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10.1-10.

4
• Chemical bonds
○ Lewis theory
1. Electrons of the outermost shell are the ones used in bonding
2. Ionic bonds involve electron transfer
3. Covalent bonds involve electron sharing
4. Electrons try to make an octet
○ Lewis symbol

○ Lewis structure
 Ionic
□ Includes brackets
□ Na x + Cl
[Na] + [xCl -]

 Covalent
□ No brackets
□ Hx + Cl

□ Single
 Single pair of electrons is shared
 Bond pair
◊ Pair that is bonded
 Lone pair
◊ Unbonded pair
□ Coordinate covalent
 Bond where one atom contributes both electrons in a bonding pair
◊ NH4+
□ Multiple covalent bonds
 Double covalent
◊ Two pairs of electrons are shared
► CO2
 Triple
◊ Three pairs of electrons are shared
► N2
► O2
 Must be paramagnetic
 No completely satisfactory structure
□ Polar
 Electrons are not shared equally
◊ More metallic element has a positive charge
◊ More nonmetallic element has a negative charge
◊ Electric potential map
► Proton moving to a region of negative charge means negative V
(electric potential)
► Proton moving to a region of positive charge means it will be
repelled so electric potential will be positive
 Electronegativity
◊ An atom's ability to compete for electrons with other atoms to which it is
bonded

Chemistry Page 1
bonded
◊ EA+B = A+B-= IA + EAB
► Ionization energy of positive ion + electronegativity of negative ion
◊ Electronegativity difference
► Shows how polar a covalent bond is
 Larger means the bond is very one sided
 Smaller means it is nonpolar
 Writing structures (P. 385-386)
□ Rules
1. All valence electrons must appear
2. USUALLY all electrons are paired
3. Usually each atom acquires an outer shell octet of electrons
4. Sometimes multiple covalent bonds are needed
□ Skeletal structure
 All atoms are arranged in the order that they are bonded together
◊ Central atom is bonded to two or more atoms
► Usually have low electronegativities
◊ Terminal atom is only bonded to one
► Hydrogens are ALWAYS terminal
► O is usually terminal
 EXCEPT WITH OH GROUPS
◊ Molecules usually are symmetrical
□ Formal charge
 Apparent charges on certain atoms in a Lewis structure
 Arise when atoms have not contributed equal numbers of electrons to covalent
bonds
 Decides which sequence of bonds and electrons is satisfactory
1. Count lone-pair electrons as belonging entirely to the respective atom
2. Divide bond-pair electrons between the bonded atoms
 FC = # valence in free atom - #lone pair e - 1/2# bond pair e
 Rules
1. FC must equal zero for a neutral molecule
2. FC must equal the charge on a polyatomic ion
3. FC should be as small as possible
4. Negative FCs usually appear on the most electronegative atoms
5. Positive FCs appear on the least electronegative ions
6. Structures having formal charges of the same sign on adjacent atoms is
unlikely

 Octet rule
□ Requirement of eight valence electrons for the atoms in a Lewis structure

Chemistry Page 2
Lecture 1
Monday, January 04, 2010
8:40 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Chemical bonds
○ Valence electrons of common atoms are shared to create an octet
○ Lewis theory
1. Electrons of the outermost shell are the ones used in bonding
2. Ionic bonds involve electron transfer
3. Covalent bonds involve electron sharing
4. Electrons try to make an octet
1) Elements in rows greater than the 3rd row can exceed the octet rule
1. Formulas usually have central atom listed first
1) Least electronegative
2) Not hydrogen
2. Sum all the valence electrons including charges
1) Isoelectronic
1. Same # of electrons
3. Put a single bond between all bonded atoms
1) Skeletal structure
4. Rearrange as needed to satisfy octet rule
○ Exceptions
 Only works well for 1st and 2nd row elements
 Does not account for molecules with an odd number of electrons or unpaired electrons
□ NO
□ CH3
□ OH
 Fails to account for resonance
□ O3
□ N3
 Electron deficient species and those with expanded valence shells violate the octet rule
 Does not predict structure or shape

○ Lewis symbol (see notebook)


○ Lewis structure (x --> One electron)
 Ionic
□ Includes brackets
□ Na x + Cl
[Na] + [xCl -]

 Covalent
□ No brackets
□ Hx + Cl
□ Single bond
 Single pair of electrons is shared
Bond pair

Chemistry Page 3
 Bond pair
◊ Pair that is bonded
 Lone pair
◊ Unbonded pair
□ Coordinate covalent
 Bond where one atom contributes both electrons in a bonding pair
◊ NH4+
□ Multiple covalent bonds
 Double covalent
◊ Two pairs of electrons are shared
► CO2
 Triple covalent
◊ Three pairs of electrons are shared
► N2
► O2
 Must be paramagnetic
 No completely satisfactory structure
□ Polar
 Electrons are not shared equally
◊ More metallic element has a positive charge
◊ More nonmetallic element has a negative charge
◊ Electric potential map
► Proton moving to a region of negative charge means negative V (electric
potential)
► Proton moving to a region of positive charge means it will be repelled so
electric potential will be positive
 Electronegativity
◊ An atom's ability to compete for electrons with other atoms to which it is bonded
► WITHIN A MOLECULE
◊ EA+B = A+B-= IA + EAB
► Ionization energy of positive ion + electronegativity of negative ion
◊ Electronegativity difference
► Shows how polar a covalent bond is
 Larger means the bond is very one sided
– Almost ionic
 Smaller means it is nonpolar
► Organizes chemical bonding trends from ionic to covalent
◊ Increases as an element gets closer to fluorine
◊ Central atom has the least electronegativity
 Writing structures (P. 385-386)
□ Rules
1. All valence electrons must appear
2. USUALLY all electrons are paired
3. Usually each atom acquires an outer shell octet of electrons
4. Sometimes multiple covalent bonds are needed
□ Skeletal structure
 All atoms are arranged in the order that they are bonded together
◊ Central atom is bonded to two or more atoms
► Usually have low electronegativities
◊ Terminal atom is only bonded to one
► Hydrogens are ALWAYS terminal
► O is usually terminal
 EXCEPT WITH OH GROUPS
◊ Molecules usually are symmetrical
□ Formal charge
 A way of counting electrons
◊ Electron dot formulas often put electrons on atom locations that are improbable
Atoms have different nuclear charges and different abilities to attract

Chemistry Page 4
○ Atoms have different nuclear charges and different abilities to attract
electrons in a bond (electronegativity)
 Apparent charges on certain atoms in a Lewis structure
 Arise when atoms have not contributed equal numbers of electrons to covalent bonds
 Decides which sequence of bonds and electrons is satisfactory
1. Count lone-pair electrons as belonging entirely to the respective atom
2. Divide bond-pair electrons between the bonded atoms
 FC = # valence in free atom - #lone pair e - 1/2# bond pair e
 Rules
1. FC must equal zero for a neutral molecule
2. FC must equal the charge on a polyatomic ion
3. FC should be as small as possible (more negative)
4. Negative FCs usually appear on the most electronegative atoms
5. Positive FCs appear on the least electronegative ions
6. Structures having formal charges of the same sign on adjacent atoms is unlikely
7. The sum of the FC is the overall charge on the molecule

 Octet rule
□ Requirement of eight valence electrons for the atoms in a Lewis structure

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.
Shape and size of molecules as well as chemical bonding determine physical properties

Chemistry Page 5
10.5-10.7 (403)
Monday, January 04, 2010
3:21 PM

• Resonance
○ The existence of multiple plausible Lewis structures
 The molecule does not change its structure all the time-- it just has options
 Resonance hybrid
□ True structure
□ Acceptable structure that contribute to this must all have the same skeletal structure
□ The structure that contributes the most to the resonance hybrid follows the formal
charge rules the best
○ Allotropy
 The existence of two or more forms of an element that differ in their bonding and molecular
structure
□ O2 and O3
• Exceptions to the octet rule
○ Odd-electron species
 If the valence electrons of a molecule are odd, then there will be one unpaired electrons
□ Paramagnetic
 Not that common
 Free radicals
□ Highly reactive molecular fragments
□ Have a dot next to them (•CH3)
□ Occur usually as transitory species in reactions
○ Incomplete octets
 BF3
 Fixed by shifting lone pair electrons to form multiple bonds
○ Expanded valence shells
 Have extra electrons around a central atom
□ Assumed to fit into the 3d subshell
 Involve nonmetal atoms from the third period that are bonded to highly electronegative
atoms
 Also used where they appear to give a better Lewis structure than strict adherence to the
octet rule
• Molecular shapes
○ All diatomic molecules are linear
○ Bond lengths
 Bond lengths are shorter if there are more lone pairs
○ Bond angles
○ VSEPR THEORY
 Electron pairs repel each other, whether they are in chemical bonds (bond pairs) or
unshared (lone pairs)
 Electron pairs assume positions to maximize repulsions
○ Electron group geometry (P. 399)
 The distribution of electron groups
 Possibilities
□ 2
 Linear
□ 3
 Trigonal planar
□ 4
Tetrahedral

Chemistry Page 6
 Tetrahedral
□ 5
 Trigonal bipyramidal
□ 6
 Octahedral
 The closer the groups are forced, the greater the repulsion
 Lone pair electrons spread out more than bond-pair electrons
○ Molecular geometry
 The arrangement of atomic nuclei
 Actual determinant of the molecular shape
○ Molecules with more than one central atom
 The geometric distribution around EACH central atom must be determined
○ Dipole moments
 Polar molecules have a charge on each pole
 µ = d (distance (bond length)) * δ(partial charge)
□ 3.34* 10^-30 C*m

Chemistry Page 7
Lecture 2
Tuesday, January 05, 2010
10:02 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Resonance
○ The existence of multiple plausible Lewis structures
○ Same number and type of bonds but in different places
 The molecule does not change its structure all the time-- it just has options
 Resonance hybrid
□ Kind of like an average
□ True structure
□ Acceptable structure that contribute to this must all have the same skeletal structure
□ The structure that contributes the most to the resonance hybrid follows the formal charge
rules the best
○ Allotropy
 The existence of two or more forms of an element that differ in their bonding and molecular
structure
□ O2 and O3
• Exceptions to the octet rule
○ Odd-electron species
 If the valence electrons of a molecule are odd, then there will be one unpaired electrons
□ Paramagnetic
 Not that common
 Free radicals
□ Highly reactive molecular fragments
□ Have a dot next to them (•CH3)
□ Occur usually as transitory species in reactions
○ Incomplete octets
 BF3
 Fixed by shifting lone pair electrons to form multiple bonds
○ Expanded valence shells
 Have extra electrons around a central atom
□ Assumed to fit into the 3d subshell
 Involve nonmetal atoms from the third period that are bonded to highly electronegative atoms
 Also used where they appear to give a better Lewis structure than strict adherence to the octet rule
• Molecular shapes
○ All diatomic molecules are linear
○ Bond lengths
○ Bond angles
○ VSEPR THEORY
 Electron pairs repel each other, whether they are in chemical bonds (bond pairs) or unshared (lone
pairs)
 Electron pairs assume positions to maximize repulsions
i. Draw Lewis Structure
ii. Sum the number of bonds and the number of lone pairs around each atom
iii. Pick appropriate electron group geometry and then molecular geometry

Chemistry Page 8
iii. Pick appropriate electron group geometry and then molecular geometry
iv. Lone pair angles > bond pair angles
 Possibilities
□ 2
 Linear
□ 3
 Trigonal planar
□ 4
 Tetrahedral
□ 5
 Trigonal bipyramidal
□ 6
 Octahedral
○ Electron group geometry (P. 399)
 The distribution of electron groups
□ Determined only by looking at electrons as lone pairs or as bonds
□ Bonds are only ONE group
 The closer the groups are forced, the greater the repulsion
 Lone pair electrons spread out more than bond-pair electrons
○ Molecular geometry
 The arrangement of atomic nuclei
 Determined only by atomic positions
 Actual determinant of the molecular shape
○ Electron group geometry matches molecular geometry when there are no lone pairs
○ Molecules with more than one central atom
 The geometric distribution around EACH central atom must be determined
○ Bond angles decrease in a H-X-H bond as X moves from C to N to O
 Because electrons in a bond are attracted by two nuclei, they do not repel as much
 LPLP < LPBP < BPBP (ANGLES)
 Since electrons in a bond are attracted by two nuclei, they do not repel as much as lone pairs
□ Electrons in multiple bonds repel more than electrons in single bonds because they occupy
more volume
○ Dipole moments
 Polar molecules have a charge on each pole
 µ = d (distance) * δ(partial charge)
□ 3.34* 10^-30 C*m

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 9
10.7-10.9
Tuesday, January 05, 2010
6:07 PM

• Bond polarity
○ CO2
 Nonpolar
□ Because it is linear, the magnitudes of the charge are equal, but they are in opposite
directions, so the resultant is 0
○ Water
 Polar
□ Molecule cannot be linear because of lone pairs
○ CCl4
 Nonpolar
□ Tetrahedral structure is symmetrical so resultant is 0
□ For tetrahedral molecules
 The terminal atoms align with the corners of the cube
 Central atom is in the center
 This is how the 109.5° is computed
 The net vector of the top half is equal in magnitude and in the opposite
direction of the vector in the bottom half
 Net dipole moment = 0
• Bond order and length
○ Order
 Single, double or triple
○ Length
 Distance between the centers of two atoms joined by a covalent bond
 Length decreases as bond order increases
 Length of a bond can be approximated as the sum of the covalent radii of the two atoms
 Dipole moment and electronegativity
○ Polar covalent bonds can have displaced charges because of electronegativity
differences
 µ = d (distance (bond length)) * δ(partial charge)
 Unit = Debye (D)
 Net dipole moment is found through vector addition
• Bond energies
○ Energy is released when bonds are formed
○ Energy is absorbed to break the bonds
○ Dissociation energy
 Energy required to break one mole of bonds in a GASEOUS species
○ Found with averages
○ Average bond energy
 The average of bond dissociation energies for a number of different species containing that
bond
○ Endothermic vs. exothermic
 Weak bonds (reactants) --> strong bonds (products)
□ ΔH < 0 (exothermic)
 Strong bonds (reactants) --> weak bonds (products)
□ ΔH > 0
○ Photolysis
 Breaking bonds with light
□ Energy goes up as bond order increases
 Not in the ratio 1:2:3
It goes up exponentially

Chemistry Page 10
 It goes up exponentially
○ Bond dissociation energy
 Energy needed to break up molecules into atoms
 Lowest energy gives a stable molecule
 Gives information on ΔH
□ Heat of reaction
 Always positive
□ Because energy must be put in
 Useful for estimating ΔH in the gas phase
 ΔH = ΣBE reactants - ΣBE products
 Endothermic vs. exothermic
 Weak bonds (reactants) --> strong bonds (products)
□ ΔH < 0 (exothermic)
 Strong bonds (reactants) --> weak bonds (products)
□ ΔH > 0

Chemistry Page 11
Lecture 3
Wednesday, January 06, 2010
10:00 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• VSEPR Theory
○ 3-4 electron groups
○ See notes
○ 5 electron groups (draw out in 3D)
○ To minimize electron repulsion, lone pairs are always placed in equatorial positions where the angle
can be 120
○ Electron pair geometry is always trigonal bipyramidal
○ AX5E0
 Trigonal bypyramidal
○ AX4E1
 Seesaw
○ AX3E2
 T-shaped
○ AX2E3
 Linear
○ 6 electron groups (draw out in 3D)
○ Electron pair geometry is octahedral
○ AX6E0
 Octahedral
○ AX5E1
 Square pyramidal
○ AX4E2
 Square planar
• Electrostatic maps and polarity
○ Electrostatic potential map
○ Red --> NEGATIVE
○ Blue --> POSITIVE
○ Dipole moment and electronegativity
○ Polar covalent bonds can have displaced charges because of electronegativity differences
 µ = d (distance (bond length)) * δ(partial charge)
 Unit = Debye (D)
 Net dipole moment is found through vector addition
○ For tetrahedral molecules (of AX4)
 The terminal atoms align with the corners of the cube
 Central atom is in the center
 This is how the 109.5° is computed
The net vector of the top half is equal in magnitude and in the opposite direction of the vector

Chemistry Page 12
 The net vector of the top half is equal in magnitude and in the opposite direction of the vector
in the bottom half
 Net dipole moment = 0

• Bond length
○ Bond order and length
○ Order
 Single, double or triple
○ Length
 Distance between the centers of two atoms joined by a covalent bond
 Length decreases as bond order increases
 Length of a bond can be approximated as the sum of the covalent radii of the two atoms

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 13
Quiz 1 Study Guide
Wednesday, January 06, 2010
10:23 AM

• 10.1-10.7
○ Determine best Lewis structures
 EN
◊ An atom's ability to compete for electrons with other atoms to which it is bonded
◊ EA+B = A+B-= IA + EAB
► Ionization energy of positive ion + electronegativity of negative ion
◊ Electronegativity difference
► Shows how polar a covalent bond is
 Larger means the bond is very one sided
 Smaller means it is nonpolar
 FC, expanded octets
□ Sum of FC is equal to the charge on the molecule
□ Expanded octets are used when v.e. number is odd
□ Negative FCs usually appear on the most electronegative atoms
□ Positive FCs appear on the least electronegative ions
 Resonance structures
□ Switch around the bonds
□ The structure that contributes the most to the resonance hybrid follows the formal
charge rules the best
 Process
1) # v.e.
a) If odd, expanded octet is needed
i) Add double or triple bonds
b) If even, continue
2) Skeletal structure
a) Lowest EN goes in the middle
3) Complete octets
4) Place leftover electrons on central atom
5) Check FC
a) If too high or has same charges adjacent, go to expanded octet
○ Use VSEPR to identify electron-group geometry and molecular geometry
 Up to 4 groups only
□ Electron group geometry
 Look at structure including lone electron pairs
□ Molecular geometry
 Look at structure without lone electron pairs
□ Proper molecular geometries have the least contact between bond pairs and lone
pairs
 Bond angles
□ Lone pairs make bonds smaller because they squish bond pairs through repulsion

Chemistry Page 14
11.1-11.4
Saturday, January 09, 2010
1:38 PM

• Molecular orbitals
○ Bonding theory
 Electrons are attracted to the two nuclei
 The electrons repel each other
 The two nuclei repel each other
○ Potential energy is the negative of bond-dissociation energy
○ Valence-bond method
 The description of covalent bond formation in terms of atomic orbital overlap
 Based on the overlap of half-filled orbitals
 Gives a localized electron method of bonding
○ Hybridization
 Sp3
□ One s and 3 p orbitals are combined
□ 2s2p --> sp3
□ In between the energy of 2s and 2p
□ H2O and NH3
□ Corresponds to tetrahedral
 Sp2
□ Boron has four orbitals but only 3 electrons
 2s and 2 2p orbitals are combined into sp2
□ Trigonal planar
 Sp
□ Beryllium combines its 2 electrons into sp
□ Linear
 Sp3d
□ Phosphorus
□ Trigonal bipyramidal
 Sp3d2
□ Sulfur
□ Octahedral
 Number of hybrid orbitals equals the total number of atomic orbitals
 Hybrid orbitals and VSEPR
□ Write a plausible Lewis structure
□ Use VSEPR theory to predict the probable electron group geometry
□ Select the hybridization scheme corresponding to the electron group geometry
 Describe molecular geometry
○ Multiple covalent bonds
 Bonding in C2H4
□ Sp2 + p
 Sigma bond
◊ End to end overlap
□ Side to side overlap
 Pi bond

Chemistry Page 15
11.5-11.7
Saturday, January 09, 2010
3:41 PM

• Molecular orbital theory


○ Assigns the electrons in a molecule to a series of orbitals that belong to the molecule as a whole
○ Interference
 Constructive interference
□ Bonding molecular orbital
□ Places a high charge density between the two nuclei
□ This sigma orbital is at a lower energy than the 1s orbital
 Destructive interference
□ Antibonding molecular orbital
□ Places a very low electron charge density between the two nuclei
 Since the nuclei are not screened from each other, strong repulsion occurs
□ Higher energy than 1s orbital
○ Basic ideas
 The number of molecular orbitals formed is equal to the number of atomic orbitals
combined
 Of the two molecular orbitals formed when two atomic orbitals are combined,
□ One is a bonding orbital with a lower energy
□ One is an antibonding orbital with higher energy
 The ground-state configurations, electrons enter the lowest energy orbitals available
 The maximum number of electrons in a molecular orbital is 2
 In ground-state configurations, electrons enter molecular orbitals of identical energies
○ Diagrams
 Z is less than or equal to 7
□ The diagram at the p orbitals is pi(x)and pi(y), sigma(z), pi*(x)and pi*(y), sigma*(z)
 Z is greater than or equal to 8
○ Bond order
 BO = 1/2(#e- in bonding MO - #e- in antibonding MO)
□ If BO is 0, molecule is unstable
○ Delocalized electrons
 The bonds are spread out amongst all atoms
□ Not just the central atom
□ Seen in benzene
 Ideas
□ With VSEPR theory, O3 is predicted to have a trigonal planar geometry so the
hybridization is sp2
• Bonding in metals
○ The electron sea model
 A solid metal is a network of positive ions immersed in a sea of electrons
□ Free electrons are not limited in their ability to absorb visible light photons
 They can reradiate these photons
◊ Makes metals shiny
□ If the metal is hammered, the sea just readjusts itself and no properties are lost
○ Band theory
 Form of molecular orbital theory
□ Each Li atom contributes one electron to a set of molecular orbitals
 A crystal structure is formed as more and more atoms contribute
 Result is a set of N molecular orbitals with an extremely small energy separation
between each pair of successive levels
◊ Energy band

Chemistry Page 16
◊ Energy band
► Each band has N electrons
 N/2 orbitals or lowest energy
► Responsible for bonding the atoms together
 Valence band
– Since these bands are not always full, electrons can be
excited into them
 Metals are good conductors
 Must have a band that is only partly filled
 Conduction band
 Small energy gap
– Filled valence band
 Substance is a good insulator
 Large energy gap
 Very few electrons can make the jump
 So it is not conductive
– Semiconductors
 Conductivity depends on size of gap
 Intrinsic
 Gap of a fixed size

 Extrinsic
 The size of the gap is altered by carefully
adding impurities
 Doping
 Can carefully alter the properties of a
substance

Chemistry Page 17
Lecture 4
Monday, January 11, 2010
8:21 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Orbitals
○ Based on wave functions
 Radial component
 Angular component
○ Describes the probability to find an electron in a region of space
• Molecular orbitals
○ Bonding theory
 Electrons are attracted to the two nuclei
 The electrons repel each other
 The two nuclei repel each other
○ Potential energy is the negative of bond-dissociation energy
○ Valence-bond method
 The description of covalent bond formation in terms of atomic orbital overlap
 Based on the overlap of half-filled orbitals
 Gives a localized electron method of bonding
□ Deals with the orbitals of each atom and then combines
□ Deals mostly with the central atom
 Creates hybrid orbitals
 Limitations
 CH4
□ Ground state implies that there are only 2 electrons free (the ones in 2p)
□ So, using the excited state, there are 4 free electrons
 With that, equal bonds means that the s orbital and p orbital have the same energy
○ Hybridization
 The central atom will always have a hybrid orbital that contributes to the hybridization
□ Terminal atoms will not always have a hybrid orbital (will usually be a p orbital)
 Sp3
□ One s and 3 p orbitals are combined
□ 2s2p --> sp3
□ In between the energy of 2s and 2p
□ H2O and NH3
□ Corresponds to tetrahedral
 Sp2
□ Boron has four orbitals but only 3 electrons
 2s and 2 2p orbitals are combined into sp2
□ Trigonal planar
 Sp
□ Beryllium combines its 2 electrons into sp
Linear

Chemistry Page 18
□ Linear
 Sp3d
□ Phosphorus
□ Trigonal bipyramidal
 Sp3d2
□ Sulfur
□ Octahedral
 Number of hybrid orbitals equals the total number of atomic orbitals that are combined
□ 3p + 1s = 4 sp3
 Conservation of energy
□ The 3 2p orbitals drop by 1/4 E
□ The 1 2s orbital moves up by 3/4
□ 3/4 - 3(1/4) = 0
 ENERGY IS CONSERVED
 Lone pairs
□ Single electrons for sigma bonds
□ Hybridization creates lone pairs
 Hybrid orbitals and VSEPR
□ Write a plausible Lewis structure
□ Use VSEPR theory to predict the probable electron group geometry
□ Select the hybridization scheme corresponding to the electron group geometry
 Describe molecular geometry
○ Multiple covalent bonds
 Bonding in C2H4
□ Sp2 + p
 Sigma bond
◊ End to end overlap
□ Side to side overlap
 Pi bond

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 19
11.8
Monday, January 11, 2010
6:15 PM
• Unresolved issues solved by electron charge density plots
○ Issues
 Accommodating extra valence electrons through expanded octets
□ Bonding in SF6
 Hyperconjugation
◊ The number of electron pairs used for bonding is less than the number of
bonds formed
◊ Sp3d and sp3d2 are not appropriate because the wave functions have no
effect from the d orbitals
□ Bonding in SCl2

Chemistry Page 20
Lecture 5
Tuesday, January 12, 2010
10:05 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
○ Hybridization
 Sp3
□ One s and 3 p orbitals are combined
□ 2s2p --> sp3
□ In between the energy of 2s and 2p
□ H2O and NH3
□ Corresponds to tetrahedral
 Sp2
□ Boron has four orbitals but only 3 electrons
 2s and 2 2p orbitals are combined into sp2
□ Trigonal planar
 Sp
□ Beryllium combines its 2 electrons into sp
□ Linear
□ Electrons are promoted and then hybridized in order to create unpaired electrons to bond
 Sp3d
□ Phosphorus
□ Trigonal bipyramidal
□ 5 electron groups --> 5 sp3d orbitals
 Sp3d2
□ Sulfur
□ Octahedral
□ 6 electron groups --> 6 sp3d2 orbitals8
 Number of hybrid orbitals equals the total number of atomic orbitals
 Hybrid orbitals and VSEPR
□ Write a plausible Lewis structure
□ Use VSEPR theory to predict the probable electron group geometry
□ Select the hybridization scheme corresponding to the electron group geometry
 Describe molecular geometry
□ Bonds are formed by overlap of orbitals
○ Hybrid orbitals and multiple bonds
 Overlap of hybrid orbitals
□ From hybridization
 Electron pair
□ From Lewis diagrams
 Electron density on the bond axis

Chemistry Page 21
□ Electron density on bond axis
 Multiple covalent bonds
 Bonding in C2H4
□ Sp2 + p
 Sigma bond
◊ End to end overlap
◊ Always single
◊ Electron density along bond axis
◊ Can rotate
□ Side to side overlap
 Pi bond
◊ Overlap of p orbital
 Cannot rotate
◊ Off axis
 No electron density
 Double bond
□ 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond
 Triple bond
□ 1 sigma bond and 2 pi bonds

Chemistry Page 22
Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 23
Lecture 6
Wednesday, January 13, 2010
9:55 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Molecular orbital theory
○ Linear combinations of atomic orbitals
○ Assigns the electrons in a molecule to a series of orbitals that belong to the molecule as a whole
○ Interference
 Constructive interference
□ Bonding molecular orbital
□ Places a high charge density between the two nuclei
□ This sigma orbital is at a lower energy than the 1s orbital
 Destructive interference
□ Antibonding molecular orbital
□ Places a very low electron charge density between the two nuclei
 Since the nuclei are not screened from each other, strong repulsion occurs
□ Higher energy than 1s orbital
○ Stable molecules will have more electrons in bonding orbitals than in antibonding orbitals
○ Basic ideas
 The number of molecular orbitals formed is equal to the number of atomic orbitals combined
 Of the two molecular orbitals formed when two atomic orbitals are combined,
□ One is a bonding orbital with a lower energy
□ One is an antibonding orbital with higher energy
 The ground-state configurations, electrons enter the lowest energy orbitals available
 The maximum number of electrons in a molecular orbital is 2
 In ground-state configurations, electrons enter molecular orbitals of identical energies
○ Bond order
 BO = 1/2(#e- in bonding MO - #e- in antibonding MO)
□ If BO is 0, molecule is unstable
□ 1 = single bond
□ 2 = double bond
□ 3 = triple bond
○ Comparison with other methods
 Molecular geometry
 Orbitals are localized
 Bonds (sigma and pi) from overlap
 Difference with valence bond
□ MO is the combination of orbitals of DIFFERENT atoms in the atom
□ VB combines orbitals on the same atom
○ Problems
 Magnetic properties of O2
 Resonance structures

• Electrons in chemical reactions

Chemistry Page 24
• Electrons in chemical reactions
○ Reactions break old bonds and make new ones
○ Electrons appear to be in locations that usually describe hybrid orbitals
 Valence bond method rationalizes electron geometry
• Diatomics
○ H2 is the simplest
 Antibonding orbitals have a node between then where electron density is 0
 Bonding orbitals has a build up of electron density where the node is in the antibonding orbital
• How to fill
○ Distribute the valence electrons for the whole molecule, filling the lowest energies first

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 25
Quiz 2
Wednesday, January 13, 2010
10:49 AM

• Ch. 10-11.4 and 11.8


○ Determine best Lewis structure
 Process
1) # v.e.
a) If odd, expanded octet is needed
i) Add double or triple bonds
b) If even, continue
2) Skeletal structure
a) Lowest EN goes in the middle
3) Complete octets
4) Place leftover electrons on central atom
5) Check FC
a) If too high or has same charges adjacent, go to expanded octet
i) Add enough electrons to central atom
○ Use empirical data to determine quantities
 Bond length, bond order
□ Higher the bond order, the smaller the bond length
□ BO = 1/2(#e- in bonding MO - #e- in antibonding MO)
 Heat of reaction
□ H = ΣBE(reactants) - ΣBE(products)
 Bond energies
□ ΔH = ΣBE reactants - ΣBE products
○ Integrate VSEPR and valence bond method
 Hybridization of central atom
□ Sp -- linear
 1 sp group
□ Sp2 -- trigonal planar
 2 sp groups
□ Sp3 -- tetrahedral
 3 sp groups
 Overlap of atomic and hybrid orbitals
□ Sigma and pi bonds
 Sigma bonds are between sp and p bonds
 Pi bonds are between p bonds

Chemistry Page 26
12.1-12.3
Saturday, January 16, 2010
5:48 PM

• Intermolecular forces and properties of liquids


○ Surface tension
 Energy or work required to increase the surface area of a liquid
 Cohesive forces
□ Force exerted between molecules that holds them together
 Adhesive forces
□ Force between liquid molecules and a surface
 Viscosity
□ A liquid's resistance to flow
□ Stronger cohesive forces result in more viscous fluids
• Vaporization
○ The passage of molecules from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous state
 Evaporation
○ Condensation
 Opposite of vaporization
○ Occurs better with
 Increased temperature
□ Molecules get more kinetic energy to overcome the cohesive forces
 Increased surface area
□ Greater proportion of liquid molecules are exposed
 Decreased strength of intermolecular forces
□ Less kinetic energy is needed to overcome them
○ ΔH(vaporization) = ΔH(vapor) - ΔH(liquid)
○ ΔH(condensation) = ΔH(liquid) - ΔH(vapor)
 ΔH(condensation) = -ΔH(vaporization)
○ Vapor pressure
 The pressure exerted by a vapor in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid form
□ High VP at room temp = volatile liquid
□ Low VP at room temp = nonvolatile
 Depends only on the liquid and the temperature
□ Amount of liquid or vapor does not matter
 VP increases with temp
 Ln(P2/p1) = (ΔH(vap)/R)((1/T1)-(1/T2))
○ Boiling point
 When the pressure exerted by escaping molecules equals the pressure exerted by molecules
of the atmosphere
 Energy absorbed as heat is only used to convert liquid molecules to vapor
□ The temp will not go up
 Normal boiling point
□ Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to standard atmospheric
pressure (1 atm = 760 mm Hg)
 Lower BP indicates volatility
 Higher boiling point means lower vapor pressure
 Boiling point increases as intermolecular forces decrease
○ Critical point
 Happens when boiling is attempted in a closed container
□ Boiling will not actually occur
□ Liquid density goes down, but vapor density increases
Until they are equal

Chemistry Page 27
 Until they are equal
□ Surface tension of the liquid approaches zero
 The interface between the liquid and vapor becomes less distinct and
disappears
 Point at which conditions are reached and liquid and vapor become indistinguishable
 Gas can only be liquefied at a temp lower than the critical temperature

Chemistry Page 28
12.3-12.6
Sunday, January 17, 2010
2:46 PM

• Melting
○ The process in which atoms, ions, or molecules can slip past one another, causing the solid to lose
its definite shape
○ Also called fusion
○ Melting point
 Temperature where melting occurs
○ Freezing
 Reverse of melting
□ Conversion of a liquid to a solid
 Temperature at which it occurs is the freezing point
 When freezing begins, temperature remains constant until all the liquid has frozen
□ Then it begins to drop
 Freezing point decreases as bond strength decreases
○ Sublimation
 Molecules pass directly from a solid to a vapor
 Reverse is called deposition
 ΔH(sub) = ΔH(fusion) + ΔH(vaporization)
• Phase diagrams
○ Graphical representations of the conditions of temperature and pressure at which solids, liquids,
and gases exist either as single phases or states of matter
 Along lines, the substance exists in both states
□ Triple point
 Where all 3 lines meet
 Substance exists in all 3 states
 Supercritical fluids
□ A state past the critical point in which a gas-like fluid exists
□ Polymorphism
 The existence of a solid substance in more than one form
• Phase transitions and changes
○ From lower to higher temperatures (along a constant pressure line), ΔH increase (heat is
absorbed)
○ From lower to higher pressures (along a constant temperature line), volume decreases (phase at
higher pressure has a higher density)
• Van der Waal's forces
○ Intermolecular forces
 Usually only in polar molecules
○ Instantaneous and induced dipoles
 Also usually in polar molecules
 Dispersion force and London force
○ Polarizability
 The tendency for charge separation to occur in a molecule
□ Increases with:
 Increased numbers of electrons
◊ Higher molecular mass
◊ Electrons being further from the nucleus
► Easier to displace them
◊ Dispersion forces increase
► Boiling points and melting points of covalent substances increase
 With increasing molar mass

Chemistry Page 29
 With increasing molar mass
○ Dipole-dipole interactions
 Interactions between dipoles of polar molecules
 MOST PREVALENT IN POLAR MOLECULES
○ Dispersion forces
 Also called London forces
 Exist between all molecules
 If comparing substances with much different molecular masses, dispersion forces are more
significant than dipole forces
○ Forces associated with permanent dipoles involve displacements of electron pairs in bonds rather
than in molecules as a whole
 Found only in polar molecules
 Adds to the effect of dispersion forces
○ Dipole forces
 Can produce significant differences in properties
□ Melting point
□ Boling point
□ Enthalpy of vaporization
• Hydrogen bonding
○ An H atom is covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom
 Attracts electron density away from the H atom
□ Allows the H atom to be attracted by the electrons on a highly negative atom on a
neighboring molecule
 Only exist in polar molecules

Chemistry Page 30
12.7
Saturday, February 06, 2010
4:15 PM

• Network covalent and ionic solids


○ Network covalent solids
 Covalent bonds extend throughout the entire solid and hold it together
□ Happens in carbon allotropes
○ Ionic solids
 Lattice energy
□ Energy given off when separated gaseous ions (positive and negative) come together
to form one mole of a solid ionic compound
□ Useful in predicting melting points and solubilities
□ The attractive forces between a pair of oppositely charge ions increases with
increased charge on the ions and with decreased ionic sizes

Chemistry Page 31
Lecture 7
Tuesday, January 19, 2010
9:00 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
○ VB vs. MO
 VB
□ Atomic orbitals on the same atom are being combined
□ Hybridized orbitals are on central atoms
□ # atomic orbitals combined = # of hybrid orbitals formed
 MO
□ Atomic orbitals are on different atoms
□ Orbitals are over the entire molecules
□ # atomic orbitals = # MO formed
○ Basic ideas
 The number of molecular orbitals formed is equal to the number of atomic orbitals combined
 Of the two molecular orbitals formed when two atomic orbitals are combined,
□ One is a bonding orbital with a lower energy
□ One is an antibonding orbital with higher energy
 The ground-state configurations, electrons enter the lowest energy orbitals available
 The maximum number of electrons in a molecular orbital is 2
 In ground-state configurations, electrons enter molecular orbitals of identical energies
○ Bond order
 BO = 1/2(#e- in bonding MO - #e- in antibonding MO)
□ If BO is 0, molecule is unstable
 1 = single bond
 2 = double bond
 3 = triple bond
○ Diatomic Molecules in 2nd row
 More than 4e-
□ The 1s orbitals are too small to overlap and cannot make MO
□ MO only form from valence electrons
 B2
□ Boron
□ 6 valence electrons
□ 4 from 2 x2e in 2s orbitals
□ 2 from 2 x 1 e in 2p orbitals
□ The pz orbitals point along the inter-nuclear axis and can overlap to make a bonding MO and an
antibonding MO along the axis (SIGMA)
□ The Px and py orbitals overlap to for pi bonds
 Diatomic molecules with 12+ valence e-
 Diatomic molecules with 11+ valence e-
□ LOOK AT PPT
 Consequence of inverted MO ordering

Chemistry Page 32
□ Explains magnetic behavior of B2
□ Unpaired spins = paramagnetic
□ All spins paired = diamagnetic
○ MO for heteronuclear diatomics
 The electronegativity of the atom will distort Mos
□ Bonding MO is closer to most EN atom
□ Antibond MO: is closer to least EN atom
 If one atom is either O or F, use MO energy ordering that places the sigma(2p) lower in energy than pi(2p)s
○ Delocalized electrons
 Usually occurs when resonance structures can be drawn
 The molecular orbitals are spread out amongst all atoms
□ Not just the central atom
□ Seen in benzene
□ MO is delocalized over 6 carbon atoms
□ Adjacent double bonds are not common
□ So they are spread out
□ Bond orders and MO

 Ideas
□ With VSEPR theory, O3 is predicted to have a trigonal planar geometry so the hybridization is sp2

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 33
12.8-12.9
Tuesday, January 19, 2010
5:22 PM

• Crystal structures
○ Crystal lattices
 Body centered cubic
□ There is a structural particle at center of the cube as well as at the corners
□ Coordination number of 8
□ 2 atoms per unit cell
 Face centered cubic
□ A particle at the face of the cube and at each corner
□ Coordination number of 12
□ 4 atoms per unit cell
 Closest packed structures
□ Holes
 Tetrahedral
◊ Hexagonal
► All tetrahedral holes are covered
► Coordination number: 12
► 2 atoms per unit cell
◊ Fall directly over the spheres in layer 1
 Octahedral
◊ Fall directly over the holes in layer 1
◊ Cubic closest packed
► All octahedral holes are closed
○ Coordination number
 The number of atoms with which a given atom is in contact with
○ X-rays
 Nλ = 2d sinΘ
○ Ionic crystal structures
 Complications
1. Ions are positively or negatively charged
2. Cations and anions have different sizes
 Unit cell
□ Must translate in 3D to generate the entire crystal
□ Must be consistent with the formula of the compound
□ Must indicate the coordination numbers of the ions
○ Types of crystalline solids
 Metallic
□ Made up of cations and delocalized electrons
□ Has metallic bonds
□ Ductile, shiny, malleable
 Ionic
□ Cations and anions
□ Has electrostatic attractions
□ Tend to be soluble in polar
 Network covalent
□ Made up of atoms
□ Has covalent bonds
 Molecular
□ Nonpolar
Made up of atoms or nonpolar molecules

Chemistry Page 34
 Made up of atoms or nonpolar molecules
 Has dispersion forces
□ Polar
 Made up of polar molecules
 Dispersion forces and dipole-dipole attractions
□ Hydrogen bonded
 Made of H bonded with N, O, or F
 Made up of hydrogen bonds
• Energy in crystalline solids
○ Steps (ALL ARE IN THE GAS PHASE)
1. Sublime one mole of cation
2. Dissociate moles of anion into one mole of the same anion
3. Ionize cation (into +)
4. Convert one mole of anion into a negative ion
5. Allow the anion and cation to form the compound

Chemistry Page 35
Lecture 8
Wednesday, January 20, 2010
10:00 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Crystal structures
○ Crystal lattices
 Periodic arrangements of atoms in 3 dimensions
 Unit cell
□ Smallest repeating unit in the lattice
 Simple cubic
□ Spheres touch at an edge
 8 * (1/8) atoms = 1 atom
□ Coordination number is 6
 Body centered cubic
□ There is a structural particle at center of the cube as well as at the corners
□ Coordination number of 8
□ 2 atoms per unit cell
 Face centered cubic
□ A particle at the face of the cube and at each corner
□ Coordination number of 12
□ 4 atoms per unit cell
□ 8 tetrahedral holes
□ 4 octahedral holes
 Closest packed structures
□ Holes
 Tetrahedral
◊ Hexagonal (HCP)
► All tetrahedral holes are covered
► Coordination number: 12
► 6 atoms per unit cell
 Book only refers to 1/3 of it so there are only 2 atoms in that unit
cell
◊ Fall directly over the spheres in layer 1
 Octahedral
◊ Fall directly over the holes in layer 1
◊ Cubic closest packed
► All octahedral holes are closed
► Coordination number is 12
○ Coordination number
 The number of atoms with which a given atom is in contact with
○ X-rays
 Nλ = 2d sinΘ
○ Ionic crystal structures
 Complications
1. Ions are positively or negatively charged
a) Contact is between opposite charges
2. Cations and anions have different sizes
a) Typically, cations fill the hole sites because they are smaller
 Unit cell
□ Must translate in 3D to generate the entire crystal
□ Must be consistent with the formula of the compound
□ Must indicate the coordination numbers of the ions
○ Types of crystalline solids

Chemistry Page 36
 Metallic
□ Made up of cations and delocalized electrons
□ Has metallic bonds
□ Ductile, shiny, malleable
 Ionic
□ Cations and anions
□ Has electrostatic attractions
□ Tend to be soluble in polar
 Network covalent
□ Made up of atoms
□ Has covalent bonds
 Molecular
□ Nonpolar
 Made up of atoms or nonpolar molecules
 Has dispersion forces
□ Polar
 Made up of polar molecules
 Dispersion forces and dipole-dipole attractions
□ Hydrogen bonded
 Made of H bonded with N, O, or F
 Made up of hydrogen bonds
• Energy in crystalline solids p00pp00p
○ Energy to break up a crystal into atoms
○ Steps (ALL ARE IN THE GAS PHASE)
1. Sublime one mole of cation
2. Dissociate moles of anion into one mole of the same anion
3. Ionize cation (into +)
4. Convert one mole of anion into a negative ion
5. Allow the anion and cation to form the compound

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 37
Quiz 3
Wednesday, January 20, 2010
10:49 AM

• Chapter 10 and 11
○ Bonding
 Resonance structures
□ Through MO
 Polarity of bonds
 Bond orders
○ Comparison of valence bond and MO theory
 Which orbitals being combined
 Hybridization and geometry
 Properties of molecules explained by MO theory

Chemistry Page 38
Lecture 9
Monday, January 25, 2010
9:54 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Intermolecular forces and properties of liquids
○ Surface tension
 Decreases as temperature increases
 Units = J/m^2
 Energy or work required to increase the surface area of a liquid
 Cohesive forces
□ Force exerted between molecules that holds them together
□ Stronger than adhesive forces
 Adhesive forces
□ Force between liquid molecules and a surface
 Viscosity
□ A liquid's resistance to flow
□ Stronger cohesive forces result in more viscous fluids
□ Viscosity decreases as temperature increases
• Vaporization
○ The passage of molecules from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous state
 Evaporation
○ Condensation
 Opposite of vaporization
○ Occurs better with
 Increased temperature
□ Molecules get more kinetic energy to overcome the cohesive forces
 Increased surface area
□ Greater proportion of liquid molecules are exposed
 Decreased strength of intermolecular forces
□ Less kinetic energy is needed to overcome them
○ ΔH(vaporization) = ΔH(vapor) - ΔH(liquid)
○ ΔH(condensation) = ΔH(liquid) - ΔH(vapor)
 ΔH(condensation) = -ΔH(vaporization)
○ Vapor pressure
 The pressure exerted by a vapor in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid form
□ High VP at room temp = volatile liquid
□ Low VP at room temp = nonvolatile
 Depends only on the liquid and the temperature
□ Amount of liquid or vapor does not matter
 VP increases with temp
 Ln(P2/p1) = (ΔH(vap)/R)((1/T1)-(1/T2))
○ Boiling point
 When the pressure exerted by escaping molecules equals the pressure exerted by molecules of the
atmosphere
 Energy absorbed as heat is only used to convert liquid molecules to vapor
The temp will not go up

Chemistry Page 39
□ The temp will not go up
 Normal boiling point
□ Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to standard atmospheric pressure
(1 atm = 760 mm Hg)
○ Critical point
 Happens when boiling is attempted in a closed container
□ Boiling will not actually occur
□ Liquid density goes down, but vapor density increases
 Until they are equal
□ Surface tension of the liquid approaches zero
 The interface between the liquid and vapor becomes less distinct and disappears
 Point at which conditions are reached and liquid and vapor become indistinguishable
 Gas can only be liquefied at a temp lower than the critical temperature
• Melting
○ The process in which atoms, ions, or molecules can slip past one another, causing the solid to lose its definite
shape
○ Also called fusion
○ Melting point
 Temperature where melting occurs
○ Freezing
 Reverse of melting
□ Conversion of a liquid to a solid
 Temperature at which it occurs is the freezing point
 When freezing begins, temperature remains constant until all the liquid has frozen
□ Then it begins to drop
 Normal FP is on the solid/liquid line at 1 atm
○ Sublimation
 Molecules pass directly from a solid to a vapor
 Reverse is called deposition
 ΔH(sub) = ΔH(fusion) + ΔH(vaporization)
• Phase diagrams
○ Graphical representations of the conditions of temperature and pressure at which solids, liquids, and gases
exist either as single phases or states of matter
 Pressure is on y-axis
 Temp. on x
 Along lines, the substance exists in both states
□ Triple point
 Where all 3 lines meet
 Substance exists in all 3 states
 Supercritical fluids
□ A state past the critical point in which a gas-like fluid exists
□ Polymorphism
 The existence of a solid substance in more than one form
 Equilibrium diagrams
□ Assume a closed container
○ Phase transitions and changes
 From lower to higher temperatures (along a constant pressure line), ΔH increase (heat is absorbed)
 From lower to higher pressures (along a constant temperature line), volume decreases (phase at
higher pressure has a higher density)
• Van der Waal's forces
○ Electrostatic in nature
○ 15% as strong as a covalent or ionic bond
○ Intermolecular forces
 London dispersion forces
 Dipole-dipole
 Hydrogen bonding forces
○ Instantaneous and induced dipoles
 Dispersion force and London force
Polarizability

Chemistry Page 40
○ Polarizability
 The tendency for charge separation to occur in a molecule
□ Increases with:
 Increased numbers of electrons
◊ Higher molecular mass
◊ Electrons being further from the nucleus
► Easier to displace them
◊ Dispersion forces increase
► Mass increases
► Boiling points and melting points of covalent substances increase
 With increasing molar mass
 Higher boiling points mean stronger forces
○ Dipole-dipole interactions
 Interactions between dipoles of polar molecules
○ Dispersion forces
 Also called London forces
 Exist between all molecules
 If comparing substances with much different molecular masses, dispersion forces are more
significant than dipole forces
 Increases as polarizability increases
 Weakest force
 If weight and shape are equal, dispersion forces are equal
 If weights are different, dispersion forces dominate
○ Forces associated with permanent dipoles involve displacements of electron pairs in bonds rather than in
molecules as a whole
 Found only in polar molecules
 Adds to the effect of dispersion forces
○ Dipole forces
 Can produce significant differences in properties
□ Melting point
□ Boling point
□ Enthalpy of vaporization
 Prevalent between neutral polar molecules
□ Water
 For molecules of equal weight and size
□ Attractive force increases as polarity increases
 Stronger than dispersion forces
• Hydrogen bonding
○ An H atom is covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom
 N, O, or F
 Attracts electron density away from the H atom
□ Allows the H atom to be attracted by the electrons on a highly negative atom on a neighboring
molecule
○ Strongest bonding forces
○ Trends
 If the same atom is being attracted by HN, HO, and HF
□ The HN is the weakest
□ HF is the strongest
 If the same atom is in the bond with H (HX)
□ HX + F < HX + O < HX + N
 If the same atom in the molecule is the one being attracted
□ NH + N < OH + O < HF + F
○ For hydrogen bonds, lone pairs are needed
○ Hydrogen bonding requires that the other molecule interacts with the hydrogen directly

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 41
Chemistry Page 42
Lecture 10
Tuesday, January 26, 2010
10:04 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Vaporization
○ The passage of molecules from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous state
 Evaporation
○ Condensation
 Opposite of vaporization
○ Occurs better with
 Increased temperature
□ Molecules get more kinetic energy to overcome the cohesive forces
 Increased surface area
□ Greater proportion of liquid molecules are exposed
 Decreased strength of intermolecular forces
□ Less kinetic energy is needed to overcome them
○ ΔH(vaporization) = ΔH(vapor) - ΔH(liquid)
○ ΔH(condensation) = ΔH(liquid) - ΔH(vapor)
 ΔH(condensation) = -ΔH(vaporization)
○ Vapor pressure
 The pressure exerted by a vapor in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid form
□ High VP at room temp = volatile liquid
 Weak intermolecular forces
□ Low VP at room temp = nonvolatile
 Strong intermolecular forces
□ The vapor pressure depends on intermolecular forces
 Depends only on the liquid and the temperature
□ Amount of liquid or vapor does not matter
 VP increases with temp
 Ln(P2/p1) = (ΔH(vap)/R)((1/T1)-(1/T2))
 The more hydrogen bonds a substance has, the lower the vapor pressure
 Vapor pressure plots only show the liquid/gas area of a phase diagram
○ Boiling point
 When the pressure exerted by escaping molecules equals the pressure exerted by molecules of the
atmosphere
 Energy absorbed as heat is only used to convert liquid molecules to vapor
□ The temp will not go up
 Increases as external pressure increases
 Normal boiling point
□ Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to standard atmospheric pressure
(1 atm = 760 mm Hg)
○ Critical point
 Happens when boiling is attempted in a closed container
□ Boiling will not actually occur
□ Liquid density goes down, but vapor density increases
Until they are equal

Chemistry Page 43
 Until they are equal
□ Surface tension of the liquid approaches zero
 The interface between the liquid and vapor becomes less distinct and disappears
 Point at which conditions are reached and liquid and vapor become indistinguishable
□ The point at which the liquid/gas line stops
 Has a critical pressure and temperature
 Gas can only be liquefied at a temp lower than the critical temperature
○ Melting
○ The process in which atoms, ions, or molecules can slip past one another, causing the solid to lose its
definite shape
○ Normal melting point
□ Exists if the substance can be liquefied at 1 atm.
 Does not exist if the 1 atm line does not cross into the liquid portion of the phase
diagram
○ Also called fusion
○ Melting point
 Temperature where melting occurs
○ Freezing
 Reverse of melting
□ Conversion of a liquid to a solid
 Temperature at which it occurs is the freezing point
 When freezing begins, temperature remains constant until all the liquid has frozen
□ Then it begins to drop
○ Sublimation
 Molecules pass directly from a solid to a vapor
 Reverse is called deposition
 ΔH(sub) = ΔH(fusion) + ΔH(vaporization)
○ Heating and cooling curves
○ Heat supplied is proportional to time
○ Heat added during plateaus on a curve are equal to the heat of that phase change (heat of
vaporization, heat of fusion, etc)
○ Slopes of the lines are equal to 1/(heat capacity)
○ Phase diagrams
○ Graphical representations of the conditions of temperature and pressure at which solids, liquids, and
gases exist either as single phases or states of matter
 Pressure is on y-axis
 Temp. on x
 Along lines, the substance exists in both states
□ Triple point
 Where all 3 lines meet
 Substance exists in all 3 states
 Supercritical fluids
□ A state past the critical point in which a gas-like fluid exists
□ Polymorphism
 The existence of a solid substance in more than one form
 Equilibrium diagrams
□ Assume a closed container
○ Phase transitions and changes
 From lower to higher temperatures (along a constant pressure line), ΔH increase (heat is
absorbed)
 From lower to higher pressures (along a constant temperature line), volume decreases (phase
at higher pressure has a higher density)
○ P2 - P1 = (ΔH(fusion)/ΔV)(ln(T2/T1))
 FOR SOLID-LIQUID
 Same thing as the Clausius-Clapeyron equation
□ Ln(P2/p1) = (ΔH(vap)/R)((1/T1)-(1/T2))
 FOR LIQUID-GAS
 Same for the heat of sublimation
FOR SOLID-GAS

Chemistry Page 44
► FOR SOLID-GAS

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 45
13.1-13.3
Tuesday, January 26, 2010
9:04 AM

• Solution types
○ Gaseous
 Air
 Natural gas
○ Liquid solutions
 Saltwater
 Soda
○ Solid solutions
 Yellow brass
• Concentrations
○ Volume percent
○ Mass percent
○ Mass/volume percent
○ Mole fraction
 Mole of whatever/Mole of each substance in the solution
○ Molality
 Molality = amount of solute (moles)/mass of solvent (kg)
○ Molarity
 M = amount of solute (moles)/volume of solution (liters)
• Intermolecular forces and the solution process
○ Enthalpy of solution
 Pure solvent
□ Ha > 0
 Pure solute
□ Hb > 0
 Separated solute and solvent
□ Hc < 0
○ Intermolecular forces in mixtures
1. Ideal solutions
1) A homogeneous solution whose properties can be predicted from the properties of
the pure components
2) Solution process is neither exothermic nor endothermic
2. Nonideal solutions
1) Forces of attraction between unlike molecules exceed those between like molecules
2) Solution process is exothermic
3) Enthalpy is more than that of the pure substances

3. The forces of attraction between solute and solvent are slightly weaker than
1) Process is endothermic
2) Solution has a higher enthalpy than just the components
4. The forces of attraction are VERY weak
1) The solution stays as a heterogeneous mixture
5. Ionic solutions
1) Energy is equal to (Hydration energy of + ion + hydration energy of - ion - lattice
energy of ionic compound)

Chemistry Page 46
Quiz 4/Midterm 1
Tuesday, January 26, 2010
9:06 AM

○ Determine best Lewis structures


 EN
◊ An atom's ability to compete for electrons with other atoms to which it is bonded
◊ EA+B = A+B-= IA + EAB
► Ionization energy of positive ion + electronegativity of negative ion
◊ Electronegativity difference
► Shows how polar a covalent bond is
 Larger means the bond is very one sided
 Smaller means it is nonpolar
 FC, expanded octets
□ Sum of FC is equal to the charge on the molecule
□ Expanded octets are used when v.e. number is odd
□ Negative FCs usually appear on the most electronegative atoms
□ Positive FCs appear on the least electronegative ions
 Resonance structures
□ Switch around the bonds
□ The structure that contributes the most to the resonance hybrid follows the formal charge
rules the best
 Process
1) # v.e.
a) If odd, expanded octet is needed
i) Add double or triple bonds
b) If even, continue
2) Skeletal structure
a) Lowest EN goes in the middle
3) Complete octets
4) Place leftover electrons on central atom
5) Check FC
a) If too high or has same charges adjacent, go to expanded octet
○ Use VSEPR to identify electron-group geometry and molecular geometry
 Up to 4 groups only
□ Electron group geometry
 Look at structure including lone electron pairs
□ Molecular geometry
 Look at structure without lone electron pairs
□ Proper molecular geometries have the least contact between bond pairs and lone pairs
 Bond angles
□ Lone pairs make bonds smaller because they squish bond pairs through repulsion
○ Determine best Lewis structure
 Process
1) # v.e.
a) If odd, expanded octet is needed
i) Add double or triple bonds
b) If even, continue
2) Skeletal structure
a) Lowest EN goes in the middle
3) Complete octets
4) Place leftover electrons on central atom
5) Check FC

Chemistry Page 47
5) Check FC
a) If too high or has same charges adjacent, go to expanded octet
i) Add enough electrons to central atom
○ Use empirical data to determine quantities
 Bond length, bond order
□ Higher the bond order, the smaller the bond length
□ BO = 1/2(#e- in bonding MO - #e- in antibonding MO)
 Heat of reaction
□ H = ΣBE(reactants) - ΣBE(products)
 Bond energies
□ ΔH = ΣBE reactants - ΣBE products
○ Integrate VSEPR and valence bond method
 Hybridization of central atom
□ Sp -- linear
 1 sp group
□ Sp2 -- trigonal planar
 2 sp groups
□ Sp3 -- tetrahedral
 3 sp groups
 Overlap of atomic and hybrid orbitals
□ Sigma and pi bonds
 Sigma bonds are between sp and p bonds
 Pi bonds are between p bonds
○ Bonding
 Resonance structures
□ Through MO
 Polarity of bonds
 Bond orders
○ Comparison of valence bond and MO theory
 Which orbitals being combined
 Hybridization and geometry
 Properties of molecules explained by MO theory
○ Intermolecular forces and properties
○ Shapes of molecules
○ Chemical bonding
○ Nature of bonds

Chemistry Page 48
13.4-13.6
Wednesday, January 27, 2010
8:06 AM

• Solution formation and equilibrium


○ Saturated solution
 The quantity of solute in the solution remains constant over time and more cannot be
added
 Solubility
□ The concentration of the saturated solution
□ Varies with temperature
 Solubility curve
○ Unsaturated solution
 Solute completely dissolves into the solution when added
□ Excess solute crystallizes from solution
 Supersaturated
◊ The solute remains in the solution even though the solution was saturated
◊ Very unstable
○ Solubility vs. temp
 Le Chatelier's principle
□ If ΔH(solution) > 0 (endothermic)
 Raising the temperature increases the amount of solute that can be dissolved in
the solution
 Lowering the temperature decreases the amount
□ If ΔH(solution) < 0 (exothermic)
 Raising the temperature decreases the amount of solute that can be dissolved in
the solution
 Fractional crystallization
□ Impurities in a solution do not dissolve and remain as crystals

○ Solubilities of gases
 Effect of temperature
□ Solutions of gases in inorganic solutions
 Solubility decreases as temperature increases
□ Solutions of gases in organic solutions
 Opposite of the above
 Effects of pressure
□ Solubility increases with increasing pressure
□ C = k*P(gas)
 C is the solubility
 K is a constant
 P is the partial pressure of the gas
○ Vapor pressures of solutions
 Distillation
□ The separation of volatile liquids through a process
□ Raoult's law
 P(a) = x(a)*P'(a)
◊ P(a) is the vapor pressure of the fraction of the solvent
◊ X(a) is the mole fraction of the solvent
◊ P'(a) is the vapor pressure of the pure solvent at a given temperature
 The vapor phase is more richer in volatile components than the liquid phase is
□ Because the volatile components like being vapors more than being liquids so, they
hang out in the gas phase

Chemistry Page 49
hang out in the gas phase
 Azeotrope
□ Solutions that boil at a temperature where vapor has the same composition as liquid
□ Have higher vapor pressures than ideal solutions
□ Distillation (minimum)
a) Collect azeotrope
i) Remainder is excess component
b) Start on left of x(azeo)
i) Find excess
c) Start on right of x(azeo)
i) Find excess
ii) Whatever is on that side is the excess
□ Maximum distillation
 Start on right
◊ Get pure component
 Start on left
◊ Get pure component
◊ Remainder is the composition of the azeotrope

Chemistry Page 50
Lecture 11
Wednesday, January 27, 2010
9:57 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Solution types
○ Gaseous
 Air
 Natural gas
○ Liquid solutions
 Saltwater
 Soda
○ Solid solutions
 Yellow brass
• Concentrations
○ Volume percent
○ Mass percent
○ Mass/volume percent
○ Mole fraction
 Mole of whatever/Mole of each substance in the solution
○ Molality
 Molality = amount of solute (moles)/mass of solvent (kg)
○ Molarity
 M = amount of solute (moles)/volume of solution (liters)
• Intermolecular forces and the solution process
○ Enthalpy of solution
 ΔH = ΔH(a) + ΔH(b) + ΔH©
□ ΔH(a) is the separation of solvent molecules
□ ΔH(b) is the separation of solute molecules
□ ΔH© is the formation of solvent-solute interactions
 Pure solvent
□ Ha > 0
 Pure solute
□ Hb > 0
 Separated solute and solvent
□ Hc < 0
○ Intermolecular forces in mixtures ("Like dissolves like")
1. Ideal solutions (bonds are of the same type and strength)
1) A-A = B-B = A-B
2) A homogeneous solution whose properties can be predicted from the properties of the pure
components
3) Solution process is neither exothermic nor endothermic
a) ΔH(solution) = 0
2. Nonideal solutions
1) Forces of attraction between unlike molecules exceed those between like molecules
a) A-B > A-A & B-B

Chemistry Page 51
a) A-B > A-A & B-B
2) Solution process is exothermic
a) ΔH(solution) < 0
b) Adhesive forces > cohesive forces
3) Enthalpy is more than that of the pure substances
3. The forces of attraction between solute and solvent are slightly weaker than for pure substances
1) A-B < A-A & B-B
2) Process is endothermic
a) ΔH(solution) > 0
b) Adhesive forces < cohesive forces
3) Solution has a higher enthalpy than just the components
4. The forces of attraction are VERY weak
1) A-B <<<<<<<<<< A-A & B-B
a) Adhesive forces <<<<< cohesive forces
2) The solution stays as a heterogeneous mixture
5. Ionic solutions
1) Energy is equal to (Hydration energy of + ion + hydration energy of - ion - lattice energy of
ionic compound)
2) Hydration
a) Ion is surrounded by a cluster of H20
b) ΔH(solution) = -ΔH1 - ΔH2 + ΔH3
i) ΔH1 = hydration energy of + ions
ii) ΔH2 = hydration energy of - ions
iii) ΔH3 = lattice energy of ionic solids
3) Solubility of ionic substances increase with temperature
• Solution formation and equilibrium
○ Saturated solution
 The quantity of solute in the solution remains constant over time and more cannot be added
 Solubility
□ The concentration of the saturated solution
□ Varies with temperature
 Solubility curve
○ Unsaturated solution
 Solute completely dissolves into the solution when added
□ Excess solute crystallizes from solution
 Supersaturated
◊ The solute remains in the solution even though the solution was saturated
◊ Very unstable
○ Solubility vs. temp
 Le Chatelier's principle
□ If ΔH(solution) > 0 (endothermic)
 Raising the temperature increases the amount of solute that can be dissolved in the
solution
 Lowering the temperature decreases the amount
□ If ΔH(solution) < 0 (exothermic)
 Raising the temperature decreases the amount of solute that can be dissolved in the
solution
 Solubility of gases in water
□ Solubility of most gases in water decreases as temperature increases
□ Solubility of gases in nonpolar solvents is reversed
 Effects of pressure
□ Solubility of a gas increases as pressure increases
 Henry's Law
◊ C = kP(gas)
► C is the solubility

Chemistry Page 52
Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 53
Lecture 12
Monday, February 01, 2010
8:13 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Solution types
○ Gaseous
 Air
 Natural gas
○ Liquid solutions
 Saltwater
 Soda
○ Solid solutions
 Yellow brass
• Concentrations
○ Volume percent
○ Mass percent
○ Mass/volume percent
○ Mole fraction
 Mole of solute/ moles of solution
○ Molality
 Molality = amount of solute (moles)/mass of solvent (kg)
○ Molarity
 M = amount of solute (moles)/volume of solution (liters)
• Intermolecular forces and the solution process
○ Enthalpy of solution
 Pure solvent
□ Ha > 0
 Pure solute
□ Hb > 0
 Separated solute and solvent
□ Hc < 0
○ Intermolecular forces in mixtures
1. Ideal solutions
1) A homogeneous solution whose properties can be predicted from the properties of the pure
components
2) Solution process is neither exothermic nor endothermic
3) AA, BB, and AB are of the same type and strength
2. Nonideal solutions
1) Forces of attraction between unlike molecules exceed those between like molecules
2) Solution process is exothermic
3) Enthalpy is more than that of the pure substances
4) AB > AA and BB
3. The forces of attraction between solute and solvent are slightly weaker than
1) Process is endothermic
2) Solution has a higher enthalpy than just the components

Chemistry Page 54
2) Solution has a higher enthalpy than just the components
3) AB < AA and BB
4. The forces of attraction are VERY weak
1) The solution stays as a heterogeneous mixture
2) AB <<<<<<<<<<< AA and BB
5. Ionic solutions
1) Energy is equal to (Hydration energy of + ion + hydration energy of - ion - lattice energy of
ionic compound)
○ Solution formation and equilibrium
○ Saturated solution
 The quantity of solute in the solution remains constant over time and more cannot be added
 Solubility
□ The concentration of the saturated solution
□ Varies with temperature
 Solubility curve
○ Unsaturated solution
 Solute completely dissolves into the solution when added
□ Excess solute crystallizes from solution
 Supersaturated
◊ The solute remains in the solution even though the solution was saturated
◊ Very unstable
○ Solubility vs. temp
 Le Chatelier's principle
□ If ΔH(solution) > 0 (endothermic)
 Raising the temperature increases the amount of solute that can be dissolved in
the solution
 Lowering the temperature decreases the amount
□ If ΔH(solution) < 0 (exothermic)
 Raising the temperature decreases the amount of solute that can be dissolved in
the solution
○ Fractional crystallization
□ Impurities in a solution do not dissolve and remain as crystals
□ Vapor curve
□ Temp v. mole fraction
1. Choose liquid composition
2. Vaporize the liquid until it reaches the vapor curve
i) Horizontal line from point on liquid curve to vapor curve
3. Collect vapor by cooling
i) Vertical line from the point on the vapor curve down to the liquid curve
4. Repeat
□ Vapor is richer in the more volatile solution
○ Solubilities of gases
 Effect of temperature
□ Solutions of gases in inorganic solutions
 Solubility decreases as temperature increases
□ Solutions of gases in organic solutions
 Opposite of the above
□ Solutes move faster in hotter solutions
 Effects of pressure
□ Solubility increases with increasing pressure
□ C = k*P(gas)
 C is the solubility
 K is a constant
 P is the partial pressure of the gas
○ Vapor pressure of ideal solutions
 Raoult's Law
□ ONLY FOR IDEAL SOLUTIONS
Dissolved solute lowers the vapor pressure of the solvent

Chemistry Page 55
ONLY FOR IDEAL SOLUTIONS
□ Dissolved solute lowers the vapor pressure of the solvent
□ P(A) = x(A)P'(A)
 X is the mole fraction
 P' is the pressure are a certain temperature
 Vapor curve
□ Vapor phase is richer than in the liquid phase (for a volatile component)
□ Pressure v. vapor pressure
○ Vapor pressure of nonideal solutions
 Azeotrope
□ Solutions that boil at a temperature where vapor has the same composition as liquid
□ Have higher vapor pressures than ideal solutions
 Azeotrope diagram
◊ If temperature is on y-axis
◊ Lower line is liquid composition
◊ Upper line is vapor
◊ If pressure is on the y-axis
□ Distillation (minimum)
1. Collect azeotrope
i) Remainder is excess component
2. Start on left of x(azeo)
i) Find excess
3. Start on right of x(azeo)
i) Find excess
ii) Whatever is on that side is the excess
□ Maximum distillation
 Start on right
◊ Get pure component
 Start on left
◊ Get pure component
◊ Remainder is the composition of the azeotrope

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 56
13.7-13.9/Lecture 13
Monday, February 01, 2010
9:08 PM

• Boiling point elevation


○ Colligative properties
 Properties of a solution that depend on the number of solute molecules but not the type
○ Raoult's Law
 P(A) = x(A)*P'(A)
○ ΔT(b) = K(b) * m
 Molality = m
□ Moles of solute/kg solvent
 K(b) comes from BP, H(vap) and molecular weight of solvent
• Freezing point depression
○ ΔT(f) = -K(f) * m
• Osmotic pressure
○ Membrane allows solvent to move but not solute
○ Flow is from low solute concentration to high solute concentration
 Osmotic pressure is the difference in height of solution between the low side and high side
 ПV = nRT
□ MRT = П
○ Reverse osmosis
 Occurs if a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied
○ Hypotonic
 Lack of solute
 More solution
 Outside is lower in solution than inside
 So the solution comes into the high side
○ Hypertonic
 Opposite
• Anomalous properties (weird ones)
○ For ionic solutions
○ Van't Hoff factor (i)
 i = 1 for nonelectrolytes
 i > 1 for electrolytes
□ i = # of ions formed
 i = measured ΔT(f)/expected ΔT(f)
□ ΔT(f) = i * -K(f) * m
□ ΔT(b) = i * K(b) * m
○ Interionic attractions
 Ions in a solution do not behave independently of each other
□ Each ion has an "atmosphere" of charges opposite its own
 Activity concentration depends on these
 Stoichiometric concentrations don't

Chemistry Page 57
13.10
Tuesday, February 02, 2010
6:51 PM

• Colloids
○ A solution with larger solute particles
 The particles must be between 1 and 1000 nm
○ Tyndall effect
 A beam of light becomes visible as it passes through a colloidal solution
□ Like the diffraction experiment with smoke and water and a laser
 From physics

Chemistry Page 58
Lecture 14
Wednesday, February 03, 2010
10:03 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Colloids
○ A solution with larger solute particles
 The particles must be between 1 and 1000 nm
○ Tyndall effect
 A beam of light becomes visible as it passes through a colloidal solution
□ Like the diffraction experiment with smoke and water and a laser
 From physics

• Types of crystalline solids
 Metallic
□ Made up of cations and delocalized electrons
□ Has metallic bonds
□ Ductile, shiny, malleable
 Ionic
□ Cations and anions
□ Has electrostatic attractions
□ Tend to be soluble in polar
 Network covalent
□ Made up of atoms
□ Has covalent bonds
 Molecular
□ Nonpolar
 Made up of atoms or nonpolar molecules
 Has dispersion forces
□ Polar
 Made up of polar molecules
 Dispersion forces and dipole-dipole attractions
□ Hydrogen bonded
 Made of H bonded with N, O, or F
 Made up of hydrogen bonds
• Energy in crystalline solids
○ Steps (ALL ARE IN THE GAS PHASE)
1. Sublime one mole of cation
2. Dissociate moles of anion into one mole of the same anion
3. Ionize cation (into +)
4. Convert one mole of anion into a negative ion
5. Allow the anion and cation to form the compound

Chemistry Page 59
5. Allow the anion and cation to form the compound

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 60
Quiz 4
Wednesday, February 03, 2010
10:39 AM

• Ideal solutions
○ Lower BP indicates volatility
○ Higher boiling point means lower vapor pressure
○ VP of solutions
 Liquid-vapor equilibrium curves
□ (P v. x)
 P(a) = x(a)*P'(a)
◊ P(a) is the y value
 Describes the change in vapor pressure as the mole fraction of a certain solute
increases
 Fractional distillation
□ (T v. x)
 The line across from a point on the liquid line to the vapor line
◊ The intersection point indicates where the liquid is in equilibrium with a
vapor
► Left side is the liquid
► Right is the vapor
◊ If the line is drawn vertically from that point, the point where that line
intersects the liquid line is the temperature at which it will cool to a liquid
► At that temperature, it will be at the mole fraction that that point is
at
○ Nonideal solutions
 Adhesive vs. cohesive forces
□ Effects on H(solution)
1. Ideal solutions (bonds are of the same type and strength)
1) A-A = B-B = A-B
2) A homogeneous solution whose properties can be predicted from the
properties of the pure components
3) Solution process is neither exothermic nor endothermic
a) ΔH(solution) = 0
2. Nonideal solutions
1) Forces of attraction between unlike molecules exceed those between like
molecules
a) A-B > A-A & B-B
2) Solution process is exothermic
a) ΔH(solution) < 0
b) Adhesive forces > cohesive forces
3) Enthalpy is more than that of the pure substances
3. The forces of attraction between solute and solvent are slightly weaker than for pure
substances
1) A-B < A-A & B-B
2) Process is endothermic
a) ΔH(solution) > 0
b) Adhesive forces < cohesive forces
3) Solution has a higher enthalpy than just the components
4. The forces of attraction are VERY weak
1) A-B <<<<<<<<<< A-A & B-B
a) Adhesive forces <<<<< cohesive forces
2) The solution stays as a heterogeneous mixture

Chemistry Page 61
2) The solution stays as a heterogeneous mixture
5. Ionic solutions
1) Energy is equal to (Hydration energy of + ion + hydration energy of - ion - lattice
energy of ionic compound)
2) Hydration
a) Ion is surrounded by a cluster of H20
b) ΔH(solution) = -ΔH1 - ΔH2 + ΔH3
i) ΔH1 = hydration energy of + ions
ii) ΔH2 = hydration energy of - ions
iii) ΔH3 = lattice energy of ionic solids
3) Solubility of ionic substances increase with temperature
 Azeotropes and equilibrium curves
○ ON AZEOTROPE AND IDEAL CURVES, THE POINT WHERE THE HORIZONTAL LINE MEETS THE
VAPOR CURVE IS THE MOLE FRACTION OF THE VAPOR AT THAT SPECIFIC MOLE FRACTION
○ Solubilities of gases
 C = kP(gas)
 Solubility increases with increasing pressure
 Solutions of gases in inorganic solutions
 Solubility decreases as temperature increases
 Solutions of gases in organic solutions
 Opposite of the above
○ Colligative properties
 Vapor pressure lowering
□ Higher VP --> lower BP
□ Vapor pressure of a solution is lower than that of a pure solvent
□ Vapor pressure of ideal solutions
 Raoult's Law
□ ONLY FOR IDEAL SOLUTIONS
□ Dissolved solute lowers the vapor pressure of the solvent
□ P(A) = x(A)P'(A)
 X is the mole fraction
 P' is the pressure are a certain temperature
 Vapor curve
□ Vapor phase is richer than in the liquid phase (for a volatile component)
□ Pressure v. vapor pressure
 Boiling point elevation
□ ΔT(b) = K(b) * m
 Molality = m
□ Moles of solute/kg solvent
 K(b) comes from BP, H(vap) and molecular weight of solvent
□ The boiling point of a solution is higher than that of the pure solvent
 Freezing point depression
□ ΔT(f) = -K(f) * m
□ The freezing point of a solution is lower than that of the pure solvent
 Osmotic pressure
□ Osmotic pressure
○ Membrane allows solvent to move but not solute
○ Flow is from low solute concentration to high solute concentration
 Osmotic pressure is the difference in height of solution between the low
side and high side
 ПV = nRT
□ MRT = П
○ Reverse osmosis
 Occurs if a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied
Hypotonic

Chemistry Page 62
Occurs if a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure is applied
○ Hypotonic
 Lack of solute
 More solution
 Outside is lower in solution than inside
 So the solution comes into the high side
○ Hypertonic
 Opposite
○ Electrolyte solutions
 Anomalous properties (weird ones)
○ For ionic solutions
○ Van't Hoff factor (i)
 i = 1 for nonelectrolytes
 i > 1 for electrolytes
□ i = # of ions formed
 i = measured ΔT(f)/expected ΔT(f)
□ ΔT(f) = i * -K(f) * m
□ ΔT(b) = i * K(b) * m
□ П = nRT/V
□ MRT * i = П
○ Interionic attractions
 Ions in a solution do not behave independently of each other
□ Each ion has an "atmosphere" of charges opposite its own
 Activity concentration depends on these
 Stoichiometric concentrations don't

Chemistry Page 63
Review paper
Friday, February 05, 2010
10:32 AM

• Recent nanotechnology findings


○ 3-4 pages (double spaced)
 Describe generally
 Explain science of technique/material
 Uses/advantages/disadvantages
○ Figures
○ References
 2 primary sources
 3 secondary sources
• Summary paragraph
○ Due on Monday (2-8)
 Has to have 2 formatted references

Chemistry Page 64
Lecture 15
Monday, February 08, 2010
8:37 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:


Ch 11: 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51
Ch 12: 53, 55, 56, 57

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Modern materials
○ Liquid crystals
○ Network solids
○ Polymers
 No definable structure
□ Has a general structure
 But comes in a molecular weight range with some differences
◊ Polydispersed
◊ The monomers can be controlled in terms of size, weight, and properties
 Types
□ Synthetic
 Polyurethane
□ Organic
 Starches
 Cotton
 DNA
 Proteins
 Polymerization
□ Combination process of monomers
□ Types
 Addition polymerization
◊ Monomer + monomer = product
◊ The monomers have extra electrons on the sides that allow for them to create
chains
► C2H4 (ethylene)
◊ If the side chains (terminal atoms) are changed, the properties can be changed
 Condensation polymerization
◊ Monomer + monomer = product + something else (water, HCl, etc.)
► Happens with the creation of nylon
□ So, properties of a resulting material can be changed by making small switches of atoms in the
monomers
□ The creation of these has a high activation energy
 Needs a catalyst to lower the activation energy
□ Multiple chains are formed at once
 So a polymer is not just a single molecule
 Properties depend on how the chains interact
◊ Changes in interaction
► Change the side chain groups
► Make the polymer chains attach to each other
 To increase rigidity
 Crosslinking

Chemistry Page 65
 Crosslinking
– Chemically
 By adding other substances
– With radiation

 Rubber polymers
□ Addition reaction
□ Vulcanization
 Crosslinking using S bonds
◊ S = sulfur bonds

○ Metals/semiconductors
○ High temp superconductors
○ Glass
○ Ceramics
○ Nanomaterials/Nanotechnology

Chemistry Page 66
Chemistry Page 67
Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 68
Lecture 16
Tuesday, February 09, 2010
9:10 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Polymers
○ Don't like high temperatures
 Monomers are favored in high temperatures
○ DNA
 Molecular recognition
□ DNA strands can bind together by recognizing the other bases
 Bind bases
 Hydrogen bonds form
○ Structure
 Primary structure
□ How structure is created
□ Backbone + side chains
 Secondary structure
□ Properties of a material depend heavily on secondary structure
□ How the structure folds
□ Combines with other structures
□ Recognizes similar molecules and binds with those
 End groups
□ Caps off the chains
 Can either be a different material or the same one
◊ The chain can form a ring
□ Has a small effect on the properties of the polymer
○ Amino acids
 Have an amine group (H2N) and COOH groups
□ But have different side chains
 The side chains affect whether the amino acid is acidic or basic
○ Phosphorus
 White phosphorus
□ 4 P atoms bonded together
 Molecular
 Tetrahedrals
 Red phosphorus
□ A bunch of white phosphorus bond together
□ Addition polymerization
○ Silanes
 Si(n)H(2n + 2)
Very reactive

Chemistry Page 69
 Very reactive
□ Because the silicon wants to find oxygens
 SiO2 releases a lot of energy
 SiO2 is also more stable
 Organosilanes
□ Silicon bonds with groups that are not hydrogen
 Silica
□ SiO4
 Used in glass
 Insulator
□ Properties can be adjusted by doping
 Silicon
□ Similar properties to diamond
 Similar bonding structure
◊ Conductor
• Solid state materials
○ Properties
 Anisotropic
□ The properties change depending on which way they are measured
 Isotropic
□ The properties are the same no matter which way you measure it
○ Types of crystalline solids
 Metallic
□ Made up of cations and delocalized electrons
□ Has metallic bonds
□ Ductile, shiny, malleable
 Ionic
□ Cations and anions
□ Has electrostatic attractions
□ Tend to be soluble in polar
 Network covalent
□ Made up of atoms
□ Has covalent bonds
 Molecular
□ Nonpolar
 Made up of atoms or nonpolar molecules
 Has dispersion forces
□ Polar
 Made up of polar molecules
 Dispersion forces and dipole-dipole attractions
□ Hydrogen bonded
 Made of H bonded with N, O, or F
 Made up of hydrogen bonds
○ Diamond vs. Graphite
 Graphite is in sheets that are held apart by pi-pi interactions
□ Pi-pi interactions are a form of van der Waal's forces
□ Allows the graphite to slide
 Diamond has covalent bonds between all atoms
○ Bonding in metals
○ The electron sea model
 A solid metal is a network of positive ions immersed in a sea of electrons
□ Free electrons are not limited in their ability to absorb visible light photons
 They can reradiate these photons
◊ Makes metals shiny
□ If the metal is hammered, the sea just readjusts itself and no properties are lost
Band theory

Chemistry Page 70
If the metal is hammered, the sea just readjusts itself and no properties are lost
○ Band theory
 Form of molecular orbital theory
□ Occurs in extended materials
□ Each Li atom contributes one electron to a set of molecular orbitals
 To a 2s orbital
 A crystal structure is formed as more and more atoms contribute
 Result is a set of N molecular orbitals with an extremely small energy separation
between each pair of successive levels
◊ Energy band
► Each band has N electrons
 N/2 orbitals or lowest energy
► Responsible for bonding the atoms together
 Valence band
– Bands of bonding orbitals
– The bands in which valence electrons are formed
 Metals are good conductors
 Must have a band that is only partly filled
 Conduction bands
 Bands of antibonding orbitals
 Are only partly filled
 Electrons can travel through the structure
through the unfilled orbitals
 Small energy gap (almost non-existent)
– Filled valence band
 Substance is a good conductor
– Insulator
 Large energy gap
 Very few electrons can make the jump
 So it is not conductive
 Because the electrons can't find a
path through the structures
– Semiconductors
 Conductivity depends on size of gap
 Temperature
 Conductivity goes down as temperature
decreases
 Electrons don't have the energy to
make the jump
 Types
 P-type
 A positive hole is created by the
promotion of an electron from the
side chain into the central atom
 To form, the dopant has to have
at least one less atom than the
pure substance
 N-type
 Negative holes
 To form, the dopant has
more electrons than the
pure substance
 Intrinsic
 Gap of a fixed size
 Extrinsic
 The size of the gap is altered by carefully
adding impurities
 Doping
 Can carefully alter the properties of a

Chemistry Page 71
substance

Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 72
Lecture 17
Wednesday, February 10, 2010
9:59 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Modern nanotechnology
○ Importance
 Smaller objects have increased surface area (so reactivity is higher)
 Less defects
□ Flaw tolerance
□ High dispersion
 Closer to the scale of biological molecules
□ A physical structure can interact better with these
 Properties of an object can be tailored on the molecular scale
 Reduced scattering by carriers
○ Impact
 Disruptive impacts
○ Tools and techniques
 Computational tools and methods to predict behavior
 Electron microscopy
□ Electrons
 Small mass
◊ Dynamic interactions with solids
 Charge
◊ Trajectory can be manipulated
 Short wavelength
◊ Ultra high resolution
□ High magnifications
 2-3 nm particles can be seen
□ Helps to see minute/microscopic defects
□ Helps to see single atoms
 Because the electrons are so small and have such short wavelengths
□ Electrons are fired in the form of radiation at the surface of a substance
 The substance must be a conductor because it must have a charge
◊ Charge will cause electrons to bounce off the sample
□ Scanning
A thin sample

Chemistry Page 73
 A thin sample
◊ A probe is run across the surface
◊ Electrons are shot at the sample
► They scatter and are read by a cathode tube
□ Transmission
 Electrons are passed through a sample
◊ They scatter and the patterns are read
○ Synthesis and fabrication approaches to make nanostructures
 Challenges
□ Magnetic agglomeration
□ Van der Waal's attractions
□ Particle size distributions
□ Colloidal suspension
○ Improved understanding and recognition of biological tools and structures

Chemistry Page 74
Chemistry Page 75
Chemistry Page 76
Summary
After the lecture, summarize the main points of this lecture topic.

Chemistry Page 77
Quiz 5
Wednesday, February 10, 2010
8:29 PM

• Diodes
○ If the element has less electrons than what it is doped with
 It is negative
○ If it has more
 It is positive
• Polymers
○ DNA
 Molecular recognition
□ DNA strands can bind together by recognizing the other bases
 Bind bases
 Hydrogen bonds form
○ Structure
 Bonds
□ Double bonds will split and move to the ends to hang off
 The electrons will move to the end to allow the side chains to bond with other molecules' side chains
 If the terminal atom becomes full, they will surround the central atom
 Primary structure
□ How structure is created
□ Backbone + side chains
 Secondary structure
□ Properties of a material depend heavily on secondary structure
□ How the structure folds
□ Combines with other structures
□ Recognizes similar molecules and binds with those
 End groups
□ Caps off the chains
 Can either be a different material or the same one
◊ The chain can form a ring
□ Has a small effect on the properties of the polymer
○ Amino acids
 Have an amine group (H2N) and COOH groups
□ But have different side chains
 The side chains affect whether the amino acid is acidic or basic
○ Phosphorus
 White phosphorus
□ 4 P atoms bonded together
 Molecular
 Tetrahedrals
 Red phosphorus
□ A bunch of white phosphorus bond together
□ Addition polymerization
○ Silanes
 Si(n)H(2n + 2)
 Very reactive
□ Because the silicon wants to find oxygens
 SiO2 releases a lot of energy
 SiO2 is also more stable
 Organosilanes
□ Silicon bonds with groups that are not hydrogen
 Silica
SiO4

Chemistry Page 78
□ SiO4
 Used in glass
 Insulator
□ Properties can be adjusted by doping
 Silicon
□ Similar properties to diamond
 Similar bonding structure
◊ Conductor
• Solid state materials
○ Properties
 Anisotropic
□ The properties change depending on which way they are measured
 Isotropic
□ The properties are the same no matter which way you measure it
○ Types of crystalline solids
 Metallic
□ Made up of cations and delocalized electrons
□ Has metallic bonds
□ Ductile, shiny, malleable
 Ionic
□ Cations and anions
□ Has electrostatic attractions
□ Tend to be soluble in polar
 Network covalent
□ Made up of atoms
□ Has covalent bonds
 Molecular
□ Nonpolar
 Made up of atoms or nonpolar molecules
 Has dispersion forces
□ Polar
 Made up of polar molecules
 Dispersion forces and dipole-dipole attractions
□ Hydrogen bonded
 Made of H bonded with N, O, or F
 Made up of hydrogen bonds
○ Diamond vs. Graphite
 Graphite is in sheets that are held apart by pi-pi interactions
□ Pi-pi interactions are a form of van der Waal's forces
□ Allows the graphite to slide
 Diamond has covalent bonds between all atoms
○ Bonding in metals
○ The electron sea model
 A solid metal is a network of positive ions immersed in a sea of electrons
□ Free electrons are not limited in their ability to absorb visible light photons
 They can reradiate these photons
◊ Makes metals shiny
□ If the metal is hammered, the sea just readjusts itself and no properties are lost
○ Band theory
 Form of molecular orbital theory
□ Occurs in extended materials
□ Each Li atom contributes one electron to a set of molecular orbitals
 To a 2s orbital
 A crystal structure is formed as more and more atoms contribute
 Result is a set of N molecular orbitals with an extremely small energy separation between each
pair of successive levels
◊ Energy band
► Each band has N electrons
 N/2 orbitals or lowest energy
► Responsible for bonding the atoms together
 Valence band
Bands of bonding orbitals

Chemistry Page 79
Valence band
– Bands of bonding orbitals
– The bands in which valence electrons are formed
 Metals are good conductors
 Must have a band that is only partly filled
 If the metal is heated, conductivity goes down
 Because the electrons are rattled and impede
themselves
 Conduction bands
 Bands of antibonding orbitals
 Are only partly filled
 Electrons can travel through the structure through the
unfilled orbitals
 Small energy gap (almost non-existent)
– Filled valence band
 Substance is a good conductor
– Insulator
 Large energy gap
 Very few electrons can make the jump
 So it is not conductive
 Because the electrons can't find a path through
the structures
– Semiconductors
 Conductivity depends on size of gap
 Temperature
 Conductivity goes down as temperature decreases
 Electrons don't have the energy to make the
jump
 The electrons can move back and forth because when they
move up to the conduction band, they leave holes in the
valence band
 Intrinsic
 Gap of a fixed size
 Extrinsic
 The size of the gap is altered by carefully adding impurities
 Doping
 Can carefully alter the properties of a substance
 Types
 P-type
 A positive hole is created by the
promotion of an electron from the
side chain into the central atom
 To form, the dopant has to have at
least one less electron than the
pure substance
 N-type
 Negative holes
 Adding more negative charge
because there are extra electrons
 To form, the dopant has more
electrons than the pure
substance

• Crystal structures
○ Crystal lattices
 Periodic arrangements of atoms in 3 dimensions
 Unit cell
□ Smallest repeating unit in the lattice
 Simple cubic
□ Spheres touch at an edge
 8 * (1/8) atoms = 1 atom
□ Coordination number is 6
 Body centered cubic
□ There is a structural particle at center of the cube as well as at the corners
□ Coordination number of 8
2 atoms per unit cell

Chemistry Page 80
□ 2 atoms per unit cell
 Face centered cubic
□ A particle at the face of the cube and at each corner
□ Coordination number of 12
□ 4 atoms per unit cell
□ 8 tetrahedral holes
□ 4 octahedral holes
 Closest packed structures
□ Holes
 Tetrahedral
◊ Hexagonal (HCP)
► All tetrahedral holes are covered
► Coordination number: 12
► 6 atoms per unit cell
 Book only refers to 1/3 of it so there are only 2 atoms in that unit cell
◊ Fall directly over the spheres in layer 1
 Octahedral
◊ Fall directly over the holes in layer 1
◊ Cubic closest packed
► All octahedral holes are closed
► Coordination number is 12
○ Coordination number
 The number of atoms with which a given atom is in contact with
○ X-rays
 Nλ = 2d sinΘ
○ Ionic crystal structures
 Complications
1. Ions are positively or negatively charged
a) Contact is between opposite charges
2. Cations and anions have different sizes
a) Typically, cations fill the hole sites because they are smaller
 Unit cell
□ Must translate in 3D to generate the entire crystal
□ Must be consistent with the formula of the compound
□ Must indicate the coordination numbers of the ions
○ Types of crystalline solids
 Metallic
□ Made up of cations and delocalized electrons
□ Has metallic bonds
□ Ductile, shiny, malleable
 Ionic
□ Cations and anions
□ Has electrostatic attractions
□ Tend to be soluble in polar
 Network covalent
□ Made up of atoms
□ Has covalent bonds
 Molecular
□ Nonpolar
 Made up of atoms or nonpolar molecules
 Has dispersion forces
□ Polar
 Made up of polar molecules
 Dispersion forces and dipole-dipole attractions
□ Hydrogen bonded
 Made of H bonded with N, O, or F
 Made up of hydrogen bonds
• Energy in crystalline solids
○ Energy to break up a crystal into atoms
○ Steps (ALL ARE IN THE GAS PHASE)
1. Sublime one mole of cation
2. Dissociate moles of anion into one mole of the same anion
3. Ionize cation (into +)
4. Convert one mole of anion into a negative ion

Chemistry Page 81
4. Convert one mole of anion into a negative ion
5. Allow the anion and cation to form the compound

Chemistry Page 82
15.1-15.3
Saturday, February 13, 2010
10:19 AM

• Chemical equilibrium
○ Dynamic equilibrium
 Rate of product formation equals the rate of reactant formation
□ The two opposing processes take place at the same rates
 Properties that depend on equilibrium
□ Physical equilibrium
 Vapor pressure
◊ The pressure exerted by the vapor remains constant even though the
vapor passes between liquid and vapor
 Solubility
◊ The system of solute and solvent reaches a point where the dissolution
rate matches the crystallization rate
► Concentration of dissolved solute remains constant
 Distribution coefficient
◊ The concentration of a solute that is partitioned between two unmixable
solvents is constant
□ Chemical equilibrium
 A reversible reaction proceeds in both directions
◊ Initially only the forward reaction occurs but after a while, the backward
reaction starts
 Equilibrium constant
◊ K = (activity1)/(activity2)
► Activity (denoted by [])
 Thermodynamic concept
 Concentration/concentration in a certain state
◊ K = [G] n[H]m/[A] a[B]b
► a, b, n, and m are stoichiometric coefficients
◊ Relationship between K and chemical equations
► If equation is reversed, K is made the opposite sign
► When the coefficients are multiplied by a constant
 K is raised to that power
► When the coefficients are divided
 That root of K is taken
► When multiple equations are combined
 Their K constants are multiplied
– Gives the K of the overall reaction
◊ Equilibrium involving gases
► Kp = Kc(RT)^Δn
 Δn = Σ(coefficients of products) - Σ(coefficients of reactants)
◊ Equilibrium involving pure liquids or solids
► Equilibrium constant expressions DO NOT contain concentration
terms for solid or liquid phases of a single component
 Only the gas substances are involved

Chemistry Page 83
Lecture 18
Monday, February 15, 2010
7:55 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Hard structures vs. soft structures
○ Hard structures
 Made of inorganic molecules
○ Soft structures
 Made of organic molecules
○ Semiconductors
 Conductivity depends on size of gap
 Temperature
 Conductivity goes down as temperature decreases
 Electrons don't have the energy to make the jump
 The electrons can move back and forth because when they move up to the conduction band,
they leave holes in the valence band
 Intrinsic
 Gap of a fixed size
 Extrinsic
 The size of the gap is altered by carefully adding impurities
 Doping
 Can carefully alter the properties of a substance
 Types
 P-type
 A positive hole is created by the promotion of an electron from the
side chain into the central atom
 To form, the dopant has to have at least one less electron than the
pure substance
 N-type
 Negative holes (extra electrons)
 Adding more negative charge because there are extra electrons
 To form, the dopant has more electrons than the pure
substance
 P-N junction
 P is next to positive terminal; N is next to the negative terminal
 The P holes move toward the N holes (extra electrons) and meet in the
middle
 And current flows
 P is next to the negative terminal; N is next to the positive terminal
 Current will not flow because the holes will be attracted to different
ends
 AS A RESULT, CURRENT WILL ONLY PASS IN ONE DIRECTION

Superconductors

Chemistry Page 84
○ Superconductors
 Hard material
 Materials that pass current without offering any resistance
 Occurs in certain types of natural materials
 But only in really low temperatures
 Occurs in certain ceramics too
 They work at higher temperatures
 Meisner effect
 Excludes all magnetic fields from its volume
 Pushes magnetic fields away
○ Liquid crystals (LCD)
 Soft material
 Not a polymer
 LCDs have a defined structure
 Polymers do not
 LCDs require an extended process to cause certain properties
 Polymer molecules themselves have those properties
 At certain temperature, pressure, etc. will reorganize themselves depending on the stimuli
 Will go from being randomly dispersed and colorless to organized in crystals and colorful
 Formation/Structure
 Made up of rod shaped molecules
 The molecules usually have aromatic (benzene) rings
 Have sp2 hybridization on many atoms
 When exposed to heat, they arrange around the long axis and form chains and crystals
 Types
 Alignment and tilting change the properties of the material
 Nematic phase
 Crystals aligned with each other
 Smectic A
 Crystals are aligned with each other and with the plane
 Smectic C
 Crystals are aligned with each other and adopt a tilt

Chemistry Page 85
Lecture 19
Tuesday, February 16, 2010
8:55 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Things that change nanomaterials
○ Absorbance
○ Scattering
○ Fluorescence
 Needs constant irradiation
 When light is absorbed, electrons gain energy and are promoted into the conduction band
 They come back down
□ Energy taken in is higher than energy given off
 Not all the energy is used to create a photon
◊ Energy for heat and for the light
○ Phosphorescence
 Glow
 Energy is stored for a longer period of time
□ Does not to be constantly irradiated
□ So it can absorb light and continue to glow for a while
○ Tyndall effect
 Scattering is proportional to 1/λ4
□ Higher wavelength, more scattering
 Happens in colloids
□ Solutions of particles
□ Usually stabilized by charge
 Prevents clumping
 The particles repel each other because they have similar charges

• Nanoscale
○ Nanoscale objects have at least one dimension that is between 1 and 100 nm
○ Carbon nanotubes
 Excellent conductors
 Very strong
□ 20 times stronger than steel
 Only millimeters long
○ Nanoparticles
 Cadmium selenide
□ Different color because of different sizes
 Smaller size --> Larger band gap
◊ Blue color
Larger size --> smaller band gap

Chemistry Page 86
 Larger size --> smaller band gap
◊ Red color
□ Different sizes and shapes affect colors
 And properties of the substance
 DNA properties
□ Unique code for every genetic, viral, or bacterial disease
 A complementary code can be designed
◊ Detection probes can be easily connected to complementary code
□ The average human contains .5 grams of DNA
 A sample may only contain a few molecules of DNA
◊ Requires really sensitive probes

Chemistry Page 87
Lecture 20
Wednesday, February 17, 2010
8:32 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Goldberg/Waage
○ Proposed that in any chemical reaction goes essentially to completion
 Any chemical reaction carried out in a closed vessel will reach equilibrium
□ Equilibrium
 The state where the concentrations of all reactants and products remain constant with
time
 Different reactions favor different states
○ Equilibrium favors products
 Equilibrium lies to the right
 2H2 + O2 ↔→ 2H20
□ Lies far to the right
 K is big
□ K> 1
○ Equilibrium favors reactant
 Equilibrium lies to the left
 2CaO ← ↔ 2Ca + O2
 K is small
□ K< 1
 Equilibrium is dynamic
○ It continues to flow
 But the opposite rates of flow are the same
○ Diagram
 Equilibrium is at the point when the curves level off
 Haber process
○ 3H2 + N2 ↔ 2NH3
 Nothing actually happens and it appears that the reaction has reached
equilibrium
□ Not true: H - H and N === N bonds are very strong
– Slow reactivity
 The reaction requires a catalyst
○ Rate = k*[A]*[B]
 Goes up as temperature goes up
 [A], [B] is the concentration AT EQUILIBRIUM
□ Must be on the reactant side
 In backward reactions, they will be on the product side
 K = [AB] / [A] n[B]m = [products]/[reactions]
t

□ K(reverse) = 1/K(forward)
□ Always a unique constant
 Depends on the equilibrium position
Infinite number of positions

Chemistry Page 88
Depends on the equilibrium position
○ Infinite number of positions
 Only one equilibrium constant at any given temp
□ Has units (occasionally)
□ Depends on temperature
 K changes based on temperature
○ Relative thermodynamics
□ Can take as long as it wants
○ Some reactions stop far short of completion
 NO2 (g) (brown) + NO2 (g) ↔ N2O4(g) (colorless)
○ Nanoscience
 Tools
□ Electron microscopes
□ Scanning Tunneling microscopes
 Invented in 1970's by people at IBM Zurich
 Measures the tunneling current between a conducting tip and material
 Atomic force microscopes
○ The tip of the microscope is dragged across the surface
 The drag force is measured
○ A laser beam is shined on it
 The beam refracts due to the drag and it can be measured
○ Dip Pen Nanolithography
 A AFM tip is covered by water molecules
□ It is touched to a surface
– It forms a meniscus with the surface
 As the tip is moved, it leaves a trail of molecules
 Like a fountain pen
○ Polymer pen lithography
 Like a printing press
 Bottom up nanoscience
□ Small to big
 The electrical current that is passed through the substance is measured
○ Only works on conductors

Chemistry Page 89
Lecture 21
Monday, February 22, 2010
9:53 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:


1, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 17, 23, 27, 29, 33, 35,
37, 41, 47, 51, 53, 57, 63, 69, 73, 89, 91,
95

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Chemical equilibrium
○ Proposed that in any chemical reaction goes essentially to completion
 Any chemical reaction carried out in a closed vessel will reach equilibrium
□ Equilibrium
 The state where the concentrations of all reactants and products remain constant with
time
 Rate of forward reaction equals rate of backward reaction
○ Rate = k*[A]*[B]
 Goes up as temperature goes up
 [A], [B] is the concentration AT EQUILIBRIUM
□ Must be on the reactant side
 In backward reactions, they will be on the product side
 K = [AB]t / [A]n[B]m = [products]/[reactions]
□ Law of mass action
 If equilibrium exists, an expression can be written for K
 Does not tell you if the reaction will be at equilibrium
□ K(reverse) = 1/K(forward)
□ Always a unique constant
 Depends on the equilibrium position
○ Infinite number of positions
 Only one equilibrium constant at any given temp
□ Has units (occasionally)
□ Depends on temperature
 K changes based on temperature
○ Relative thermodynamics
○ Theoretically, the reaction can be run at an extremely
low/high temperature, but there will not be enough
activation energy for it to work
 Catalyst
 Less activation energy is needed
□ Can take as long as it wants
 Different reactions favor different states
○ Equilibrium favors products
 Equilibrium lies to the right
 2H2 + O2 ↔→ 2H20
□ Lies far to the right
 K is big
□ K> 1
○ Equilibrium favors reactant
Equilibrium lies to the left

Chemistry Page 90
 Equilibrium lies to the left
 2CaO ← ↔ 2Ca + O2
 K is small
□ K< 1
 Equilibrium is dynamic
○ It continues to flow
 But the opposite rates of flow are the same
○ Diagram
► Equilibrium is at the point when the curves level off
○ Dynamic equilibrium
 Rate of product formation equals the rate of reactant formation
□ The two opposing processes take place at the same rates
□ Amount of product depends on the rate
 Not as much on K
 Properties that depend on equilibrium
□ Physical equilibrium
 Vapor pressure
◊ The pressure exerted by the vapor remains constant even though the vapor passes
between liquid and vapor
 Solubility
◊ The system of solute and solvent reaches a point where the dissolution rate
matches the crystallization rate
► Concentration of dissolved solute remains constant
 Distribution coefficient
◊ The concentration of a solute that is partitioned between two unmixable solvents
is constant
□ Chemical equilibrium
 A reversible reaction proceeds in both directions
◊ Initially only the forward reaction occurs but after a while, the backward reaction
starts
◊ There needs to be evidence that the reaction is occurring
► Sometimes there needs to be energy added
□ Activation energy
 Breaks bonds
○ Endothermic so energy has to go in
 Equilibrium constant
◊ K = (activity1)/(activity2)
► Activity (denoted by [])
 Thermodynamic concept
 Concentration/concentration in a certain state
◊ K = [G]n[H]m/[A] a[B]b
► a, b, n, and m are stoichiometric coefficients
◊ Relationship between K and chemical equations
► If equation is reversed, the reciprocal of K is taken
► When the coefficients are multiplied by a constant
 K is raised to that power
► When the coefficients are divided
 That root of K is taken
 Equilibrium position
◊ The concentrations at a certain temperature that give the equilibrium constant at
that temperature
□ K in terms of pressure
 For gases
 Kp
◊ Kc(RT) Δn
► Δn = Σ(coefficients of products) - Σ(coefficients of reactants)
► If temperature increase and K increases as well
 The reaction is endothermic

Chemistry Page 91
 The reaction is endothermic
 PV = nRT
◊ P = (n/V)RT
► C = n/V
 Moles/volume
 Concentration
► K = C1n/((C2m)(C3t))
 For Kc --> C = P/RT
 C = P*(1/RT)
 Kc = Kp * (1/RT) n
 If the sum of the coefficients on the reactants side equals the
sum of the coefficients on the products side
○ Kc = Kp

□ Adding energy to equilibrium


 Heterogeneous equilibrium vs. homogeneous equilibrium
◊ Homogeneous
► All reactants and products and products are in the same phase
◊ Heterogeneous
► Different phases
 Pure solid/liquid
 Concentrations do not change (fixed at purity)
○ In these cases, K only depends on the concentration of
gases or aqueous solutions
 Still depends on temperature because a substance
could undergo a phase change and become a pure
liquid

Chemistry Page 92
15.4-15.7
Tuesday, February 23, 2010
8:49 AM

• Magnitude of the equilibrium constant


○ A reaction is most likely to reach equilibrium in which significant quantities of both reactants and
products are present if 10-10 < K < 1010
• The reaction quotient Q
○ Q is the equilibrium constant expression at non-equilibrium concentrations
 If Q > K
□ The equilibrium shifts to the left
 If Q = K
□ The reaction is at equilibrium
 If Q < K
□ The equilibrium shifts to the right
• Le Chatelier's principle
○ When a reaction at equilibrium is subjected to a temperature, pressure/volume, or concentration
change, the system will shift to obtain a new equilibrium that offsets the change
○ Changes
 Add or remove a reactant or product
 Adding an inert gas
□ NO CHANGE because it does not change the partial pressures
 Change pressure by changing volume
□ Volume decreased
 The equilibrium shifts toward the side with the fewest moles of gas
 Changing temperature
□ Temperature increase
 If the reaction is endothermic, the reaction shifts to the right
 If it is exothermic, the reaction shifts to the left
 Adding a catalyst
□ The catalyst changes the reaction mechanism to one with a lower activation energy
 Does not change equilibrium

Chemistry Page 93
Lecture 22
Tuesday, February 23, 2010
9:42 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Solving equilibrium problems
1. Write balanced equation
i. Make sure it is balanced
ii. Check phases
2. Write equilibrium expression
i. Are the concentrations at equilibrium?
1) K requires that the concentrations be at equilibrium
ii. List initial concentrations
1) Unless the concentrations are EXPLICITLY said to be at equilibrium, assume that they are initial
concentrations
3. Find Q
i. Q is the reaction quotient
1) An expression for K calculated with initial concentrations
2) Q = [AB]t / [A]n[B]m = [products]/[reactions]
3) Used when given reactants and products at initial concentrations but the direction of the
reaction is not known
a) Concentrations are initial concentrations
i) Not at equilibrium
b) Can help predict what will happen at equilibrium
c) Can help see if the reaction is at equilibrium
d) In comparison to K:
i) If Q = K, the reaction is at equilibrium
One. Q/K = 1
ii) If Q > K
One. The reaction is not at equilibrium
Two. The reaction has more products than reactants (more on the right)
First. The reaction has to shift to the left
iii) If Q < K
One. The reaction is not at equilibrium
Two. The reaction has more reactants
First. Reaction has to shift to the right
4. Define the change needed to reach equilibrium
i. A shift to the left or a shift to the right
ii. Apply changes to initial concentrations to find equilibrium concentrations
5. Substitute equilibrium concentrations into K

• Adjusting a reaction
○ Pressure
 Changing the pressure can influence it to form more product
□ Change volume
Halving volume doubles pressure

Chemistry Page 94
 Halving volume doubles pressure
 Reaction shifts to the side with the fewest gas molecules
◊ In the case of the Haber process, it will shift to the product
◊ Will not work if there are the same number of molecules on each side
□ Adding an inert gas
 Does not do anything
◊ Partial pressures of reactants and products are not affected
► So equilibrium is not affected
 System stays where it is
 Change temperature
□ K is changed
 K depends on temperature
◊ Changing anything else does not affect K like temperature does
□ Depends on reaction
 If the reaction is endothermic
◊ Increasing temperature increases K
 If reaction is exothermic
◊ Increasing temperature decreases K
► Like the Haber process
 Add more reactants
□ Takes system out of equilibrium
 In order to retain equilibrium, it has to form more product
 Le Chatelier's principle
□ The system shifts to accommodate for changes

Chemistry Page 95
Lecture 23
Wednesday, February 24, 2010
8:29 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Size of equilibrium constant
○ Small equilibrium constant
 Not much product will form
 Make an ICE chart (initial, change, equilibrium)
□ Account for the coefficients (coefficient is 2, the change is 2x)
□ Set these concentrations in the K equation
 Solve for the change in concentration
◊ X
► In equations with small values of K, X can be considered to be really small
and the x term in the denominator can be dropped
► Multiply it by the coefficients
• Thermodynamics
○ Laws
 First law
□ Conservation of energy
 Total energy of a system and its surroundings is constant
 Second law
□ In any spontaneous process, the total entropy of a system and its surroundings always
increases
 Third law
□ The entropy of a perfect crystal at 0K is 0
 At 0K, the particles no longer move
◊ There is no entropy because there is no temperature to allow movement which
controls entropy

Chemistry Page 96
CdSe
Friday, February 26, 2010
10:01 AM

• Quantum dots
○ Nanoparticles made of a semiconducting material
○ Increase in size over time
 Colors go from violet, to blue, etc.
○ With UV light
 It is the same
○ 2-10 nm diameter
• Procedural notes
○ The cadmium (CdO) will be in a vial
 Only open it in a hood
○ Supplies
 Putting chemicals in the roundbottom flask
□ CdO goes in last
 Clamping the roundbottom
□ Clamp it
□ After it is heated, move it OFF the hot plate
 Temperature
□ The solution should not be yellow
 It should be clear or light yellow
◊ At around 280
► Put the selenium in and make quantum dots
□ The temperature should be around 250 C
 The hot plate should be at around 8
 REMOVE THE THERMOMETERS WHEN THEY REACH 250
 Collect aliquots
□ TAKE ONE IMMEDIATELY AFTER YOU ADD SELENIUM
□ Take one every 30 seconds
○ Technique tips
 All work must be done in the hood
□ Make sure everything is clamped well
 Pipetting
□ Practice pipetting with water
 Press bulb before you enter the solution
 Hood fire
□ Close the hood, unplug the hot plate
 And then wait
○ Cleaning up
 Everything in the lab must be disposed of in proper containers
□ Gloves, paper towels, etc.
□ Use acetone to clean
 TA's will check using UV light

Chemistry Page 97
19.1-19.3
Friday, February 26, 2010
5:30 PM

• Spontaneity
○ Spontaneous process
 A process that occurs in a system left to itself
□ Once started, no external action is required to make the process continue
 If a process is spontaneous, the reverse process is nonspontaneous
 Potential energy decreases
○ Nonspontaneous process
 Will not occur UNLESS external action is continuously applied
 Both processes are possible, but only spontaneous process will occur without intervention
□ Nonspontaneous processes require the system to be acted on by an external agent
• Entropy
○ The property related to the way in which the energy of a system is distributed among the available
microscopic energy levels
 The greater the number of configurations of the microscopic particles (atoms, ions,
molecules) among the energy levels in a particular state of a system, the greater the entropy
of the system
 Entropy change
□ ΔS = S(mix of gases) - [S(A(g)) + S(B(g))] > 0
□ In gas expansion, the entropy of the gas increases
 S> 0
 Increases in entropy result in spontaneous processes
 Boltzmann equation
□ S = k ln W
 S is the entropy
 k is the Boltzmann constant
◊ K = R/Na
 W is the number of micro states
◊ The number of ways that the atoms or molecules can be positioned in the
states available and still give rise to the same total energy
► The total number of microstates that correspond to the same
energy
□ ΔS = q/T
 S is inversely proportional to KELVIN temperature
 Units: J/K
□ Entropy change depends on the energy increase or decrease in the number of
particles in the space available to them
 Situations that produce a change in entropy
◊ Pure liquids or solutions are formed from solids
◊ Gases are formed from either liquids or solids
◊ The number of gas molecules increases as a result of a chemical reaction
◊ The temperature of a substance increases
► Increased temperature means an increased number of accessible
energy levels for the increased molecular motion, whether it be
vibrational motion of atoms or ions in a solid, or translational and
rotational motion of molecules in a liquid or a gas)
 Entropy changes in phase changes
□ Entropy of transition
 ΔS(tr) = ΔH(tr)/T(tr)
In the equilibrium between two phases, the exchange of heat can be carried out

Chemistry Page 98
 In the equilibrium between two phases, the exchange of heat can be carried out
reversibly
 Tr is the transition state
 Trouton's rule
◊ ΔS(vap) = ΔH(vap)/T(boiling point)
◊ Does not account for intermolecular forces or hydrogen bonds

Chemistry Page 99
Lecture 24
Monday, March 01, 2010
8:41 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Spontaneity
○ Spontaneous process
 A process that occurs in a system left to itself
□ Once started, no external action is required to make the process continue
 If a process is spontaneous, the reverse process is nonspontaneous
 Potential energy decreases
□ Entropy increases
 Means that the process can occur without outside help (like catalysts, etc.)
□ Does not apply to the rate of the process
○ Nonspontaneous process
 Will not occur UNLESS external action is continuously applied
 Both processes are possible, but only spontaneous process will occur without intervention
□ Nonspontaneous processes require the system to be acted on by an external agent
• Entropy
○ Chaos is favored because it takes less energy to maintain
 Many disordered states but ONLY ONE ordered state
○ The property related to the way in which the energy of a system is distributed among the available
microscopic energy levels
 The greater the number of configurations of the microscopic particles (atoms, ions, molecules)
among the energy levels in a particular state of a system, the greater the entropy of the system
 Entropy change
□ ΔS(universe) = ΔS(system) + ΔS(surroundings)
 If ΔS(universe) > 0
◊ Process is spontaneous
 If ΔS(universe) < 0
◊ Process is nonspontaneous
 If ΔS(universe) = 0
◊ Process is at equilibrium
 ΔS(system) is always competing with ΔS(surroundings) in terms of sign
◊ ΔS(system) is the disorder of the system
◊ ΔS(surroundings) is the disorder of the surroundings
► ΔS(surroundings) > 0
 Exothermic
– Temperature increases
 At low temperatures
– ΔS(system) = q/T
 ΔS(surroundings) = -q/T
► ΔS(surroundings) < 0
 Endothermic
– Temperatures decrease
 At high temperatures
ΔS(system) = -q/T

Chemistry Page 100


– ΔS(system) = -q/T
 ΔS(surroundings) = q/T
 High temperatures (T) means that ΔS will decrease
□ ΔS = S(mix of gases) - [S(A(g)) + S(B(g))] > 0
□ In gas expansion, the entropy of the gas increases
 S> 0
 Increases in entropy result in spontaneous processes
 Boltzmann equation
□ S = k ln W
 S is the entropy
 k is the Boltzmann constant
◊ K = R/Na
 W is the number of micro states
◊ The number of ways that the atoms or molecules can be positioned in the states
available and still give rise to the same total energy
► The total number of microstates that correspond to the same energy
□ ΔS = q/T
 S is inversely proportional to KELVIN temperature
 Units: J/K
 ΔS(surroundings) = -ΔH/T
□ Entropy change depends on the energy increase or decrease in the number of particles in the
space available to them
 Situations that produce a positive change in entropy
◊ Pure liquids or solutions are formed from solids
◊ Gases are formed from either liquids or solids
◊ The number of gas molecules increases as a result of a chemical reaction
◊ Solute is dissolved in a solvent
► Concentration changes
◊ Pressure changes
◊ The temperature of a substance increases
► Increased temperature means an increased number of accessible energy
levels for the increased molecular motion, whether it be vibrational motion
of atoms or ions in a solid, or translational and rotational motion of
molecules in a liquid or a gas)
► Entropy at 0K (absolute 0) is zero
 Because there is no motion at absolute zero, there is no change in
chaos so there is no entropy
 Changes are not predictable if both sides of the reaction are very similar
 Bigger molecules have a greater entropy than smaller molecules
 Entropy changes in phase changes
□ Entropy of transition
 ΔS(tr) = ΔH(tr)/T(tr)
 In the equilibrium between two phases, the exchange of heat can be carried out
reversibly
 Tr is the transition state
 Trouton's rule
◊ ΔS(vap) = ΔH(vap)/T(boiling point)
◊ Does not account for intermolecular forces or hydrogen bonds
 ΔG (Gibbs Free Energy)
□ ΔG = ΔH - TΔS(system)
 State function
◊ Can use Hess's Law
 Restatement of the second law of thermodynamics
 Refers ONLY TO SYSTEM
 ΔS(universe) = -ΔG/T
◊ At constant T and P
□ ΔG < 0

Chemistry Page 101


 Spontaneous
 Cases
◊ ΔH -, ΔS+
► Spontaneous at all temp
◊ ΔH-, ΔS-
► Spontaneous at low temp
◊ ΔH+, ΔS+
► Spontaneous at high temp
□ ΔG > 0
 Nonspontaneous
 Cases
◊ ΔH+, ΔS-
► Nonspontaneous at all temps
◊ ΔH+, ΔS+
► Nonspontaneous at low temp
◊ ΔH-, ΔS-
► Nonspontaneous at high temp
□ ΔG = 0
 Equilibrium

Chemistry Page 102


Lecture 25
Tuesday, March 02, 2010
9:56 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
 ΔG (Gibbs Free Energy)
□ ΔG = ΔH - TΔS(system)
 Restatement of the second law of thermodynamics
 Refers ONLY TO SYSTEM
 ΔS(universe) = -ΔG/T
◊ At constant T and P
□ ΔG < 0
 Spontaneous
 Exothermic reaction
◊ Depends on direction
 ΔH -
◊ ΔS +
 Both entropically driven and enthalpically driven
◊ ΔS -
 Enthalpically driven
□ ΔG > 0
 Nonspontaneous
 Endothermic reaction
◊ Depends on direction
 ΔH +
◊ ΔS- o rΔS+
 Entropically driven
□ ΔG = 02
 Equilibrium
 Polymers
○ Don't like high temperatures
 Monomers are favored in high temperatures

Chemistry Page 103


19.4-19.7
Tuesday, March 02, 2010
7:49 PM

□ Absolute entropies
 Absolute value of entropy is established when the substance is in its lowest possible energy state
◊ Zero-point energy state
► Third law of thermodynamics
 The entropy of a pure, perfect crystal at 0K is zero
 Standard molar entropy
◊ The absolute of one mole of a substance in its standard state
◊ ΔS(universe) = ΔS(system) + ΔS(surroundings)
► All spontaneous processes produce an increase in the entropy of the universe
□ Free energy
 Can be applied to the system itself without having to worry about changes in surroundings
 Free energy change
◊ ΔG0
► The change in free energy that will occur if the reactants in their standard states are
converted to the products in their standard states

Chemistry Page 104


Lecture 26
Wednesday, March 03, 2010
10:01 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Standard entropy value
○ S0
○ The increase in entropy that occurs when a substance is heated from 0K to 298K at 1 atm
◊ Greater complexity means greater a greater S 0
○ Standard molar entropy
◊ The absolute of one mole of a substance in its standard state
◊ ΔS(universe) = ΔS(system) + ΔS(surroundings)
► All spontaneous processes produce an increase in the entropy of the universe
○ Free energy change
◊ ΔG0
► ΔG0 = 0 for elemental substances (substances in their most stable state)
 N2, H2, O2, Fe, etc.
► ΔG = ΔG0 + RT ln Q
 ΔG is for any set of conditions
◊ Tells you how spontaneous it is
 ΔG0 is the standard set of conditions
 R is 8.314 J/K
 T is temperature in K
 Q is the reaction quotient
◊ ΔG0 > 0
□ ln K > 0
 K >1
◊ Mostly products
◊ ΔG0 < 0
□ ln K < 0
 K< 1
◊ Mostly reactants
◊ ΔG = 0
0

□ ln K = 1
 K= 1
◊ Equilibrium
◊ Like the equilibrium concentration, only at initial concentrations
◊ ΔG (Gibbs Free Energy)
□ ΔG = ΔH - TΔS(system)
 Restatement of the second law of thermodynamics
 Refers ONLY TO SYSTEM
 ΔS(universe) = -ΔG/T
◊ At constant T and P
□ ΔG < 0
 Spontaneous
Exothermic reaction

Chemistry Page 105


 Exothermic reaction
◊ Depends on direction
 ΔH -
◊ ΔS +
 Both entropically driven and enthalpically driven
◊ ΔS -
 Enthalpically driven
□ ΔG > 0
 Nonspontaneous
 Endothermic reaction
◊ Depends on direction
 ΔH +
◊ ΔS- or ΔS+
 Entropically driven
□ ΔG = 0
 Equilibrium
 0 = ΔG0 = RT ln K

► ΔG0 = ΔH - TΔS0
 Since ΔG is a state function, Hess's Law can be used
◊ Using other equations, the ΔG0 of those reactions can be found and can be
added/subtracted
► ΔG0(reaction) = Σn*ΔG0(products) - Σn*ΔG0(reactants)
► The change in free energy that will occur if the reactants in their standard states are converted
to the products in their standard states
 But this does not happen
► Measure of how far away from equilibrium
 And how far the reaction will go to equilibrium
◊ It is a reference point

Chemistry Page 106


25.1
Saturday, March 06, 2010
12:52 PM

• Radioactivity
○ The emission of ionizing radiation by some of the heavier elements
 Interacts with matter to produce ions
○ Alpha particles
 Nuclei of helium-4 atoms
 Positive charge
□ Decreases atomic number by 2
□ Decreases mass number by 4
○ Beta particles
 Negative charge
□ Deflected in the opposite direction of alpha particles
 Beta decay releases a neutrino
 Atomic number INCREASES by 1
○ Gamma particles
○ Nuclear equation
 The sum of mass numbers must be the same on both sides
 The sum of atomic numbers must be the same on both sides

Chemistry Page 107


Lecture 27
Friday, March 05, 2010
9:52 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.

Chemistry Page 108


Lecture 28
Monday, March 08, 2010
9:51 AM

Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Homework:


1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 17, 21, 23, 25, 35, 37, 41,
47, 56, 62, 81
25.1, 25,9, 25.11

Lecture Topic:
During the lecture, take notes here.
• Half-lifes
○ Reactions
 Electron capture
□ Electron is on the left side of the reaction
 Annihilation
□ Beta particle and positron cancel each other out to form gamma rays
□ Small energy input leads to a large energy release
 Positron production
□ Positron (opposite sign of beta particle) is produced
 Spontaneous fission/fusion
□ A large radioactive isotope is broken into a lighter isotope and neutrons
□ Both processes push towards the most stable stat
□ Fission
 A radioactive material releases neutrons
◊ Generates more and more neutrons
► And more energy
 To control it, reduce the mass of the material to the critical mass
◊ The smallest mass needed to keep the process going
◊ And find something that absorbs neutrons
► Fuel rods
 Also increases stability
□ Fusion
 Fusing two lighter nuclei to make a heavier one
◊ Increases stability
○ The slow decay of the material
 t(1/2) = .693/k
□ K is the rate constant associated with the radioactive decay
□ Ln (amount at t/initial amount) = -kt
 T is the time
◊ Generally, it's the half life
○ Dating
 Comparison of the amount of carbon-14 in the initial, untouched material to the amount of carbon
14 in a dead material
□ The half life can be used to find the age of the material
 Half life is 5730 years

Chemistry Page 109