97.

6.5. Archive

The IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Archive function stores selected files
unconditionally on the server according to the applicable management class limits.
Unconditionally means that there is no version limit and they will be retained for the
defined time period regardless of whether they are deleted on the client. Archived files
are useful if you want to take a snapshot of particular files, or if you want to delete files
to free space, yet still have the ability to retrieve them if required. It is common to have

23
legislative requirements to archive business records for long periods of time, and the
archive function is ideal for this purpose.

Figure 6-21 shows a schematic archive operation.

6.6. Backup set

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager enables you to generate a copy of your client's most
recent backup from the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server onto sequential media. This
is accomplished using the generate backupset command, which copies all active file
versions of the fileset from server storage onto the media. This copy of the backup, also
called backup set or portable backup, is self-contained and can be used independent from
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager to restore the client's data from a locally attached device
that can also read this media, such as a CD-ROM. This technique provides IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager client rapid recovery with no server and network dependency. You can
also transfer the backup set from one server to another by generating the backup set on
the source server, then transporting the backup set volume and defining it to the
destination server, assuming both servers have the same media type, as shown in Figure
6-25 on page 125. The same node name is required to be registered on both servers.

Figure 6-25. Portable client backup set

6.7. Restore

To restore a file, a directory, or even the whole machine, you need to know two
things: what you want to restore (file name, directory), and, optionally, from when (point
in time) if you want to restore a file other than the most recent one. You do not need to

24
know where the data actually is. When you request a file, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
finds out the location of that particular file version from its database.

To restore files, specify the directories or selected files, or select the files from a
list or GUI window. By default, only ACTIVE file versions will be available for
selection; however, INACTIVE versions can be specified easily. You can restore files to
their original location or specify a different directory. Collision options control whether
existing files of the same name are replaced.

6.8. Retrieve

The retrieve command obtains copies of archived files from the IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager server. You can specify either selected files or whole directories to
retrieve archived files. The description option enables you to search for the descriptions
assigned to the files when they were archived; you may decide to replace the files into the
same directory from which they were archived, or into a different directory. Figure 6-32
on page 135 shows a schematic view of the retrieve processing.

Figure 6-32. Retrieve in progress

6.9. Backup versus archive

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager manages backup and archive objects differently
with respect to their versioning and retention. Use IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
backup/restore when you want to control the number of versions and retention period for
files. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager uses the management class definitions to enforce both
the number of versions for a file (active and inactive) and the retention period. Because
the incremental function rebinds the files to one management class, it is not possible to
have different management classes for the same file. (IBM Tivoli Storage Manager

25
incremental rebinds all versions.) You can run backups to save changing files and use the
management classes to have different controls for different files.

Use IBM Tivoli Storage Manager archive/retrieve when you want to store a group
of files for a period of time. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager uses the management class
definitions to enforce only the retention period. There is no way to specify version
control for an archive file. The archive function does not use the bind/rebind concept. The
only case in which an archive file is managed differently is when you delete the archive
management class that was controlling files. In this case, those files are controlled by
grace period settings.

6.10. Other considerations

In this section we cover other subjects that affect all of your client operations.

6.10.1. Scheduling

In our examples of the various client operations, we have shown how they operate
from an end-user perspective—that is, by using the different interfaces available. In a
typical production environment, the backup and other operations that protect the client
data should be scheduled, so that we can be sure they regularly execute and can see if or
when something goes wrong. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager provides you with a client
scheduling interface, which interacts with the server's Central Scheduler for this purpose.
Another option for scheduling is to use your own or a third-party scheduler to run scripts
on your clients, comprising the appropriate client commands.

If you use IBM Tivoli Storage Manager's own central scheduling, the
administrator defines appropriate schedules on the server to perform the IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager tasks automatically. Central scheduling is a cooperative effort between
the server and each client node in that the client must run its own scheduler process so
that the client and server can contact each other to correctly run the scheduled operation.
The client scheduling process normally should be configured to start automatically each
time the client boots to avoid missing schedule execution and compromising data
security. There are two methods used to control how the client and server make contact to
run a schedule: client polling and server prompted. These options, and scheduling in
general, are discussed further in Chapter 10, "Scheduling" on page 173.

26
Chapter 7

API client

The IBM Tivoli Storage Manager application program interface (API) enables an
application client to use its storage management functions. It is provided and documented
to enable customers or ISVs to interface their own specialized applications with IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager.

7.1. Overview

The API can be run in single or multithreaded mode, which allows applications to
create multiple sessions with the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server within the same
process.

Note

When using LAN-free with an API client application, multithreading is


prerequisite

7.2. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager API client usage

The IBM Tivoli Storage Manager API client can be used by any application in
order to add the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager functions directly into that application.
Users can add the API to their program applications to automatically call IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager to initiate a backup, restore, archive, or retrieve of a file, without having
to leave (or close) the application.

This is useful to applications that do not have an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
component available to them, or to applications that need to back up or restore data
between processing steps of an application job flow.

7.3. Understanding configuration files and options files

Configuration files and options files enable you to set the conditions and
boundaries under which your IBM Tivoli Storage Manager session runs. The IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager administrator, the end user, or the developer can set the available
options. The values of various options enable the following functions to be performed:

• Initiate the connection to an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server.


• Control which objects are sent to the server and with what management class they
are associated.

27
7.4. Setting up the API environment

The API uses unique environment variables to locate files. This enables you to
use different files for API applications than the interactive client uses. Table 7-2 on page
149 lists the API environment variables by platform.

Table 7-2. API environment variables

Variables UNIX Windows NetWare


DSMI_CONFIG The fully qualified name The fully There are no environment
for the client option file qualified name variables. The dsm.opt,
for the client dscameng.txt, and
option file dsierror.log files reside in
the same directory as the
dsmapi.nlm file. This
directory becomes the
search path for these
files.
DSMI_DIR Points to the path Points to the
containing dsm.sys, path containing
dsmtca, the en_US dscameng.txt
subdirectory, and any and any NLS
other NLS language. The message file.
en_US subdirectory must
contain the
dsmclientV3.cat file.
DSMI_LOG Points to the path for the Points to the
dsierror.log file. path for the
dsierror.log file.
OBJECT_MOD Support for 64-bit
E=64 environment (where
available) and
commmethod is TCP/IP

7.5. Using passwordaccess generate without TCA

The Trusted Communication Agent (TCA), a child process that runs on UNIX
clients only, normally controls access to the protected password file. It is possible to have
the passwordaccess generate function without starting the TCA. To do this:

1. Write the application using the dsmSetUp() call to pass argv[0], containing the name
of the executable. The application is permitted to run as IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
authorized; however, the administrator should decide the login name for the IBM

28
Tivoli Storage Manager-authorized user.

2. Set the S bit (set the effective user ID) to On for the application executable. The
owner of that executable can then become an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager authorized
user. This enables the user to create a password file, update passwords, and run
applications. The owner of the application executable should be the same as the user
ID running the program. For example, "User" is User1, the name of the executable is
dapimsp, and User1 has read-write permissions on the /home/user1 directory.

3. Instruct the users of the application to use the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
authorized name to log in. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager verifies that the login ID
matches the application executable owner before it permits access to the protected
password file.

4. Set the passworddir option in the dsm.sys file to point to a directory where this user
has read-write access. For example, under the server stanza in dsm.sys, you would
enter:

passworddir /home/user1

The permissions on dapismp are:

-rwsr-xr-x user1 group1 dapismp

5. Start the password file and ensure that the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager authorized
user owns the file.

6. Run dapismp logged on as User1.

7. Call dsmSetUp() and pass in argv.

29
Chapter 8

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Space Management

In this chapter, we discuss the complementary IBM Tivoli Storage Manager


product, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Space Management (formerly Hierarchical
Storage Manager or HSM client). We introduce the concept of IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager for Space Management and discuss various features of the product.

Figure 8-1. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Space Management concept

8.1. Introduction

Disk subsystems are becoming less expensive every day. The cost per byte of data
stored on a disk has dropped dramatically from just a few years ago. At the same time,
both the amount of data being stored on disk and the cost to manage and administer this
stored data is increasing dramatically. Even with the reduction in hardware costs, the
increase in the amount of data is taxing the ability of file servers to hold and manage this
data.

File owners have been and continue to be uninterested in actively managing their
storage requirements due to factors such as lack of knowledge, more-pressing priorities,
and a lack of tools. They want to be able to find their data quickly and access it without
the hassles of swapping disks and mounting tapes. These attitudes lead significant
amounts of data being stored on disk, not because data needs to be there or is actively

30
being used, but because it is convenient to do so and no one is concerned with removing
old or unneeded data.

8.2. HSM migration

Files are migrated by IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Space Management from
the original file system to storage devices connected to an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
server. Each file is copied to the server and a stub file is placed in the original file's
location. Using the facilities of storage management on the server, the file is placed on
various storage devices such as disk and tape.

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Space Management migrates only regular files
on locally mounted file systems. It does not migrate character special files, block special
files, FIFO special files (named pipe files), or directories.

31
PART 3
SERVER ARCHITECTURE
In this part we describe how the IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager is architected and how it functions as a storage
management solution.

32
Chapter 9

Policy management

In this chapter we introduce the policy management of IBM Tivoli Storage


Manager, which manages all the rules where data is being stored and how long it is being
stored. This is one of the core paradigms of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager that provides
the basis of its behavior.

9.1. Introduction

A data storage environment consists of three types of resources: machines, rules,


and data. The machines are computers that contain data that must be backed up. The rules
specify how the backed-up data is to be treated. Basically, a data storage policy defines
the relationships between these three resources as illustrated in Figure 9-1.

Figure 9-1. Data storage policy relationships and resources

33
Chapter 10

Scheduling

This chapter describes the automation mechanisms IBM Tivoli Storage


Managerprovides to get certain actions such as backup activities scheduled throughout
the timeline. We also discuss the different means of communication between IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager server and clients.

10.1. Introduction

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager includes a central scheduling component that allows
the automatic processing of administrative commands and client operations during a
specific time period when the schedule is activated. An administrator is responsible for
creating and maintaining the schedules in each policy domain.

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager scheduling is split into two categories:


administrative scheduling and client scheduling. The two categories differ in two key
areas:

10.2. Administrative schedules

An administrative schedule is a directive to trigger some sort of action on the IBM


Tivoli Storage Manager server. It consists of a command or sequence of commands and
some details about when the actions should happen. Any actions that are used on a
regular basis to manage the Tivoli Storage Management environment should be defined
as an administrative schedule. Administrative commands can be scheduled for use in
tuning operations and to start functions that require significant server or system
resources. Automating these operations to occur in a quiet period, such as overnight,
enables the administrator to ensure that server resources are available when needed by
clients.

10.2.1. Scheduling concepts

The example in Figure 10-1 shows a series of operations that could occur in an
IBM Tivoli Storage Management environment and the sequence for those operations. The
circle represents a clock, and the tick marks indicate the hours of the day. The actual start
time and duration of the various operations are subject to your scheduling requirements,
and the sequence should be carefully considered.

Figure 10-1. Client schedules

34
10.3. Client schedules

A client schedule is a directive to trigger an action on one or more IBM Tivoli


Storage Manager client machines. It is different from an administrative schedule in that it
specifies that an action be performed on the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager client. The
client scheduling system consists of a server portion and a client portion. The server part
is integrated into the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager process and is responsible for defining
the schedule parameters and associating nodes with the schedule. The client scheduler is
a separate process on the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager client that provides
communication between the server and client. A client must be running its scheduler
process to be able to execute scheduled operations. Otherwise, the operation will fail and
will be logged as such in the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server.

The success or failure of each scheduled operation is recorded in the server event
log, so the administrator can query to find out which, if any, failed. The client also keeps
a local record of scheduled operations.

35
10.4. Frequency and duration

The administrator defines the time period (that is, the duration) during which a
schedule can start and how often to repeat the schedule (the frequency). An example of a
typical schedule frequency could be every night at midnight. The start time is 00:00, the
period between startup windows is 24 hours, and the duration is set to two hours, as
shown in Figure 10-5.

Figure 10-5. Schedule frequency

10.5. Retry and randomization

You can specify the maximum number of concurrent clients allowed to log on to
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, as well as the maximum number of scheduled sessions
allowed. If you restrict the number of scheduled sessions allowed on the server, a client is
prevented from running a schedule when the maximum number of sessions has been
reached. Through options that can be set globally at the server or individually for each
client, the client can retry a certain number of times to run the schedule, with a specified
time interval between retries.

With the retry and randomization options, you have considerable flexibility to
balance the network load.

10.6. Event log

Scheduled operations are recorded centrally in the event log at the server.

36
You can view which schedules ran successfully, were missed, and are scheduled
to run in the future. You can create an exception reporting list. In this way you can view
only those schedules that failed.

37
Chapter 11

Data storage

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager represents data storage with administrator-defined


objects: storage pools and storage pool volumes based on physical data storage objects
such as libraries and tapes or disks.

In the following sections we discuss how IBM Tivoli Storage Manager


automatically manages these pools and how you can define and check that the command
used has performed the changes you require.

11.1. Storage device management

The IBM Tivoli Storage Manager devices and media are represented by objects
that you have defined that are stored in the database. The objects contain information
about the devices and media. You can query, update, and delete the objects.

11.2. Storage pools

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager has two types of storage pools:

• Primary storage pools


• Copy storage pools

11.3. Storage pool hierarchy

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager enables you to configure storage pools to provide
the best combination of performance throughput and data permanence. In most cases,
keeping client data on tape or optical media is a requirement. However, making the
backups direct to tape may not give the best performance, especially where there are
many clients to back up concurrently, and many small files are being backed up.
Therefore, IBM Tivoli Storage Manager provides a storage pool hierarchy, whereby a
client initially backs up to a storage pool, usually on disk. When this storage pool fills up,
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager will automatically migrate files to the next storage pool in
the hierarchy (usually on tape or optical) while the client continues its backup operation.
This migration process is controlled by high and low thresholds set on the storage pool.

The management class (see 9.2, "Data storage policy components" on page 162)
determines where the client data enters the storage hierarchy. Figure 11-3 on page 191
shows a configuration where five storage pools are defined. The default management
class sends backups first to storage pool A, which are then migrated by the server to pool
B and finally to pool C. The other management class uses storage pool D for space
managed files, whereas backups are sent directly to Tape_Pool. This would be
appropriate for large client files (for example, application database files) that can exploit
the streaming performance capacity of the tape device.

38
11.4. Movement of data between storage pools

There are two controls available to help you automatically control the space in the
storage pools:

• Migration
• Maxsize

11.5. Reclamation

Reclamation is used to free complete tape (or optical) volumes in sequential


storage pools. Because IBM Tivoli Storage Manager keeps a defined number of versions
of files as it does incremental backups, the oldest copy of a file (beyond the defined
number of versions to keep) gets marked for expiry. This file will then be deleted when
the next expiration occurs.

It is common for a tape volume to have files that will expire on different dates.
Therefore, as these files reach their expiry date and the expiration process occurs,
"virtual" empty spaces appear on the tape volume. Fragmentation may also appear on the
volume through file deletion on the client causing the removal of many file versions
because of management class definitions, or by complete filespace deletion.
Fragmentation is undesirable on tapes or optical disks because it makes for slower
restores due to the need to skip over the empty spaces, and it increases the total number
of volumes required for data storage. It is not possible to go back and rewrite new data in
these empty spaces as these are sequential media and can only be written from the
beginning to the end.

11.6. Reduce restore times

Storage pool configuration can reduce restore times by these techniques:

• Collocation by minimizing the number of tape volumes used to store a client's


data.
• Disk caching by restoring data from disk even if it has already been migrated.
• Moving data to fast access storage pools or consolidating data before restoring
them

11.7. Disk storage protection

Disk technology continues to improve, in terms of capacity, speed, reliability,


sharability and availability. Many businesses use enterprise storage servers, which can be
attached directly via network or using a SAN. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager exploits the
services provided by this technology to provide greater protection for itself and its client
data. Disks are used within IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for its database, recovery log,
and random access storage pools.

39
11.7.1. RAID

To protect data on a disk-type storage device, we recommend that you use some
form of RAID, which can be implemented at either a hardware or software level.

Protecting data stored on a disk is a subject in itself, and below we just touch on
some of the possibilities you may want to look into further. The best solution for you will
depend on many factors:

11.8. SAN exploitation

This section discusses the basics of storage area networks and their usage within
an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager implementation.

11.8.1. Overview

SAN is a new architecture that puts storage on a separate dedicated network to


enable businesses of all sizes to provide access to important data, regardless of operating
systems, as a significant step towards helping customers cope with the explosive growth
of information in the e-business age.

A SAN is a dedicated network used for data movement or access purposes. This
type of network is contrasted with the typical network, which in addition to data access
(file serving) is used for communications functions such as e-mail, terminal connection,
and application program communication.

40
Chapter 12

User management and security

This chapter explains the functions of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager administrators
and its client option sets as as they apply to the available security options.

12.1. Administrator

A IBM Tivoli Storage Manager administrator manages IBM Tivoli Storage


Manager resources on the server such as storage pools, devices and data management
policies. An administrator can also be responsible for backup and restore of client data.
The number of administrators and their level of privileges will vary according to your
environment. In a very small implementation, all of these functions could be performed
by a single person.

12.1.1. Authority levels

Administrators with system privilege can perform any IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager function. Administrators with policy, storage, operator, analyst, or node
privileges can perform subsets of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager functions. All
administrators, even those with no specific privileges, can perform IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager query functions because these need only read access.

12.2. Server security

Authentication of administrators is optional in an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager


environment. The default is that authentication is required.

With password authentication set to on, all administrators must enter a password
when accessing the server. With password authentication set to off, administrators can
access without entering a password.

12.3. Client security

Every client node has to be registered and assigned a password to identify itself
against its designated server. To simplify administration and automation, the client
password is usually stored locally on the client using passwordaccess generate option so
that it can authenticate itself against the server. The password is encrypted before being
stored. When the password expires the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server and client
negotiate a new random password according to the configured password rules. The client
will then re-encrypt this password and store it locally.

During authentication between IBM Tivoli Storage Manager client and server the
client password is not sent over the network. Instead the client sends a message that is
encrypted using its locally stored password. The IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server

41
knows what the decrypted message should look like, so if the client uses the wrong
password to encrypt the message, authentication will fail.

12.4. Firewalls

Businesses increasingly rely on Internet technologies to interact with employees,


partners, suppliers, and customers. Customers use a company's Web server to directly
browse catalogs and order products, tracking them all the way to delivery. Web
applications enable them to place automatic just-in-time orders to their suppliers for
components required to produce their product. Employees use Web applications to select
their benefits, submit their expenses, do price quotations for their customers, submit and
track their orders, and do other activities in their job. Everyone knows that the Internet is
indispensable for doing business.

While the Internet provides many benefits and opportunities, it also opens up
many threats. Web servers that provide valuable applications contain product and
customer data that is private to the company and critical to their survival. Protecting that
data and the systems they are stored on from competitors and hackers is of utmost
importance. All companies using the Internet must employ some level of firewall
security.

12.5. Client option sets

A IBM Tivoli Storage Manager client session has a set of options that are used
during the backup, archive, restore, or retrieve processes. Options can be specified in two
ways: (1) a client options file, and (2) a client options set. The first is mandatory, while
the second is optional.

The client options file is a configuration file (or files, in the case of UNIX clients)
that is local to each IBM Tivoli Storage Manager client. It contains entries of valid client
options with an associated value. It also contains include-exclude file specifications. A
client option set is a set of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager client options stored in the IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager database. It is used in conjunction with a client options file. An
option set can be associated with one or more clients, but a client can be associated with
only one option set.

42
Chapter 13

Licensing

This chapter focuses on the different features of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager that need
licensing to function. Compliance with the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager licensing terms
ensures proper system operation.

13.1. Licensed features

IBM distinguishes between two licenses:

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager


• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Extended Edition

13.2. License compliance

If license terms change (for example, if a new license is defined for the server),
the server conducts an audit to determine whether the current server configuration
conforms to the license terms.

The server also periodically audits compliance with the license terms. The results
of this audit are used to check and enforce license terms. If 30 days have elapsed since
the previous license audit, the administrator cannot cancel the audit.

13.3. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager licenses

To obtain licenses for licensed features and complimentary products, you can
register the following licenses:

43
Chapter 14

Server network

In this chapter we discuss the enterprise-wide architecture of a network IBM


Tivoli Storage Manager server. We focus on the communication and interoperability of
multiple IBM Tivoli Storage Manager servers. This server-to-server communication can
be utilized to centralize administration tasks and configuration management. IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager can share storage resources and devices between multiple server
instances if an appropriate hardware environment is provided.

14.1. Enterprise administration

The enterprise management capabilities in IBM Tivoli Storage Manager include


comprehensive central management of multiple IBM Tivoli Storage Manager servers,
lights-out server automation, and remote help desk support. These capabilities are
designed to enhance ease of use, centralized but flexible control, automation, and
consistency while meeting your requirements for protecting ever-increasing amounts of
data in the most cost-effective manner.

These features enable you to easily and cost-effectively broaden your deployment
of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager servers to meet growing data availability requirements.

14.2. Enterprise management features

With the Enterprise Administration feature, the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
enterprise console provides administrators with several global views of their IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager deployment, as shown in Figure 14-1.

Figure 14-1. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager enterprise console

44
14.3. Enterprise Administration features

The Enterprise Administration feature enables administrators to centrally manage


multiple IBM Tivoli Storage Manager servers through a single enterprise console.

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager enterprise administration provides the following


capabilities:

14.4. Virtual volumes

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager enables a server (a source server) to store the results of
various operations on another server (a target server). The data is stored in what are
known as virtual volumes, which appear to be normal sequential media volumes on the
source server, but are actually stored as archive files on a target server. Virtual volumes
can be any of the following:

• Server database backups


• Storage pool backups
• Data that is backed up, archived, or space managed from client nodes
• Client data migrated from storage pools on the source server
• Any data that can be moved by EXPORT and IMPORT commands
• Disaster Recovery Manager plan files

45
14.5. Data movement between servers

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager enables you to move its data from one server to
another. This function is called export/import, and with it you can transfer clients
between servers (for load balancing) or move from one server operating system platform
to another.

14.5.1. Export/import

You can export or import administrator, node, server, or policy information, as


shown in Figure 14-4. You can export the complete server or just parts of it, for example
a few clients and their stored data. Even an incremental export restricted by a given time
frame is possible.

Figure 14-4. Export data from server 1, use volumes, import data to server 2

14.6. Tape library sharing

Storage Area Network (SAN) technologies enable IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
to share its libraries. Multiple Tivoli Storage Manager servers can dynamically share
library volume and tape drive resources of one connected tape library. The hosts can thus
maintain high-speed connections to the same devices through the SAN fabric. Backup
and restore applications benefit immediately from this, and the effect is pronounced for
environments with large amounts of data to back up over shrinking windows of time and
constrained LAN bandwidth.

Using the Fibre Channel technology of SANs, distances between the tape library and the
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server or servers can be extended as well. Tape libraries can
reside at an alternate location. Customers can use electronic vaulting for a quick and
efficient way to protect against and recover from a disaster situation. Finally, since a
reliable tape drive is quite an expensive device, tape sharing can be a very important
economic factor.

46
Chapter 15

High availability clustering

What exactly is an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager cluster? In simple terms, a


cluster is a group of computers that, together, provide a set of resources to a client. A
cluster consists of a minimum of two and, in theory, up to any number of systems. The
key point of clustering is that the client has no knowledge of the underlying physical
hardware of the cluster. This means that the client is isolated and protected from changes
to the physical hardware, which brings a number of benefits.

Perhaps the most important of these benefits is high availability. Resources on


clustered servers act as highly available versions of unclustered resources. If a node (an
individual computer) in the cluster is unavailable or too busy to respond to a request for a
resource, the request is transparently passed to another node capable of processing it.
Clients are therefore unaware of the exact locations of the resources they are using. For
example, a client can request the use of an application without being concerned about
either where the application resides or which physical server is processing the request.
The user simply gains access to the application in a timely and reliable manner.

15.1. High availability cluster multiprocessing

An IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server can use HACMP software for high
availability. HACMP provides the leading AIX-based clustering solution, which enables
automatic system recovery on system failure detection. Using HACMP with IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager can ensure server availability. HACMP offers local or campus disaster
survivability with real-time automated failover and reintegration within distance
limitations. In an HACMP environment, TCP/IP is the communications method used to
support the checking of status and availability of the production and failover server, also
commonly referred to as the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager heartbeat connection.

HACMP detects system failures and manages IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
failover to a recovery processor with a minimal loss of end-user time. You can set up an
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server on a system in an HACMP cluster so that, if the
system fails, the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server will be brought back up on another
system in the cluster. In both failover and fallback, it appears that the IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager server has crashed or halted and was then restarted. Any transactions that were
in progress at the time of the failover or fallback are rolled back, and all completed
transactions are still complete. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager clients see this as a
communications failure and try to re-establish their connections as shown in Figure 15-1.

15.2. Backup-archive and HSM client with HACMP

As of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Version 5.1, the backup-archive client itself
(including the administrator, backup/archive, HSM, and API pieces) is supported for use
in an HACMP cluster environment. This configuration enables IBM Tivoli Storage

47
Manager scheduled client operations to continue processing in the event of a system
failure on a redundant clustered failover server. See Figure 15-2 on page 249 for an
illustration of how this works.

Figure 15-2. HACMP and IBM Tivoli Storage Manager client configuration

48
Chapter 16

Disaster Recovery Manager

One of the big challenges in information technology is to have complete backup


of all data and the ability to recover it in a timely fashion. This means having controls in
place to keep track of massive storage repositories in complex environments with many
different machines, devices, tapes, and applications. This chapter shows how the Disaster
Recovery Manager function of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Extended Edition helps the
administrator with this formidable task.

16.1. What is disaster recovery?

Disaster recovery is the process of restoring operations of a business or


organization in the event of a catastrophe. There may be many aspects related to the
restoration, including facilities, equipment, personnel, supplies, customer services, and
data. One of the most valuable business assets is the critical data that resides on the
computer systems throughout the company. The recovery of this data needs to be a
primary focus of the disaster recovery plan. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, along with the
Disaster Recovery Manager function included in IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Extended
Edition, will assist you in the technical steps that you need to make your data available to
users after a widespread failure. Some generic terms and terminologies that you may find
regarding disaster recovery are:

• Business Impact Analysis (BIA): Considers business criticality for all managed
systems and information flows that are vital for business survival. One of the key
points here is to evaluate and map all internal departments that may have
dependency to business continuity. This is an important task in a company and it
is outside the scope of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager and the Disaster Recovery
Manager function included in IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Extended Edition.
• Business Continuity Plan / Business Recovery Plan (BCP/BRP): The result of an
analysis and the documentation on how to bring the company back to normal in
an orderly way, considering its priorities and requirements based on the facilities
and resources required. Some of the requirements will be translated into the
disaster recovery plan, which may be used by IBM Tivoli Storage Manager.
• Information Technology Recovery Plan or disaster recovery plan: Defines what
you have to rebuild and how to do it for the business side, such as database
applications, spreadsheet data, and user files. This is the component where IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager and the Disaster Recovery Manager function included in
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Extended Edition are of principal assistance.

16.2. What should be considered a disaster?

A disaster is a catastrophic interruption of business processing that destroys the


IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server, clients, or both.

49
There are many levels to consider for a disaster. You can imagine a situation where a user
deletes a file and requests a restore (to the user it might indeed be "a disaster"). A
complete directory might be lost; an application server might be infected with a virus,
causing an unknown extent of damage; a disk might be lost on a fileserver; or a full
datacenter building with many machines might be completely destroyed. Depending on
the business requirement, you will need to answer bigger questions, such as what kind of
recovery do you need and how long do you have to provide it. Figure 16-7 on page 267
shows the time it may take to recover using some of the well-known techniques that you
can apply to your environment to safeguard from data loss.

16.3. Recovery strategy for the server

Disaster Recovery Manager simplifies the disaster recovery planning process for the
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server by generating a recovery plan file that is based on a
pre-defined recovery strategy. The recovery plan file contains the information and
procedures necessary to help restore the key components of the IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager server. The content of the plan file includes:

• Installation-specific server recovery instructions


• List of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager database backup and copy storage pool
volumes required to perform the recovery, including the off-site location where
the volumes reside
• Devices required to read the database backup and copy storage pool volumes
• Space requirements for the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager database and recovery
log
• Copy of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager configuration files

50
PART 4
SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
This part discusses the ways to actually manage an
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager environment—not the daily
operating tasks, but the way to integrate IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager into a systems management environment.
Additionally, we discuss the reporting possibilities of IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager.

51
Chapter 17

Reporting

This chapter covers basic IBM Tivoli Storage Manager reporting and explains
which reports may be useful. It also shows the facilities that can be used for reporting that
are included with the base IBM Tivoli Storage Manager product.

17.1. Why IBM Tivoli Storage Manager reporting?

As with any application, an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager environment includes a


series of tasks that must be performed regularly. To perform these tasks in a timely and
efficient way requires a set of resources, such as space in storage pools or in the IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager database, and tape drives and volumes. Scheduled operations
must complete in a timely manner and without failures. In large environments the number
of operations can be quite high, and managing them effectively can be quite complex.

Reports can be very useful for verifying that the tasks set up for IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager to perform are carried out in a timely and efficient way.

52
Chapter 18

IBM Tivoli Enterprise solutions

In IBM Tivoli terms, an enterprise consists of a large number of resources to


manage. These resources can be network components, operating systems, databases,
middleware, and off-the-shelf or custom applications.

18.1. Overview

The foundation of the IBM Tivoli Enterprise architecture as shown in Figure 18-1
on page 293 is a distributed object-oriented software called IBM Tivoli Systems
Mangement Framework. Most of the applications of the IBM Tivoli Enterprise suite use
the services included in the framework. This means that when a major function in the
framework is improved, these IBM Tivoli applications can take advantage of the
improvement. The IBM Tivoli Systems Management Framework also serves as a single
point of integration for the IBM Tivoli and third-party applications.

Figure 18-1. IBM Tivoli Enterprise architecture

18.2. IBM Tivoli Enterprise modules

This section provides an overview of each of the the principal IBM Tivoli
Enterprise modules.

53
18.2.1. IBM Tivoli Systems Management Framework

The IBM Tivoli Systems Management Framework provides the basic system
management services, including communications, presentation, and security, that most of
the IBM Tivoli management applications use, which ensures consistency and integration.
At its core, the framework provides the facilities to transfer files and execute commands
on remote systems with built-in security and authorization roles. The IBM Tivoli
management applications can use these core facilities to implement management
functions, including software distribution, resource monitoring, and system configuration.

Most IBM Tivoli systems management tasks, regardless of the application or


component that is to be managed, may be performed by using the IBM Tivoli desktop,
which provides a user interface consistent throughout management applications.

54
PART 5
COMPLEMENTARY PRODUCTS
In this part we introduce products complementary to
IBM Tivoli Storage Manager. Though not part of Tivoli
Storage Manager, these IBM and non-IBM products are
certified as Ready for IBM Tivoli, and they can assist with
managing and controling a total storage environment.

55
Chapter 19

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Databases

This chapter discusses integrating database backup strategies with IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager for Databases and the different types of database backups. An overview
of relational databases also is provided, and the fundamental structure of a database, such
as tables, table spaces, data files, control files, parameter files, and configuration files, is
described. Specific data storage considerations for UNIX-oriented systems, such as using
raw devices or file system files, are covered. Techniques for online and offline backup
are discussed. Non-relational database management system products are not discussed
specifically, but many of the concepts are also applicable.

19.1. Relational databases

The early 1980s opened the door for the relational database management system
(RDBMS). Since then, these have become so popular that they are used by most line-of-
business applications being implemented today. Some people predict that in the
beginning of this century, object databases will supersede relational databases, but
whether or not this prediction turns out to be accurate is of no immediate importance to
those of us who must back up the data used by today's applications.

RDBMSs share a common set of principles and, conceptually, similar logical and
physical structures. Figure 19-1 shows their fundamental structure: tables, table spaces,
log files, and control files. Note that although all RDBMS products are based on the same
set of principles, they do not all use the same terminology or structures. For example, a
table space in Informix is called a dbspace, and there is no table space concept in Sybase
or Microsoft SQL Server. Log files in Oracle are called redo logs, while in Sybase they
are called transaction logs.

56
Chapter 20

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Mail

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Mail is a software module for IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager that automates the data protection of e-mail servers running either IBM
Lotus Domino or Microsoft Exchange. This module utilizes the application program
interfaces (APIs) provided by e-mail application vendors to perform online "hot" backups
without shutting down the e-mail server and improve data-restore performance. As a
result, it can help protect the growing amount of new and changing data that should be
securely backed up to help maintain 24x7x365 application availability.

20.1. Data Protection for Lotus Domino

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager provides a backup solution for a heterogeneous


Domino environment, which includes the backup-archive client and the Data Protection
component for Domino. Together, these provide a complete backup solution to fulfill the
requirements of Domino storage management.

Data Protection for Domino, a successor to Data Protection for Lotus Notes, takes
advantage of significant changes in the Lotus Notes R6 server architecture. These include
transaction logging for interactions with Notes databases as well as a new application
program interface (API) for backup and recovery of Notes databases.

20.2. Data Protection for Microsoft Exchange Server

This chapter provides introductory information for the IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager component Data Protection for Microsoft Exchange Server, which provides
online backups of Microsoft Exchange Server databases to a Tivoli Storage Manager
server.

Data Protection for Exchange provides complete integration with Microsoft


Exchange APIs by offering:

57
Chapter 21

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Enterprise Resource Planning

This chapter describes IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Enterprise Resource
Planning (Tivoli Storage Manager for ERP), a software module that works with IBM
Tivoli Storage Manager to better protect the infrastructure and application data and
improve the availability of SAP R/3 Servers.

21.1. Overview

Specifically designed and optimized for the SAP R/3 environment, Tivoli Storage
Manager for ERP provides automated data protection, reduces the CPU performance
impact of data backups and restores on the R/3 server, and greatly reduces the
administrator workload necessary to meet data protection requirements. It builds on the
SAP database, a set of database administration functions integrated with R/3 for database
control and administration. The Tivoli Storage Manager for ERP software module
enables multiple R/3 servers to utilize a single Tivoli Storage Manager server to
automatically manage the backup of R/3 data. As the intelligent interface to the R/3
database, Tivoli Storage Manager for ERP is SAP certified in heterogeneous
environments, supporting large-volume data backups, data recovery, data cloning, and
disaster recovery of multiple SAP R/3 servers.

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Enterprise Resource Planning offers the
following features:

21.2. SAP

SAP (Systeme, Applikationen und Produkte in der Informationsverarbeitung),


founded in 1972 by five former IBM employees in Germany, is one of the world's largest
software companies providing packaged commercial applications. It now has 28
subsidiaries and affiliates in all of the major industrialized countries of Europe, North
America, Asia, and Africa, and it supports more than 3500 customers in 36 countries
worldwide. IBM and SAP formed an alliance in July 1983 by signing an international
agreement that covers mutual cooperation in development, marketing, sales, and support
of customer business solutions.

SAP R/3 is an integrated client/server package covering accounting, human


resources, logistics, and production planning. R/3 also provides an application
development environment. As shown in Figure 21-1 on page 360, a typical SAP R/3
system consists of three tiers: database servers, applications servers, and presentation
clients.

58
Chapter 22

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Applications

This section describes IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Application Servers
(formerly Tivoli Data Protection for WebSphere Application Server), a software module
that works with IBM Tivoli Storage Manager to better protect the infrastructure and
application data and improve the availability of WebSphere Application Servers.

22.1. Overview of WebSphere Application Server

A base WebSphere Application Server Version 5 configuration includes only the


application server process. There is no node agent or Deployment Manager involved in
this configuration. No coordination between application server processes is supported in
the base configuration, with each application server instance having to be separately
administered.

22.2. Overview of IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Application Servers

This section describes the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Application Servers
module and its features.

22.2.1. Architecture

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Application Servers works with the WebSphere
Application Server software to provide an applet GUI to do reproducible, automated
online backup of a WebSphere Application Server environment, including the
WebSphere administration database (DB2 Universal Database), configuration data, and
deployed application program files. Changes to the WebSphere environment, such as the
addition of applications, are automatically detected and included in the data backup
schedule to help keep backed-up data current. If data loss or data corruption occurs,
Storage Manager for Application Servers can automatically restore the necessary data
from offline storage to the WebSphere Application Server environment's online storage.

Figure 22-2. IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Application Servers architecture

59
22.3. Backup strategies

Tivoli Storage Manager for Application Servers provides various strategies to


employ in a backup solution. This chapter provides information about developing a
backup strategy appropriate for the WebSphere Application Server environment.

22.3.1. Full backups only

This strategy backs up all files that comprise a WebSphere Application Server
backup group regardless of whether existing files have changed or new files have been
added. If backing up to tape, full backups also keep all files of a backup set together on
the same storage volume to optimize restore processing. However, this strategy requires
the most network and storage resources because files that have not changed are processed
with each backup.

Chapter 2

IBM Tivoli complementary products

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager has two types of complementary products: IBM
Tivoli products that add to the Total Storage solution and third-party software products
that complete and enhance the storage management solution.

This chapter discusses additional IBM Tivoli storage management solution


software and one third-party application.

60
23.1. IBM Tivoli Storage Area Network Manager

Tivoli Storage Area Network Manager is a comprehensive solution that discovers,


monitors, and manages SAN fabric components. Tivoli SAN Manager is architected to
ANSI SAN standards, enabling you to choose best-of-breed products for your storage
infrastructure. Tivoli SAN Manager can help:

• Reduce storage administration costs


• Reduce administrative workloads
• Maintain high availability
• Minimize downtime

23.2. IBM Tivoli Storage Resource Manager

This chapter introduces and positions IBM Tivoli Storage Resource Manager and
its architecture, components, and functionality.

IBM Tivoli Storage Resource Manager monitors storage assets, capacity, and
usage across an enterprise. IBM Tivoli Storage Resource Manager can look at:

23.3. IBM Tivoli SANergy

IBM Tivoli SANergy is a unique application that enables you to realize the cost
savings, performance benefits, and new capabilities provided by SANs.

IBM Tivoli SANergy enables storage volumes to be shared to multiple hosts


running various operating systems. This does not require implementation of a new
operating system or new file system, and existing applications will run under their current
design. The skills for administrating LAN-based shared storage are similar to those
needed to manage IBM Tivoli SANergy shared storage. Tivoli SANergy is a very mature
product (relative to this area of technology) that runs on more than 5000 hosts and 1000
customer environments.

23.4. Cristie Bare Machine Recovery

Cristie Bare Machine Recovery (CBMR) is a software package that works in


conjunction with IBM Tivoli Storage Manager to provide a fully automated method of
recovering a Windows operating system to a new hard disk drive or RAID system. There
are three components to the software: the backup of the operating system, the
configuration files and the boot files.

The backup of the operating system comprises the files contained in the Windows
operating system folder together with the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager client files and
the CBMR files. These are backed up as a few files to the IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
filespace and kept up to date either on an ad hoc basis or by using the scheduler
incorporated within CBMR.

61
23.5. Ready for IBM Tivoli products and solutions

Ready for IBM Tivoli is the official program through which selected Business
Partner products are designed, tested, and certified for seamless integration with Tivoli®
technology management solutions. When you buy products that are validated as Ready
for IBM Tivoli, you know they will work together with your Tivoli solutions to provide
true end-to-end technology management functionality. All of the integration and testing
have been done before you even purchase the product.

Selecting Ready for IBM Tivoli products along with your Tivoli solutions
simplifies and streamlines technology management. Ready for IBM Tivoli products
encompass a wide variety of hardware, software, management tools, and business
applications from leading technology companies. Each Business Partner product is
validated to meet Ready for IBM Tivoli integration standards with a corresponding IBM
Tivoli solution.

62
Chapter 2

iSeries storage management solutions

For some years an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server has been available for
IBM iSeries systems, where it has mainly been used as a repository for end-user
workstation and client data. Since the introduction of the BRMS/400 application client
for Tivoli Storage Manager, iSeries data can also be stored and managed using a Tivoli
Storage Manager server.

This chapter includes a high-level discussion of the different aspects of using


Tivoli Storage Manager in an iSeries-centric network environment, covering both the
application of an iSeries system as a Tivoli Storage Manager server and the integration of
an iSeries system in an existing Tivoli Storage Manager environment. It also gives an
overview of different solutions when using Tivoli Storage Manager in an iSeries
environment, such as managing data in a partitioned Portable Application Solutions
Environment (PASE) environment and the application of Tivoli Storage Manager with
the iSeries Integrated Netfinity server.

24.1. Why choose an iSeries system?

The IBM iSeries system is a secure, proven, and reliable machine with at
least 99.9 percent uptime (according to reported IBM figures) provided by a single
iSeries system with no special high-availability add-on products. This compares
favorably with other operating systems that rely on additional high-availability products
and may not have as much established time in the marketplace.

For current information about iSeries, refer to:

24.2. iSeries with IBM Tivoli Storage Manager

An iSeries system can be integrated easily into a Tivoli Storage Manager data
management solution as either client or server. To act as a Tivoli Storage Manager client,
the iSeries system must be running Backup, Recovery, and Media Services for iSeries
(BRMS).

24.3. Portable Application Solutions Environment

OS/400 Portable Application Solutions Environment (OS/400 PASE):

• An integrated OS/400 runtime for porting selected UNIX applications


• Provides a broad subset of AIX libraries and adds more shells and utilities in
V5R2 (in which it is a no-charge option)
• Uses the hardware directly; is not an operating system or emulated environment

63
24.4. Who would use Tivoli Storage Manager on iSeries?

The criteria for determining whether you should use the iSeries for Tivoli Storage
Manager backups depends on several factors relevent to your specific IT environment.
Refer to Chapter 4, "Planning concepts" on page 55 for more details.

When considering IBM Tivoli Storage Manager on iSeries you should review the
following points to determine whether they match your business environment:

24.5. Hardware and software requirements

The following hardware and software requirements are necessary:

• Either OS/400 V5R1 with PASE (option 33 of OS/400) or OS/400 V5R2 (PASE
is standard)
• Any iSeries hardware that supports V5R1 or V5R2 of OS/400
• Medium to high CPW systems
• Minimum of 128 MB memory (256 MB recommended
• Minimum of 110 MB of disk space
• Additional space for Tivoli Storage Manager database and recovery log
• Additional space for Tivoli Storage Manager diskpool (actual disk requirements
determined via standard IBM Tivoli Storage Manager sizing)
• TCP/IP enabled on iSeries
• PASE interface has AIX "look and feel"
• Knowledge of some AIX commands and general concepts (recommended)

24.6. Considerations for iSeries (PASE)

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager 5.2 Server for iSeries (PASE) does not support:

• Server-free
• LAN-free (storage agent)
• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager tape library sharing
• Raw logical volumes for Tivoli Storage Manager database, log, or diskpools
• Optical devices
• NAS (NDMP)
• SNMP Subagent
• IPX or APPC protocols

24.7. BRMS/400

Backup Recovery Media Services (BRMS) is the primary IBM product for
backup and recovery of the iSeries and iSeries data. Tivoli Storage Manager and BRMS
can coexist on same iSeries server. iSeries data is not read directly by Tivoli Storage
Manager because there is no Tivoli Storage Manager client for iSeries. BRMS backs up
iSeries data.

64
Tivoli Storage Manager backs up other network-attached, non-iSeries servers and
workstations such as Windows, NetWare, UNIX, and Linux, and associated applications
and databases.

24.8. iSeries system as Tivoli Storage Manager API client

A set of application program interfaces (APIs) can be obtained for BRMS. These
form the BRMS Application Client to an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager server. This
enables BRMS to save and restore data on any Tivoli Storage Manager server. See Figure
24-2.

Figure 24-2. BRMS Application Client

24.9. iSeries system as a Tivoli Storage Manager server

IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for iSeries integrates unattended network backup
and archive with disaster recovery planning functions in a single software solution. Tivoli
Storage Manager for iSeries backs up and archives data from more than 30 multi-vendor
platforms. In addition to the multiple client platforms, it supports leading devices and
communication protocols. This broad range of support makes iSeries server a
comprehensive storage management solution.

A typical example of how a Tivoli Storage Manager server can fit in with iSeries
systems is a distributed computing environment in which there may be an application that
is divided into three parts. The data for the application is kept on an iSeries system, the
logic for the application may be kept on a Windows NT server, and the user interface for
the application is stored locally on desktop PCs. If a disaster occurs on the logic or data
machines then the whole application is unavailable. If a disaster occurs on a desktop PC

65
then just that PC is affected. Tivoli Storage Manager can be used to back up all of the
desktop PCs and the Windows NT server to the iSeries system, creating a complete
storage management solution.

24.10. Disaster recovery for the iSeries

The iSeries client does not support bare machine recovery. Recovery of an iSeries
system relies on the recovery plan available through BRMS. This uses a step-by-step
approach that explains exactly what must be done to recover the entire machine. It
automatically uses Tivoli Storage Manager to recover objects wherever necessary.

Recovery of a Tivoli Storage Manager server on an iSeries system depends on


how the iSeries system has been backed up. Recovering a server running on an iSeries
system is a relatively straightforward process. BRMS (if installed) can be used to aid in
the recovery of the server so as to make it a simple step-by-step procedure.

24.11. HSM on an iSeries system

There is no iSeries (HSM) Tivoli Storage Manager for Space Management client.
However, this capability does exist in BRMS as dynamic archival and retrieval. This
enables certain types of iSeries objects, such as files, to be archived to storage locations
while leaving the object description on disk. The object is saved with storage freed, as
shown in Figure 24-3 on page 415. The storage location can be any BRMS defined
location, such as a BRMS tape or Tivoli Storage Manager server. When the file is
accessed, BRMS is invoked to retrieve the data part of the file (the storage freed part),
and if the object was last saved to a Tivoli Storage Manager server, then it will be
retrieved using the BRMS Application Client.

Figure 24-3. iSeries data before and after storage is freed

66
24.12. Large database and application support

The backing up of very large databases can take a long time. That is why IBM
and other vendors have created various agents that integrate with different database
applications. These enable individual records to be backed up instead of the whole
database file, saving a lot of time and storage pool space. Online backup is also supported
to reduce or eliminate application downtime.

At the time of writing, all application agents (Data Protection for applications) are
supported by all Tivoli Storage Manager servers, including iSeries systems. However, at
this time no agents run as a client on the iSeries system.

24.13. Logical partitions

OS/400 V4R4 enables the 7xx, 6xx, and Sxx machines to support logical
partitions (LPARS). With LPARS is possible to divide a single physical iSeries system
into smaller logical partitions (LPARS).

Figure 24-4 shows a single iSeries system on the left (SYS Lyon) and an example
LPAR configuration on the right (SYS Lyon1, SYS Lyon2, SYS Lyon3). Each LPAR
contains a proportion of the total available resource that is available to the single partition
iSeries system on the left (SYS Lyon).

24.14. Integrated Netfinity Server

Many iSeries systems have an Integrated PC Server (IPCS), or the newer


Integrated Netfinity Server installed. These hardware products (shown in Figure 24-5)
enable a Microsoft Windows NT partition to run in the same footprint as the iSeries
system, using different Intel Pentium® processors depending on the model. There are
integration features that enable sharing of data and resources (such as tape and optical
devices) between Windows NT and an iSeries system.

Figure 24-5. Windows NT server running on IPCS

67
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ACL Access Control List


AD Microsoft Active Directory
ADSM ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager
AIX Advanced Interactive Executive
ANSI American National Standards Institute
API Application Programming Interface
APPC Advanced Program-to-Program Communication
ASCII American National Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASR Automated System Recovery
BAROC Basic Recorder of Objects in C
BSF Bean Scripting Framework
CA Certification Authorities
CIDR Classless InterDomain Routing
CIFS Common Internet File System
CPU Central Processing Unit
DES Data Encryption Standard
DNS Domain Name System
EBU Enterprise Backup Utility
EFS Encrypting File Systems
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture
EJB Enterprise Java Bean
ERP Enterprise Resources Planning
ESS Enterprise Storage Server
FAT File Allocation Table
FC Fibre Channel
FIFO First In/First Out
GUI Graphical User Interface
HACMP High Availability Cluster Multiprocessing

68
ACL Access Control List
HBA Host Bus Adapter
HSM Hierarchical Storage Management
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
IBM International Business Machines Corporation
ICCM Inter-Client Conventions Manual
I/O Input/Output
IP Internet Protocol
IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange
ISV Independent Software Vendor
ITSO International Technical Support Organization
JAR Java Archive
JCA Java Connector Architecture
JNDI Java Naming and Directory Interface
LAN Local Area Network
LP Logical Partition
LPARS Logical Partitions
LUN Logical Unit Number
MDC Meta Data Controller
MMC Microsoft Management Console
MSCS Microsoft Cluster Server
MSSQL Microsoft SQL
NAS Network Attached Storage
NDMP Network Data Management Protocol
NFS Network File System
NIM Network Installation Management
NTFS NT File System
ODBC Open Database Connectivity
ODM Object Data Manager
ORB Object Request Broker

69
ACL Access Control List
OS Operating System
PASE Portable Application Solutions Environment
PDF Portable Document Format
PMI Performance Monitoring Interface
PSM Persistent Storage Manager
RACF Resource Access Control Facility
RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks
RDBMS Relational Database Management System
RGID Real Group Identifier
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer
RMAN Oracle Recovery Manager
RSM Removable Storage Management
SAN Storage Area Network
SAP Systeme, Applikationen und Produkte
SCSI Small Computer System Interface
SDK Software Developer's Kit
SMB Server Message Block
SMIT System Management Interface Tool
SMP Symmetric Multiprocessor
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol
SP System Parallel
SQL Structured Query Language
SRM Security Reference Monitor
SSA Serial Storage Architecture
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TSM IBM Tivoli Storage Manager
UDB Universal Database

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ACL Access Control List
UDDI Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration
UFS UNIX File System
UID User Identifier
URL Universal Resource Locator
WAN Wide Area Network
WSDL Web Services Description Language
WSIF Web Services Invocation Framework
WWW World Wide Web
XBSA X/OPEN Backup Services Application Programmer's Interface
XML Extensible Markup Language

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PART 6
APPENDIXES

Appendix A. Planning and sizing worksheets

This collection of worksheets was introduced in Chapter 4, "Planning concepts"


on page 55.

The redbook support material is available in softcopy from the redbooks Web
server at:

ftp://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/SG245416

Alternatively, you can get to the same Web page at:

http://www.redbooks.ibm.com

BACK COVER

• IBM Tivoli Storage Management Concepts


• See how IBM Tivoli Storage Manager can improve your IT operations
• Learn how to protect your vital applications and data
• Understand all aspects of storage management
• This IBM Redbook describes the features and functions of IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager. It introduces Tivoli Storage Management concepts for
those new to storage management, in general, and to IBM Tivoli Storage
Manager, in particular.
• This easy-to-follow guide gives a broad understanding of IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager software, the key technologies to know, and the
solutions available to protect your business. It offers a broad
understanding of how IBM Tivoli Storage Manager will work in
heterogeneous environments including Windows, UNIX/Linux, OS/400,
and z/OS platforms, and with such mission-critcal applications as DB/2,
Oracle, Lotus Domino, Exchange, SAP, and many more.
• The book introduces storage management software by explaining the
concepts, architecture, and systems management features of IBM Tivoli
Storage Manager and showing available complementary products. It will
help you design solutions to protect data holdings from losses ranging
from those caused by user error to complete site disasters.
• INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL SUPPORT ORGANIZATION
• BUILDING TECHNICAL INFORMATION BASED ON PRACTICAL
EXPERIENCE
• IBM Redbooks are developed by the IBM International Technical Support
Organization. Experts from IBM, Customers and Partners from around the
world create timely technical information based on realistic scenarios.

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Specific recommendations are provided to help you implement IT
solutions more effectively in your environment.

ONLINE RESOURCES

These Web sites are also relevant as further information sources:

• IBM Software: Storage Management

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/solutions/storage/products.html

• IBM Tivoli Software support site

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/sysmgmt/products/support/

• IBM Tivoli Storage Area Network Manager

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-san-mgr/

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-mgr/

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager Extended Edition

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-mgr-extended/

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Application Servers

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-mgr-app-servers/

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Databases

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-mgr-db/

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Enterprise Resource Planning

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-mgr-erp/

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Hardware

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-mgr-hardware

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Mail

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-mgr-mail/

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• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Space Management

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-mgr-space/

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for Storage Area Networks

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-mgr-san/

• IBM Tivoli Storage Manager for System Backup and Recovery

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-mgr-sysback/

• IBM Tivoli Storage Resource Manager

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/storage-resource-mgr/

• IBM.com ftp Software Server

ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/storage/tivoli-storage-management/

• Tivoli SANergy

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/tivoli/products/sanergy/

• Tivoli Software Information Center

http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/tividd/td/tdprodlist.html

• IBM Content Manager CommonStore Web site

http://www-3.ibm.com/software/data/commonstore/

• IBM Performance Management Guide

http://publibn.boulder.ibm.com/doc_link/en_US/a_doc_lib/aixbman/prftungd/prft
ungd.htm

• iSeries Information Center

http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/pubs/html/as400

• White Papers for AS/400 and iSeries

http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/iseries/whpapr/ifs.html

• IBM Storage Media Product Selector

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http://www.storage.ibm.com/media/products.html

• IBM Tape and Optical Storage

http://www.storage.ibm.com/hardsoft/tape/index.html

• Kernel Extensions and Device Support Programming Concepts

http://publibn.boulder.ibm.com/doc_link/en_US/a_doc_lib/aixprggd/kernextc/ls_
devconfig_subr.htm

• IBM HP-UX Tape and Medium Changer Device Driver (ATDD) — Readme file

ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/storage/devdrvr/HPUX/README

• IBM Developer Kit for AIX, Java Technology Edition

http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/java/jdk/aix/index.html

• American National Standards Organization

http://www.ansi.org

• Cristie Data Products

http://www.cristie.com

• The Source for Java Technology

http://java.sun.com/

• Redhat Linux

http://www.redhat.com/

• SuSE Linux

http://www.suse.com/index_us.html

• The Linux Documentation Project

http://www.tldp.org/

• Open Source software development website

http://sourceforge.net/

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